Military Review

The Chinese were able to build the "Titanic" in the XNUMXth century

108

In the midst of the modern towers of Nanjing, there is a wondrously beautiful boat 20 jans long and 9 jans wide. And her masts are so high that they touch the lower skies.


Masts to heaven


Great история - the foundation of a great nation. It's nice to see great ancestors in your family. And if they are not, then you need to come up with. You can easily become heroes of sea voyages that ended 600 years ago.

If the state has a hand in restoring historical memory ... The past promises to become even more interesting!

The year is 1405 on the calendar. From the mouth of the Yangtze comes the "golden fleet" under the command of Admiral Zheng He. Hundreds of ships. Decades of large-scale hikes in India, Asia and Africa. The Chinese Age of Discovery - a Hundred Years Before Columbus!

What is left of them?


"Treasure Ship" ("Baochuan") of the Ming Dynasty, XXI century. AD Source: kbismarck.org

Wooden Titanic from the Middle Ages


On such ships, the brave Admiral Zheng He made his seven voyages under the winds of the southern seas.

An impressive example of XNUMXth century shipbuilding, miraculously survived in the cycle of eras.

It is a great success for archaeologists to find an antique trire or a half-decayed drakkar, of which a fragment of a keel and a pair of frames remained. A significant event was the discovery of the Bremen Cog, the skeleton of a small XNUMXth century commercial launch. In Asia, medieval junks were found, in which it was even possible to distinguish the method of fastening the skin.

Time is merciless to wooden masterpieces. We see the remains of ships, but their true appearance is unknown. They disappeared into the past.

The ship of the "golden fleet"Zheng He is so alone. Its beauty is timeless, and its graceful sides are made of noble reinforced concrete.

In 2008, on the eve of the Beijing Olympics, Chinese restorers recreated the “treasury” in full size. Of course, restorers did not dare to restore a replica of the real "baochuan", which was 44 jans and 4 chi in length, while the body was 18 jans. If we translate Chinese measures of length into the metric system (1 jan ≈ 3 m, 1 chi ≈ 0,3 m), then strange results will follow. The lower limit of the displacement of such vessels is estimated at 19 tons. The upper displacement limits of Zheng He's flagships lie within 000 tons.

The most gullible person, seeing "Baochuan" up close, would express doubts about the Chinese ability to build "wooden Titanics" in the late Middle Ages.

Restoration enthusiasts prefer not to focus on the extraordinary dimensions of Zheng He's "treasures", and for the most attentive viewers, an explanation is made that this is a medium-sized model.

The mid-size "baochuan" 63 meters long (≈21 jang) undoubtedly looks more realistic. Although it still raises questions.

Are there other, more reliable evidences of the existence of the "golden fleet" of the Minsk empire? There is no such evidence. If there were - all further questions would be settled.

The Longjiang Shipyard Museum displays an 11-meter long wooden beam that protrudes from the steering axis of a giant ship (the rudder itself, of course, has not survived). As you can imagine, this exhibit could well have had any other purpose.


There is nothing else. Only pictures and legends.

Data on Chinese "treasures" are taken from the Dynastic Chronicles of the Ming Empire (1368-1644) and a number of other documents presented by Chinese historians at the official level in the early 2000s. Among them is the illustrated work "The Legend of the Heavenly Virgin, who keeps the High in spirit at the behest of the Great Lord." This is the only source that has come down to us, which contains at least some intelligible details about the appearance and design of the ships of the "golden fleet".

Treasury - "Frankenstein"


"Treasury" is a "Frankenstein", which is molded from a European caravel and a traditional Asian junk with an unnatural ratio of parameters. According to the generally accepted opinion of specialists in the history of China, the architecture of large junks of a later period, with developed fore and aft superstructures (for example, the Qiying, XNUMXth century), gradually formed under the influence of European galleons, which the Chinese met in the XNUMXth century.

All discovered Chinese ships of the XIV-XV centuries had a different appearance. They, in general, turned out to be different - both in size and design. But this is only the beginning of the story.

When creating a technical system, individual design solutions are of great importance. Each project contains elements of creativity, a unique author's idea.

On the other hand, there is an objective reality that hinders development knowingly delusional and erroneous constructions.

Based on the presented appearance of the "treasuries", they were built in violation of the well-known principles of shipbuilding, which the shipbuilders knew about from ancient times.

So, the length of the body of the "treasury" exceeded its width by less than two and a half times. An incredibly low ratio for a large ship (L / B = 2,4), supposedly intended for sailing on the high seas.

Baochuan is more of a designer's imagination than an engineer. It would look great as a backdrop for a fantasy movie. But going to sea on such a ship is a risk on the verge of insanity.

This is evidenced by any example taken from the world shipbuilding. No one has ever built such ships. Even in the early days of the sailing fleet.

The Caracca from the Columbus expedition had a hull elongation of 3,5.

Admiral Nelson's flagship, the huge battleship Victory, had a value of 4,3.

The wreckage discovered in 1973 (dubbed "the ship at Quanzhou") belongs to a 3,5th century Chinese junk with a 3,5 hull ratio (L / B = XNUMX).

The three-masted Chinese junk "Qiying", which sailed to America and Europe in the 4th century, had a hull with a typical ratio of 4 parameters (L / B = XNUMX) for that time.

Returning to the wooden Ming Titanic, such a ship would not be able to keep on course under the influence of currents and winds. The situation was further aggravated by its flat-bottomed design.

Disgusting speed?


The short and wide body guaranteed unsatisfactory speed performance. However, there was a more compelling reason for this - the insufficient sail area.

A couple of examples.

The large Hanseatic ship "Peter von Danzig" (1462) was propelled by 760 square meters of panels. With a displacement of about 800 tons.

The 3500-ton ship of the Victory line required 5428 sq. m. The height of its masts reached 67 meters. The mainmast was assembled from the trunks of seven pine trees, held together by steel hoops and ropes.


The construction of the Victory (from the moment the keel was laid to launch) took the British six years. Without taking into account the ten-year process of harvesting and aging wood of elite varieties. And also the time spent on the design of the project, which used ready-made drawings from the predecessor, Royal George. After launching the ship, work followed on the retrofitting and rigging of the Victory, as well as the correction of the roll to starboard (a defect during construction) and sea trials.

For the entire XNUMXth century, only two dozen such giants were built in the world. Perhaps the most expensive and complex technical structures of the era.

The construction of a large wooden ship required special knowledge, which was accumulated by generations of shipbuilders. Be prepared for inevitable distortions in the shape of the case and know how to deal with defects. Imagine - an open slipway and wooden parts as high as a five-story building. Cold morning, hot afternoon, damp and cool night. In the morning the sun is on the right, and after lunch on the left.

The British knew where to check and how to keep the deformation within the normal range by adding stiffeners in a specific order. And after launching, they compensated for the emerging roll with additional ballast. In the XNUMXth century, the Dutch preferred to launch ships with an unfinished side and assemble them afloat, making the necessary changes to the design.

