Military Review

Flagship of the Naval Forces of Israel


Israeli sailors always remain in the shadow of their more successful colleagues from the Air Force and the ground forces. A tiny country smaller than the Moscow region, by definition, cannot have a strong ocean fleet, and the main event that glorified the Israeli navy to the whole world, the sinking of the destroyer Eilat, did not add prestige to this type of armed forces. Meanwhile, the specifics of the Arab-Israeli conflicts often required the support of land operations from the sea. The Israeli navy, despite its small size and the absence of large ships, took part in many sea battles, exercised control over sea communications in the entire eastern water area of ​​the Mediterranean Sea, participated in the landing of assault forces and in the conduct of sea sabotage.

Israeli sailors cannot control the situation in the South Atlantic or monitor the ships of a “likely enemy” in the Pacific Ocean, but, unlike the fleets of major maritime powers, the Israeli Navy is an active fleet that regularly participates in combat operations. In addition to the death of "Eilat", stories The Israeli Navy has other notable events, for example, the destruction of the flagship of the Egyptian Navy, Emir Farouk, blown up by combat swimmers in the Tel Aviv roads. Or the Battle of Lattakia (1973 year) - the first in the world naval battle of missile boats.

Riddle long 45 years

Speaking about the Israeli naval forces, it is worth mentioning a special incident that took place off the coast of the State of Israel during the Six Day War. On June 8, 1967, the US Naval reconnaissance ship Liberty gently swayed on the waves 12 miles from the coast, crew members who were free from shift, smeared with sunscreen, sunbathed under the warm Mediterranean sun. I could not even believe that at this time on the shore in the desert were fierce tank fights. But American sailors felt completely safe: after all, America and Israel are allies - what problems could there be?

A paranormal thing happened: “Mirages” suddenly appeared over the “Liberty” with six-pointed stars on its wings, and a fire descended on the American reconnaissance ship. The planes shot down the Liberty add-ins from 30 mm cannons, and then flooded the ship with napalm. At the same time, the Israeli naval torpedo boats went on the attack - a deafening explosion literally threw the Liberty out of the water. Having received a hole in the underwater part, the ship began to fall to the starboard. The nightmare did not end there - the Israelis came closer and stood at close range from rifle weapons shoot people running along the burning Liberty Deck. From the 290 man of the crew of the American intelligence officer, Israeli sailors and pilots killed and wounded 205 people. An hour later ... Israeli torpedo boats again approached the "Liberty", this time looking at the words: "Do you need help?" In response, a crippled ship screamed: "Get the hell out!"

Flagship of the Naval Forces of Israel

The next day, all the details of the incident were kept secret on both sides, Israel whispered words of apology and secretly paid 13 millions of dollars in compensation (in 1967 prices of the year). It is still not clear what it was. The official version is only suitable for the younger group of the kindergarten - you see, the Israeli military confused "Liberty", richly decorated with star-striped symbolism and with a huge parabolic antenna (displacement - 10 000 tons), with the Egyptian horse transport "Al-Quseir" (displacement - 2600 tons).

The circumstances of the tragedy are persistently silenced, but the most likely is the “Golan version”: knowing how the US National Security Agency works [2] (“Liberty” de facto belonged to the NSA), the Israeli General Staff feared that the secret details of the planned operation to seize the Golan Heights would be intercepted by the powerful radio equipment “Liberty”, and inevitably, through Soviet agents in the NSA, would become known to the Arabs at the same hour. The consequence will be bloody porridge from the advancing Israeli units. In addition, there was a stream of other “non-print” orders on the radio, for example, about the shooting of 1 by thousands of captured Egyptian soldiers in the town of El-Atshsh in Sinai. The Israelis were extremely reluctant to give such facts to international publicity and immediately let “Liberty” be at the expense. Experienced diplomats then somehow agree ...

"Eilat" class

But we are not here to remember the dark sides of the twentieth century. The fact is that in the combat structure of the Israeli Navy, in addition to numerous boats and several diesel submarines, there are very interesting, in my opinion, sea means. These are the Saar 5 type corvettes - a series of three multi-purpose ships with a total displacement of 1250 tons. "Eilat", "Lahav" and "Hanit".
Corvettes were designed by Israeli experts specifically taking into account the conditions of the Middle East conflict. They were built in the period from 1992 to 1995 year at the American shipyard Ingalls Shipbuilding.

