Military Review

How the Soviet Union missed the opportunity for a great new breakthrough

216

Drawing "Above the Black Sea". Soviet cosmonaut and artist Alexei Leonov.


Red empire


In the early 1980s, the Soviet Union seemed like a mighty titan with no weaknesses. It is clear that there were shortcomings and problems, but they seemed small and quite solvable. The world, where with delight and awe, where with fear, looked at the red giant who controlled half of Eurasia. A superpower that possessed all the avant-garde technologies and industries. With advanced science and school. With the best land army in the world. Militarily, the USSR could not be won. War meant either the defeat of the West or a nuclear apocalypse.

Surprisingly, but true: by the beginning of the 80s, the West, led by the United States, was losing the Third World War - the so-called. "Cold". If it hadn't been for the collapse of the USSR in 1991, the United States would have fallen. Since Vietnam, the US has been hit by a psychological crisis. The younger generation was corrupted by pacifism, sexual revolution and drugs. The West was plunging into a new crisis of capitalism. Lost the economic race between Japan and the USSR.

It is now dominated by the myth that the Western (capitalist, market) system was more effective than the Soviet (socialist, planned), and therefore won. They say that the Union collapsed under the weight of socio-economic contradictions, could not stand the race with America. In fact, everything was different.

The Soviet system proved its effectiveness and leadership during the Great Patriotic War. USSRꟷRussia crushed the most terrible and most effective war machine of the West - the Third Reich. She not only did not bled and did not fall into depression, recovering for decades after terrible human, cultural and material losses. But on the contrary, it became stronger, turned from one of the great powers into a superpower, began to compete on equal terms with the Western world.

The capitalist West retreated step by step. The colonial system collapsed. The newly liberated countries and peoples looked with hope at the successes of Russians on the path of building a new society of knowledge and creativity. After the recovery period, the Western world began to plunge into a new crisis.

Now it seems surprising, but in the early 80s, Moscow, with the old elite that had lost its energy and healthy aggressiveness, with a growing and ossified bureaucracy, with a growing imbalance in the economy, with a people who lost discipline and faith in communism, almost defeated the West. Despite the mistakes of foreign policy, when billions of full-fledged people's rubles were spent on supporting new African and Asian countries, "friendly" regimes. Despite mistakes in the arms race, when large amounts of resources were spent on the production of thousands of aircraft, tanks and guns, although the country's security was already ensured. And it was necessary to focus on breakthrough projects, in particular, on the programs for the exploration of the Moon and Mars.

Why was the USSR close to victory? The point is in the Stalinist system - the foundation of Soviet civilization. She had a huge reserve of strength and efficiency. Even after Khrushchev's destructive experiments and Brezhnev's stabilization (which began to turn into a "swamp"), the Union was still rushing forward, towards the stars.

Mobilization, creative opportunities in the country and people were colossal. It is enough to look through the filing of the magazines "Technology of Youth". The Soviet civilization was literally seething, it was overflowing with already experienced scientists and designers, and potential young geniuses and talents. Dozens and hundreds of wonderful projects and developments that could turn the life of not only Russia, but all of humanity.


Drawing "Space chauffeurs" by Alexei Leonov.

One step away from another great victory


Despite its shortcomings, the Soviet bureaucracy was smaller, cheaper, and more efficient than the American one (like the current Russian one). The United States under President Ronald Reagan (1981-1989) began a new super-expensive arms race. However, it turned out to be, as it turned out later (mostly exaggerated) for Moscow.

In addition, the Union had effective and cheap responses to any American move. For example, the heavy, stealthy strategic bomber B-2 Spirit became the most expensive aircraft in stories aviation... In 1998, the cost of one car was $ 1,1 billion, and taking into account NIOC - over $ 2 billion. In the USSR, with that kind of money, it would be easy to put into service several strategic missile systems of railway-based RT-23 UTTH "Molodets" (in the West they were called "Scalpel"). Or a couple of dozen strategic topol-M mobile complexes (Serp in the West).

And the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) or the "Star Wars" program was generally impracticable. The United States then could not deploy space missile defense. It was also easily overcome by Soviet heavy strategic missiles with a dozen warheads and a host of decoys. Plus a program of maneuvering warheads and the deployment of a simple system of fighter satellites that would immediately shoot down enemy combat platforms at the start of a war.

If Stalin were in the place of Andropov or Gorbachev, he would have received hundreds of opportunities to bring the USSR to a new level of development, ahead of the West by decades. He would have had excellent starting opportunities, and not a destroyed country, economy and demoralized society (like the 1920s). Excellent economy and production, advanced technologies (which lay in bulk "under the cloth").

The USSR was a great industrial and technological power. Industrial production was about 70% of America's (and we didn’t milk a large portion of the planet using the dollar system). Agriculture ensured the country's food security. Educated people. The world's best system of science, design bureaus and research institutes, school. Armed forces that guaranteed the safety of the people. A nuclear arsenal that made open aggression by the West impossible.

It was only necessary to put things in order at the top, among the bureaucracy, to stop decay in the national republics (by cleaning local cadres, the people would not even notice this). Conduct several high-profile demonstration trials of elite major thieves. Restore discipline, including production. Simple economy and optimization of weapons, money for breakthrough projects, and not thousands of new tanks.

The military-industrial complex under Brezhnev began to live its own life, disregarding the real possibilities of the economy and the treasury, scattering funds over tens and hundreds of projects of the same type. We have been producing clearly an excess of weapons: aircraft, helicopters, tanks, armored cars, guns, etc. Huge stocks of weapons had already been accumulated, it was possible to simply upgrade the existing equipment. Concentrate efforts on advanced developments, primarily in aerospace technology, precision weapons, etc.

In foreign policy: refuse to feed various "allies" from Asia and Africa. "Optimize" the war in Afghanistan. Instead of military operations: actions of special operations forces, special services. Withdraw troops, but continue to provide assistance to the pro-Soviet forces with the help of advisers, air force strikes on terrorist and bandit bases, weapons, equipment, materials, fuel and ammunition.

At the same time, by freeing up resources and funds, it was possible to quickly solve the problem with consumer goods. Development of light industry. As under Stalin (Why Khrushchev destroyed the Stalinist artels), to allow production artels, cooperatives - small and medium-sized businesses aimed at producing consumer goods and food. Not of a trade-speculative, parasitic nature, as under Gorbachev, but of a production one.

Thus, the Soviet Union could quickly increase the output of consumer goods to the average European standard. Thus, to solve the problem of a part of Soviet society, satisfying the philistine needs of citizens. In several years the housing problem was also solved. All that was needed was a freed up resource and the development of new construction programs (homesteads for rural areas, wooden construction at a new level, etc.).


Drawing "Construction of an orbital station" by Andrey Sokolov and Alexey Leonov.

Failed new great breakthrough


As a result, the Soviet Union had every opportunity not only to maintain its superpower status in the late XNUMXth - early XNUMXst, but also to make a new breakthrough into the future. Not only to overtake the West for decades, but also to bury the capitalist world, already rotting and on the verge of a systemic crisis and subsequent catastrophe. In fact, this was done by red China, which had thoroughly studied the positive experience of Stalin and the negative one of Gorbachev. But the starting conditions for the PRC were worse, so the Chinese have so far been able to enter the position of the second superpower, partially replacing the USSR-Russia on the world stage. And China (without Russian spiritual and intellectual potential) cannot become a world leader.

In the early 1980s, Soviet civilization had every opportunity for a new great breakthrough (the first was under Stalin and in the early years after him). Stalin created a new world and society. A special civilization. A society of knowledge, service and creation. Russia could become the center of an alternative civilizational development, more attractive to humanity than the Western slave project. Even the decades of Khrushchev and Brezhnev, when, due to the refusal to continue the Stalinist course of development, and through destruction, chattering and dispersion, the potential of the USSR was undermined, our state still had excellent "trump cards" for winning the Great Game.

Stalin created a country-corporation, a country-order, a single monolith, ready for great achievements and victories. The union could concentrate forces and means on correctly selected priorities and tasks. For decades, this opportunity was used mainly for the arms race and the development of the military-industrial complex. But the security of the USSR was already ensured for decades to come. It was enough to modernize several strategic missile systems.

Therefore, it was possible and necessary to set other goals. For example, the first to create new energy, to master thermonuclear, the energy of hydrogen, wind, sun, waves and bowels. With a focus on energy saving. Create the cheapest and cleanest construction technologies. Return to space programs - to the Moon and Mars. To make a humanitarian and technological revolution, to be the first to create centers for training personnel with awakened abilities of the central nervous system ("superhumans").

The USSR had huge production capacities. A splendid engineering, research building that could solve almost any task. The myth about the USSR, which produced only "galoshes", was created in the "democratic" RF in order to hide the brilliant achievements of Soviet civilization from the people.

The Soviet education system produced hundreds of thousands of new creators and creators every year. That is, there was a potential to expand the capabilities of academic towns, to create scientific technopolises with minimal bureaucracy. Also in the USSR, there were excellent organizational and managerial technologies “under the cloth”. They made it possible to solve the problem of the growth of bureaucracy, its sluggishness and low efficiency. Implement the most complex programs for the development of the country without the growth of the bureaucratic apparatus, by increasing efficiency and combining the capabilities of existing structures. Organizational technologies linked the work of thousands of organizations, institutes, factories and collectives of various ministries and departments into a single whole.

The only problem was that the Soviet elite did not want to do this. Did not decide on a new great victory.

Moscow no longer wanted to take risks, conflict and change something radically. The USSR did not lose because of the backwardness of the economy, lack of resources, technology or specialists. Not because of the flaws in the education system.

The key is in the gradual psychological degradation of the Soviet elite. It was our elite that refused to fight and to throw itself into the future. It turned out to be easier for her to negotiate with the West and enjoy the world.

The whole country relaxed after the elite.

As a result - the catastrophe of 1985-1993.
Author:
Photos used:
https://lenta.ru/
216 comments
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  1. Aerodrome
    Aerodrome 4 December 2020 03: 40
    +10
    How the Soviet Union missed the opportunity for a great new breakthrough
    The whole country relaxed after the elite.
    As a result - the catastrophe of 1985-1993.
    do not lie Comrade Samsonov, a disaster, this is what now, and not in 1985-1993, our Soviet, "Buran" performed on November 15, 1988 in automatic mode, without a crew on board. but now, only the cattails fly. with all the "abrupt breakthroughs", to repeat the feat of Soviet engineers, modern Russia does not even try. sometimes, we get up from our knees, staggering and falling. achievements, Great People.
    1. Gips
      Gips 4 December 2020 04: 54
      +10
      The disaster is the private property of the joint venture. It is necessary to call things by their proper names. And comrade Samsonov, not mastering class analysis, simply cannot deduce the very essence.
      1. Pavel73
        Pavel73 4 December 2020 05: 26
        +3
        A disaster is any extremes. Ignorance of the measure.
        1. Gips
          Gips 4 December 2020 05: 35
          +4
          Lack of education, lack of conceptual thinking, lack of knowledge of the foundations of the science of society - is this a disaster?
          1. aybolyt678
            aybolyt678 4 December 2020 08: 07
            +10
            Quote: GIPS
            Lack of education, lack of conceptual thinking, lack of knowledge of the foundations of the science of society - is this a disaster?

            undoubtedly! this is a disaster. A striking example - the Party's ideologists accused the Party of a personality cult! turned the Idea into Dogma! even a clear definition of Communism was not given!
            1. A1845
              A1845 4 December 2020 09: 44
              +11
              It was only necessary to put things in order

              smiled
              it seems this is even before Rurik spoke
              1. Alexey RA
                Alexey RA 4 December 2020 10: 46
                +5
                Quote: A1845
                it seems this is even before Rurik spoke

                Listen guys
                What will tell you grandfather.
                Our land is rich
                There is no order in it.

                And this truth, children
                For a thousand years
                Our ancestors dared:
                Order de, you see, no.

                And they all became under the banner
                And they say: “How are we to be?
                Let's send to the Vikings:
                Let them come to reign.

                After all, the Germans are too busy
                He knows the darkness and light
                Our earth is rich,
                There is only no order in it. ”

                Messengers at a brisk pace
                Went there
                And they say to the Vikings:
                “Come, gentlemen!

                We will send you gold
                What Kiev sweets;
                Our land is rich
                There is only no order in it. ”

                The Varangians became terribly
                But they think: “Well here?
                The attempt is not a joke -
                Come on, if they’re calling! ”

                © A.K. Tolstoy. History of the Russian state from Gostomysl to Timashev
      2. Malyuta
        Malyuta 4 December 2020 05: 34
        +24
        Quote: GIPS
        The disaster is the private property of the joint venture. It is necessary to call things by their proper names. And comrade Samsonov, not mastering class analysis, simply cannot deduce the very essence.

        I am very sorry, but what does the private property of the joint venture have to do with it?
        The article is not about that. Decomposition of the leadership, formalism, opportunism, philistinism are some of the main reasons, but the main reason is the betrayal of the party elite and gebnya.
        But both Lenin and Stalin clearly pointed out that it was necessary to cleanse the party of fellow travelers and about the incessant class struggle even with the victory of socialism!
        “The mobilization of communists for the war helped us: cowards and villains ran away from the party. Then piss off! Such a decrease in the number of party members is an enormous increase in its strength and weight. It is necessary to continue the purge, using the initiative of the "communist subbotniks": to be admitted to the party only after six months, say, "temptation" or "experience", consisting in working in a revolutionary way. The same verification should be required from all party members who joined after October 25, 1917 and who did not prove by special labor or merit their unconditional reliability, loyalty and ability to be communists. The purge of the Party, connected with a steady increase in its exactingness about truly communist work, will improve the apparatus of state power and gigantic bring closer the final transition of the peasants to the side of the revolutionary proletariat!»
        Original Russian Text © V.I. Lenin (great initiative)
        1. Gips
          Gips 4 December 2020 05: 44
          +9
          You can quote Lenin, but be an idealist. And this means that in citing Lenin's quotes, the idealist most likely does not understand for what basis Vladimir Ilyich was fighting.

          And by the way, the purge of the party also directly depended on the question "whose means of production should be?" From a position on this issue, yes.
          1. Malyuta
            Malyuta 4 December 2020 06: 08
            +24
            Quote: GIPS
            You can quote Lenin, but be an idealist. And this means that in citing Lenin's quotes, the idealist most likely does not understand for what basis Vladimir Ilyich was fighting.

            And by the way, the purge of the party also directly depended on the question "whose means of production should be?" From a position on this issue, yes.

            I do not understand what you want to say about the ownership of the means of production under the USSR, although they belonged to the whole society, but the most important thing is that in each of the societies there are elements of the superstructure that are capable of destroying the basis that gave rise to it. Bottom line: the superstructure actively affects the basis.
            that's exactly what I am telling you, that the superstructure had to be carefully cleaned and cut !!!
            1. Gips
              Gips 4 December 2020 06: 26
              +4
              [Quote] [/ quote]
              Bottom line: the superstructure actively affects the basis.

              It's not scientific. This is the philosophy of idealism.
              1. aybolyt678
                aybolyt678 4 December 2020 08: 09
                +2
                Quote: GIPS
                It's not scientific. This is the philosophy of idealism

                cool!
              2. Alexander Greene
                Alexander Greene 4 December 2020 16: 51
                +4
                Quote: GIPS
                It's not scientific. This is the philosophy of idealism.