Baochuan Ming era


The technology for creating the "baochuan" of the Minsk era is not known for certain. In China, with the wave of the emperor's hand, wilted flowers bloomed, and trees with ripe peaches grew from seeds thrown on the ground. And everything on earth and in the sky obeyed the will of the Holy Sovereign, "the Lord of ten thousand years."

Therefore, the Chinese did not have any problems to build sixty ships with a displacement of 19 thousand tons in a few years.

It is worth noting that the largest wooden sailboat ever built is the 137-meter schooner Wyoming, which displaced 8000 tons. The wood was not strong enough to withstand such loads. Through the deformed casing, water continuously penetrated into the hull, with which the bilge pumps could barely cope. On a stormy night in March 1924, the schooner disappeared without a trace with its entire crew.

Representative of the late Windjammer era, the barque "Kruzenshtern" has a displacement of over 6 thousand tons and sailing equipment with an area of ​​3553 sq. m. (which are placed on four masts, reaching a height of 56 meters).

"Kruzenshtern" - an example from another reality (1926). The extreme length of the hull for a sailboat (114 meters) made it possible to achieve the optimal position of the masts and the greatest effective surface of the sails, allowing them not to shade each other. Fast and efficient control of the sail rig is provided by electric winches. With a fresh tailwind, the narrow hull of the barge (L / B = 8) rips the wave at a speed of 17 knots.

Incredible "windjammers" (literally - wind squeezers) became possible with the inventions of the early XNUMXth century. Among them are auxiliary machines and an electric drive for rigging control.

Building such a narrow and long hull with a displacement of 6400 tons from wood would be a risky decision. "Kruzenshtern" is built entirely of steel.

The Chinese in the XNUMXth century could not have any of the above.

Trough with a displacement of 19 thousand tons


Their task was simply to move a wide trough with a displacement of 19 tons. Even if we take seriously the revelations of Chinese historians that the speed of 000 ... 2 knots was sufficient for transoceanic campaigns, the main question remains.

Baochuan needed 100 meters high masts.

One tree trunk is insufficient to provide longitudinal rigidity of such a high structure. It is necessary to fasten several logs at the base of the mast and extend it upwards. There is no evidence of the materials and technology available to create prefabricated mast structures of this height during the Ming Dynasty.

According to Chinese historical research, large "baochuan" carried nine relatively low masts, located not along, but diagonally, three rows from the centerline.

Skeptics, on the other hand, draw attention to the shading and uselessness of a large part of the sailing equipment with so many masts and sails. Also, the problem with the distribution of loads during a sudden change in the strength and direction of the wind has not been solved. According to skeptics, a wooden titanic with nine masts will immediately fall apart under the onslaught of the sea.

Fantasy Navy


Despite all the implausibility of the legend, the story of Zheng He's "golden fleet" is now presented as a well-known historical fact testifying to the maritime superiority and great achievements of medieval China.

The legend is being replicated on popular resources. At the same time, its supporters do not even notice the scale of the absurdity. The Baochuan's hull is wider than the Panamax supertanker.

Lack of physical evidence. Incredible construction time. Fantastic size and questionable design.

In addition to purely technical issues, questions of a socio-economic nature remain unanswered. For example, why did the emperors of the Minsk Empire need to spend colossal resources to create a "golden fleet", when all the interests and main threats lay on the land borders of the empire.

Or - why the state, which possessed such superiority in technology, did not use them in any way to strengthen its role in the world.

Perhaps, the Western historian R. Finlay spoke about these events in the best way:

“The Minsk expeditions did not entail any changes: no colonies, no new routes, no monopolies, no cultural flourishing and no global unity ... The history of China and world history probably would not have undergone any changes if Zheng He's expeditions at all never took place ”.


The Treasure Ship and the Portuguese Caravel. On the same scale.
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  1. polpot
    polpot 4 December 2020 18: 08
    +6
    Even the Chinese 10000 years ago, the X-ray and the nuclear reactor, invented, and the Ukrainians dug the sea, it's ridiculous.
    1. Arthur 85
      Arthur 85 4 December 2020 18: 42
      +17
      The roentgen was invented by Ivan the Terrible when he shouted to his boyars: yes, I saw right through you! laughing
      1. Vasilenko Vladimir
        Vasilenko Vladimir 4 December 2020 19: 24
        +9
        Quote: Arthur 85
        Yes, I saw right through you!

        when did you take the stake out of the fifth point? repeat
        1. CTABEP
          CTABEP 4 December 2020 20: 41
          +19
          And the call center, by the way, he invented)))
          1. Santa Fe
            4 December 2020 23: 37
            +15
            And Stalin - a hyperlink
            1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
              Kote Pan Kokhanka 5 December 2020 06: 22
              +16
              Dear Oleg, many thanks for the article.
              Although I think denying the "golden fleet" comparing with its contemporaries and later ships is only one side of the coin. In this case, you have become like the British dandies who, describing the Chinese river vessels with a hand-operated rowing drive at the beginning of the 20th century, wrote to their homeland - “they (the Chinese) copy our steamers, but without steam mechanisms they use the labor of people”! If I am not mistaken, the paddle wheel was used on the rivers of China for five hundred years before the appearance of the first steamer.
              So we expect a continuation from you, with a critical analysis of documents and the history of the Chinese river fleet.
              Errors in the text.
              The ratio of length to width is close to the Chinese Titanic: Norman warship. 1 to 2,5 maximum 1 to 3. Too lazy to list, all merchant and merchant ships from the Phoenicians to the Genoese galeas had a ratio of no more than 1 to 3 or less! The innovation of the caravel, in contrast to the halka, was that for the first time in a merchant ship the notorious length exceeded three widths of the hull.
              The body itself, if it was copied, was from river, and not sea brethren. In civil strife, the Chinese used the ships of the fortress of a catamaran design. Square section.
              Towers on ships. If you have towers on river ships in the 14th century, why copy them from the Dutch - in 16?
              Composite masts - I agree here. But comparing a bark of the last century and a "trough" half a thousand years ago is tough. Although the features of the Chinese archaic rigging system allow you to operate 30 meter masts. Europeans will only grow to this by the middle of the 16th century. By the way, the Dutch mars splicing system did not involve more than one iron nail. This is so for the steel wire opus.
              Well, probably everything. Oleg, for God's sake, do not take criticism to heart. I personally don’t believe in the “Chinese remake”. The blockages of the boards of the Dutch fashion especially smiled after the English introduction of duties on the dimensions of the holds of merchant ships.
              If he was, then his ships had a rectangular box of chopped section on a catamaran base with 30 meter masts and a bunch of Chinese to serve them.
              Or, after all, the Chinese tangerines bred their emperor into a paper fleet. Hanging over the ears of the lord of the sky? Then Our Chubais should cry in the morning with envy !!!
              1. Normal ok
                Normal ok 5 December 2020 13: 31
                -1
                Quote: Kote Pan Kokhanka
                Dear Oleg, many thanks for the article.
                Although I think denying the "golden fleet" comparing with its contemporaries and later ships is only one side of the coin. In this case, you have become like the British dandies who, describing the Chinese river vessels with a hand-operated rowing drive at the beginning of the 20th century, wrote to their homeland - “they (the Chinese) copy our steamers, but without steam mechanisms they use the labor of people”! If I am not mistaken, the paddle wheel was used on the rivers of China for five hundred years before the appearance of the first steamer.
                So we expect a continuation from you, with a critical analysis of documents and the history of the Chinese river fleet.
                Errors in the text.
                The ratio of length to width is close to the Chinese Titanic: Norman warship. 1 to 2,5 maximum 1 to 3. Too lazy to list, all merchant and merchant ships from the Phoenicians to the Genoese galeas had a ratio of no more than 1 to 3 or less! The innovation of the caravel, in contrast to the halka, was that for the first time in a merchant ship the notorious length exceeded three widths of the hull.
                The body itself, if it was copied, was from river, and not sea brethren. In civil strife, the Chinese used the ships of the fortress of a catamaran design. Square section.
                Towers on ships. If you have towers on river ships in the 14th century, why copy them from the Dutch - in 16?
                Composite masts - I agree here. But comparing a bark of the last century and a "trough" half a thousand years ago is tough. Although the features of the Chinese archaic rigging system allow you to operate 30 meter masts. Europeans will only grow to this by the middle of the 16th century. By the way, the Dutch mars splicing system did not involve more than one iron nail. This is so for the steel wire opus.
                Well, probably everything. Oleg, for God's sake, do not take criticism to heart. I personally don’t believe in the “Chinese remake”. The blockages of the boards of the Dutch fashion especially smiled after the English introduction of duties on the dimensions of the holds of merchant ships.
                If he was, then his ships had a rectangular box of chopped section on a catamaran base with 30 meter masts and a bunch of Chinese to serve them.
                Or, after all, the Chinese tangerines bred their emperor into a paper fleet. Hanging over the ears of the lord of the sky? Then Our Chubais should cry in the morning with envy !!!