Ins eilat

Having studied the experience of other naval powers, the Israeli Navy chose for their ships the concept of the development of the Soviet Navy. Those. to the limit, to fill warships with firing means to the detriment of the cruising range. An ideal tool for short sea raids.
The result was really good corvettes, serving as leaders in squadrons of missile boats and small artillery ships. Corvettes of the type “Eilat” (in honor of the lead ship of the series), despite their small size (displacement 2 times smaller than the Russian corvette Ave 20380 “Watching”), greatly enhance the impact power of its mini squadron and are able to provide quality cover for small ships and boats from air attacks. Next - on the list.

The main caliber of "Eilat" - 8 anti-ship missiles "Harpoon". A familiar thing, the most common in the world of subsonic RCC. Flight range - 120 ... 150 km (of course, in the absence of external target designation, the firing range automatically becomes equal to the radio horizon, ie, 30 ... 40 km). The combat unit "Harpoon" - 225 kilograms, marching speed - 0,85Mach.
"Harpoon", with good luck, can stop even a large target of the "destroyer" class, but launching a missile worth 1.5 million by boats or other small-sized targets is too wasteful. The Israelis have provided for this option a special tool - the anti-ship missile of its own production "Gabriel", and the corvettes are armed with its outdated version - "Gabriel-2", which does not even have an active homing head. This significantly reduces the cost of the rocket, and its natural drawbacks: the need to constantly turn on shipborne radar and a short range of flight - all 35 kilometers are absolutely unimportant when repelling the attacks of armed terrorists' boats.

Technically, the Gabriel is a subsonic single-stage cruise missile, similar in size to the Harpoon anti-ship missiles. Starting weight - 600 kg. Flight speed to the target - 0,75Mach. Semi-armored warhead weighing 150 kg. Suitable for shooting objects on the shore.

Ins lahav

Anti-aircraft weapons:
Israeli engineers are very serious about providing air defense. The newest Israeli anti-aircraft missile system “Barak-1” (translated from the Hebrew “Lightning”) is installed on the corvettes of the “Eilat” type. 64 vertical launch cells, anti-aircraft missile complex strikes targets within 12 km from the ship, the maximum interception height - 5 km. The new EL / M-2248 radar with fixed antenna arrays can detect any airborne threats, including low-flying cruise missiles and guided bombs.
Despite the fact that "Barak-1" is very expensive, it is a popular anti-aircraft missile system on the world market; "Barak-1" adopted by the Navy of India, Singapore, Venezuela, Azerbaijan and other countries. Together with India, Israel is developing a new modification of its naval air defense system, capable of hitting targets at a distance of 70 km.
In addition, the Phalanx anti-aircraft complex is mounted on the nose of the corvette - a six-barreled automatic gun of the 20 caliber mm, articulated on a single carriage with an aiming complex and radar.

Torpedo-mine weapons:
To counter the possible attacks of submarines, the Eilat-type corvettes are armed with two standard torpedo tubes to launch anti-submarine torpedoes Mark-32, standard for NATO fleets.

Aviation armament:
On a small ship there was a place even for the permanent basing of the helicopter, there is a helipad and a hangar for storing equipment. The Eurocopter Panther multipurpose helicopter has been selected for basing on the deck of Israeli corvettes.

Electronic weapons:
Taking into account the experience of the Doomsday War, when, thanks to the use of the latest electronic warfare systems, none of the P-54 Termite missiles launched from the ships of the Syrian and Egyptian Navy reached the goal, Israeli sailors attach particular importance to electronic countermeasure systems. As part of the ship’s weapons complex there are:
- three launchers for shooting Elbit Deseaver dipoles
- producer of anti-radar interference Rafael Wizard (wideband zapping anti-radar decoy) with passive corner reflectors
- Radar exposure warning system "Elisra NS-9003 / 9005"
- AN / SLQ-25 Nixie anti-torpedo protection system, consisting of an onboard signal generator and towed sonar jammer.