                You are not right. The superstructure very much affects the basis. Example: October 1917 led to the change of the superstructure - the Soviets appeared, but the basis remained capitalist. During the transition period from capitalism to socialism, the superstructure radically changed the entire basis, making it socialist.
                1. aleksejkabanets
                  aleksejkabanets 4 December 2020 23: 57
                  +2
                  Quote: Alexander Green
                  You are not right. The superstructure very much affects the basis. Example: October 1917 led to the change of the superstructure - the Soviets appeared, but the basis remained capitalist. During the transition period from capitalism to socialism, the superstructure radically changed the entire basis, making it socialist.

                  Probably all the same GIPS (Dmitry) is right. It was just the only revolution that was carried out according to the plan, i.e. the Bolsheviks knew where to come in the end. They changed the basis in accordance with the plan. The superstructure did not change the basis.
        2. aleksejkabanets
          aleksejkabanets 5 December 2020 00: 18
          +2
          hi Hello Kamrad! You haven't been there for a long time.
          Quote: Malyuta
          I am very sorry, but what does the private property of the joint venture have to do with it?
          The article is not about that. Decomposition of the leadership, formalism, opportunism, philistinism are some of the main reasons, but the main reason is the betrayal of the party elite and gebnya.

          I think GIPS (Dmitry) is right. The attitude towards the joint venture is a key issue. Although the article is really not about that. The desire of the Khrushchev party bureaucracy to be irreplaceable and independent of ordinary people ultimately led to what we have now. In my opinion, this was not the influence of the superstructure. And rather, qualitative changes in the basis did not occur to the end.
      3. aybolyt678
        aybolyt678 4 December 2020 07: 59
        0
        Quote: GIPS
        The disaster is the private property of the joint venture.

        private property or public, what's the difference? introduce a progressive tax - here is the mechanism for the fair distribution of the product! but private ownership of the subsoil! yes! catastrophe
        1. Vadim237
          Vadim237 5 December 2020 23: 25
          0
          "But private ownership of the subsoil! Yes! It's a catastrophe" Why is it if I use my own money to develop, extract, process, transfer, store raw materials and sell them paying taxes to the state as a private owner - then what is the disaster here?
      4. silberwolf88
        silberwolf88 4 December 2020 09: 16
        +5
        do not simplify ... under Stalin there were production artels ... private producers (private property) ... but they were built into the system without the exploitation of man by man ...
        1. Vadim237
          Vadim237 5 December 2020 23: 31
          +1
          "Under Stalin, there were production artels .." And what about these artels - they also depended on the planned economy and the distribution system where all materials and equipment were signed for years in advance, that is, this system would not cover the deficit, but the exploitation of man by man was always there will always be even though you work for a private trader even for the state.
          1. silberwolf88
            silberwolf88 6 December 2020 01: 21
            0
            you are already talking about the time of Khrushchev and Co. ... artels were quite a sector of the real market ... as well as materials purchased from other artels ... in the Kalinin region ... leather artels sold leather for footwear and harness ... and the state procurements went on as usual ... a brick factory was allocated to the artel workers on the collective farm ... from this brick in 30-50 a lot of things were built around the district (now these are endangered villages) ... it was a different time ... I understand that for you unknown ... artels bought iron in billets ... washed gold ... supplied fish ... and so on and so forth ...
      5. depressant
        depressant 4 December 2020 13: 14
        +3
        Comrade Samsonov has given this opportunity to you, dear colleague of GIPS.
      6. evgen1221
        evgen1221 4 December 2020 20: 21
        +4
        It was a catastrophe to give the strategic industries and all factories as a whole into private hands. They would give people a cheap loan for the purchase of equipment and raw materials, so there were no oligarchs, but there would be civilized competition and this as his market. Then the USSR would be alive. Well, the nonsense that killed the CMEA is when the humpback canceled the transferable ruble in the calculations, and the currency for the purchase of a certain nebylo-CMEA stood up and died instantly.
        1. Vadim237
          Vadim237 5 December 2020 23: 40
          0
          "If people were given cheap credit to buy equipment and raw materials, there were no oligarchs." From what they gave in the late 80s and 90s, the USSR and Russia were already head over heels in debt, there was no money at all, there were only 270 tons of gold left in the gold reserves, and the red directors simply put the horseradish on "power" directing all the profits from what worked for themselves in pocket. In fact, Russia until 1998 lived on GKOs and IMF loans in the 98th there was a crisis on the Asian stock exchange and hello to the well-known default.
    2. Uncle lee
      Uncle lee 4 December 2020 04: 57
      +18
      The point is in the Stalinist system - the foundation of Soviet civilization.
      The system was destroyed, the foundation collapsed, and behind it the entire building of the USSR!
      Let's hope.
      1. depressant
        depressant 4 December 2020 13: 43
        +7
        Let's remember!
        Let's remember that Iosif Vissarionovich skillfully combined the socialist, that is, the state method of industrial and agricultural production with the desire of a person to act as a producer of goods and services himself. Combined, not at all embarrassed by the fact that the task of the state was to build a communist society, that is, one in which all means of production are state.
        Why did he do this?
        Because he was above all a statesman and skillfully used the mentality of the population. The people had just left the tsarist system, they were ready to work for a new system, but in the way that some already knew how and wanted. The country, devastated by the Civil War, and then by the Great Patriotic War, felt an acute need for such people and, strictly controlling their activities, provided them with all the opportunities for the development of their industries - raw materials, warehouses, transportation services, equipment.
        This approach not only relieved tension in society, usefully engaging those who dreamed of their own production, but also largely contributed to the strengthening of the economic potential of the USSR. This made it possible, to the surprise of the rest of the world, to restore the level of industrial and agricultural production in the shortest possible time - at a rate of 10 to 12% per year. And this despite the poor harvest in 1947. Whereas Europe lay in ruins for a long time.
        1. Kwas
          Kwas 4 December 2020 20: 12
          +4
          Let's just, for the sake of completeness, recall Khrushch's confiscatory measures: the elimination of industrial cooperation, the taxation of everything private and collective in the countryside, the destruction of the structure of industry and agriculture, etc., etc.
          And there was no trial over him ... And this is the first thing that Brezhnev HAD to do. This is where the breakdown began, primarily ideological.
    3. Arpad
      Arpad 4 December 2020 07: 42
      -5
      Quote: Aerodrome
      November 15, 1988 in automatic mode, without crew on board.

      and the shuttles had been flying for many years at that time and with a crew.
      Quote: Aerodrome
      Russia does not even try. Sometimes, we get up from our knees, staggering and falling

      as in a joke - the West all the time wanted to bring Russia to its knees, but it remained there.
      The article is a set of clichés and myths.
      The USSR is not dead. the dead cannot die.
      1. Sneaky Urus
        Sneaky Urus 8 December 2020 16: 12
        +1
        Quite right. The author clearly does not own the topic, but simply outlined his wishes and preferences here. And the bottom line is that the USSR could not fail to collapse because the structural imbalances grew from five to five years. The foundations of the crisis were laid by none other than Comrade. Stalin - the prevalence of group A over group B. Before the war it was justified, and after - not entirely. And the unhappy agriculture, with its inefficiency, ran through all the years of Soviet power.
    4. Bar1
      Bar1 4 December 2020 08: 20
      -11%
      Alexander Samsonov, always loves to walk around, and around: it is necessary specifically, with facts.
      Now, on the pages of this forum, the controversy has long ended that Brezhnev betrayed our space, that the closure of our lunar program, that suspicious parallels between Buran and Shuttle are the results of an agreement between Brezhnev and the Americans. The recognition of false, non-existent American "achievements" is only One example, on the path of departure from socialism and coming to capitalism, which has happened to us today. All these behind-the-scenes games are examples of the degradation of the elite.
      What other examples of betrayal of the elites are there? Well, the fact that Nikita made the party nomeklatura not subject to jurisdiction, who could do any business without fear of falling under party and state control.
      But there is perhaps the MOST MAJOR lie about which no one speaks or only weak and deaf conversations are heard, namely, our story was different. The existence in the past of another country, Great Tartary, and not recognition of this fact by the Soviet government, although we were told that they say : "We will destroy the whole world of violence", the fact that Lenin and Stalin and everyone else chose not to notice that in the past our country had a different foundation and relied on a different history and other real forces, says one thing that the creators of Soviet power had the same Instead of relying on the works of Academician Morozov, the ruling Soviet elite preferred to rely in history on the works of deceitful imperial Russian science, which was based on the works of German pseudo-scientists Baer, ​​Schlözer Miller, and before them there was the creator of the "textbook of Russian history" Inokenty Gizel, a graduate of the Mohyla Academy, a Jesuit, the creator of the myth about the "Little Russian people".
      Lenin / Stalin created a "national state", although they professed a kind of internationalism and how was it? Lenin laid down the principle of the collapse of Great Russia on the basis of the national principle, and Stalin, for example, at the 10th Congress said that: "... the Ukrainization of Russians is the way to go"
      .And what has this path led to? To the creation of a "Ukrainian state" hostile to the Russians. Are these not links of one chain?
      At the end of its short history, the USSR was already sick. The shortage of basic goods and the imposition of Western culture did their job, the youth turned from the primordial Russian collective values ​​towards Western individualism and mercantile monetary values. Party leaders of the past era led us to this.
    5. sevtrash
      sevtrash 4 December 2020 13: 00
      +2
      Quote: Aerodrome
      Sovetsky, "Buran" performed on November 15, 1988 in automatic mode, without a crew on board. and now, only cattails fly. in front of everyone

      Shuttles have had automatic landing for a long time, just the Americans have determined by research that the pilot is still more effective than the computer when landing on the runway. Just like regular planes.
      By the way about the "cheap" 15P961 "Molodets" (RT-23 UTTH). In fact, their cost was high. And for 3 divisions (Kostroma, Perm, Krasnoyarsk), it was necessary to shift thousands of kilometers of railway tracks with the replacement of concrete sleepers as well. So count it.
      1. Kwas
        Kwas 4 December 2020 20: 16
        +3
        Quote: sevtrash
        it was necessary to shift thousands of kilometers of railway tracks with the replacement of concrete sleepers

        Well, these costs would still be beneficial.
        1. depressant
          depressant 4 December 2020 22: 21
          +3
          The Barguzin combat railway missile system being developed in Russia can be as effective as a division of the Strategic Missile Forces (Strategic Missile Forces) equipped with stationary silo complexes.
          The development of the draft design of the BZHRK was completed closer to 2015. This development was carried out, among other things, as a response to the United States' instant global strike program, which implies the possibility of hitting objects anywhere on Earth within an hour from the moment the decision was made.
          The power of this composition (BZHRK), taking into account the multiple missile warhead, can be equated to a division with stationary silo complexes.
          "Barguzin" is a new generation of trains armed with ballistic missiles. In 2020, it was planned to be adopted. How it really is, I do not know. In any case, they are working on this)))
          1. ccsr
            ccsr 5 December 2020 15: 27
            +2
            Quote: depressant
            The Barguzin combat railway missile system being developed in Russia can be as effective as a division of the Strategic Missile Forces (Strategic Missile Forces) equipped with stationary silo complexes.

            Sorry, but this is complete nonsense, because one Barguzin complex carries the same number of missiles, or even less, than one regiment of the Strategic Missile Forces division has in silos. Where does this UNPROTECTED from sabotage railway complex come from, the efficiency can be higher than that of the Strategic Missile Forces regiment, if now any Chinese mobile phone connected to the pressure sensor under one of the sleepers not only tracks the route of movement, but, if desired, can also lead to undermining the railway track to crisis situation. So it is not necessary to idealize everything - and with the BZHRK, not everything is as simple as it seems to many, and not only from the point of view of security, but also from the point of view of reliability of this entire system as a whole in a critical situation.
        2. sevtrash
          sevtrash 4 December 2020 22: 54
          +2
          Quote: Kwas
          Well, these costs would still be beneficial.

          I read somewhere that the railway after the passage of the train had to be repaired. It is no coincidence that Barguzin was made with the task of reducing the load on the railway track.
          1. depressant
            depressant 4 December 2020 23: 44
            +1
            That's right, colleague sevtrash.
            In 2017, it was announced that the development was being suspended, but, I believe, this is misinformation - the weapon is too secret))) And the evidence that the development continues is Belousov's coming to the post of Deputy Prime Minister with his immediately announced intention to start implementing the infrastructure project - roads and all that. Including - by joining the bottlenecks of the Baikal-Amur railway. If we associate one with the other, it becomes clear.
    6. Vadim237
      Vadim237 5 December 2020 23: 21
      0
      A catastrophe is you and people like you, the brakes who derailed everything back in the 60s. And what about the "Superpower, which possessed all the avant-garde technologies and industries" What is this? High-precision machining centers were purchased in the west of Germany, Japan, and even in the USA through third countries, floating docks of the PD series ordered in the Netherlands all civilian products, with rare exceptions, were outdated junk, since all resources, equipment, materials and specialists went to the military-industrial complex. And consumer goods of machinery and equipment, as well as food, the USSR bought from the West for tens of billions of dollars from the rubric that they themselves could not do or simply could not provide themselves in the required volumes. No avant-garde in technology and industry production, especially food, has never been observed in the USSR - there is a continuous shortage and technical backwardness, just stupid slogans "We will catch up and overtake the West"
      1. Vladimir247
        Vladimir247 6 December 2020 00: 43
        +1
        237
        -------
        Are you a specialist for high precision machining centers? I wonder how? I served at the Ural defense factories Ivanovo processing centers, CNC-600, produced by the GDR, basically everything was either ours or from CMEA. Right now, there is nothing. They destroyed everything ... laughing
        but blame the USSR for some reason. Just like Pashinyan now, he surrendered Karabakh, but everyone is to blame ... well, everyone around ... and those who used to ...
        1. gsev
          gsev 8 January 2021 04: 02
          0
          Quote: Vladimir247
          Ivanovo processing centers, SNC-600, produced by the GDR, basically everything was either ours or from the CMEA.