                Put +, But! Greek triremes had a ratio of at least 1: 5
                1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
                  Kote Pan Kokhanka 5 December 2020 15: 07
                  +6
                  Carthaginian triremes reached 1 to 6 to 1. Athenian triremes are 6,5 to 1, which is fully confirmed by excavations in Zeya and the testimony of contemporaries.
                  Triremes and triremes were warships. The merchant ships of the Cretans, Phoenicians and Greeks were unirems (monorems) with a section of 1 to 3, at best 1 to 3,5.
                  They were called "round" anyway.
                  Yours!
                  1. Civil
                    Civil 5 December 2020 17: 50
                    +5
                    1. Zheng He himself was a eunuch.
                    2. There are tons of Chinatowns from India to Singapore.
                    3. There are written descriptions of the Portuguese travels from the local population.
                    4. Well, the Chukchi is a writer (author of the description of the campaigns) - not a sea eunuch.
                    5. In the Ming Empire during the time of Zheng He, the population in 1391 was 10,7 million tribute yards with a population of 56,8 million.
            2. Arthur 85
              Arthur 85 6 December 2020 11: 56
              0
              It is known: it's hard to argue with the Leader - you quote him, and he responds with a link. repeat
      2. Shkworen
        Shkworen 6 December 2020 11: 37
        0
        not boyars, but his wife :)
      3. The comment was deleted.
    2. credo
      credo 4 December 2020 18: 54
      -1
      Quote: polpot
      Even the Chinese 10000 years ago, the X-ray and the nuclear reactor, invented, and the Ukrainians dug the sea, it's ridiculous.

      No, not so.
      From the beginning, the ancient Ukrainians left paradise, dug pits for the seas and oceans, filled them with water, created ships and submarines (or submarines were the first to be created by the ancestors of the Turks), and only then the Chinese sailed across the seas and oceans. Or maybe they were not Chinese, but Armenians or Greeks.
      In general, now no one can say who is more ancient, since there are a dime a dozen of those who want to become the firstborn in the world.
      It's just interesting that the Chinese began to live more or less safely and well-fed only in the 21st century. It’s strange for the great sailors.
    3. Esoteric
      Esoteric 4 December 2020 20: 23
      0
      Do you doubt it? smile I think we will soon find out about this. It is still surprising why there is no sensation about the invention of the first plane by the Chinese, during the Ping Li dynasty, by the great nugget Chur mi, who presented it, that is, the plane, to the Emperor, but then the matter was forgotten, but the manuscripts remained. Here, if you please admire, we are all honest.
      1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
        Kote Pan Kokhanka 5 December 2020 06: 29
        +2
        Oh my young friend critic! Already with a minus, but there is nothing we will correct it a little.
        Read my answer to the Author, it is higher in the thread. Too lazy to retype and come back with your reasons.
        Good day!
        1. Esoteric
          Esoteric 5 December 2020 11: 18
          +2
          Well, the Chinese have invented a lot of things. Here is a logarithmic calculus for example. There was such a scandalous story, only an incident happened. When translating these "ancient Chinese tables" from Chinese, it turned out that they were completely copied from the first edition of these tables by the Scottish mathematician Napier, who invented this number. The evidence of plagiarism was concrete, every single misprint was present in the Chinese text, as in Napier's book. The lovers of the greatest China had to wash their faces and leave without eating salty, they did not succeed. And so the Chinese have everything to be honest, without deception. smile
        2. Esoteric
          Esoteric 5 December 2020 11: 35
          -3
          "The monk Schwartz invented gunpowder. It was like this: he mixed sulfur and saltpeter in a mortar, completely not thinking of getting an explosive, and accidentally dropped a heavy pestle into the mortar. The mixture exploded, the pestle flew out and broke through the ceiling. Of course, the creators of the first guns repeated all the conditions. , and even the shape of these cannons was pitcher-shaped, the same as the shape of Schwartz's metal mortar. ”This was the case in Europe, In the Chinese chronicles of the Mongol invasion, there are descriptions of Chinese cannons firing with the gunpowder invented by the Chinese. These cannons had a pitcher-shaped shape For a cannon, such a shape is completely unnecessary. We know why it was like this in Europe. It means that the ancient Chinese inventor of gunpowder, mixing sulfur and saltpeter in a tube and completely not thinking to get an explosive, accidentally dropped a heavy pestle there. The mixture exploded, and...".
          S. Valyansky and D. Kalyuzhny "New chronology of earthly civilizations".
          In my opinion, common sense is on the face. Well, I don't believe in the antiquity of China, I don't. smile
          A country where there was gunpowder, missiles, and a fleet that was 300 years ahead of time (and the boat in the photo, with a fresh breeze, will flop and go to the bottom, by all means), and this country has not explored the world, has not populated Australia, America, did not force Europe at gunpoint to accept its will (in real history, the opposite is true). Science was supposed to flourish there. But why did Newton happen, and not some kind of Ney?
          Any super-developed civilization strives for expansion. Well, at least in the history of our planet. If they were so ancient and developed, when others besides Dubya did not know anything, the whole world would speak Chinese, and for a long time.
          1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
            Kote Pan Kokhanka 5 December 2020 11: 54
            +3
            In the Chinese chronicles of the time of the invasion of the "Mongols" there are descriptions of Chinese cannons firing with the gunpowder invented by the Chinese.