Ins hanit

Powerfully, but ... 14 July 2006, during the Lebanese war, the Israeli Navy corvette Hanit fell under a missile strike from the coast. No advanced anti-aircraft systems and jamming systems saved the Khanit: 700 Chinese-made YJ-82 anti-ship rocket [3] sank into the ship’s side, killing the Israeli sailors 4. This time, the Israeli Navy is relatively lucky: despite the 165 detonation, the missile warhead kg remained afloat and did not receive serious damage. After half a year, the Khanit was able to return to the execution of combat missions off the coast of Lebanon.

The cause of the incident was the usual human negligence - at the time of the rocket attack, the tracking system of the corvette was rendered inoperative. The crew did not expect the enemy to have powerful anti-ship missiles and solved some problems of its own at that moment. By the way, a quarter of a century before these events, the disconnected radar caused the death of the British destroyer Sheffield. History teaches no one.

General characteristics of the corvette type "Eilat":
KVL length is 85,6 meters, width is 11,88 meters, draft is 3 meters. The body is made with the requirements of technology "stealth". The standard displacement is 1000 tons. Full displacement - 1250 tons. Crew - 74 person.
The ship is driven by a combined plant consisting of two V12 diesel engines and a General Electric gas turbine LM2500 for full speed.
Full speed - knot 33
The cruising range at an economic rate is 3500 nautical miles (distance by sea from St. Petersburg to Murmansk).

Do not be surprised. as Israeli engineers managed to place so many weapons systems on such a miniature corvette and provide the ship with high seaworthy characteristics. Back in 1967, in the Soviet Union, a small rocket ship project was created according to a project with the easily remembered 1234 cipher. In the MKR case with a full displacement of 730 tons (!), It was possible to place 6 launchers for launching heavy Malachite P-120 anti-ship missiles, a two-beam launcher of the Osa air defense missile system (20 missiles), and a 76 mm anti-aircraft gun and 30 mm anti-aircraft missile AK-630. Aircraft on board, of course, was not, but you look at the year of the creation of the ship. In those days, the helicopter seemed overkill. Small rocket ships of the 1234 Ave. were built in the USSR in batches and still remain in the ranks of many countries of the world. It was precisely the “Mirage” MRC that distinguished itself in the 2008 rocket battle in the Black Sea in August.

As for corvettes of the “Saar-5” type (“Eilat”), until a new draft of the warship with the Aegis system has been created, corvettes of this type remain the flagship ships of the Israeli Navy.

1. The destroyer "Eilat" - a former British destroyer type "Z". Bookmark date - 1943 year, full displacement - 1700 tons. It was sunk in 1967 by four P-15 Termite anti-ship missiles launched from Egyptian missile boats. The date of the destruction of the destroyer - October 21 - is celebrated as the Day of the Israeli Navy.
2. In the US, there are 25 intelligence services of various profiles: the FBI, the CIA, the NSA, the ONI maritime intelligence, etc., etc.
3. Yingji anti-ship cruise missile YJ-82 from China, export designation C-802. Firing range - 120 km. (in some versions it may be increased to 500 km). CRP speed - 0,9M. Mass of warhead - 165 kg. Equipped with an active radar homing head. Due to its low price, the rocket is extremely popular in developing countries.


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  1. ward
    ward 15 August 2012 08: 45
    A great example of the concept of coastal defense ... given that it is based on Soviet developments ... I feel proud of a job well done ... plus ...
    1. Civil
      Civil 15 August 2012 10: 57
      The author, well done, not embarrassed, remembered with a kind word the USSR Navy, the adoption of concepts and developments by Israel.
      1. Santa Fe
        15 August 2012 13: 00
        Quote: Civil
        remembered with a kind word the Navy of the USSR

        There is something to remember
        Quote: Civil
        adoption of concepts and developments by Israel.

