Military Review

Battle for Lake Pleshcheyevo

51
Over Pereslavl-Zalessky, against the backdrop of a general pandemic and the fight against coronavirus, the air has been smelling for several months. No, not a thunderstorm, but a real war. Positional battles against the background of the adoption of the General Plan of the urban district flared up here for the truly legendary Pleshcheyevo Lake.


Shores, shores ...


And there are already victims: the head of Pereslavl-Zalessky, Yaroslavl region, Valery Astrakhantsev, has resigned. The official version, voiced by him at a meeting of the Pereslavl City Duma, is “family circumstances”.

The other, as you can see, is more realistic - the adoption of a document, according to which simply incredible changes for the better should have taken place both in the life of the residents of the entire urban district as a whole, and in the very existence of Lake Pleshcheyevo.

And if in the villages, villages and townships, presenting the plan to the local residents, the district administration won victories, then at hearings in settlements on the outskirts of Pereslavl-Zalessky and in the city itself, a catastrophe happened unexpectedly for them.

It all started in Kriushkino


It all started with the village of Kriushkino. The General Plan project was supposed to transfer several agricultural areas to the boundaries of the settlement. This meant, in the opinion of the villagers, that a total development of the protected lands of Lake Pleshcheyevo was planned.


Source: Wikimedia Commons


The very organization of public hearings, if it could be called that, dropped to the lowest point and took place in the trunk of a car and on a bench. Formally, all residents allegedly voted unanimously "for", thereby supporting everything that was spelled out in the draft Master Plan.

However, at the hearing, outsiders appeared who agreed to take part in the dubious procedure for a certain fee. And when such facts began to be revealed, as well as the then hard-hitting questions to the representatives of the administration about the further development of the territory around Lake Pleshcheevo, the unexpected happened. The officials, who did not give sensible answers, were simply ridiculed.

Nevertheless, by a majority of votes at the expense of those who arrived, the scandalous General Plan was nevertheless adopted. But residents of Kriushkino, with a demand to check the legality of the hearing, turned to the prosecutor's office. They said in unison:

"No!"


With such an attitude to their opinion and to what may happen in the future on the land of Alexander Nevsky and on the water surface, where Peter I was born of the Russian military fleet, they, it turns out, disagree. Categorically.

The master plan is not yet a reason for building


A few days after what happened in the village of Kriushkino, the residents of Gorodishche and Nikitskaya Sloboda, as well as the city of Pereslavl-Zalessky itself, unequivocally refused to accept the General Plan. The letter from the Ministry of Natural Resources of the Russian Federation about the ban on the transfer of resonant sites near the village of Kriushkino to the lands of settlements did not affect their opinion.


Photo: Elena Petrova / Fotolia

So, like a chain reaction, a massive unification of the defenders of both Pleshcheyevo Lake itself and natural values ​​around the ancient water pearl took place.

Who are you, masters of culture?


At the same time, artists came to the shores of the reserved Pleshcheyevo Lake and held an open-air "Painters, protect with your brush!" They were united not only in reflecting the reality around them, but also in the fact that "... the people will not want these places, unique in their beauty, to become a source of income for one person."


A source: yarnews.net

The writer Lyudmila Petrushevskaya joined the artists.

Battle for Lake Pleshcheyevo

Her words sound like an alarm:

“The clouds are gathering over the good Pereslavl-Zalessky, the lives of people are threatened: the water supply is bad. And she comes from Lake Pleshcheyevo. What is happening to water now is an ecological disaster. And this is just the beginning. "


The director Andrei Smirnov, known to us from the masterpiece "Belorussky Station" and other notable films, also stood up to protect Lake Pleshcheyevo and the residents living around it.


In his letter of support to the people of Pereslavl, the defenders of the lake, he writes about the need to save that part of the city and the landscape that still remains.

The director has been here many times, working on the films "Once upon a time there was a woman", "French", so he knows for certain about the disgusting state of the roads, the lack of gas, medicine and trade in local settlements. This is where officials should apply maximum diligence and diligence. They are eager to change the coastal part of the lake. What will be left to the descendants?