            Do not read Fomenko and Nasonov at night! laughing
            The Chinese invented fireworks and firecrackers, but not guns !!! The pitchers that you called cannons rushed at the enemy with the help of throwing machines !!! There were rocket systems, but not artillery. The Arabs were the first to use cone-shaped stone throwers! Vessel-shaped arrow throwers were used by the British during the 100-year war. Encyclopedia of artillery !!!
            1. Esoteric
              Esoteric 5 December 2020 12: 02
              -1
              I don't read Fomenko, or rather it was a sin, I read it, and concluded that everything he wrote was complete nonsense. I wanted to read Scaliger, but did not find his works translated into Russian, and the same into English. But I read his students, or followers, according to the method of calculating dates. It looks like they studied at Hogwarts, with Septima Vector. smile
            2. Esoteric
              Esoteric 5 December 2020 12: 07
              0
              This comrade will go to the next world not only himself, but also with his closest circle. Well, nonsense, real nonsense. Is not it?
            3. Maikcg
              Maikcg 5 December 2020 13: 47
              -1
              By the way, about jet systems, this outstanding stopudov ship was equipped with medium-range ballistic missiles.
          2. Normal ok
            Normal ok 5 December 2020 13: 38
            -3
            Quote: Ezoterik
            "The monk Schwartz invented gunpowder. It was like this: he mixed sulfur and saltpeter in a mortar, completely not thinking of getting an explosive, and accidentally dropped a heavy pestle into the mortar. The mixture exploded, the pestle flew out and broke through the ceiling. Of course, the creators of the first guns repeated all the conditions. , and even the shape of these cannons was pitcher-shaped, the same as the shape of Schwartz's metal mortar. ”This was the case in Europe, In the Chinese chronicles of the Mongol invasion, there are descriptions of Chinese cannons firing with the gunpowder invented by the Chinese. These cannons had a pitcher-shaped shape For a cannon, such a shape is completely unnecessary. We know why it was like this in Europe. It means that the ancient Chinese inventor of gunpowder, mixing sulfur and saltpeter in a tube and completely not thinking to get an explosive, accidentally dropped a heavy pestle there. The mixture exploded, and...".
            S. Valyansky and D. Kalyuzhny "New chronology of earthly civilizations".
            In my opinion, common sense is on the face. Well, I don't believe in the antiquity of China, I don't. smile
            A country where there was gunpowder, missiles, and a fleet that was 300 years ahead of time (and the boat in the photo, with a fresh breeze, will flop and go to the bottom, by all means), and this country has not explored the world, has not populated Australia, America, did not force Europe at gunpoint to accept its will (in real history, the opposite is true). Science was supposed to flourish there. But why did Newton happen, and not some kind of Ney?
            Any super-developed civilization strives for expansion. Well, at least in the history of our planet. If they were so ancient and developed, when others besides Dubya did not know anything, the whole world would speak Chinese, and for a long time.

            In Soviet times, during my "labors" I forgot to remove the key from the lathe support ((I flew past my head, into the ceiling. Thank God!. As a result, I invented the throwing mechanism laughing
            1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
              Kote Pan Kokhanka 5 December 2020 15: 18
              +1
              Quote: Normal ok
              In Soviet times, during my "labors" I forgot to remove the key from the lathe support ((I flew past my head, into the ceiling. Thank God!. As a result, I invented the throwing mechanism

              You are not the only one so "lucky" who did not pull the stop with a key on a lathe.

              Now you can write an article “Non-observance of safety regulations - throwing weapons of the 20th and 21st centuries. Or how not to die of your own stupidity!
              Regards, Kote!
            2. Reviews
              Reviews 5 December 2020 15: 23
              +5
              Quote: Normal ok

              I, in Soviet times, during my "labors" forgot to remove the key from the lathe support ((Departed

              There is no key in the support, and if they are used, then it cannot fly out. There is a cartridge, and only from it can it "fly out".
              1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
                Kote Pan Kokhanka 6 December 2020 03: 56
                0
                Well, my colleague was mistaken! Many have only seen lathes at school work.
          3. Dodikson
            Dodikson 5 December 2020 14: 54
            -2
            the Chinese didn't invent a damn thing.
            their whole history was invented by the Iuzuites relatively recently. but implemented in general a couple of centuries ago.
            a photo of the 19th century of a Chinese town was somehow found, and so, there were no such pagodas, which now traditionally represent China.
            that is, even the type of Chinese architecture appeared a little over a century ago.
    4. Aleksandr1971
      Aleksandr1971 5 December 2020 06: 09
      0
      And the USSR also sent the first man into space in 1961.
      1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
        Kote Pan Kokhanka 5 December 2020 10: 43
        +3
        Quote: Aleksandr1971
        And the USSR also sent the first man into space in 1961.

        And they (the Chinese) of their tangerine to the moon, with the help of pyrotechnics and a chair !!! No kidding, they had one high-ranking experimenter! I didn’t come back so I flew. Moreover, his place was replaced, judging by their documents, temporary duties throughout the year! laughing
        1. Normal ok
          Normal ok 5 December 2020 13: 42
          -5
          Quote: Kote Pan Kokhanka
          Quote: Aleksandr1971
          And the USSR also sent the first man into space in 1961.

          And they (the Chinese) of their tangerine to the moon, with the help of pyrotechnics and a chair !!! No kidding, they had one high-ranking experimenter! I didn’t come back so I flew. Moreover, his place was replaced, judging by their documents, temporary duties throughout the year! laughing

          I ate tangerines from the tree. There was a star on top of the head. And the moon was not there. You are lying FSE wassat
          1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
            Kote Pan Kokhanka 5 December 2020 15: 09
            +2
            In my younger years, my cat tried to climb the New Year tree a couple of times! Apparently, she also wanted to prove me, if there is no moon, if there is no place for a star on the tree !!! wink
            1. Phil77
              Phil77 5 December 2020 17: 34
              +2
              Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
              In my young years, my cat tried to climb the New Year tree a couple of times!


              From the treasures of the Internet, but very similar / similar / to my Filka. laughing
        2. Niel-le-Calais
          Niel-le-Calais 6 December 2020 01: 57
          +2
          Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
          And they (the Chinese) of their mandarin to the moon

          flight of mandarin Wang-gu to heaven. The nobleman built a strange unit - a seat attached to two box kites and hung with forty-seven powder rockets. The servants simultaneously set fire to the rockets, and ... a desperate enthusiast took off into the sky in the literal and figurative sense. You can laugh at the feat of the "first Chinese cosmonaut", but he really went down in the history of space exploration - a crater in the very center of the far side of the moon is named after Wang-gu.
          The credibility of the story about Wan Hu is subject to great doubts on the part of scientists, since there is no information about Wan Hu in the historical sources of the Ming Dynasty, like everything that the Chinese compose.
          The name "Wan Hu" was first used by Willie Lei in the book "Rockets: The Future of Travel beyond the Stratosphere", published in 1944
          And the Founding Father of Chinese Astronautics Tseng Hu-sheng was born in 1911
    5. antivirus
      antivirus 13 January 2021 20: 19
      0
      and the Ukrainians dug the sea, it's funny.