          In Ivanovo machining centers and CNC, drives, position sensors and even often fasteners were imported. CNC and drives were produced by many ministries, but their developments were often applied only in their own ministry. It was impossible to prove to the heads of the ministry that it was more convenient to use the products of another ministry in the machine. This is like proving that all the leading cadres in your ministry are failures and non-professionals.
      2. bayard
        bayard 8 December 2020 02: 58
        +2
        Quote: Vadim237
        ... And what about the "Superpower, which possessed all the avant-garde technologies and industries" What is this? High-precision machining centers were purchased in the west of Germany, Japan and even in the USA through third countries, floating docks of the PD series were ordered in the Netherlands

        Is there at least one state in the world today that produces the entire range of technical equipment (machine tools, machining centers) without exception? In my city, where I grew up, in the mid-70s they built a luxurious technical equipment plant. He produced the whole range of machine tools and machining centers, a whole line of CNC machines ... any (!) Technical equipment for any purpose - just give drawings. And he supplied his machines and equipment to 37 countries of the world. Turnkey plants supplied and provided installation supervision and start-up. Service maintenance .
        There were no restrictions on complexity.
        Now this wonderful plant is no longer there.
        And yes, it had several chic three-axis machine tools from Germany (the Germans later - in the mid-late 90s) bought them back (the manufacturer) for more money than they cost in the 70s ... But that's the point is that this plant could produce exactly the same machine tools already itself. And let it out.
        Even production lines for any production, even rolling mills, even mills for crushing rock, even CNC machines for entire factories.
        They also built rockets in my city. No, not space - military, the very "Molodets" for rocket trains and for underground mobile bases. And there was the best test bench for rocket technology in the Union - they were brought from all over the country for testing ...
        And the city is small.
        And we had a lot of such cities.
        Or is the An-124 Ruslan not the pinnacle of engineering thought, even today?
        Or is the Don-2 radar station in the Moscow region still not one of the best combat radars for missile defense?
        "Cobra-Day" was not suitable for him, compared. yes
        As for the deficit, this deficit was mostly artificial.
        Or would you say that in the country that launched "Buran" they could not ... really could not ... organize the production of normal footwear and consumer goods for light industry?
        Yes, when the cooperative movement was only allowed, after 1,5 - 2 years this deficit was almost gone. And all by our own (internal) forces, without "investments" and "investors".
        Not enough food?
        Have you looked at the OPC bases of that time?
        There was EVERYTHING. yes
        But the scarcity fed the speculators. In addition, in the food markets IN EVERY CITY, any food was simply in bulk. Yes, it was somewhat more expensive (the meat and dairy industry was subsidized by the state), but if not for 2,20 - 2,50 rubles. , and for 3,50 meat could always be taken. Moreover, it is of excellent quality. Cheese, smoked sausages and other delicacies have always been in cooperative stores. Yes, it is also more expensive than in the state ones, but not by much and the prices were quite affordable.
        The food went missing in Moscow in 1991 ... and it came as a surprise. And the goal was simple - to wind up the people's anger, hunger riots for the demolition of Soviet Power. And the Soviet Power itself did it.
        Moreover, in that very 1991, during the period of bare counters in Moscow stores ... in canteens, cafes, dumplings, cheburek, grill bars, etc. ... there was no deficit, the prices were ... very low Soviet prices. I lived and worked in Moscow at that time and regularly had snacks in such dumplings / grill bars.
        But in the provinces in the same period there was a uniform food abundance - any sausages, cheeses, smoked meats, salinity ... the deficit disappeared altogether ... And people began to scoff at Moscow, to which they themselves used to go for delicacies.
        This is how SEPARATISM was warmed up.
        And they achieved their goals.

        But don't even argue about the fact that the USSR was an ADVANCED country in science, technology and economy, a country.
        From our machine-tool plant, machine tools went to Western countries.
        hi bully
    7. bayard
      bayard 8 December 2020 02: 17
      +1
      Quote: Aerodrome
      don't lie comrade Samsonov, a disaster, this is what is now, not in 1985-1993

      What do you disagree with?
      With the fact that Gorbachev's appearance in power is a grave disaster for our Motherland?
      In 1985, this nominee of Andropov became the general secretary of the CPSU and the country began ... to rebuild.
      And in 1993, the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR was shot from tank guns, which on the eve removed the traitor Yeltsin from power.
      And the fact that in these late Soviet years there were a lot of accomplishments, everyone who lived then remembers well. This "GOOD" was destroyed by the traitor Gorbachev with his Perestroika. And the traitor Yeltsin, having picked up the Vlasov banner (the same tricolor), destroyed and plundered the Great Country.
      And about:
      Quote: Aerodrome
      - our Soviet, "Buran" performed on November 15, 1988 in automatic mode, without a crew on board.

      I remember that day as it is now - I happened to be engaged in the control of the landing of "Buran" ... What a holiday it was ...
      And the author outlined everything correctly - the degradation, decomposition and betrayal of the elite (the Central Committee of the CPSU and the KGB of the USSR) led to the fact that instead of and on the eve of Victory ... traitors from the government simply surrendered us to the enemies. Stream and plunder.
      Now it's even difficult to imagine what POWER it was !!!
      What a harmonious and just state ...
    8. zenion
      zenion 18 December 2020 18: 56
      0
      Aerodrome. What are you writing? The USSR did not think about the Moon and what is it there! So, as hot countries were saturated with galoshes, the idea came to the USSR to capture the whole world with rubber boots. In any case, the countries languishing under the weight of rains and floods. There were even proposals to make rubber boots with overhead motors. But everything was gone. We couldn't capture a miracle with a motor, but we didn't manage to design it ourselves, as always. Either the motor sank, then it drank water. And then the young cadres decided, since this country cannot make a lousy motor, it needs to be destroyed, the factories destroyed, as well as the unnecessary part of the population that Hitler could not destroy and buy motors abroad. And so it was done. Hitler's soul in the cauldron did somersaults with joy and dived into the tar, like a real alcoholman, after all, it is not, they destroyed themselves.
  2. Overlock
    Overlock 4 December 2020 03: 43
    +39
    It was our elite that refused to fight and to throw itself into the future.

    It's easy to blame everything on the elite. But the problem is not only in their desire to refuse to throw, but rather in its ossification, divorce from the life of the common people. Everyone lived their own lives. And the elite made a rush towards the production of weapons, partly superfluous, while completely ignoring the market inside the country, insane assistance to friends from Asia and Africa. Suffice it to recall the empty shelves in the late 80s, the "sausage trains" to Moscow. The shortage of goods was solved by pull, as corruption is now called.
    Having everything, I absolutely do not want to change anything - and so everything is. And so it happened
    1. Ross xnumx
      Ross xnumx 4 December 2020 04: 26
      +11
      Quote: Overlock
      Suffice it to recall the empty shelves in the late 80s, the "sausage trains" to Moscow. The shortage of goods was solved by pull, as corruption is now called.

      Let's not remember the "empty shelves" of stores and analyze the reasons for their appearance. Everything is trite and simple here. The state trade system was destroyed by the introduction of new cooperation. What do you think that it was the cooperators who produced goods (cigarettes, vodka, clothes, food, etc.) and sold them in private stores at prices higher than the state ones? Fuck there. When I ran out of cigarettes (in general) I was offered them in the store at a price five times higher. Such a system of "legitimizing" speculation deprived the state trade of goods at the established state prices.
      1. Overlock
        Overlock 4 December 2020 15: 26
        +29
        Quote: ROSS 42
        Let's not remember the "empty shelves" of stores and analyze the reasons for their appearance. Everything is trite and simple here.

        The military-industrial complex ate everything! We had great weapons, but we didn't have great shoes and suits, refrigerators and vacuum cleaners.
        Bolivar could not stand two
        1. evgen1221
          evgen1221 4 December 2020 20: 30
          +5
          Well, I don’t know what kind of shoes you came across during the union, but our boys had sneakers for a very long time (and then everyone was on the street and not at computers, and the parents walked for shoes for a long time). and a design corral in the country (this is important) But the quality was good - well, if you take care of your shoes and not walk through the swamp in lacquered boots.
        2. Vladimir247
          Vladimir247 6 December 2020 01: 05
          +2
          Well, where do you see great shoes now? But! Just to make it public. You shouldn't lie to people, and you shouldn't lie to yourself either. Are you talking about the USSR about shoes for everyone? Well, show me the country where there is now, great shoes for everyone.
          I must say right away that in North. America, for example, has walmart for everyone. This is truly a people's store. Any shoes there, amazing in quality and in appearance, shit, and the price .... well, for $ 30, if only an analogue of our "goodbye youth". Everything else is 60-80-150. More than two seasons do not live. From personal experience.
          And in the USSR, somewhere in the early 80s, 2 seasons for boots ... so they were still considered new.
          There was no Bolivar. A stupid comparison. The USSR died as a result of a brilliant special operation of the West. And all our difficulties, including economic and ideological ... but who doesn't have them? And especially now? And nothing, everyone lives, in Ukraine, the Bandera people have settled down in general, and wow, they feel comfortable, and Bolivar carries them to himself ... whoever fell from nakedness and died ... such a fate ... laughing
          And nothing, Ukraine costs itself. Why were you so pressed in the USSR that you had to plunge the country into chaos and devastation? Would you like shoes with varnish? And the sausage is thicker? So we got it already, why angry you still want, what are you still kicking the USSR?

          I think that your employers know the true picture of the mood of the masses of people, which is why you are sitting here, day and night, gnawing at the memory of the past. I will note that it’s a vain occupation, but what is left for you? Work .... wassat
    2. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 4 December 2020 05: 13
      +3
      Quote: Overlock
      The shortage of goods was solved by pull, as corruption is now called.

      wink probably it is not necessary to smear two different concepts with one broom.
      Corruption is closer to bribery, abuse of authority, bribery, finally.
      Blat is a completely different phenomenon associated with personal relationships. Nothing prevents you from smiling at the seller in the grocery store and getting a discount on his card !!!
      1. Fat
        Fat 4 December 2020 10: 13
        +4
        Corruption is closer to bribery, abuse of authority, bribery, finally.

        In the relevant UN convention, nepotism is a form of corruption.
        1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
          Kote Pan Kokhanka 4 December 2020 11: 53
          +5
          Quote: Thick
          In the relevant UN convention, nepotism is a form of corruption.

          Let's still distinguish between a criminal offense and personal inferences!
          It's one thing when subject "A", due to personal sympathies or family ties, gives subject "B" the opportunity to buy a coupon for sausage.
          Others, in excess of their powers, "do the results" of the tender.
          273 FZ of 2008 - introduced the concept of "conflict of interest" - this is the closest legal term to "neopotism", "patronage" and "protectionism". But even his notorious violation basically ends with a disciplinary sanction, and not a criminal case.
          Touching upon the topic of "neopotism" and corruption, we unwittingly kill another aspect of the "dynasty in the profession"! I'm not talking about the majors and their relatives in the bureaucratic offices.
          I am writing about labor dynasties. Unfortunately, at the level of the middle management in the professional environment (except for merchants and bankers), this segment is completely killed.
          Dunno how anyone, but I think "hereditary steelmaker or metallurgist" sounds proudly!
          Alas, it is rare today.
          1. Fat
            Fat 4 December 2020 12: 10
            +7
            Shustov and sons ... Not only does it sound proudly, but it is also drunk ... Not a banker, not a merchant - a manufacturer. )))
            1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
              Kote Pan Kokhanka 4 December 2020 19: 56
              +2
              Quote: Thick
              Shustov and sons ... Not only does it sound proudly, but it is also drunk ... Not a banker, not a merchant - a manufacturer. )))

              I'm not against! drinks
      2. Overlock
        Overlock 4 December 2020 15: 29
        +34
        Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
        Corruption is closer to bribery, abuse of authority, bribery, finally.
        Blat is a completely different phenomenon

        Corruption is considered - abuse of office, giving a bribe, receiving a bribe, abuse of authority, commercial bribery or other illegal use by an individual of his official position contrary to the legitimate interests of society and the state in order to obtain benefits in the form of money, valuables, other property or services of a property nature, other property rights for oneself or for third parties, or illegal provision of such benefits to the specified person by other individuals, as well as the commission of these acts on behalf of or in the interests of a legal entity.
        Blatt (according to Fasmer - from Yiddish בלאַט - "leaf"; German das Blatt - "leaf") is a phenomenon widespread in the territory of the former USSR, meaning acquaintance or contacts used for personal purposes and infringing on the interests of third parties.
        The current meaning of the word "blat" is useful contacts, acquaintances, thanks to which you can get some kind of benefits bypassing generally accepted rules and laws, as a rule, to the detriment of the interests of society or the state. "By pull" - thanks to a profitable acquaintance, through the "necessary" people.
        1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
          Kote Pan Kokhanka 4 December 2020 20: 08
          0
          Overlock, I have a question for you - is there any point in quoting Wikipedia?
          By the way, its “flawed quality” was confirmed by the attempt of an unknown author to deduce the word “blat” from German and French! Do you give a damn about bot? Apparently not. "Blat", "thieves", "thieves" derived from "goodness", "good news", "good". Greek - there is no sense in giving the etiology of the word.
    3. Deniska999
      Deniska999 4 December 2020 06: 03
      +6
      Your words fit perfectly today. And you are right, what a breakthrough could be expected from old sick people who only wanted to live out their days in peace and quiet.
      1. parusnik
        parusnik 4 December 2020 08: 07
        +2
        And now what a breakthrough can be made with the young "victims of the exam". Paradox, the "old" cannot and ... the "young" cannot. And the social "lift" when it works, when it doesn't work. It doesn't work more often.
        1. Deniska999
          Deniska999 4 December 2020 08: 23
          +13
          There is nothing easier than saying that the younger generation is stupid and unworthy.
        2. Vadim237
          Vadim237 5 December 2020 23: 48
          +2
          They can't talk about young people - they can and do, and there have always been a lot of fools, just like there were many smart ones, now this ratio has not changed.
    4. aybolyt678
      aybolyt678 4 December 2020 08: 14
      +9
      Quote: Overlock
      It's easy to blame everything on the elite.

      The word elite in your case must be written in quotation marks, be sure! The elite has a social function to show how to live and die. What you are writing about is just a self-name. Therefore quotes smile or use the word tops floating up ...
      1. depressant
        depressant 4 December 2020 15: 51
        +9
        The comment of our distinguished colleague ROSS 42 strained me a little. After all, the site is visited by young people who have only a vague idea of ​​why under Stalin the country developed despite objective difficulties (devastation after the Civil War and the Second World War) - it developed and built up such a backlog that we still use it and thanks to him are alive, and, starting with Khrushchev, our steam locomotive began to slow down towards the Commune, and then completely turned onto a different rail track - to the place where his enemies had taken the arrow.
        And since we are talking about cooperatives, then we should strictly distinguish Stalin's cooperatives from Gorbachev's during the Perestroika era and tirelessly emphasize this difference. Stalin's cooperatives worked under the strict and vigilant control of the Stalinist controlling bodies, and therefore the activities of cooperatives and individual farmers in agriculture brought tangible benefits to the country's economy. In addition, the mentality of the Soviet people in that era was such that an atmosphere of harsh intolerance and public condemnation immediately developed around the hackers, swindlers and swindlers. The task of the Stalinist co-operatives was to shoe, dress, feed the population and provide it with household appliances, furniture, and so on.

        And now - what are Gorbachev's cooperatives? They arose when practically nothing remained of the Soviet mentality of the Stalin era. What a climate of intolerance towards swindlers and previously illegal guild workers who have crawled out of the Brezhnev underground! There was no such situation. The people had already been corrupted by the artificially created atmosphere of total scarcity, when the necessary thing could be obtained only by pull, or at exorbitant prices from speculators. The entire system of relations within the people and the people with the authorities was already permeated with a condescending attitude towards dishonesty, theft, meanness, corruption, lack of conscience. People were still happy about the flights of "Buran", but everyone at a subconscious level already understood that this was the end. And the bright dream of a communist tomorrow went to the margins of consciousness, crushed by the dark essence of dirt, growing not only in the soul of a person, but also outside, suppressing indignation and the desire to resist. When there is too much dirt and it comes from the very top, it is an irresistible circumstance in life, and the instinct of self-preservation is triggered in everyone - if not the individual, then at least the body.

        So what was the task of the Gorbachev cooperatives? Do you think that, as under Stalin, to dress, put on shoes, feed the country, saving it from a deficit? Far from it! The task was to enable proactive people to raise private industries, to identify them and slam those "lifters" together with their enterprises as cockroaches on the grounds of the absence of laws regulating their activities, that is, as illegal. Do you understand? Activity was allowed, but laws were not passed! ...
        To identify and slam both future competitors in the carve-up of the natural resources of the USSR. After all, according to the results of the carve-up, the "risen" could not agree. Millions of cooperatives have been identified, slammed, identified and slammed up to this day - small and medium-sized businessmen who are raising their heads. For they are still competitors to those who, possessing the levers of government in the country, have appropriated everything and continue to do so. Gorbachev is always with us!
        1. aleksejkabanets
          aleksejkabanets 5 December 2020 00: 30
          +3
          Quote: depressant
          And since we are talking about cooperatives, then we should strictly distinguish Stalin's cooperatives from Gorbachev's during the Perestroika era and tirelessly emphasize this difference.