        Concept yes
        Operating time - vryatli, there all weapons, electronics, body forms and a power plant - according to NATO standards
        1. curious
          curious 17 August 2012 12: 31
          Well, all that remains is to praise the Israeli engineers and the generals, the main customer of these miracles
  2. damba
    damba 15 August 2012 09: 43
    it is necessary to build just such "Mirages" in batches, they will be better than hefty corvettes.
    1. borisst64
      borisst64 15 August 2012 11: 11
      They are good at solving the problem of returning vodka from Finland))

      (see. Features of national fishing)
  3. Isr
    Isr 15 August 2012 12: 19
    Liberty was spying on us, it was necessary to hint the Americans that this should not be done. I had to carefully burn all the antennas without affecting the crew. We then apologized.
    1. Chicot 1
      Chicot 1 16 August 2012 21: 21
      They did not affect the crew ... However ... But what about those same 205 people who were killed or injured? ...
      Of course, I’m not Stirlitz, but for some reason I believe the author of the article more. Miles sorry ...
  4. Tourist Breakfast
    Tourist Breakfast 15 August 2012 12: 21
    ... The nightmare didn’t end there - the Israelites came closer and began to shoot people shooting at Liberty’s burning deck at point-blank range with small arms. Of the 290 people on the crew of the American intelligence, Israeli sailors and pilots killed and injured 205 people.

    More precisely: As a result of the attack, Liberty was seriously damaged, 34 were killed and 173 crew members were injured.
  5. Santa Fe
    15 August 2012 13: 03
    Algerian Navy Small Missile Ship, Soviet 1234 Project

    Andrey, how do you comment on this case? Does the ship need armor?
    1. Kars
      Kars 15 August 2012 13: 24
      A 700-kilogram Chinese-made anti-ship missile YJ-82 [3] pierced the side of the ship, killing 4 Israeli sailors. This time, the Israeli Navy was relatively lucky: despite the detonation of 165 kg of the warhead of the rocket, the corvette remained afloat and did not receive serious damage

      It would be interesting in more detail. Google tormented --- nothing worked. A couple of links gave out - but they did not work. Especially the photo.
      And small armor is not necessary, it will not be pulled. And so 4 people could have survived the remainder. And by the way, this is just a plus for my .. heavy missile cruiser .. if the RCC didn’t do anything special like that, then there it was.
      1. Tourist Breakfast
        Tourist Breakfast 15 August 2012 13: 54
        Here is a photo:

        There is a thread on the Waronline forum discussing this incident.
        1. Kars
          Kars 15 August 2012 13: 57
          Thank you. He is keen on the deck, And the explosion did not occur in the interior.
    2. Professor
      Professor 15 August 2012 13: 27
      No advanced anti-aircraft systems and jamming systems saved the Hanit: a Chinese-made 700 kilogram anti-ship missile YJ-82 [3] pierced the ship, killing 4 Israeli sailors.

      These complexes, at a minimum, had to be turned on, otherwise they were sitting and eating ...
      The corvette was still lucky that the rocket did not hit the side, but into the helipad. Naval intelligence of that time now "sells pies at the station."
      1. Kars
        Kars 15 August 2012 13: 41
        This is already more interesting.
        Anyway, where did it get? On board? On the deck of the helipad. On board in the wound of the helipad? Was the explosion instant? Or did the rocket penetrate the deck or board and explode into the interior?

        If you ask Prof, he won’t answer me.
        1. Santa Fe
          15 August 2012 14: 05
          Quote: Kars
          at .. a heavy missile cruiser .. if the RCC didn’t do anything like this, it’s all the more so

          You made 3 logical errors in your reasoning:
          1. You are considering alternative development of the fleet, but you are not taking into account the development of weapons in a different scenario. It was not a problem for engineers of the 60's to develop a heavy homing aircraft torpedo, high-altitude bombing equipment, or a new deck-based aviation complex to attack highly protected surface targets.

          2. The economy of the countries of the world would not have pulled such expenses - the British hardly built a dozen destroyers of the 42 type (each 4500 tons)

          3. Not one anti-ship missile, but an entire avalanche of fire and metal will fly into a heavy cruiser. One of them will be fatal
          1. Kars
            Kars 15 August 2012 15: 16
            Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
            problems to develop a heavy homing aircraft torpedo

            In general, it was needed in any situation, if there were mine .. boys .. or not ---- but they are not there-Torpedoes, the first ones were controlled by wire, then the acoustics took measures even.
            Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
            The economies of the world would not have pulled such costs

            This is also a moot point ---- the pelvis was riveted with a displacement greater than the United States (by which year)
            Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
            Not one anti-ship missile, but an entire avalanche of fire and metal will fly into a heavy cruiser. One of them will be fatal