It's time to save the lake


During the days of the people's standing around Lake Pleshcheev, State Duma deputy Anatoly Greshnevikov came to the residents of Pereslavl-Zalessky, who at a meeting with people agreed that, if not to fight for the preservation of nature, the beauty of Pleshcheev would very soon be blocked by fences along the entire perimeter.

“The lake is dying,” he said, “it needs to be saved. It is necessary for all to unite and fight for the lake. "


Following the logic of the development of positional battles for the water surface of the lake, the deputy of the Pereslavl-Zalessky City Duma, Evgeny Rabotnikov, sent an appeal to the prosecutor's office with a demand to verify the legality of further consideration of the General Plan at the next meeting of the Duma.

Day x without choice


And the "X-day" has come. Regular meeting of the City Duma of Pereslavl-Zalessky. Everyone held their breath. What will happen? Is the adoption of the Master Plan of the urban district that has caused so many scandals expected?

However, this issue was simply not on the agenda. The governor of the Yaroslavl region Dmitry Mironov sensationally intervened in the situation. This became known during a meeting of the Duma.

As its speaker Sergei Kornienko said,

"... Today it is recommended not to consider the issue of approval of the General Plan ... taking into account the opinion of the deputies of the Pereslavl City Duma and residents of the urban district of Pereslavl-Zalessky."


Did the unexpected happen?


And then another surprise happened - the head of Pereslavl-Zalessky Valery Astrakhantsev (pictured below) announced his resignation. There have been talks about this for a long time, they were denied in every possible way, and this happened.


A source: yarnews.net

As local media will write about this, Valery Astrakhantsev appeared in Pereslavl in May 2017. He himself is from the village of Kraskovo in the Lyubertsy district of the Moscow region, like his predecessor Vladimir Volkov, now the mayor of Yaroslavl. There are various rumors about Astrakhantsev's further employment, but we will not discuss them.

The battle for Lake Pleshcheyevo is not over. The parties dispersed, regrouping and residents of the urban district of Pereslavl-Zalessky know that the main battles are still ahead. They do not intend to give up the shrine of the Pereslavl land - Lake Pleshcheyevo for desecration.

By the way, the water from which they drink. And their children and grandchildren drink it. And for him they will seem to fight to the last. So that later their descendants would not say:

“What have you done, dear ones, haven't saved such beauty ?!”
Author:
Photos used:
kino-teatr.ru, ruskino.ru, labirint.ru
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  1. credo
    credo 1 December 2020 18: 22
    +22
    I also cast my vote for the shores of Lake Plescheevo, as well as all lakes, rivers, streams and other water bodies of Russia, so that they do not build up and preserve the coastal vegetation, the beauty and beauty of their shores for all subsequent generations of our country.
    1. iouris
      iouris 1 December 2020 20: 02
      -7
      Quote: credo
      for all subsequent generations of our country.

      After us, even a flood.
      1. credo
        credo 1 December 2020 20: 03
        +5
        Quote: iouris
        Quote: credo
        for all subsequent generations of our country.

        After us, even a flood.

        This is not about us.
        1. iouris
          iouris 1 December 2020 20: 30
          -6
          Quote: credo
          This is not about us.

          Of course, we're not the government, not the "elite".
    2. Civil
      Civil 1 December 2020 21: 03
      +9
      How much of this is all over Russia ...
  2. true_rover
    true_rover 1 December 2020 18: 27
    +7
    In March 2015 I was on a business trip to Pereslavl-Zalessky for a whole month, there was enough time to walk around this very old and beautiful town. And already then, not on the very shore of the lake, but in the immediate vicinity, there were buildings of cottage settlements and from these settlements the lake is very clearly visible.
    1. Pane Kohanku
      Pane Kohanku 2 December 2020 09: 26
      +3
      In March 2015 I was on a business trip to Pereslavl-Zalessky for a whole month, there was enough time to walk around this very old and beautiful town.