          Lyudmila Yakovlevna, the fundamental difference lies in the attitude to private ownership of the means of production. In Stalin's cooperatives, the means of production were publicly owned, while in Gorbachev's, they were privately owned. Control is important, but still secondary.
          1. depressant
            depressant 5 December 2020 02: 36
            +4
            Alexey, accepted!)))
  3. Vladimir247
    Vladimir247 4 December 2020 04: 05
    +14
    In principle, everything is correct, only it can be specified that the catastrophe began immediately after Stalin's death. Khrushchev hit the country with his 20th congress like a sledgehammer on the head of the head. After that, we no longer had a chance to rise. Just down.
    Judge for yourself: somewhere right after the war, in the early 50s, when a frenzied campaign against the USSR was being waged in the West, the French secretary of the Communist Party, I don't remember the name, like Maurice Torez, spoke in parliament and said that if the French government would dare go to war against the USSR, then the communists will go to war against this government!
    And they understood him!
    That is how high the authority of communism and the USSR was as the victors of fascism!
    And after this congress ... the number of European Communist Parties fell dozens of times ... no, Khrushchev obviously did not think of this himself. Someone pulled the thread.
    1. Aerodrome
      Aerodrome 4 December 2020 04: 36
      +4
      Quote: Vladimir247
      Khrushchev clearly did not think of this himself. Someone pulled the thread.

      This corncob had nothing to think about, the Cossack was clearly sent. Even the war did not bring so much trouble to the country.
      1. aybolyt678
        aybolyt678 4 December 2020 08: 20
        +7
        Quote: Aerodrome
        This corncob had nothing to think about, the Cossack was clearly sent. Even the war did not bring so much trouble to the country.

        The State Department had their own Stirlitz ... I read about the memoirs of a journalist who witnessed Khrushchev's preparation for a meeting with avant-garde artists ... There he was specially inflamed, they read dirt about statements, the opinions of these artists specifically about Khrushchev and communism, naturally the ear went to meeting charged. I think in the same way he was inflamed before the UN and at a meeting of friendly parties when he offered China Stalin's coffin ...
    2. Sergej1972
      Sergej1972 4 December 2020 04: 53
      +4
      The number of the Communist Parties has not fallen by dozens of times, do not exaggerate. Some of the West European communists, by the way, withdrew from the European Communist Parties because, in their opinion, the decisions of the 20th Congress were half-hearted. The Italian Communist Party gained maximum influence and the largest percentage of voters for it when it distanced itself from the CPSU and began to criticize the Soviet leadership for clamping down on democracy in our country and ideological stagnation.
      1. Vladimir247
        Vladimir247 4 December 2020 05: 15
        +8
        Well, not in tens. But much. And if you know for sure, give the numbers. And most importantly, the authority fell sharply, that's the point. And the fact that Khrushchev and democracy, things are incompatible in principle, is a no brainer. Indeed, in 37, all the trials against the opposition were attended by correspondents of leading Western newspapers.
        Under Khrushchev, this was already unthinkable.
        And nobody invited our press to the West either ... laughing
        1. Sergej1972
          Sergej1972 4 December 2020 05: 53
          +8
          Figures can be found in any university textbook on recent history, which can be freely downloaded on the Internet. Or on the websites of the respective communist parties or their successors. Trials in the Penkovsky case, in the case of the downed spy plane pilot Powers, in cases of currency crimes were widely covered in the press. The authority of the USSR in the world at the beginning of the 60s. was quite large. Although they quarreled with China and Albania. But in China and Albania during this period, such things were happening .... Stalin, if he were alive at that time, clearly would not approve of either the "Great Leap Forward" policy, nor the "cultural revolution" in the PRC. It was too much like the practical implementation of a number of Trotskyist slogans. We like to talk a lot about the fact that Mao was indignant at the criticism of Stalin from Khrushchev, but they forget that Maoism has a number of common features with Trotskyism. By the way, the leaders of Poland and Hungary, recognizing the right of the Soviet leadership to resolve personnel issues, criticized the form in which the displacement of Khrushchev was organized. To my surprise, this criticism was retained in reprints in Russian in the early 70s. collections of speeches by Gomulka and Kadar.
          1. Vladimir247
            Vladimir247 4 December 2020 16: 02
            +1
            There are numbers
            -----
            Well, give these numbers, what's the problem?
    3. Gips
      Gips 4 December 2020 05: 06
      +4
      You are simply not aware that the proletarian has no Fatherland, except for the socialist one. You describe the case when the communists (read proletarians) of all countries considered (not formally considered) the Soviet Union their Fatherland, but fought against capitalism at home, so to speak at the place of registration)))

      And in the subject to say that the national liberation struggle at that time was understood correctly by the communists: to liberate their country from capitalist oppression. This is again what you told us about.
      1. aybolyt678
        aybolyt678 4 December 2020 08: 23
        +1
        Quote: GIPS
        You are simply not aware that the proletarian has no Fatherland, except for the socialist one.

        Really? maybe this is also a property of the soul?
        1. Gips
          Gips 4 December 2020 08: 30
          +7
          Quote: aybolyt678
          Quote: GIPS
          You are simply not aware that the proletarian has no Fatherland, except for the socialist one.

          Really? maybe this is also a property of the soul?

          There is nowhere more serious. This is not a property of the soul)))), but a very material basis.
          Unfortunately, you don't even know what I'm talking about. Elementary lack of knowledge in this matter. On the contrary, those who today determine the economic agenda in the country, those who own the means of production and appropriate the results of labor by a million citizens are very well versed in the class essence of the state they have built. They are very clearly aware of the class instincts and material interests of their class. You are not.
          1. aybolyt678
            aybolyt678 4 December 2020 09: 24
            +2
            Quote: GIPS
            They are very clearly aware of the class instincts and material interests of their class. You are not.

            Immediately a question - if the proletarian becomes the party elite, is this a transition to another class ???
            1. Gips
              Gips 4 December 2020 09: 58
              +8
              Quote: aybolyt678
              Quote: GIPS
              They are very clearly aware of the class instincts and material interests of their class. You are not.

              Immediately a question - if the proletarian becomes the party elite, is this a transition to another class ???


              I do not know what concept you mean by the "party elite". As long as the STATE exists (this concept has a definition, get to know it) - there will be elites, party leaders and classes.
              "What are the classes?" - you please study for yourself, but it must be said that belonging to one class or another is determined by the place in the system of social production, in relation to the means of production, according to the role in the social organization of labor.
              If the party elite appropriates the results of labor, then this is not the proletariat)))) these are capitalists who appropriated the means of production on which hired workers work, whose results of labor are alienated.

              You must understand the difference between the dictatorship of the proletariat and the dictatorship of the bourgeoisie.

              And under socialism there is an elite that expresses the will of the ruling class of the proletariat. Under socialism, the state does not disappear (communism only assumes where the coercive apparatus and social classes disappear) and this state must be controlled.
              The elite of a particular state is the most powerful representative of the ruling class. Under capitalism, these are the bourgeois millionaires / billionaires, under feudalism, these are the largest feudal lords, under slavery, the richest slave owners. Under socialism, these are the leaders of the com. parties, workers and peasants who became the intelligentsia and found themselves at the helm of the state thanks to their social labor (successful).
              The elite rules the dictatorship in the interests of the ruling class and themselves as part of the class.

              It is important to know what is "Workers' democracy"
              1. aybolyt678
                aybolyt678 4 December 2020 10: 51
                +4
                Quote: GIPS
                "What are the classes?" - please study for yourself, but it must be said that belonging to a particular class is determined by the place in the system of social production,

                do you want the 19th century definition to be used in the 21st century? in an information war? wassat I often hear that the traitors are to blame for the collapse of the USSR, or maybe just the proletarians flowing from class to class begin to act in the interests of the class into which they flowed? that was the first question.
                The second question: - in conditions when the automation of production takes place, the proletarians get rid of the need to work for the capitalist, that is, they throw off the shackles .... Is the self-employed smile is the proletarian a representative of the oppressed classes?
                other questions for later ... laughing we'll see who will teach whom. By the way, the elite is not the top, the elite is a military man who covers the children in Beslan with his body, but a corrupt official is not richer. You have a mess in your head. What we began to call the "elite" is just a self-name rooted in the media
                1. Gips
                  Gips 4 December 2020 11: 22
                  +2
                  The trouble. As I say, there is no conceptual thinking at all. This is the elementary school level. I quit the dialogue with you.
                  1. aybolyt678
                    aybolyt678 4 December 2020 13: 13
                    +3
                    Quote: GIPS
                    This is the elementary school level.

                    how can a plutocrat be called an Elite? you are a victim of information war, substitution of concepts is one of its techniques
    4. Malyuta
      Malyuta 4 December 2020 05: 49
      +20
      Quote: Vladimir247
      no, Khrushchev clearly did not think of this himself. Someone pulled the thread.

      Khrushchev is a rare bastard, he himself was not originally from the Bolsheviks, but rubbed in, and by the way, he destroyed the proven party activists with particular fury during the repressions. Khrushchev is their very petty-bourgeois serf class that Lenin warned about. A stupid, but cunning little man, moreover, very vindictive.
      And of course, it was he who hit the foundations of the USSR with this damned 20th Congress.
      1. aybolyt678
        aybolyt678 4 December 2020 08: 28
        +7
        Quote: Malyuta
        And of course, it was he who hit the foundations of the USSR with this damned 20th Congress

        how a rare bastard smuggled a cult at the congress where the majority were front-line soldiers? I do not understand. How could people for whom Stalin was a symbol of Victory agree to this ?? why didn’t stand up to protect the monuments?
        1. Vladimir247
          Vladimir247 4 December 2020 16: 06
          +1
          And they didn’t agree. They were then handed out pieces of paper with the "decision of the congress." Khrushchev was not ... if he had said that from the podium, he could have gotten a bullet from the audience once or twice.
    5. parusnik
      parusnik 4 December 2020 08: 15
      +3
      And after this congress ... the number of European communist parties fell dozens of times ...
      ... Moreover, it began to split. On the warring factions ... Moreover, the USSR began to support left-wing nationalist movements. A simple example, in the Middle East, the "friends" of the Soviet Union Nasser, Assad Sr., Hussein, Gaddafi, slaughtered local communists at the root, in the truest sense of the word.
  4. Ross xnumx
    Ross xnumx 4 December 2020 04: 14
    +6
    Also in the USSR, there were excellent organizational and managerial technologies “under the cloth”. They made it possible to solve the problem of the growth of the bureaucracy, its sluggishness and low efficiency.

    In the USSR, they put “under the rug” any project that threatened the integrity and inviolability of the rotten top - the Central Committee of the CPSU, their special powers and privileges. It was the National Union of Artists that abolished all the services of the IVS and denigrated the activities of the country's leadership, which had won a complete victory over the ideology of capitalism. It was the desire of the party elite to continue their own “rolling cheese in butter” that brought the “bobber” HMS into power, who did not care about the further development of the USSR, or the fate of the country, or the development of the economy, experimenting with people like guinea pigs.
    Moscow no longer wanted to take risks, conflict and change something radically. The USSR did not lose because of the backwardness of the economy, lack of resources, technology or specialists. Not because of the flaws in the education system.

    First of all, Moscow understood that it would take a long time to build developed socialism. And neither ideology nor the Soviet people, brought up on socialist ideas and the principles of social equality, will allow building personal palaces, yachts, pitchforks on the coast of countries-probable enemies. This is how Moscow finished off the idea of ​​the victory of socialism in a single country, preferring to it the idea of ​​the personal welfare of a separate group of those close to the authorities.
    The key is in the gradual psychological degradation of the Soviet elite. It was our elite that refused to fight and to throw itself into the future. It turned out to be easier for her to negotiate with the West and enjoy the world.

    Yes, this is not the elite, but the most common "parasites of society" who want to live beyond their means. They did not come to an agreement with the West, but simply betrayed the deeds of their fathers: Yegor Timurovich is the clearest example of this betrayal.
    The whole country relaxed after the elite.

    Relaxed? Or maybe she was plunged into national betrayal - a cruel deception of the "titular nation"? You would remember how these small, mincing steps of destruction of the former state began, which had leverage on the public in the form of laws on speculation, sodomy, currency trading, theft of state property ... Who in the country was obliged to have: “a cold head , warm heart and clean hands ”and how did they move away from performing their direct duties, in the name of what and for what purpose? Why did these bodies allow the fuels and lubricants and its environment to relax, and from which stubs was the “irreplaceable” EBN removed?
    The people were overnight plunged into a society of lawlessness, where the "brush" and pseudo-state affiliation ruled.
    1. Ross xnumx
      Ross xnumx 4 December 2020 12: 05
      +4
      Also in the USSR, there were excellent organizational and managerial technologies “under the cloth”. They made it possible to solve the problem of the growth of the bureaucracy, its sluggishness and low efficiency.

      For a long time I remembered the name of a man who wanted to "save the USSR." But to save not by importing chicken legs, but by business development. Look who has not seen. It is interesting:
      [media = https: //www.youtube.com/watch? v = RSH0xn2p6vY]
      At the same time, think about why the direct link does not work.
  5. Gips
    Gips 4 December 2020 04: 30
    +3
    A good start. But idealism ruined the article.
    1. Aerodrome
      Aerodrome 4 December 2020 04: 38
      +1
      Quote: GIPS
      A good start. But idealism ruined the article.

      article ... idealism destroys countries.
      1. Ross xnumx
        Ross xnumx 4 December 2020 12: 22
        +2
        Quote: GIPS
        But idealism ruined the article.

        Idealism is not a bad trend in philosophy. It is dangerous in assessing a potential adversary or an event leading to disaster, bringing to attention the most favorable outcome possible. In life, everything is meaner, meaner, deceitful, cynical due to the physical appearance and psychological treatment of a person. Thirst, hunger, low (high) ambient temperatures, lack of rest and sleep can turn even an ideal pacifist into an evil aggressor. Sometimes a simple desire to parasitize on the work of others leads to this.
        Quote: Aerodrome
        idealism destroys countries.

        Countries are destroyed not by idealism, but by human ignorance. The obligation of the law for everyone, the absence of exceptions and privileges, is the backbone, the foundation for building a successful state. The person is weak, lazy and stupid. Learn (provide education and professional knowledge); prove that "who does not work, he does not eat"; to make him believe not only in his own strength (mind), but also in the strength of the team, is difficult, difficult, but possible.
    2. Alexander Greene
      Alexander Greene 4 December 2020 17: 11
      -1
      Quote: GIPS
      A good start. But idealism ruined the article.