      -and poured the Caucasus with soil from the digging.

      and not sure about the embankment of the Carpathians ...? and Tatras?
  2. Thrifty
    Thrifty 4 December 2020 18: 25
    +3
    Oleg hi You have not been on the site for a long time! It was interesting to read, you know how to present the material in such a way that you regret that the article is over! I would like to believe that there will be more of your essays on the site! hi
    1. Santa Fe
      7 December 2020 04: 23
      0
      I read with pleasure the comments under the article, because without your feedback and criticism, there would be no interest in all this

      I would like to answer in time, but time is faster than me :)
  3. unknown
    unknown 4 December 2020 18: 46
    -14%
    Don't believe the sources.
    According to the results of archaeological excavations on the territory of modern China, ALL burials over 150 years old are burials of representatives of the white race.
    Traditional history began to crumble when people with technical education began to study it.
    For example, the skeleton of a wooden ship can still be crafted with an ax.
    And what to sheathe?
    By what technology, with what tools and equipment will you get an edged board?
    Here you don't need a saw, but a sawmill.
    Steam or electric drive.
    And this is already the nineteenth century.
    1. Reviews
      Reviews 4 December 2020 19: 29
      +15
      Quote: ignoto
      people with technical education.
      Here you don't need a saw, but a sawmill.
      Steam or electric drive.
      And this is already the nineteenth century.

      It is a pity that you are not one of those ...
      1. unknown
        unknown 5 December 2020 06: 19
        -3
        Emotions speak in you.
        But, not reason.
        1. Reviews
          Reviews 5 December 2020 07: 57
          +5
          Quote: ignoto
          Emotions speak in you.
          But, not reason.

          Well, I told you. :) A typical nemoglik - he himself does not know how, he considers others the same, and even ascribes his own shortcomings to them.
    2. Revolver
      Revolver 4 December 2020 19: 33
      +16
      Quote: ignoto
      And what to sheathe?
      By what technology, with what tools and equipment will you get an edged board?
      Here you don't need a saw, but a sawmill.
      Steam or electric drive.
      And this is already the nineteenth century.

      What, then, were the Roman pentarems, Viking drakkars, Columbus caravels, and in general everything that walked the seas before the steam era? Do not know? Let me tell you: sawmills were driven by water wheels, and those existed long before the birth of Christ. The surname of the well-known hero of Mark Twain Tom Sawyer Sawyer is translated as: Sawyer. And most likely his old, still British ancestor was not a proletarian at a sawmill, but the owner of it. It's another matter whether there were water wheels and mechanisms in China that convert rotary motion into reciprocating, I personally do not know, but they, with their number and cheap labor, could easily make a drive to the sawmill in the form of ropes that alternately pulled two groups of Chinese. And that they knew saws, do not doubt. One of the Chinese methods of execution was to saw the sentenced person.
      1. Reviews
        Reviews 4 December 2020 21: 18
        +9
        Quote: Nagan
        sawmills were driven by water wheels

        Everything is much simpler.


        And also the log is relatively easily split into several boards with wedges.
        1. unknown
          unknown 5 December 2020 06: 15
          -3
          Splitting.
          Try to sheathe the ship with boards obtained using this technology.
          Will not work.
          1. Reviews
            Reviews 5 December 2020 07: 58
            +5
            Quote: ignoto
            Splitting.
            Try to sheathe the ship with boards obtained using this technology.
            Will not work.

            You, nemoglika, will fail. Even break an egg into a frying pan so that it is all in the frying pan, and not on the stove.
            1. Dodikson
              Dodikson 5 December 2020 15: 14
              -5
              plz tell us about what kind of moglik you are and how you dragged 2.5-4 million blocks of 2-3 tons xz how many kilometers with boards and ropes across the sand and did not leave any traces of transportation.
              1. Reviews
                Reviews 5 December 2020 15: 19
                +1
                Quote: Dodikson
                plz tell us about what kind of moglik you are and how you dragged 2.5-4 million blocks of 2-3 tons xz how many kilometers with boards and ropes across the sand and did not leave any traces of transportation.

                One more ... :) And, for some reason, all of you have obvious mental disabilities. To see the movement of some blocks in a conversation about wooden structures, this obviously needs to be with a traveling cuckoo.
                Or get treatment, Dodik son of Dodik ...
                1. Dodikson
                  Dodikson 6 December 2020 01: 59
                  -4
                  Yolupen, I write like you constantly on such topics that all sorts of poor people who consider themselves smarter and higher than others are a little uncomfortable, because there is nothing to answer.
                  and this, elk, there are so many things in the world that you don't even suspect about. And this, part two, smart never says that he knows everything and can, because a smart one knows that he cannot know everything, but a sage speaks in general that he does not know anything, because the spheres of his interests are so great that everything that ordinary people know for him is generally dandruff of knowledge.
                  1. Reviews
                    Reviews 6 December 2020 06: 56
                    +1
                    Quote: Dodikson
                    Yolupen, I write like you constantly on such topics that all sorts of poor people who consider themselves smarter and higher than others are a little uncomfortable, because there is nothing to answer.
                    and this, elk, there are so many things in the world that you don't even suspect about. And this, part two, smart never says that he knows everything and can, because a smart one knows that he cannot know everything, but a sage speaks in general that he does not know anything, because the spheres of his interests are so great that everything that ordinary people know for him is generally dandruff of knowledge.

                    A set of words. Stop drinking, crawl and wash.
          2. Kote Pan Kokhanka
            Kote Pan Kokhanka 5 December 2020 09: 23
            +7
            Quote: ignoto
            Splitting.
            Try to sheathe the ship with boards obtained using this technology.
            Will not work.

            When hands do not grow from the fifth point, it is easy.

            The saddle is wedged along the floors made of cylindrical pine logs. Then processed with a hand plane.

            I have a familiar carpenter using a similar technology to make floors and canopies for baths for very rich people. Seeing my handicrafts sometimes he says with a grin, but you can do it with an ax. He uses three types of wood only for the construction of the bathhouse. Total turnkey from five to seven. Saw only on ends, tops and slops. Ripping is a crime. "Bath - cut" is his favorite saying. Once I saw a purchased carpenter's ax. He grunted, took the old grandfathers, brought to mind. When I returned it demonstratively, I cut out a casket for me, an analogue of the one I did for my daughter.