      I specially came to Pereslavl for two days in the summer of 2012 for two days - to see. Then he visited the museum of the Petrovskaya flotilla, and the unique museum of the narrow-gauge railway. I wanted this year .. did not grow together! Highly recommend. The town made not only a pleasant - a very pleasant impression. As the saying goes, "history crunches underfoot" ... drinks
      1. Korsar4
        Korsar4 2 December 2020 21: 12
        +2
        Sometimes I thought in which cities you can see "Childhood of Moscow".

        The first associations: Suzdal, Pskov, Kologriv, Smolensk.
        Pereslavl-Zalessky is somewhere behind.
        1. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku 2 December 2020 21: 14
          +1
          The first associations: Suzdal, Pskov, Kologriv, Smolensk.

          Pskov is our favorite. You have seen the article. We go there constantly.
          1. Korsar4
            Korsar4 2 December 2020 21: 18
            +1
            Only two times was. And the second time - passing from the Pushkin Mountains.
            But Novgorod has not yet caught on. Maybe the time has not come yet.
            1. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku 2 December 2020 22: 12
              +2
              But Novgorod has not yet caught on. Maybe the time has not come yet.

              Novgorod is the Kremlin. Novgorod is Volkhov. This is the Rurik settlement. This is St. George's Monastery. Sergey, I highly recommend! drinks
              1. Korsar4
                Korsar4 2 December 2020 22: 20
                +2
                I went to the Detinets in Novgorod. It is important to get into a kind of resonance with the place.

                In general, I am less familiar with the North-West than I would like.
  3. bk316
    bk316 1 December 2020 18: 33
    +11
    Build up what you do not build up. Seliger has been built up and Pleshcheyevo will be built up unfortunately ...
    Everyone wants a house near the big water, but they don't want to be built in a civilized way, of course it's so nice from the bathhouse and right into the lake.
    1. Nazar
      Nazar 2 December 2020 04: 22
      +2
      bk316 - if they build it up, then "from the bath to the lake" may not work out - the water in the lake will be so much that you won't want to dive. There is a well-known history in Europe - the shores of Lake Balaton were "landscaped", the embankments were beautifully tinned, asphalt paths around the entire lake, observation platforms and so on. - and the water is rotten - the lake needs clean sandy shores for self-cleaning, and not beautiful embankments concreted. Well, at Europe - then they demolished concrete, brought in sand, saved the lake.
      1. bk316
        bk316 2 December 2020 14: 09
        +2
        then "from the bath to the lake" may no longer work - in

        So I'm damn about it and write. I have a dacha on Seliger, the village is normally designed 150 meters from the water, an entrance for launching boats with parking 50 m away with gravel, a neat little beach and let the locals go to it, we remove no bottles of gobies. And then they sell plots of land and begin baths, septic tanks 5 meters from the edge, fences. They are trying to build a road right along the coast with drainage, naturally everything sinks, but the coast was mutilated ...
        1. kamakama
          kamakama 3 December 2020 13: 38
          0
          Pachkovo? Soroga? or the St. Petersburg side?
          1. bk316
            bk316 3 December 2020 13: 47
            0
            Pachkovo? Soroga? or the St. Petersburg side?