      It was not idealism that ruined the article, but the author's absence of a class approach ..
  6. zontov79
    zontov79 4 December 2020 04: 43
    0
    I subscribe to every word !!
  7. Metallurgist
    Metallurgist 4 December 2020 04: 58
    -2
    “Agriculture ensured the food security of the country” - it is enough to read this phrase and then recall the totally empty shelves of the grocery stores. 20 million tons of grain were purchased each year from the United States and Canada. Sausage that cats did not eat due to lack of meat. Sour Milk in triangular package. Coupons for meat, butter, sugar and cereals, etc.
    The author is apparently young and did not see all this
    1. Vladimir247
      Vladimir247 4 December 2020 05: 22
      +6
      The sausage that the cats didn't eat ...
      -------
      Why lie like that? According to Soviet guests, there is no more delicious sausage in the world now. I ate all sorts of things, in dozens of Western countries .... they do rare shit now.
      If you are not able to distinguish the natural taste of meat from flavorings, then cats will feel it. And they don't eat today's sausage at all. And they eat only their own canned food, because there, it is cat flavoring additives. And supplements for humans, cats needlessly.
      1. Moskovit
        Moskovit 4 December 2020 09: 31
        +2
        There is no need to repeat this nonsense about the most delicious sausage in the world. We had only one of her cooked, which was given on coupons. From which
        the water oozed out, and in other ways they took out uncooked smoked, which they ate on great holidays. And there was nothing super tasty there.
        If you have been to dozens of European countries, you would not say this nonsense. There, this tradition is hundreds of years old and what kind of sausage is not there.
        We have now also learned how to do it. And there are plenty to choose from.
        My aunt worked in a sausage shop during the Soviet era, and she said, under no circumstances should you eat sausage from our shop. You'd better not know what it is made of.
        1. Vladimir247
          Vladimir247 4 December 2020 13: 49
          +3
          Your aunt ... yeah ... wassat ... don't tell me about the taste, I have my own, not your aunt's. I have been to a meat processing plant in Canada, I have a friend, a refrigerator, and I myself read about the composition of minced meat, in which meat is less than 30 percent. The rest is bone meal and other delights ... laughing
          You read the Soviet guest on sausages. And immediately all questions will disappear.
          If minced meat contains one third, how much is sausage? Tell us how delicious it is after that ...))
          By the way, there is no need to groan about "uncooked smoked on great holidays." In any kooptorg sausages were, even ... eat. Price, a ruble and a half more expensive. This is in the Urals ... in small towns.
          1. Moskovit
            Moskovit 4 December 2020 16: 52
            -1
            Why should I read guests if I ate this sausage. Do you know how much sausage cost in cooperative stores? 7-10 rubles. And according to coupons in the store 2.2. There is a difference? So is the oil. Could a simple Soviet citizen afford himself a lot, not a thief? I understand that in times of youth, many things seem to be different and nostalgia deprives you of objectivity. The current wealth of choice of products is the main argument against the restoration of the USSR)), no matter how you come up with something about guests
            1. Vladimir247
              Vladimir247 4 December 2020 17: 39
              +1
              The co-shop did not sell boiled sausages ... laughing The devil, you know, in the little things ... I remember half-smoked, the price is about 3-70, or closer to 4 em.
              The wealth of choice, nobody needs it for free. A person does not have three stomachs. And 50 varieties of sausage is crazy. Especially against the background of retirement age, and other delights.
              If for some especially gifted, 50 varieties of sausage is an argument, for the majority it is nonsense. wassat
              1. Vadim237
                Vadim237 5 December 2020 23: 59
                +2
                All different who like something and buys the appropriate grade, and an attempt to drive everyone under one size fits all in the form of one sausage or one type of clothing shoes, etc. - this is really nonsense.
                1. Vladimir247
                  Vladimir247 7 December 2020 04: 37
                  0
                  And where is "one kind"? What nonsense? Doctor's, dietary, diabetic ... it's only boiled. 2-3 varieties of semi-smoked. This is in the poorest range. There were several types of boots in the general store. What, the whole team from the censor threw you here? To gain ... laughing
      2. Vadim237
        Vadim237 5 December 2020 23: 54
        0
        Chemistry began with sausage back in the 68th - and that real GOST 37th sausage was a delicacy, since it required many components for cooking.
    2. Gips
      Gips 4 December 2020 05: 30
      -1
      Well, you don't know everything. The USSR has always bought wheat abroad. The only point is which variety. The USSR grew hard varieties and sold the surplus, but the Soviet Union bought fodder. Do you understand the difference between food wheat of 1,2,3, 4,5,6, XNUMX classes of group A, which was grown in excess by the Soviet Union and wheat of group B of XNUMX, XNUMX, XNUMX classes, which it was easier for the USSR to buy than to occupy the sown fields?

      For example, in the Russian Empire it was exactly the opposite, as it is now in the Russian Federation. There is an acute shortage of durum wheat and such wheat is purchased abroad. Bread made from it is very expensive and rarely sold anywhere. We see this wheat mainly in the form of macaroons in stores. Group B varieties are abundantly grown and sold. And our bread is made from low-grade wheat.
      1. Moskovit
        Moskovit 4 December 2020 09: 39
        +3
        Well yes. It is easier to buy wheat for foreign currency than to grow it. Don't be silly. The USSR could not provide itself with grain and consistently increased purchases. I exported 1 million tons per year, and purchased 25-30 million. In 1985, this is generally 47 million tons. This is how "efficient" agriculture was.
        1. Vladimir247
          Vladimir247 4 December 2020 13: 55
          0
          The USSR bought feed grain for meat production. We ate bread from our own grain, no need to lie.
          In this case, the Canadians traded in raw materials, and we processed them into meat.
    3. Aviator_
      Aviator_ 4 December 2020 07: 34
      +2
      The author is apparently young and did not see all this

      And you saw only Gorbachev's rule, the end of the 80s, judging by this phrase.
    4. parusnik
      parusnik 4 December 2020 08: 19
      +4
      Sausage that cats did not eat
      My dog ​​doesn't eat today's dog, sniffs, snorts and doesn't eat .. smile
    5. Bolt cutter
      Bolt cutter 4 December 2020 11: 35
      +3
      Sour Milk in triangular bagsx
      Whether the case is now-2 weeks open (!) Does not deteriorate.
      Sausage that cats did not eat
      In the year 93, we bought a box of Dutch sausage from the warehouse guards repeat They ate delicious. They gave it to stray dogs, smelled it and dispersed ... What kind of chemistry their sensitive homeless noses smelled, science does not know.
    6. Ross xnumx
      Ross xnumx 4 December 2020 12: 33
      +3
      Quote: Metallurgist
      Sausage that cats did not eat due to lack of meat.

      The sausage that "cats did not eat" appeared in the late 80s - early 90s. All sausages produced in the USSR in accordance with GOST were in great demand. And selling milk in bags is not the best idea (package quality). And the fact that it turned sour indicated that it was from under a cow, and not from under a palm tree, or from a chemical plant.
      Coupons, you say? This is when after 1945 or with the HMS? There are different reasons. Karaulov has a program on how products were taken to the landfill in order to create a deficit ... I found only Nevzorov:
    7. depressant
      depressant 4 December 2020 19: 38
      0
      Colleague Metallurgist, you have recently been on the site, and we have been discussing the topic raised by the respected Author for a long time. Therefore, some facts are not known to you.
      For example, about Canadian wheat.
      The fact is that such wheat as in Canada does not grow here. And the basis of nutrition of the Caucasian and Central Asian peoples is wheat cakes. In the Caucasus, as you know, such a flatbread is called lavash. I lived in the Caucasus until 92, and was always amazed at why white bread in Moscow is disgusting, and in the Caucasian regions lavash, white loaves and "bricks" are so tasty that once you start eating them, it is impossible to come off. And only after the 92nd I found out that all this culinary beauty was made from flour obtained by grinding Canadian wheat, but there is no such flour of its own and, by the way, it can hardly be even now. Either our climate is unsuitable, or the soil. That is why high-grade Canadian wheat was specially purchased for baking lavash and Asian flatbread. The peoples of the Caucasus and Central Asia are capricious, it was necessary to humor them with whatever possible, so that they would not rush from the Union ahead of schedule, so they would wait until the Russians from the Central regions of Russia were brought to the required level of despair by what you described in your comment and indifference to what is happening around and in the country as a whole - the breakdown of the Union had to go through jewelry ...
      Well, maybe that flour was also used for pastry in some places. For the same reason, Egyptian or Canadian wheat is purchased now - for baking expensive varieties of white bread already over 300 rubles per kg. At least in my suburbs. Think about who can access it.
      1. Vadim237
        Vadim237 6 December 2020 00: 03
        +2
        The purchase of 46 million tons of grain per year for the country is an indicator of a food catastrophe and it does not matter what these grain went to.
  8. Lech from Android.
    Lech from Android. 4 December 2020 05: 12
    +3
    If only, if only ... What is there to guess, it is our own fault that the decay of the state began from above, amazingly all the time they talked about the decaying west, but they themselves did not notice the abscess in themselves, as a result, now we groan and groan. smileThe past cannot be returned, we must live now and not repeat the mistakes of our ancestors to the delight of all enemies.
  9. know
    know 4 December 2020 05: 16
    +4
    And China (without Russian spiritual and intellectual potential) cannot become a world leader. (C)
    What a news. Presumably, a giant leap in the USSR, is it all thanks to the spirituality of the Russians?
    It looks like the rockets were well lit before launch. And they built temples for milliards.
    And it seemed to me that in the USSR there were not only Russians, but in general more was paid to education and science.
    1. depressant
      depressant 6 December 2020 11: 38
      +1
      Well, let's continue with grain purchases. It is known that, unlike the USA and Canada, Russia, and earlier the USSR, is a territory unfavorable for agriculture. We have a very long and cold winter, a significant part of the territory of today's Russia is permafrost.
      During the Second World War, the lands on which the bulk of grain was produced were occupied, during the war, grain reserves were consumed, a lot of the population capable of producing food on the liberated lands died, agricultural machinery perished, and by 1947 a situation of humanitarian disaster developed. And the fact that such a catastrophe would happen, it became clear already in 1945, and even Truman, who hates the USSR, was then forced to give our country a loan of $ 1 billion for the purchase of grain, which is 10 times less than what Roosevelt promised. And if Truman refused, no one would understand him - neither his own population, nor the world community. But the point is not even the humanitarian considerations of the ordinary population of the West, but the political considerations of its leaders. The USSR needed to be made dependent on Western grain supplies. In fact, in exchange for oil.
      By 1947, the USSR had managed to buy grain for only a quarter of a billion dollars when the United States suspended the loan agreement. This happened because the USSR began to share grain with "friends" who surrounded our country with a ring of security - no one canceled the threat of a new war! After all, the West did not hide its expansionist sentiments towards the USSR even then, in fact, immediately after the end of the Second World War. Like, we lost the first half, but the second is behind us. Therefore, the Soviet Union then had to feed already those "friends" from Latin America and Asia, who made it possible to build military bases on their territory. We fed them grain, which we bought from the sale of oil. And then they began to feed the Africans who had declared their agreement with our ideology.
      So what became the point of no return? Why, before the war, we could feed ourselves with grain, and after - no longer?

      1. Before the start of the Great Patriotic War, "friends", as well as ideological allies, such as those who needed our humanitarian supplies, did not exist, think about it! Because the very grain and other foodstuffs to the beginning of the Second World War - enough. But friends and allies have arisen!

      2. Khrushchev's decision to destroy individual farms. Under Stalin, there were 3,5 million individual farms, that is, farms. There was a very convenient centralized system of cooperation - they came to the farmers and bought some of the products at a good price, selling them in cooperative stores, or supplying the state. The other part was sold by the farmer at the collective farm market. Farmers, in our opinion - individual farmers, produced a significant part of the country's agricultural products.
      Destroyed!

      3. Transition from payment for a workday in kind to payment in cash. The same throughout the country. The collective farmer has ceased to strain! What for? Came, noted that you are at work, and then - sit back! The mass collective farmer began to drink too much. Here it is just appropriate to recall the painting of the great Helium Korzhev - "Ivan, get up!" Agricultural production began to plummet. The undertaken development of the virgin lands of Kazakhstan did not help either - they were simply waterless.
      Has died out!

      4. Destruction of local industry by transferring it to federal ownership. The local deducted taxes to the local treasury, and local authorities were extremely interested in supporting and developing local production, including agriculture. Now the interest is gone.
      They killed!

      And so I reflect on the understanding of what is happening with us now.
      What made Khrushchev take such wild domestic political steps? His stupidity, ambition or something else? Perhaps, the separatism of the Union republics, which had already been clearly overlooked then? After all, the same Chechnya rebelled in 42. Perhaps it seemed to Khrushchev that by taking such actions, he was holding the country together. Practice has shown - no!

      And now, many years after Khrushchev's rash actions, I draw the conclusion: if you, my dear man, declared yourself the leader of the state, calculate all the consequences of your actions much forward, taking into account the current realities and look for solutions in favor of your country. This, of course, if it is your own for you.
  10. Sergej1972
    Sergej1972 4 December 2020 05: 23
    +3
    The author himself does not notice that his arguments about the redundancy of the production of traditional conventional weapons in many ways testify to the partial correctness of Khrushchev, who he did not like, who focused on the development of the Strategic Missile Forces, the nuclear submarine fleet and the country's air defense forces and reduced the number of general-purpose forces. By the way, the campuses also appeared during the times of Khrushchev. From the author's reasoning, it can be concluded that even now the creation and production of ICBMs ("Sarmatov", "Yarsov"), hypersonic missiles, the latest missile defense and air defense systems, high-precision weapons is a much higher priority compared to the programs for the creation of the Armata tank , Su-57 fighter, new self-propelled guns, armored personnel carriers, infantry fighting vehicles. In the general-purpose forces, based on the fact that the priority is for strategic nuclear forces and missile defense, it is necessary first of all to go along the path of improving ammunition, missile-cannon and small arms platforms - tanks, armored personnel carriers, infantry fighting vehicles, etc. Well, pay attention to intelligence, special forces and special operations forces. We will never have money for everything at once, we will have to, whether we like it or not, to prioritize, including in the area of ​​financing defense programs. And we must understand that our society is heterogeneous. Whether you like it or not, you need to come to a reasonable compromise between those who are ready to make maximum sacrifices for the development of the Armed Forces, and those who prioritize the development of social programs, small and medium-sized businesses, medicine, education, etc. Nobody's wishes will ever be XNUMX% ralized.
    1. Kwas
      Kwas 4 December 2020 20: 57
      +3
      Well, let's put it this way: Khrushch focused on excessive preparation for a global war (which he almost unleashed), cutting down everything that was needed to participate (not always directly) in local conflicts. In which we gradually began to lose.
  11. Sergej1972
    Sergej1972 4 December 2020 05: 35
    +3
    Small remark. The term "titular peoples" in the USSR was used unofficially and never in relation to the entire USSR. Only in relation to the union and autonomous republics, autonomous regions and autonomous okrugs. Peoples, after which this or that unit is named. In the RSFSR, Russians, in the Ukrainian SSR, Ukrainians, in the Tatar ASSR, Tatars, in the Chukotka Autonomous District of the Chukchi, etc. In autonomous entities, titular peoples often constituted a minority of the population. In Dagestan, sometimes all the peoples of the republic were considered the title, and sometimes only Avars, Dargins, Lezgins and Kumyks. In Karachay-Cherkessia, the Abazins were sometimes referred to as title ones. In Bashkiria, the Bashkirs were considered the titular people, but it was always emphasized that there were more Russians and Tatars in the republic.
  12. Gips
    Gips 4 December 2020 06: 22
    +5
    [/ Quote]
    > I am very sorry, but where does the private property of the joint venture?
    The article is not about that. Decomposition of the leadership, formalism, opportunism, philistinism are some of the main reasons, but the main reason is the betrayal of the party elite and gebnya.
    But both Lenin and Stalin clearly pointed out that it was necessary to cleanse the party of fellow travelers and about the incessant class struggle even with the victory of socialism!

    ____
    In fact, the article is about this, the author himself simply did not understand this.

    Well, tell me why you highlight the word "betrayal"? And what is the betrayal of socialism with the subsequent restoration of capitalism? After you answer the first two questions, ask yourself an extreme question: what does private ownership of the means of production have to do with it?