            My left, his right.
            For mine I used a milling cutter, a miter saw, a drilling machine, a jigsaw, a screwdriver and an awl. He is an ax. I made the hinges so I used an awl and a screwdriver. I think if Nikolai Yuryevich was puzzled, he would manage with his ax.
          3. Lynx2000
            Lynx2000 6 December 2020 01: 30
            +3
            Quote: ignoto
            Splitting.
            Try to sheathe the ship with boards obtained using this technology.
            Will not work.

            Splitting a log into planks with cutting with an ax with a wide blade of one-sided sharpening (the name of a gorge) is the very first way of processing.
            Sheathing of ships with such boards was carried out. The board split longitudinally along is flexible and does not let water through, because the fibers are not broken by the cut. On the roof of the roof, such boards (gaps) were used.

            Quote: Avis
            And also the log is relatively easily split into several boards with wedges.

            Of course, you have to tinker, knots before splitting, or you have to cut or saw through.
            Again, a dry log is difficult to split, it happens that if it dries unevenly, you will find radial cracks when cross-cutting. Strongly damp wood is sticky ...

            1. Reviews
              Reviews 6 December 2020 06: 59
              +1
              Quote: Lynx2000

              Quote: Avis
              And also the log is relatively easily split into several boards with wedges.

              Of course you have to tinker

              I wrote "relatively". There is a hypothesis that the first boards were obtained simply by cutting out one board from a solid log. With regard to this method, splitting the board is easy.
              Pictures are interesting. good
      2. unknown
        unknown 5 December 2020 06: 14
        -12%
        They were not trimmed with anything.
        All "ancient, medieval and modern history" fits perfectly into the so-called "nineteenth century".
      3. unknown
        unknown 5 December 2020 06: 32
        -10%
        The history of Britain is as fake as the whole "ancient, medieval and modern history".
        As for China, you probably did not read it carefully.
        Burials of representatives of the yellow race in the territory of modern China are not older than 150 years.
        This means that the so-called Chinese did not appear on this territory until the middle of the "nineteenth century".
        And in order to create a water-powered sawmill, you need a certain level of development of society, the level of development of technical knowledge, the level of development of the language.
        Only after reaching a certain level, a person can calculate such mechanisms, and make them.
        As for the population of China. even now it is much less than stated.
        Such studies have been carried out. Adequate researchers have concluded that the real population of China is around 450 million.
        It is very beneficial to overstate the population.
        A birth certificate is actually a live birth certificate, under which there is a certain amount of funding. More population means more money pumping.
        If, of course, the development of this country corresponds to the plans of the "world government".
        Less emotion. Thinking is also useful. Regular thinking is not a good thing. But, in many respects it was inherent in a person initially. Some people are unable to overcome their rigidity.
        1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
          Kote Pan Kokhanka 5 December 2020 09: 31
          +6
          And in order to create a water-powered sawmill, you need a certain level of development of society, the level of development of technical knowledge, the level of development of the language.

          The language for the sawmill is an absolutely necessary thing, especially the abusive one !!!!
          When I was in the hospital I asked my comrades to throw off links to Greek and Roman authors !!! Many thanks were thrown in the forum and in PM, I've been reading it for a month now!
          In that era, they did not bother too much - science was called philosophy! Just the written works of Socrates, what are they worth! Read will not regret it.
        2. Reviews
          Reviews 5 December 2020 12: 03
          +3
          Quote: ignoto
          Regular thinking is not a good thing.
          rigidity

          What are you, nemogliks and conspirators, primitive and the same ... Every first one does not know the meaning of every second word he uses. What "meaning" is there ... He doesn't even know the spelling. "Regularity" ...
        3. Selevc
          Selevc 6 December 2020 12: 44
          -1
          [/ quote] [quote = ignoto] The history of Britain is the same fake, like the whole "ancient, medieval and modern history".

          The history of Britain is the history of their violence against other nations !!! The conquerors, they are scoundrels by nature and will come up with their own story as it seems that everyone is to blame except themselves !!! From the Romans, they took the whole Mediterranean in defense, and the British exterminated entire peoples only solely out of their natural anger and savagery !!!

          As they say - everything suits the scoundrel !!! The whole history of the Anglo-Saxon world is based on this principle !!!
          1. Vanches
            Vanches 6 January 2021 22: 53
            0
            Taax, just don’t throw cocoa into Rome, all the powers along the shores of the Mediterranean tried to overwhelm Rome (Gauls, Carthage, Pontus, Seleucids and others), but they failed. It is quite logical that when the Romans crushed all of Italy under themselves, they wanted to remove old enemies, if there is strength, why not beat the goats to the state of minced meat) Ivan the Terrible did the same with Kazan, Astrakhan and Siberia.
            By the way, any large and influential state is engaged in expansion.
    3. Dodikson
      Dodikson 5 December 2020 14: 57
      -3
      just don't substitute alternatives with incorrect dates, 150 years ago, the main part of China was inhabited by the Chinese, moreover, it has been inhabiting it for at least 300 years.
  4. The leader of the Redskins
    The leader of the Redskins 4 December 2020 19: 02
    +2
    What an interesting article!
    Thank you, the author, read it with pleasure!
  5. Ryaruav
    Ryaruav 4 December 2020 19: 02
    +4
    Chinese history is such a big invented myth, I don't know why all historians are usually silent, although few people believe in these fables, besides, they are not confirmed by anything other than Chinese crafts
    1. Lannan Shi
      Lannan Shi 4 December 2020 20: 41
      +4
      Quote: Ryaruav
      Chinese history is such a big invented myth, I don't know why all historians are usually silent

      Why are they silent? In the textbook on the history of China, for universities, in the preface it is written. Black in Russian. That all the Chinese chronicles were rewritten under the new dynasty. yes Like - here's the harsh truth of a child's life, and then we will read fairy tales, and together we will pretend that we believe in them. yes
    2. Esoteric
      Esoteric 4 December 2020 20: 43
      0
      Here, by the way, I confess, a heretical thought crept in. And what if Fomenko is not Fomenko at all, but a product of our official historians? Why? It's simple. Anyone doubting historical miracles, in the same Chinese antiquity, in the millions of armies of the ancient world, and other absurdities that do not agree with the economy, and just ordinary common sense, should be labeled as a Fomenko adherent. And not in the first.
    3. Aleksandr1971
      Aleksandr1971 5 December 2020 05: 09
      +6
      Yes Yes! And the Chinese themselves are also a myth. They only exist in pictures in the news
      1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
        Kote Pan Kokhanka 5 December 2020 09: 32
        +6
        Quote: Aleksandr1971
        Yes Yes! And the Chinese themselves are also a myth. They only exist in pictures in the news

        And in general the Earth is flat!
        1. voyaka uh
          voyaka uh 5 December 2020 21: 31
          +1
          As China quickly and confidently squeezes the United States into the first place
          in the world, as a superpower, the instinctive rejection of China and its history is growing,
          his techniques.
  6. tlauicol
    tlauicol 4 December 2020 19: 23
    0
    I read it with pleasure good
    1. Santa Fe
      7 December 2020 04: 25
      +1
      Thanks.