            And what did someone say that he is invulnerable? And an avalanche of fire and metal will fly into any ship --- if the enemy certainly has such an opportunity --- but mine will have much greater chances.
            1. Santa Fe
              15 August 2012 15: 34
              Quote: Kars
              This is also a moot point ---- the pelvis was riveted with a displacement greater than the United States (by which year)

              According to statistics, by 1989, the displacement of the USSR Navy exceeded the displacement of the US Navy by 17%. But there is a nuance: we have taken into account everything. right down to rusty floating ships, the first post-war submarines in reserve, useless minesweepers, and XRNXX years ago. All this junk hung on the balance sheet to increase staffing and, accordingly, the number of admiral posts. The USSR Navy without hesitation robbed the homeland.
              Quote: Kars
              And an avalanche of fire and metal will fly into any ship --- if the enemy certainly has such an opportunity --- but mine will have much greater chances.

              We don’t have to talk about the chances here, the heavy cruiser, like the rest of the pelvis, has a chance of meeting 0 with deck aircraft. If you need to drown a heavy cruiser - attack aircraft will surely drown him, as proof - 70 summer story. The exception is the South Dakota fight, but even this, when carefully considered, is bullshit.

              A heavy cruiser will be bombed and torpedoed, and they will be right - there’s nothing to go in the ocean without air cover
              1. Kars
                Kars 15 August 2012 15: 49
                Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
                17% displacement of the American Navy. But there is a nuance

                This is not my problem.
                Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
                The USSR Navy without hesitation robbed the homeland.

                So he could pull the TKR.
                Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
                We don’t have to talk about the chances here, the heavy cruiser, like the rest of the pelvis, has a 0

                not provable ---- for one Yamato aircraft raised more than five aircraft carriers.
                Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
                If you need to drown a heavy cruiser - attack aircraft will surely drown, as proof - 70 year history

                If there are enough of them, but vetchs can also be done earlier.
                Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
                A heavy cruiser will be bombed and torpedoed, and they will be right - there’s nothing to go in the ocean without air cover

                In fact, let them bomb them with bombs and torpedoes after the revolution in air defense. Even the Falkland conflict is proof of this --- although they defeated a large number of ships, they could not win.

                And that would not go around the TKR (my version) had a greater chance of defeating the AUG than any other surface ship.

                And about the reservation ---- according to the photos (by the way, yours is not dubious, why did you order it on board, I already started to doubt) the armored deck in mm 30 of the Garvey’s armor would be just right. (Although such a miliuza probably will not pull )
  6. Orey
    Orey 15 August 2012 13: 28
    Israel has only three 1250t corvettes? belay
    1. Tourist Breakfast
      Tourist Breakfast 15 August 2012 14: 10
      They still want to order, but they can’t decide. Either 4-5 corvettes, or 3 frigates.
  7. Auchan
    Auchan 15 August 2012 13: 48
    The battleship breeds pairs
    The newest corvette of the Russian Navy "Guarding"
    1. bamboo
      bamboo 16 August 2012 19: 00
      Yes, something like that, we already discussed this photo !!!!
      The man who went on it wrote that this is so for everyone when the engine is warming up !!!
      you are our stingy))) laughing
      1. Auchan
        Auchan 16 August 2012 22: 27
        It's not about the engine
        The design "Guarding" looks weaker against the background of the little Jew: a displacement of 2500 tons, and there is less sense
  8. Pimply
    Pimply 15 August 2012 15: 59
    It's kind of fun to write about the Israeli Navy, and not write about submarines. Or about small missile boats of the Super-Dvora type, and write only about the SAAR.

    About El Atsh, the moment of the place that did not have, is generally wonderful.

    About the allied relations between the USA and Israel in 1967 - wonderful. Especially considering that, de facto, they somehow weren’t special. And about hung with flags - also brilliant.

    Just "shine", not an article.
    1. Santa Fe
      15 August 2012 16: 30
      Quote: Pimply
      It's kind of fun to write about the Israeli Navy, and not write about submarines. Or about small missile boats of the Super-Dvora type, and write only about the SAAR.

      Have you carefully read the title of the article? wink
      Quote: Pimply
      And about hung with flags - also brilliant.