    By the way, Lenin warned that behind all socio-political phenomena / events it is necessary to guess the class interest of certain groups, parties, associations and individuals. And the party card in your pocket is not important. It is material interests that are important.
  13. nikvic46
    nikvic46 4 December 2020 07: 27
    0
    About the deceased, either good or nothing. This shows the impotence of society. Representatives of the society have been appointed. They rule. We just want to preserve what we inherited from the social heritage of the USSR. And something to restore. This is free housing, retirement age, free education and of course medicine. The society is fragmented. And on this everyone wants to catch a goldfish, that is, power.
  14. Van 16
    Van 16 4 December 2020 07: 49
    +5
    And I am simple, without philosophies. In my humble opinion, Brezhnev was very good, the country needed a break after Khrushchev's extravagances. And it was a good time. Another thing is that he needed to leave on time, he obviously sat out and the respite dragged on. But this, apparently, is the trouble of many leaders.
    1. Kwas
      Kwas 4 December 2020 21: 05
      0
      Brezhnev is a compromise. Compromise with those who destroyed the country. As a result, he only delayed this process. Putin acted in a similar way, but the time is different, let's see what happens next.
      The logical step should have been the trial of Khrushchev and his accomplices. Let's see if the trial will take place over the "heroes of perestroika", even if they are dead. It is very necessary to determine the further path.
  15. Woodman
    Woodman 4 December 2020 08: 00
    0
    Stalin created a country-corporation, a country-order, a single monolith, ready for great achievements and victories
    Once he was fond of the works of Kalashnikov. Which is Maxim. Until he began to write nonsense. So this phrase directly reminded of his first books. Actually, only the first books are worth reading ...
    1. kalibr
      kalibr 4 December 2020 11: 03
      0
      Quote: Lesovik
      Stalin created a country-corporation, a country-order, a single monolith, ready for great achievements and victories

      And then Khrushchev changed everything in it in just THREE years. What kind of monolith is this shitty?
      1. Woodman
        Woodman 4 December 2020 11: 39
        +2
        Quote: kalibr
        What kind of monolith is this shitty?

        First, "monolith" is just an expression of the author.
        Secondly, the expression "shitty" applied to my country, to any historical period in its history, I consider unacceptable. And you, as the author of articles and textbooks on PR, should understand why.
        Thirdly, my comment only indicates what this article reminded me of. There is no reasoning about the rights or wrongs of the author of the article.
        1. kalibr
          kalibr 4 December 2020 14: 03
          +1
          Quote: Lesovik
          First, "monolith" is just an expression of the author.
          Secondly, the expression "shitty" applied to my country, to any historical period in its history, I consider unacceptable. And you, as the author of articles and textbooks on PR, should understand why.

          You are illogical. The author can use the word monolith, but to me (the author's term) the adjective that best describes it ... is it impossible? It does not apply to the country in any way, because according to your own words, it is “just an expression of the author”. So I just applied my expression to his expression, but not to the country. Easily explained?
          1. Woodman
            Woodman 4 December 2020 14: 09
            +2
            Quote: kalibr
            The author can use the word monolith, but to me (the author's term) the adjective that best characterizes it ... is it impossible?

            I just expressed my position regarding your "adjective".

            Quote: kalibr
            Easily explained?

            And these people taught the youth ...
            1. kalibr
              kalibr 4 December 2020 15: 12
              0
              Your position is the position of a person who has bad logic. And as for "taught" ... Yes, imagine, taught, and people who were all right with logic, but taught well, most of them really liked it. It's just that not everyone understands what and how they taught, that's what. Because, say, a blind person cannot appreciate a picture, and a deaf person is a bad critic of music.
              1. Woodman
                Woodman 4 December 2020 15: 21
                0
                Quote: kalibr
                Your position is the position of a person who has bad logic.

                That's a moot point. If you do not understand what it is about, it only means that you do not understand something. And instead of dealing with your misunderstandings, you choose the easiest way - to blame your opponent for anything. So it's not my problem with logic, but you have problems with your "infallibility".
                Quote: kalibr
                taught well, most of them really liked it.

                Sometimes from the side it is more visible ...
                Quote: kalibr
                Because, say, a blind person cannot appreciate a picture, and a deaf person is a bad critic of music.

                You could not understand my logic. And I don’t presume to judge you “blind” or “deaf”.
                1. kalibr
                  kalibr 4 December 2020 15: 27
                  0
                  Quote: Lesovik
                  Sometimes from the side it is more visible ...

                  Oh yeah! I will not argue. Only this will happen "sometimes" when you become the editor of the magazine "Voprosy istorii", publishing house Enlightenment, Eksmo, AST, Polygon, VO ...
                  1. Woodman
                    Woodman 4 December 2020 15: 34
                    +1
                    Quote: kalibr
                    That's when you become a magazine editor

                    Attempting to "crush with authority" in most cases means the absence of reasonable arguments.
                    You try to achieve something in the real, industrial and technological sector - then, maybe, your authority will somehow affect me.
                    1. kalibr
                      kalibr 4 December 2020 15: 38
                      +1
                      You, I live, want to prove something to me, right? Do not! Since 2014, everything here is separate to me ... they prove everything to no avail. You do not understand that only clicks are needed from you. And your opinion is not needed by anyone, and me in the first place. By the way, it was in the real sector, it was a long time ago, and it turned out to be not profitable. It is profitable to write here and get clicks from people like you. Explained easily?
                      1. Woodman
                        Woodman 4 December 2020 15: 49
                        +2
                        Quote: kalibr
                        Since 2014, everything here is separate to me ... they prove everything to no avail.

                        A phrase worth remembering. Characterizes you perfectly.
                        Quote: kalibr
                        You do not understand that only clicks are needed from you here

                        I understand perfectly. As the people say - "married not for the first year" ...
                        Quote: kalibr
                        And your opinion is not needed by anyone, and me in the first place.

                        So why did you get involved in a dialogue if you don't need it?
                        Quote: kalibr
                        it was a long time ago, and it turned out to be not profitable.

                        Not profitable. I agree. But someone has to ...
                        Quote: kalibr
                        It is profitable to write here and get clicks from people like you. Explained easily?

                        You are wrong if you think this is news to me. Popular wisdom has long been known: tryndet is not to roll bags ...
                      2. kalibr
                        kalibr 4 December 2020 16: 00
                        0
                        Quote: Lesovik
                        So why did you get involved in a dialogue if you don't need it?

                        Again, don't you finish? The more clicks and comments, the more useful the site is. This increases its investment attractiveness! Do you know that ads are sold per click? More clicks, more ads. So ... you just have to answer. Moreover, it is especially pleasant to answer people who are greedy for the factory. You are their word, they are 10. Great. And what would have the last word for them. Yes, let it remain, as I get tired of trying with him, so it will remain with him right there.
                      3. Woodman
                        Woodman 4 December 2020 16: 11
                        +2
                        Quote: kalibr
                        Do you not finish it again? The more clicks and comments, the more useful the site is. This increases its investment attractiveness!

                        Are you also one of those people who "don't smell like money"?
                        Quote: kalibr
                        Yes, let it remain, as I get tired of trying with him,

                        That is why no one gives a penny to your authority here ...

                        .
                        Quote: kalibr
                        Yes, let it remain, as I get tired of trying with him,

                        Well then, you can take a break for now, I will only show up on Monday now - so do not waste your eloquence.
                      4. kalibr
                        kalibr 4 December 2020 16: 47
                        0
                        Quote: Lesovik
                        I will appear now only on Monday

                        Sorry. You and I have done a good job today. We could continue.
                      5. kalibr
                        kalibr 4 December 2020 16: 48
                        0
                        Quote: Lesovik
                        That is why no one gives a penny to your authority here ...

                        He doesn't bet, but he pays, which is the most important thing. True, now you and I have worked more for my colleague, but we are all one team, so I don't mind.
                2. Vladimir247
                  Vladimir247 4 December 2020 17: 45
                  0
                  Is getting clicks profitable? And what is the benefit, do not explain?
                3. kalibr
                  kalibr 4 December 2020 18: 32
                  0
                  Well, Vladimir, it's somehow even dumb to explain this to an adult. Any information portal lives on advertising. Many who have a bad relationship with her sell comments for money! On VO - this is not. And many sites buy clicks (2 rubles) from special firms, which make them to them, as well as comments, so long as they have advertised. VO, like all other sites, gets its money from advertising. Therefore, everyone who actively participates in the discussion and makes clicks helps the site live. He has something to sell! If there is no advertising, there will be no website, what did you think?
            2. Kwas
              Kwas 4 December 2020 21: 12
              +3
              If at the end of arguments, cheeks begin to puff up - we are dealing with a shitty teacher. Such is the omen of the students.
              1. kalibr
                kalibr 4 December 2020 21: 18
                +2
                Quote: Kwas
                If at the end of arguments, cheeks begin to puff up - we are dealing with a shitty teacher. Such is the omen of the students.

                You have correctly noticed this. Therefore, if you do not know something, then you say so - I do not know. But you add that if you're interested, I'll take a look ...
        2. kalibr
          kalibr 4 December 2020 15: 29
          0
          Quote: Lesovik
          You could not understand my logic.

          It is impossible to realize what is not!
          1. Woodman
            Woodman 4 December 2020 15: 34
            +1
            Bravo, professor!
            Especially if you have nothing to be aware of ...
  • parusnik
    parusnik 4 December 2020 08: 01
    +2
    [B]
    They made it possible to solve the problem of the growth of bureaucracy, its sluggishness and low efficiency [
    I don’t know what the growth of the bureaucracy in Soviet times, perhaps I’m mistaken, but in our county town, the city committee and the district committee of the CPSU were located in the same building, the city committee, the district committee of the Komsomol were located in the same building, and in the same building there were mountains and district executive committees, this was when there was industry in the city, in the region there were collective farms, state farms, many of them are millionaires, there were no unprofitable farms. And there were no computers. Now, there are not enough premises for the city and district administration, despite the fact that there are more of them and are scattered throughout the city. And no industry, collective farms and state farms have disappeared and nothing like this has been created in their place, there are farms, but not of the same scale, a lot of land in private hands, little sense for resale. Administrations are computerized.
  • Doccor18
    Doccor18 4 December 2020 08: 19
    +2
    If Stalin were in the place of Andropov or Gorbachev, he would have received hundreds of opportunities to bring the USSR to a new level of development, ahead of the West by decades.

    What a pity, sometimes, that people do not live for 120 years ...
    Simple economy and optimization of weapons, money for breakthrough projects, not thousands of new tanks.

    And also for books, clothes, dishes and other elementary things, which were always in short supply ...
    And China (without Russian spiritual and intellectual potential) cannot become a world leader.

    Chinese schoolchildren occupy a confident first place in the ranking of the world physics and mathematics Olympiads. They are doing very well with intelligence.
    And in the spiritual realm, the Chinese are ahead of the rest. No state has such an ancient spiritual and historical heritage.
    1. Vladimir247
      Vladimir247 4 December 2020 14: 14
      -2
      18
      ... on books ...
      ----------
      Where did you get this from? Almost every Soviet family had a bookcase full of books. Books were distributed by subscription, they hunted for books ... well, it's understandable ... laughing ... you lived in the USSR, and you know everything.
      1. kalibr
        kalibr 4 December 2020 15: 14
        +1
        Quote: Vladimir247
        they hunted for books.

        As well as for many ...
        1. Vladimir247
          Vladimir247 4 December 2020 17: 49
          +1
          The taste and color ... laughing
          But why there was no need to hunt, it was much more than now. In particular, no one stole the life time, as now. negative
          1. kalibr
            kalibr 4 December 2020 18: 34
            0
            Quote: Vladimir247
            In particular, no one stole the life time, like now

            It was stolen from me all the time ...
            1. Vladimir247
              Vladimir247 4 December 2020 18: 55
              -1
              And now they are stealing from me. Here 5 years have been stolen. Retire now at 65. And what was stolen from you in the USSR, tell us, share with the people. winked
              1. kalibr
                kalibr 4 December 2020 18: 56
                +1
                There will be an article about this about school years - there will be details!
  • Gips
    Gips 4 December 2020 08: 47
    +5
    Quote: aybolyt678
    Quote: GIPS
    The disaster is the private property of the joint venture.

    private property or public, what's the difference? introduce a progressive tax - here is the mechanism for the fair distribution of the product! but private ownership of the subsoil! yes! catastrophe



    The difference is fundamental. Here is the same situation as in your other comment, you do not understand what it is about.
    And by the way, minerals by themselves do not create profit. We need the means of production (even for mining, for transportation, storage, not to mention the processing and production of goods). Whose means of production - that and "subsoil"))) You can legally issue whatever you like, even though supposedly state "subsoil". Who exploits and profits, alienates and appropriates added value?

    Progressive tax is an illusion of social justice. And its introduction will give nothing to the hired worker. Only the socialization of the means of production and the corresponding distribution of goods, which means a fundamental change.
  • silberwolf88
    silberwolf88 4 December 2020 09: 13
    +1
    in general (there are simplifications and distortions in the article) strategically the USSR as a huge and powerful development project began to collapse with the arrival of Khrushchev ... this Trotskyist infection laid the charge in the form of isolation of the party elites and the authorities, which led to their isolation and complete decomposition ... to personal enrichment ...
  • otto9966
    otto9966 4 December 2020 09: 13
    +4
    "Stop feeding Africa and Asia" ... I've already heard it somewhere ... Only there, instead of Africa, it was about the Caucasus ... In general, the article is empty and unconstructive. How can modern realities measure the past? Scientific progress? Are you respected ready to sacrifice yourself and your loved ones, like Soviet people? They achieved everything, because they went forward without sparing themselves, believing that they were making a bright future, and we all think about our belly. How sweet to eat and sleep. We all wanted to spit on our neighbors - we won't help each other on the street, and you mean such heights .... "Wars are won not on the battlefields, but at school desks." Bismarck. And what is the state of our schools ...? We raise fools and moral monsters. Children grow up like in the jungle, where every man for himself ... That's where to start. Not from us, but from the children. We won't be able to, but our children have a chance. If we change the system.
    1. Moskovit
      Moskovit 4 December 2020 09: 55
      +2
      Why sacrifice yourself? For what?? Why arrange a race for some chimeras and ghosts of the past. To be feared all over the world again? Maybe it's better to put things in order in your country first.
      1. TAMBU
        TAMBU 4 December 2020 10: 31
        +2
        will you sacrifice yourself to restore order in the country?
        1. Moskovit
          Moskovit 4 December 2020 11: 19
          +3
          Do you need to sacrifice? I just do not urge to tear the navel for some reason. Why in other countries it is possible to restore order consistently and calmly. Even here, a lot has changed for the better without sacrifice.
          1. TAMBU
            TAMBU 4 December 2020 12: 48
            +2
            It was a simple question ...
          2. Vladimir247
            Vladimir247 4 December 2020 14: 19
            0
            And what has changed for the better? Was the retirement age raised? Yes, it's just some kind of happiness ... laughing
            1. kalibr
              kalibr 4 December 2020 15: 18
              +4
              Quote: Vladimir247
              And what has changed for the better?