      By the way, how do Zircons fly there ?, yesterday I looked at the analysis of launches from the USN website, this is fun
      1. tlauicol
        tlauicol 7 December 2020 05: 28
        0
        they say they fly, but I don't know how they fly. What kind of parsing?
        1. Santa Fe
          8 December 2020 05: 56
          0
          There is reason to believe that Onyx was launched
          1. tlauicol
            tlauicol 8 December 2020 07: 08
            0
            Quote: Santa Fe
            There is reason to believe that Onyx was launched

            Oh, you mean it .. I have long suspected that Zircon is far from what it is believed to be. Well, what kind of analysis?
            1. Santa Fe
              8 December 2020 13: 28
              +1
              http://www.hisutton.com/Russian-Navy-Zircon-Hypersonic-Missile-Questions.html
  7. Vasilenko Vladimir
    Vasilenko Vladimir 4 December 2020 19: 23
    +3
    can you think this "Titanic" is the only invention of the Chinese?
  8. Cowbra
    Cowbra 4 December 2020 19: 25
    +2
    Koreans are called Far Eastern Jews. Well, it's time for the Chinese - the Far Eastern "Sumerians". Their stories are similar
  9. voyaka uh
    voyaka uh 4 December 2020 19: 54
    +4
    So the Chinese fleet, it seems, was a coastal one.
    They did not cross oceans and seas, but moved along the coast.
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 5 December 2020 09: 37
      +2
      Valuable remark, but how did they get to America? Yes, and returned however. However, here you need to know the trade wind system. On the other hand, just because of the cumbersomeness of their "troughs" and the wretchedness of their rigging, they could have gone anywhere. The question is whether everyone returned.
      1. voyaka uh
        voyaka uh 5 December 2020 11: 54
        +2
        So we got there: along the coast of Kamchatka, Alaska, and so on. Without crossing the Pacific Ocean.
        1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
          Kote Pan Kokhanka 5 December 2020 12: 02
          +2
          In principle, why not!
          But what to feed such a horde of rowers and sailors. The autonomy of the Mediterranean galleys did not exceed three days, of the galleases - ten days.
          Considering the size of the ships and the peculiarities of the Chinese mast system, the crews must be huge. If you take the masts of low height, the seaworthiness decreases.
          Our newly-fledged ships (flat-bottomed) and modern spars for the 18th century were very blown away. According to the Admiralty, they were suitable only for the Sea of ​​Azov. In companies on the Black Sea, they were not used out of a good life. As soon as it became possible to build ships in Kherson, Nikolaev and Sevastopol, flat-bottomed ships were abandoned. And here the giants are three times larger than our Volga Belyans!
          1. voyaka uh
            voyaka uh 5 December 2020 13: 00
            +6
            Chinese ships of that time should be considered as huge rafts
            with sails, rudders, oars. And light superstructures, sheds or "palaces".
            Their voyages were rather exploratory, "prestigious" than military colonial
            or trading. They didn't care about speed.
            ---
            The British or the Portuguese built any ship as an oceanic trade and military.
            Speed ​​and agility were critical. Hence, completely different
            shipbuilding.
      2. Katanikotael
        Katanikotael 5 December 2020 11: 57
        +1
        The grooms rowed across the Pacific Ocean, so anything is possible if desired.
        1. Reviews
          Reviews 5 December 2020 13: 41
          +3
          Quote: Katanikotael
          The grooms rowed across the Pacific Ocean, so anything is possible if desired.

          So-so argumentative. grooms and flew in a balloon. What - did the Chinese fly too?
          Seriously, compare materials and equipment.
  10. Jünger
    Jünger 4 December 2020 19: 56
    0
    At that time, China had every opportunity to tidy up Asia for itself - it had both the technical and human resources for this.
    But due to the specific features of the Chinese, the era of active sea voyages curtailed over several decades.
    In general, this is an indicator of the level of the nation's wealth, which at that time beat the Portuguese at sea, and then hid in its shell.
    Strange Chinese people.
    1. RVAPatriot
      RVAPatriot 4 December 2020 20: 44
      +2
      Besides China, where is there evidence of their greatness ?? Here, as with the Golden Horde, they say that it was, but there is no evidence .... China is muddy, Wait appropriates the achievements of others, why not appropriate the historical achievements ... The Chinese themselves are hardworking, but they are not geniuses .. They just repeat. .. Wait with the mixing of blood becomes a formidable force
      1. Jünger
        Jünger 4 December 2020 22: 31
        -4
        Quote: RVAPatriot
        Besides China, where is there evidence of their greatness ??

        Who is talking about greatness besides you? I wrote that they could become great, but not given.
      2. nedgen
        nedgen 5 December 2020 00: 17
        +2
        Quote: RVAPatriot
        Besides China, where is there evidence of their greatness ?? Here, as with the Golden Horde, they say that it was, but there is no evidence .... China is muddy, Wait appropriates the achievements of others, why not appropriate the historical achievements ... The Chinese themselves are hardworking, but they are not geniuses .. They just repeat. .. Wait with the mixing of blood becomes a formidable force

        Disagree with blood mixing. The Chinese have not become part of a community anywhere in the world. They always, with exceptions, marry each other and always speak only their native language to the family.
        1. Aleksandr1971
          Aleksandr1971 5 December 2020 06: 03
          +3
          You are not right. The Chinese assimilated several dozen other once great warlike peoples. These are Liao, Tangut, Kara-Kitai, Jurcheni, partly Hunnu and a lot of other ethnic groups. So now the Chinese are the result of mixing the blood of now extinct peoples.

          The Chinese have more than a dozen native languages. Of these Chinese languages, some are completely different from each other, and are united only by hieroglyphic writing, for example, Peking and Guandong dialects, which are essentially different languages.

          In your opinion, Russian families do not speak Russian? Why not speak Chinese in Chinese families?
          1. nedgen
            nedgen 5 December 2020 19: 59
            +1
            I agree with you that the Chinese have assimilated many peoples and the dialects of the Chinese are so different that it's time to talk about different nations BUT they all consider themselves CHINESE despite the difference in languages, and in Russian families abroad they speak Russian in the first maximum of the second generation, very rarely in the third and almost NEVER in the fourth. All this almost never works with the Chinese (unfortunately). An example of this is China's town in America. And not only there. I met in Britain with Chinese in the second and third generations and ALL OF THEY consider themselves Chinese and know Chinese (each of its own dialect and many of them are Mandarin.) So in some ways I am still right as you are. hi
      3. PCF
        PCF 7 December 2020 04: 52
        0
        Comrade, you pushed back about the Horde, inspire !!!
        Here, read the opinion of a professional historian
        https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t3A_yaw--0w
    2. Vasilenko Vladimir
      Vasilenko Vladimir 4 December 2020 20: 48
      0
      Quote: Junger
      he had both the technical and human resources for this.