      You invented it yourself. There is no such thing in the article.
      1. Pimply
        Pimply 15 August 2012 20: 29
        mixed up "Liberty", richly decorated with star-striped symbols

        Not much different

        Quote: SWEET_SIXTEEN
        Have you carefully read the title of the article?

        Was reading. Describing the flagship, it is somehow customary to give information in the context of the situation in the fleet
  9. Argonaut
    Argonaut 15 August 2012 16: 57
    The Liberty incident is a vivid example of treachery and deceit for the sake of black politics.
  10. ivanovbg
    ivanovbg 15 August 2012 23: 05
    No dick yourself allies, tear the ship apart the only friendly to them states on the entire planet. Yes, the crew will be shot! And then - oh, how unhappy we are, why we are not loved ???? If still 5000 years before XP. Your forefather Abraham was expelled from Ur of Galdea and today, 7000 years later, half the world hates you, so there is some reason for this, is not it ???
    1. Aaron Zawi
      Aaron Zawi 16 August 2012 00: 13
      Anything can happen in life, For example, during the years of the War of Independence of Israel, Western countries imposed an embargo on the sale of weapons to us, and Czechoslovakia with the blessing of the USSR sold us weapons for 50 million $ (today it is almost 500 million). In the 1956 year, the United States threatened Israel with the use of force for its actions against Egypt, and in the 1973, its nuclear potential was put on alert to protect Israel from the USSR. Yes, look at your relationship with the PRC since the 1949 of the year on such diagrams, you’ll be tormented by the compromise.
    2. berg
      berg 16 August 2012 00: 48
      20 years ago, such pearls could be heard walking by a barrel of beer, where "intellectuals" amazed each other with yesterday's stories between sips of beer and spitting into puddles of urine ...

      PS unfortunately technology will not fix it
  11. gregor6549
    gregor6549 16 August 2012 17: 43
    There are big doubts about the Israelis borrowing something from the Navy Soviets during the implementation of this project. It should be noted that government projects are implemented by Israel on the basis of tenders (competitions), which can be closed (within the country) or international. But even with closed tenders, Israel has open access to the market for weapons systems of all countries with which it has concluded bilateral or multilateral agreements in terms of weapons. Therefore, this ship contains, in addition to Israeli systems, systems purchased from other countries. For example, the American Phalanx CIWS (close-in-weapon system), or speaking in Russian, the near-zone air defense system, Mark32 torpedoes, Harpoon missiles, decoys of the Nixie trap and the French Eurocopter AS565 Panther helicopter.
    So this boat is the fruit of the cooperation of very serious players in the global arms market. Do these players take into account the experience of other countries? Sure and even normal. The USSR also tried to borrow as much as possible from the adversary everything positive that he had. True, not everything was able to reproduce at home :. then the microcircuits turned out to be the largest in the world, then the production technology and its culture did not allow to provide the required manufacturing accuracy, etc. But not by washing so much, but parity was maintained and would still be supported if it were not for Gorby talkers. And oh, how necessary this parity is. And not only Russia needs it, but everyone else
    1. Chicot 1
      Chicot 1 16 August 2012 21: 29
      The tender is a tender, and the concept on the basis of which TTZ is formed for developers is already completely different. Do not confuse flies with cutlets, dear gregor6549... PlizZz ... smile
      1. gregor6549
        gregor6549 17 August 2012 04: 04
        Dear Chicot 1, who today can be surprised by the concept, especially since all ideas are published quite openly and long before the concept begins to be embodied in metal? And TTZ are formed primarily on the basis of the country's military doctrine, the needs of this country for this type of weapon, its financial capabilities and the level of technology to which this country has access. If you look at this particular ship, then in it you can find many similarities with ships of this class built at that time in many countries of the West. And this is not unusual. So with flies and cutlets you are not at the right place.
  12. gregor6549
    gregor6549 16 August 2012 18: 13
    By the way, one Phalanx for such a ship will not be enough, because he can only work on targets in the front hemisphere. The rear hemisphere is closed to him by the ship's superstructure. Yes, and Phalanx itself is pretty outdated. He is 40 years old with a hook, if I am not mistaken.
  13. mr_Doom
    mr_Doom 25 October 2013 20: 31
    And why is Israel a fleet?