              In my city, in the Metro store, they now bake croissants no worse than they ate in Paris in the Cafe Paul. And you can go and compare ... And the jamon from Spain ... that is, exactly from Spain. And you don't have to go to Normandy for oysters. Look - they are fresh in the sea water in the aquarium ..
              1. Vladimir247
                Vladimir247 4 December 2020 17: 52
                0
                Only a pensioner has to wait another 5 years until retirement ... laughing
                About jamon smiled ... and you were not born with a golden mobile in your teeth? wassat
                1. kalibr
                  kalibr 4 December 2020 18: 25
                  +2
                  No, of course, everything that I wanted to achieve with work and brains. Although, be smarter, or whoever suggested, would have achieved more.
                  1. Vladimir247
                    Vladimir247 4 December 2020 19: 01
                    0
                    Yes, I personally do not interest you at all. I somehow about society ... wassat
                    1. kalibr
                      kalibr 4 December 2020 21: 20
                      +1
                      Quote: Vladimir247
                      I somehow about society ...

                      And the society it just consists of people. One drop of water can tell that there is an ocean somewhere!
                      1. Vladimir247
                        Vladimir247 4 December 2020 21: 26
                        -2
                        What, the whole society, like you ?! Jamon lovers? Not ... well, finally ... laughing
      2. otto9966
        otto9966 4 December 2020 17: 48
        +2
        The author, however, is aiming at ecumenical projects ... So that by all means, no worse and no less than the Soviet scale of the task ... Such tasks with our people can no longer be done. We are with you, we value comfort too much ... We are earthworms in comparison with the Soviet people ...
    2. Vladimir247
      Vladimir247 4 December 2020 18: 57
      -2
      9966
      ----
      So it is necessary to change. How to get together. Otherwise, you can sit out, until ...
  • Gips
    Gips 4 December 2020 09: 38
    +2
    Quote: nikvic46
    About the deceased, either good or nothing. This shows the impotence of society. Representatives of the society have been appointed. They rule. We just want to preserve what we inherited from the social heritage of the USSR. And something to restore. This is free housing, retirement age, free education and of course medicine. The society is fragmented. And on this everyone wants to catch a goldfish, that is, power.


    The issue of power is a class issue. There can be only one of two classes in power.
    It is not constitutions that determine social life, but the content of the class struggle and real power in the hands of the ruling class, which, in turn, is only reflected in the norms of law.

    Power - in a general sense, the ability and ability to exercise one's will, to exert a decisive influence on the activities, behavior of people with the help of any means - authority, law, violence (economic, political, state, family, etc.).

    Power is necessary primarily for the organization of social economic production, which is unthinkable without the subordination of all participants to a single will, as well as for the regulation of other relationships between people associated with life in society.

    Political power is the real ability of a given class to carry out its will in politics and legal norms (laws, constitutions), which are only a REFLECTION of the actual political power of the ruling class - in other words, the ruling class dictates its will to the entire society through certain laws; The main functions of political power are subordination (including the suppression of resistance from other classes), the organization of society, its management in accordance with the economic, political and spiritual interests of this class.

    And the source of power is ownership of fixed assets... Whoever owns them, the social class and the real power. And how to determine which class owns the main means of production? It's very simple: into whose pocket the surplus value created by the labor of workers on these PCOs goes, that class actually owns the means of production and therefore owns power.

    And what are the officials? And they only express the will of this class, protecting its economic interests.

    The elite of a state is the most powerful representative of the ruling class. Under capitalism they are the bourgeois billionaires, under feudalism they are the largest feudal lords, under slavery they are the richest slave owners. Under socialism, these are the leaders of the com. parties, workers and peasants, who became the intelligentsia and who, through their labor, for the good of society, rose to the top of the government.

    The interests of the elite do not hang in the air, but are connected by thousands of threads with the economic relations prevailing in society. That is, even the elite does not exercise the dictatorship, but only RULES the dictatorship in the interests of the ruling class and itself as part of the class.

    The dictatorship is carried out by the APPARATUS of the ruling class. For example, it is not the elite itself who is detained, arrested, investigated, tried, sentenced, imprisoned and executed, but specially authorized hired officials and guillotine workers. It is not the elite who are dispersed with batons and tear gas, the property is not described by the elite, etc. It is not the elite who deals with class lawmaking, but hired specialists in the field of law, etc. The elite simply climbs to the top of this entire social pyramid and carries out its function of government within the framework of general class domination.

    The essence of any state is a dictatorship, and in form it can be in the form of Soviets - the dictatorship of the proletariat, if it is a state of working people, and in the form of bourgeois democracy that strives for fascism - a direct dictatorship of finance capital, not covered by any laws. The state will exist as long as classes exist. And the ruling class, with the help of the institutions of this state, will always suppress the class that is not in power, pursuing its own policy. What is politics? It is a struggle to seize, retain and exercise power.
  • TAMBU
    TAMBU 4 December 2020 10: 30
    -1
    And China (without Russian spiritual and intellectual potential) cannot become a world leader.

    Under the guise of fashion trends, in conversations about socialism and communism, the nationalism absorbed in the 90s will still find a place for itself and splash out in fetid splashes on the canvas of an article that is not very even (in terms of formal logic).
  • Fat
    Fat 4 December 2020 10: 41
    0
    In the early 1980s, Soviet civilization had all the possibilities for a new great breakthrough (the first was under Stalin and in the early years after him). Stalin created a new world and society. A special civilization. A society of knowledge, service and creation. Russia could become a center of alternative civilizational development

    2022 will mark the 100th anniversary of the publication by Oswald Spengler of volume 2 of the book "The Decline of Europe".
    According to Spengler, civilization is the decline and twilight of culture, when mechanical, mass-leveling, state-technocratic forms of spiritual activity replace living and organic forms.
    This is the inevitable fate of any culture; it is what remains when a culture dies, passing into ossified forms of all-consuming technicism, meaninglessness and sterility.
    A. Samsonov, as always, will first "give out", and then think what you want. He does not have enough time to check his words, the main thing is to convey the idea and to spit on internal contradictions in the text. Place this opus in the "opinions" section, since it has nothing to do with history.
  • Gips
    Gips 4 December 2020 11: 00
    +1
    Quote: Moskovit
    Well yes. It is easier to buy wheat for foreign currency than to grow it. Don't be silly. The USSR could not provide itself with grain and consistently increased purchases. I exported 1 million tons per year, and purchased 25-30 million. In 1985, this is generally 47 million tons. This is how "efficient" agriculture was.


    This is a lie. Your data is easily refuted even by a schoolboy by a simple search on the Internet. And again, you do not specify what the USSR exported and what imported in 1985.

    “The study of the dynamics of changes in the quality of wheat grain was carried out. According to the State Agricultural Inspectorate of the USSR and VNIIZ, in the 1988 harvest, milling wheat accounted for more than 85% in the RSFSR, in the mid-90s (1995-1996) - no more than 75%, in 2004 - 70% (data of the GHI RF ), and in 2008 we did not even beat the 60% mark (data from the Federal State Institution "Grain Quality Assessment Center"). At present, there is practically no production of strong wheat, and the gross yield of valuable wheat is several percent, while in the 80s more than 50% of crops were varieties of strong and valuable wheat.
    In accordance with the classification of those years, wheat of the 4th class (according to GOST 9353-85) corresponded to the 4th and 5th classes of the modern classification (GOST R 52 554-2006). It follows from this that in 1986 the grain of the 4th and 5th classes was less than 40%. And in 2004, the total volume of grain of the 4th - 5th classes amounted to 72,2% of the gross harvest of wheat. Thus, until 1985, the quality of grain in our country was improving, reaching the best indicators in 1985-1986. "

    Year // Production, tons // Import, tons / Import% of production // Export, tons / Export,% of production.

    1961 // 62494000 // 655900 / 1,0 // 4800600 / 7,7
    1962 66530000 45100 0,1 4765200 7,2
    1963 46700000 3052500 6,5 4105600 8,8
    1964 69935008 7281400 10,4 2030500 2,9
    1965 56105008 6375100 11,4 1662600 3,0
    1966 94469008 7582800 8,0 2805300 3,0
    1967 72774000 1827800 2,5 5284000 7,3
    1968 87789008 1339700 1,5 4355000 5,0
    1969 75122000 38400 0,1 5978800 8,0
    1970 93750000 1846300 2,0 4851900 5,2
    1971 92834000 2300000 2,5 7605400 8,2
    1972 80833008 8100000 10,0 3910600 4,8
    1973 103196000 15200000 14,7 4198700 4,1
    1974 78878000 2707000 3,4 5293703 6,7
    1975 62250000 9146000 14,7 2681329 4,3
    1976 91086000 6686000 7,3 813070 0,9
    1977 86668000 6500000 7,5 2062000 2,4
    1978 113552000 8820000 7,8 1150000 1,0
    1979 84886000 9250000 10,9 2600000 3,1
    1980 92500000 14700000 15,9 1270000 1,4
    1981 76650000 16500000 21,5 1600000 2,1
    1982 79757008 20900000 26,2 1633000 2,0
    1983 73748000 21700000 29,4 1800000 2,4
    1984 64960000 26700000 41,1 1621000 2,5
    1985 73200000 21419488 29,3 1374750 1,9
    1986 86573008 15745598 18,2 1203670 1,4
    1987 77331008 18097088 23,4 1482093 1,9
    1988 78826000 21180128 26,9 1377608 1,7
    1989 87162000 14185632 16,3 1055000 1,2
    1990 101888496 15024600 14,7 825043 0,8
    1991 71991008 18500000 25,7 350000 0,5


    More on the topic. Conversation with Andrey Kolganov, Doctor of Economics.
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p8PfZo4_vqc&feature=emb_logo
  • Undecim
    Undecim 4 December 2020 11: 07
    +9
    Another stream of muddy Samson cocktail hit the history of the USSR. The author is already lying recklessly, even though there are still people who were born and raised in that country, studied and worked, survived its collapse and even "fit" into modern "capitalism with a beastly grin" of the post-Soviet space.
    A paradoxical situation is observed. Over the past thirty years, a whole layer of pseudo-historians has formed, parasitizing the history of the USSR, feeding the people outright delirium, starting from the "bloody gebnya" and "the Gulag archipelago" and ending with tales of the "threshold of a great breakthrough."
    1. tasha
      tasha 7 December 2020 10: 10
      +1
      You have noticed this correctly. Except that you can't feed yourself especially on the "bloody gebne" and "GULAG", but the singers of the "great breakthrough" have found themselves a nourishing niche and are actively creating a myth about the country of "jelly shores" ...
  • Maks1995
    Maks1995 4 December 2020 11: 24
    +2
    Did you miss it? I missed it, yes.

    But the main question - to whom and how "it is possible and necessary to set other goals." - is not disclosed.

    And to describe missed opportunities - so they are always in bulk, in all countries and times.

    The old elite were preparing for the old war and the old economy. When there are tanks and quilted jackets, but no jeans and sneakers, and sneakers and gloves cannot be worn - the seams protrude inward ...
    1. kalibr
      kalibr 4 December 2020 15: 20
      +1
      Quote: Max1995
      The old elite were preparing for the old war and the old economy. When there are tanks and quilted jackets, but no jeans and sneakers, and sneakers and gloves cannot be worn - the seams protrude inward ...

      +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
  • Old Orc
    Old Orc 4 December 2020 12: 06
    +5
    The reason for the collapse of the USSR as a result of betrayal and deliberate destruction of the economy was
    1. The separation of the people from power. (people too much believed in power began to rest on their laurels)
    2. Mummification of ideology and ideological training.
    3. The most important reason from which all the rest of the rapid urbanization arise. Moving from villages to cities of a significant number of peasants who brought with them a significant dose of petty bourgeois consciousness. which is typical for the peasantry.
    I'm not saying that urbanization is bad, but talented and honest representatives of the peasantry brought their logic, built on petty bourgeois ideology, into the system of managing enterprises, ministries, and then the state. and here a controversy arose that killed the country out of the best intentions. Having gained access to the means of production, the bourgeoisie does not have the ability to self-restrict. And she fights with everything that limits her. And so it went that honest directors wanted an honest price. It was possible to break it at 80 only by the methods of 30. But the Ardent Communists no longer remained in power, only good people remained.
    1. Vladimir247
      Vladimir247 4 December 2020 14: 37
      0
      Old Orc
      ----
      About the main reason. There was no responsibility for the authorities. In front of ourselves, mainly. Before the war, and before, all the communists, both Trotskyists and other opportunists, everyone knew that if they came (whites, greens, fascists), then all the communists would be hanged on poles. They will not understand. This introduced the most important element in the actions of the authorities - they worked for fear, conscience, and for that uncle in addition.
      And after the war, it became unnecessary. While Stalin was alive, he did not let him relax. But the fear was gone!
      Communism was idolized in the world as the gravedigger of fascism!
      And that's all. Stalin was gone, Khrushchev came with his 20th Congress, and everything rolled into tartars.
      The economy was excellent. We did not die because of her. Destruction microbes were brought to us from outside. And the leadership was not ready for a new type of war. And he lost without even understanding why and how.
    2. kalibr
      kalibr 4 December 2020 15: 21
      +1
      Quote: Old Orc
      The most important reason from which all the rest arise is the sharp urbanization. Moving from villages to cities of a significant number of peasants who brought with them a significant dose of petty bourgeois consciousness. which is typical for the peasantry.
      I'm not saying that urbanization is bad, but talented and honest representatives of the peasantry brought their logic built on petty bourgeois ideology into the management system of enterprises, ministries, and then the state

      Finally, at least someone noticed and wrote it! But it lies on the surface!
  • ccsr
    ccsr 4 December 2020 12: 22
    +3
    Now it seems surprising, but in the early 80s, Moscow, with the old elite that lost its energy and healthy aggressiveness, with a growing and ossified bureaucracy, with a growing imbalance in the economy, with a people who had lost discipline and faith in communism, almost defeated the West.

    There was no such thing, and the author is wishful thinking, completely ignoring the potential of the socialist countries and the rest of the world at that time. Our ideas were no longer as attractive as they were in the 40s-60s, and therefore even those countries where, during the coups, forces allegedly oriented
    on the interests of the people, eventually became commonplace beggars and supported socialism for our handouts.
    Unfortunately, in the 80s, socialism as a system of government ceased to be attractive not only for the whole world, but even for our allies in the Warsaw Pact, which means that there can be no talk of "almost victory".
    1. Vladimir247
      Vladimir247 4 December 2020 14: 56
      -3
      Our ideas ...
      -------
      Ideas are even attractive now. With the implementation of the problem, here's the thing. And people are engaged in implementation. Hence the task - such a system is needed so that the right people are at the head of the country.
      How can this be achieved? The Bolsheviks were responsible to themselves in the first place. They were all threatened with death if they lost. That is why we won. And as the threat has passed, that's all.
      Fear of inevitable punishment is, for now, the main motive for a more or less working government. Now he is gone for everyone, well, look what is going on in the world? All around there are coups and shakhvats of power ... in general, a circus was staged in the system.
      There was such an organization, the CALL. For a responsible government. They propose to introduce into the constitution a law on the responsibility of the authorities. There is a lot, but here's the main thing: when the new government is elected, to give the old composition an assessment. If the score is negative, then on kichu. Was the president for 5 years -5 and sit still.
      It is assumed that this will at least scare away some of the unbridled greedy, thereby giving a chance to come to power for normal people.
      Now, there are no such people at all in the government.
      1. ccsr
        ccsr 4 December 2020 18: 28
        +3
        Quote: Vladimir247
        There was such an organization, the CALL. For a responsible government.

        Well, I remember. And where is she and her leaders? So, the next PR venture of a group of people who do not have any support among the masses, not enough funding to become at least a noticeable party.
        Quote: Vladimir247
        Now, there are no such people at all in the government.