      did the Chinese say?
    3. Vasilenko Vladimir
      Vasilenko Vladimir 4 December 2020 20: 49
      +1
      Quote: Junger
      which at that time also beat the Portuguese at sea

      Do the Portuguese know?
      but the Sumerians have been fighting with us for almost 7 years
      1. Jünger
        Jünger 4 December 2020 22: 30
        +4
        Everyone in the know
        The Chinese defeated the Portuguese fleet at the First Battle of Taman (1521), killing and capturing so many Portuguese that they had to abandon their junks and retreat with only three ships, and only managed to escape back to Malacca because of the wind. smashed the Chinese ships as the Chinese launched their last attack. The Chinese effectively took the Portuguese embassy hostage and used it as a bargaining chip to demand that the Portuguese return the ousted Malaccan sultan (king) to his throne. The Chinese executed several Portuguese by beating and strangling them, and torturing the rest. The rest of the Portuguese prisoners were chained up and kept in prison. The Chinese confiscated all Portuguese property and goods in the possession of the Pires Embassy. In 1522, Martim Afonso de Merlot Coutinho was appointed commander of another Portuguese fleet sent to establish diplomatic relations. The Chinese defeated the Portuguese ships led by Coutinho in the Second Battle of Tamao (1522). Many Portuguese were captured and ships destroyed during the battle. The Portuguese were forced to retreat to Malacca.

        Or do you have the Portuguese refutation? I'm really looking forward to it.
        1. Vasilenko Vladimir
          Vasilenko Vladimir 4 December 2020 23: 39
          -3
          For the sake of truth, where the battle took place is not known and from here follows what?
          1. Jünger
            Jünger 4 December 2020 23: 52
            +3
            You provide a refutation from the Portuguese and then I will say - what.
    4. Aleksandr1971
      Aleksandr1971 5 December 2020 06: 20
      +6
      Every nation is strange. And we, too, are strange people.

      And the fact that Zheng He's expensive sea voyages did not give any long-term result and did not pay off at all is the reason for the tyranny of Emperor Zhu Di, who directed these expeditions.
      The tyrant had the idea to force the countries of the South Seas to recognize the formal suzerainty of China. In fact, the most memorable result of the expeditions was the appearance at the Chinese court of two giraffes, which shocked the courtiers.

      Not surprisingly, after the death of Zhu Di, Chinese officials tried to hush up all the memory of the sea voyages, since in fact it was a stupid waste of colossal money.

      But it was possible to turn these campaigns into practical use. For example, organize distant trading posts and fortresses, monopolize trade in the Pacific and Indian Oceans and receive real income from this, start creating an overseas colonial empire, open two continents in the Western Hemisphere, and organize a massive resettlement of peasants to new open lands ..
  11. Soveticos
    Soveticos 4 December 2020 20: 14
    +1
    Thanks for the interesting article. The Chinese chroniclers are almost the same storytellers as Herodotus.
    1. Aleksandr1971
      Aleksandr1971 5 December 2020 06: 05
      +2
      Storytellers, like Karamzin ...
  12. Katanikotael
    Katanikotael 4 December 2020 20: 54
    +4
    For rivers and the coast, such ships are not difficult to build, even on the Volga there were comparable in size and tonnage. The Chinese's drive was most likely oar, like most of their ships, they will attach two dozen galleys with slaves to this thing and go ahead with songs!
  13. cat Rusich
    cat Rusich 4 December 2020 22: 01
    +5
    Jules Verne wrote "Floating Island" - Standard Island - dimensions 7 by 5 kilometers, draft 10m. Maybe the scientists just found the manuscript book "Treasure Ship" (Baochuan) by the Chinese writer Zhe We? - And they accepted everything written at face value ?... fellow
  14. Undecim
    Undecim 4 December 2020 22: 37
    +10
    Recently, there has been a tendency on the site to write articles not to convey any information to the reader. and with the aim of causing "seething shit". Moreover, if earlier this mainly affected the sections "News", "Opinions" and "Analytics", today the epidemic has spread to "Armament" with "History".
    Even Kaptsov, leaving battleships and armor until better times. connected, hastily sprinkled a kind of satire on the Chinese and Zheng He's fleet.
    Meanwhile, this question is debatable both in China itself and beyond. And the Chinese historians themselves refute the "titanic" sizes of ancient sailing ships.
    Some put forward a version that if such an object was built, then this structure was stationary on the Yangtze River and served as such a "ship" for misinformation and intimidation of enemies.
    But the author is not interested in the information. Here is the seething - yes.
    1. Aleksandr1971
      Aleksandr1971 5 December 2020 06: 07
      0
      The author of this article is an aspiring folk history writer, like Igor Bunin's protoukra with his alternative histories of Russia and the USSR.
      1. Torukmakto
        Torukmakto 5 December 2020 10: 48
        +5
        Far from a beginner)
        Comrade Oleg has been writing here for a long time, a lot and colorfully)
  15. wow
    wow 5 December 2020 00: 11
    -4
    Have learned to breach from kaklov ...!
  16. Kolin
    Kolin 5 December 2020 08: 47
    -1
    Write more! What pity these Jans!
  17. vadim dok
    vadim dok 5 December 2020 16: 08
    +1
    That's right, only Frankenstein is not a monster, but the LAST NAME of the scientist who "created" the monster!
  18. czes
    czes 5 December 2020 21: 53
    +1
    Why spread Chinese fantasies about the greatness of the Middle Kingdom?
  19. WayKheThuo
    WayKheThuo 5 December 2020 22: 37
    +2
    Great article.
    Thanks, Author.
    I liked the comparison with real examples of sailing ships the most.
  20. WayKheThuo
    WayKheThuo 5 December 2020 23: 01
    +2
    Just don’t laugh, but, having rummaged through the Web, I found a very interesting thing, it seems to me.
    We are talking about the specific sailing armament DynaRig (https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/DynaRig)
    The bottom line is a sharp increase in windage, a decrease in mutual shading by sails, and in general.
    But the main thing is that you will compare the sails of the Chinese "treasures" and the proposed version from the middle of the 20th century.
    As for me - curious.
    1. Reviews
      Reviews 5 December 2020 23: 26
      0
      Back in the 1970s, it was published either in "UT", or in "TM".
  21. Santa Fe
    7 December 2020 04: 26
    0
    I read everyone, thank you for the feedback, gentlemen
  22. Gunther
    Gunther 31 December 2020 06: 07
    +2
    Quote: Author
    Data on the Chinese "treasures" are taken from the Dynastic Chronicles of the Ming Empire (1368-1644) and a number of other documents presented by Chinese historians at the official level in the early 2000s.

    laughing
    The Chinese have no original chronicles - there are crafts of the 18th century, supposedly copies of the "original", it is not surprising that access to the pyramids (of which there are more than in Egypt) was closed - they are evidence of the fake antiquity of China and the "achievements" of the "ancient Chinese" laughing
  23. georggy
    georggy 25 January 2021 06: 33
    0
    Were on the moon and mars.
    Do not tell my sneakers.
    Better write the truth: how they ate opium.