        But such a power is supported by the majority of the country's population, which means that this power justifies their hopes for the future.
        1. Vladimir247
          Vladimir247 4 December 2020 19: 09
          -2
          Where is she...
          -------
          And they closed it. By the tribunal's decision". And four or even five were sent to prison. The men spent 5 years in prison for organizing a referendum.
          And you want to tell me that the current camarilla is supported by the majority, when less than 30-40% go to the polls? And what is the majority? Was it just 146%?
          Some kind of very mossy trolls ... by an advertisement they recruit you there, or what ... belay
          1. ccsr
            ccsr 5 December 2020 15: 12
            +3
            Quote: Vladimir247
            And they closed it. By the tribunal's decision". And four or even five were sent to prison. The men spent 5 years in prison for organizing a referendum.

            Well, why didn't they, like Limonov, continue to fight the government? Or, for example, Kvachkov spent more time, but is still not broken and is campaigning on the network.
            Quote: Vladimir247
            And you want to tell me that the current camarilla is supported by the majority, when less than 30-40% go to the polls?

            So this is why people are needed to prove to others that they must go to the polls. Only this is a dreary job, and many "revolutionaries" immediately lose all their fervor when they have to really work with people.
            Quote: Vladimir247
            And what is the majority? Not by chance 146%?

            Come on, you can, of course, ascribe to yourself 5-10%, but even if this is so, the majority still votes for Putin, and this cannot be hidden.
            Quote: Vladimir247
            Some kind of very mossy trolls ... by an advertisement they recruit you there, or what ...

            Yes, you yourself are a first-class troll, you tell everything, invite you somewhere, although I am sure that you personally have never participated in any anti-Putin event. That is why those who are all right with their heads do not believe you.
      2. Fat
        Fat 4 December 2020 22: 08
        +1
        Vladimir247
        There was such an organization, the CALL. For a responsible government. They propose to introduce into the constitution a law on the responsibility of the authorities. There is a lot, but here's the main thing: when the new government is elected, to give the old composition an assessment. If the score is negative, then on kichu. Was the president for 5 years -5 and sit still.
        It is assumed that this will at least scare away some of the unbridled greedy, thereby giving a chance to come to power for normal people.
        Now, there are no such people at all in the government.

        Have you read Robert Sheckley's "Ticket to the Planet Tranai"? If not, you can get a quick look at Wiki.
        There, on Tranai, government officials wore symbols of power - special medallions (with explosives). They allowed any citizen to blow up any politician at the push of a button in a civilian reception. The radical means of democratizing and fighting corruption worked when trying to remove it. Even with the transfer of power ... There were practically no mentally normal people on Tranai willing to bear the burden of power. )))
        1. Vladimir247
          Vladimir247 5 December 2020 15: 53
          -2
          Yeah, judging by the way the trolls perked up, it's hot somewhere ... laughing
          Why, why, but not like Limonov
          But because after serving time in prisons, people were forbidden by the court to engage in political activities.
          And yet they do not sit. They find topics and go through the courts, revealing the essence of the regime. Which is criminal oligarchic. No, well, is it a conceivable thing to put people in jail for a desire to organize a referendum? Who are you to decide for the people? The people must decide whether the authorities need the responsibility of the law, or not. People! Not the media!
          Which, as everyone already knows, it is not clear who controls and for what purpose.
          As I see, you have no clear objections to the essence of the issue of the responsibility of the authorities. We will stake out on that for now. wassat
          CALL - for a responsible government - an intelligible option for saving and bringing the country out of the hole.
  • Olgovich
    Olgovich 4 December 2020 12: 57
    +1
    In the early 1980s, the Soviet Union seemed like a mighty titan with no weaknesses.

    even towards the end of the 1980s 10% rural schools in Russia did not have ... electricity, 75% had no water and 90% had no sewerage system. And the number of schools themselves has decreased more than TWO times! Most are in disrepair

    In animal husbandry in the 80s. up to 70% of employees were engaged in manual labor , harsh working conditions, low pay
    , an irregular day, like a tastrophic shortage of labor, staff turnover, impassability, social disorder and flight from such a life to the city.
    A letter from residents of the Krasnoye Znamya collective farm in the Kalyazinsky District of the Kalinin Region, sent in 1974 to Rural Life: “Collective farmers sittingt evenings with a torchsince there are not even kerosene lamps. "
    In the Pskov region, by 1970, 70% of the villagers did not have electricity!

    By the early 1980s, in just 15 years (1967-1982), the rural population of Russia decreased by 45% and (Ryazan region, Vologodskaya - by 78%) abandoned 10% of farmland, abandoned half a million residential buildings, tens of thousands of villages, the center of Russia (Non-Black Earth Region) depopulated so much so that the conscientious demographer Perevedentsev, after analyzing the situation, announced that it must be urgently repopulated!

    Stalin created a country-corporation, a country-order, a single monolith, ready for great achievements and victories

    Yeah: Secretary of the CPSU Central Committee A.B. Aristov, 1952:
    “I was in Ryazan. - What's there? Interruptions? - No, I say, Comrade. Stalin, do not interrupt, but for a long time there has been no bread, no butter, no sausage. He stood in line with Larionov at 6-7 am, checked. No bread anywhere.


    The USSR had huge production capacities. An excellent engineering, research building that could solve almost any task

    But he was able to restore the devastated Non-Black Earth Region. ...
    1. Vladimir247
      Vladimir247 4 December 2020 15: 04
      -4
      There was no bread ... well, yes, and Stalin, of course, did not ask these two, but what are you, the inspectors, closed up, and did not carry out their direct duties in a working order, and why not bring bread? ...
      What are you wretched ... anti-Soviet trolls ... laughing
      1. Olgovich
        Olgovich 4 December 2020 16: 03
        -1
        Quote: Vladimir247
        There was no bread ... well, yes, and Stalin, of course, did not ask these two, but why are you, the inspectors, were shut up, and did not fulfill their direct duties in a working order, and why not bring bread?

        And they (including Aristov) were the INSPECTORS of the Central Committee Commissions, sent across the Union to clarify the real state of affairs, on the basis of mass complaints from workers.

        Got it, no?
        Quote: Vladimir247
        What are you wretched ... trolls
        1. Vladimir247
          Vladimir247 4 December 2020 17: 57
          -5
          So it is in your version, Stalin's inspectors only looked at them and made little pens ... poor thinking, and the old manual. The conclusion is the same.
  • Cure72
    Cure72 4 December 2020 13: 13
    +6
    It seems that Samsonov is not a human being, but an attempt by programmers to force AI to write something coherent. So far it turns out badly ....
  • 16112014nk
    16112014nk 4 December 2020 13: 58
    -1
    In the late 80s, the USSR, if you compare it to an airplane, was taking off. Still a little bit ... And at that moment he was knocked out of the "stinger" by traitors in power.
    1. Vadim237
      Vadim237 6 December 2020 00: 09
      0
      No, this plane at the end of the 80s stood on the runway without engine fuel and the crew, there was not even close to take off.
  • rozman
    rozman 4 December 2020 14: 13
    +2
    Correctly. The disintegration began with the top of the CPSU, behind it - the party, behind the party - the country. Gorbachev should have done the restructuring of the CPSU. This is the only ready-made working tool that guides the development of society in the USSR. And he broke it. He began rebuilding the country without an "instrument". For the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, not a "working tool", but was always a decoration, a puppet of the party. He did not have a tradition of management and control, unlike the KPSS
    The result is sad. Lost the country.
  • Tektor
    Tektor 4 December 2020 14: 45
    +2
    The author wanders in the myths of his mentality. The union could not defeat the west for a simple reason. The Union and the West were symbionts: one dies - the other dies too. What is happening now. The union was a complement to the West, and a necessary one. He competed and maintained tone. And the Union itself used the Western market to reduce its own costs. As a result, the inner-party line of convergence won out, i.e. voluntary restructuring of the foundations according to Western principles and entry into their economic zone.
    1. Kwas
      Kwas 4 December 2020 21: 39
      +1
      You can only partially agree. The West needed a union, and without it the West will perish, therefore it will be restored one way or another. But we don't need the West, because the flow of resources is only from here to there.
  • Vladimir247
    Vladimir247 4 December 2020 16: 09
    -5
    Quote: Vladimir247
    The USSR bought feed grain for meat production. We ate bread from our own grain, no need to lie.
    In this case, the Canadians traded in raw materials, and we processed them into meat.

    That is, the Canadians acted as a raw material appendage for the USSR.
  • cdrt
    cdrt 4 December 2020 17: 41
    -1
    I could, I could ...
    But in reality, everyone was so tired of empty shelves, humiliation with "get it ...." instead of buying food cards in peacetime, that when the leaders of the CPSU, together with the entire Soviet ruling class, tore the country apart, none of the residents came out to defend the Great country. Death by indifference. Very similar to how Nicholas II was overthrown, when there was simply no one to protect the emperor, everyone wanted something else.
  • unknown
    unknown 4 December 2020 19: 11
    -1
    The Soviet Union missed nothing.
    There was no such opportunity.
    The top and the elite are different concepts.
    It takes 90 years to form the first generation of the elite, that is, the intellectual stratum ready to bear responsibility not only for themselves, but also for the country and its population.
    The British know this very well. Because they themselves were formed from the waste. In fact, the first pirate offshore. For you to consider yourself an elite, your grandfather must have a college degree.
    That is, it takes three generations (and generations are calculated from 25 years) to get the first generation of the elite. Another 15 years is needed for this generation to enter the "age of management".
    And it begins after 40 years of a person's life. Total 90 years. The Soviet Union did not have these years.
    It ceased to exist earlier. The elite is not formed. But her place was taken ... The result is obvious.
    1. meandr51
      meandr51 5 December 2020 19: 48
      0
      For some reason, China has all of this formed faster. The theory is speculative.
      1. Vadim237
        Vadim237 6 December 2020 00: 13
        0
        This is because China began to transition to a market economy smoothly, starting in the 70s, technology was poured into it with factories in the West and it did not have an arms race and did not supply 120 rogue countries at its own expense, and the people there are more numerous and hardworking than ours.
  • Gorbunov Artem
    Gorbunov Artem 4 December 2020 22: 44
    0
    They all lost it. The last nail in the coffin was hammered by a comrade called the Aligorkhichi system. In common parlance, "Yeltsin-Putin". Who does not know gives me a Diz like.
  • comradChe
    comradChe 4 December 2020 23: 24
    0
    In Russia, the elites have always taken a "foreign" position in relation to it. And only J.V. Stalin found a way to treat this disease
    1. Vladimir247
      Vladimir247 5 December 2020 15: 59
      +1
      Unfortunately, I didn't finish it. They didn't give him time.
  • Doctor
    Doctor 5 December 2020 19: 21
    +1
    Even the decades of Khrushchev and Brezhnev, when due to the refusal to continue the Stalinist course of development

    Leave you at least Brezhnev alone.
    The only one normal among these ghouls.









  • meandr51
    meandr51 5 December 2020 19: 47
    -1
    M. Kalashnikov, re-login! The reason why the Gorbachevs are at the top, and the Jianzipins in China, has not been disclosed.
  • Gips
    Gips 5 December 2020 22: 22
    0
    Quote: silberwolf88
    do not simplify ... under Stalin there were production artels ... private producers (private property) ... but they were built into the system without the exploitation of man by man ...

    Just listen

  • av58
    av58 5 December 2020 22: 33
    +1
    Unfortunately it's true. If it were not for the treacherous behavior of Gorbachev and his gang, the USSR would still exist.
    1. Vadim237
      Vadim237 6 December 2020 00: 17
      0
      Alas, when Gorbachev came to power in the 85th, the fate of the USSR was a foregone conclusion, he simply became a catalyst for the process of collapse, but not the root of the cause. The beginning of the end was laid back in the 60s
  • Andrew Matseevsky
    Andrew Matseevsky 6 December 2020 01: 29
    -1
    Awesome nonsense. As they wrote in the scoop about the German revanchists, they did not understand anything and did not learn anything.
  • CiFFiRO
    CiFFiRO 7 December 2020 01: 47
    0
    Well, what is the point of such articles when everything that was already ... in the trash? And from the superpower there was only a peaceful atom and the force of nuclear deterrence?
    to create centers for training personnel with awakened abilities of the central nervous system ("superhumans").

    Well, there are no comments at all. Although after the article popularizing the myth of the "Great Tartary" it is no longer surprising.
    Comrade Samsonov, you will have a career as a screenwriter on RenTV!
    + You obviously "borrowed" the ideas of journalist Maxim Kalashnikov from RoyTV a couple of times. For example, in the article "On the threat of a" senseless and merciless "riot in Russia"
  • Corsair5912
    Corsair5912 7 December 2020 09: 06
    -1
    Everything is so, for the Soviet people nothing was impossible, and the leadership turned out to be inconsistent with the country's capabilities, in other words, rotten nonentities and traitors like Gorbachev and Yeltsin climbed into power. Great people are the property of the people - a people who allows scoundrels to denigrate their great people will inevitably fall under the rule of thieves, swindlers, scoundrels and other nonentities. The blackening of Ivan the Terrible by the boyars plunged Russia into the Time of Troubles, which almost became the end for independent Great Russia. Khrushchev's blackening of Stalin became the reason for the forcible dismemberment of the USSR with millions of victims.If the delegates of the 20th congress stood up together and trampled Khrushchev for dirty slander with all his lackeys, the country would have the opportunity for a great breakthrough.
  • tasha
    tasha 7 December 2020 10: 00
    0
    By the early 80s, the Soviet Union was in a state of deepest systemic crisis. Both in ideology and in the economy ... Could this crisis have been overcome? Perhaps, but for this it would be necessary to take certain decisive actions, for which the leadership of the country no longer had the willpower or desire.
  • Dilettante grandfather
    Dilettante grandfather 7 December 2020 14: 12
    0
    Quote: aybolyt678
    private property or public, what's the difference?

    A huge difference. Private property can only be used by its owner. Public - everyone, without exception.
    1. Timofey Astakhov
      Timofey Astakhov 8 December 2020 20: 58
      0
      Public - everyone, without exception.

      Yeah. for example, the Kremlin dachas, anyone. Is that so?
      1. indy424
        indy424 2 March 2021 23: 16
        0
        yes, or at least the city committee buffet, why go far
  • Timofey Astakhov
    Timofey Astakhov 8 December 2020 20: 57
    -1
    well, nonsense, sorry. If only, if only.
    The Communist Party promised communism by 80. Instead, it is known to have hosted the Olympic Games

    In general, there is no need to be naked, comrade. By the beginning of the 3.14s, the scoop was not capable of anything, especially with the half-dead Brezhnev at the head
  • Andrey sh
    Andrey sh 9 December 2020 22: 50
    0
    The collapse began with Khrushchev, and continued (without canceling the idiotic decisions) - Brezhnev. When the artels were destroyed, stupid taxes were introduced, they began to drag everything that was needed and not necessary from the West (for example, to plant corn in the north of the country), instead of specialists, they began to push through party members and "friends." For this under Stalin, they were immediately put up against the wall. And as it turned out - not in vain. And those who like to live "beautifully" had to be let out of the USSR (or rather kicked out) with a "wolf" ticket - so that they could not return back. Well, advertising like these individuals as janitors and servants would start working in the West - the amia of parasites and the CIA would not be needed.
  • Victor Gubankov
    Victor Gubankov 10 December 2020 13: 55
    0
    That's why I love books about alternative reality. But the point is to procrastinate again, something that did not happen. And the perpetrators have not all died out, and some are still in power.