            Sigovka, New Ples.
            1. kamakama
              kamakama 3 December 2020 14: 14
              0
              I was not there, I drove along the main road, through Rogozh and Zekhnovo. But yes, everything is built on the way. Even Volokhovshchina, despite the fact that getting there only by water
    2. ycuce234-san
      ycuce234-san 2 December 2020 17: 55
      0
      Rather, they do not want to build artificial ponds at the LCD. They were built back in the 17-18 centuries in estates and parks, private and city gardens. And now, with modern technology, it is much more accessible.
  4. Egoza
    Egoza 1 December 2020 18: 34
    +5
    Pure water is an invaluable wealth of Russia! Oil and gas may dry up, but people will survive. But if the water disappears .... Does anyone at the "top" think about it? Pay attention to the changing weather, climate! There is no doubt, you need to preserve the beauty, but remember - it will take very little time and water reserves will become the most important argument in international "cooperation with partners"!
    1. VORON538
      VORON538 2 December 2020 14: 57
      +2
      By the way about the weather
      It's unusually warm this year
      December, and in Blagoveshchensk at night minus 12-14, in the afternoon -5-8
      Suga is walking along the Amur
      This was in 2013, after the flood
      Now it's just warm! The climate is changing before our eyes. And tropical showers in our summer are not uncommon!
      1. Korsar4
        Korsar4 2 December 2020 21: 14
        +1
        My colleague in Khabarovsk on the floods of the Amur is making forecasts about the coming disasters.
  5. Thrifty
    Thrifty 1 December 2020 18: 50
    +3
    Unfortunately, our authorities are able to "get their own" simply by pushing through the decree, law, or decision they need. People hang noodles on their ears, then of course they will forget about their promises! So, I sincerely wish the residents of Pereslavl-Zalessky not to be led on promises, not to retreat from their only correct decision! Enough already to keep people for lo-hov, to crush everything under yourself! Not tired of grabbing? And, how then on the "live" some who in life will not answer the objectionable questions asked by the people! The country's constitution was not written for officials, not for those in power? Have you completely lost your conscience? Although, what am I, did they have a conscience? Here everyone is bought up, they hacked, and then they run into a foreign country, fight, how bad everything is in Russia, forgetting that it is bad in the country because such creatures are in power, and live only for and for their own sake!
    1. bk316
      bk316 2 December 2020 16: 46
      0
      Unfortunately, our authorities are able to "get what they want" by simply pushing through the decree, law, or decision they need.

      Well, yes it is true. Just do not forget to clarify what the authorities are.
      Here in Seliger, such an order was issued by the municipal authorities, not even the city (Ostashkovskme), especially the regional (Tver). It is unlikely that someone from the village of Sigovka will run away over the hill. But the General Prosecutor's Office will overturn the decision (and I am sure it will). And the locals will shout about Muscovites who do not give them freedom. So the picture is more complicated.
  6. Vadim Golubkov
    Vadim Golubkov 1 December 2020 19: 01
    +7
    I was there, and at the Sin stone and on Alexandrov Hill, in monasteries if I am not mistaken in the 13th century, the places there are beautiful. As far as I remember, this is a protected area, how can you build in the reserve? Indeed, this is one of the pearls of Russia.
    1. Revolver
      Revolver 2 December 2020 03: 28
      +7
      Quote: Vadim Golubkov
      how can you build in the reserve?

      Building can be luxurious and expensive, but only for the "elite", and not necessarily by universal, equal, and secret ballot. The only difference is that in Soviet times this was the fault of the party nomenklatura, and in post-Soviet times, respectively, the "new Russians". Although a considerable part of the "new Russians" came out of the nomenclature and retained their nomenclature habits.
      And the people are left with the right to express popular support and approval, and vote for those candidates who will be appointed "from there." The only difference is that during the councils, elected bodies and elite dacha cooperatives accepted one or two well-tested and, where necessary, approved proletarians from the mill and peasants from the plow, and nowadays this has ceased to be obligatory.
      1. Korsar4
        Korsar4 2 December 2020 21: 20
        0
        There is a national park, not a nature reserve.

        And our legislation is arranged in an interesting way.
        And in the dry sediment it remains like Orwell's "No - it means you can."
      2. Elturisto
        Elturisto 7 December 2020 11: 58
        -1
        Again the damned commies from the past reached out.
  7. Vadim Golubkov
    Vadim Golubkov 1 December 2020 19: 05
    +6
    In this place you really get imbued with the history of Russia-Russia ... pagan times, Alexander Nevsky, Christianity, Ivan the Terrible, Peter 1, you need to take care of all this.
  8. Doccor18
    Doccor18 1 December 2020 19: 05
    +4
    They do not intend to give up the shrine of the Pereslavl land - Lake Pleshcheyevo for desecration.

    17 million sq. km. land ... and there is nowhere else to build ... only protected places remained ...
    Our regional center is full of undeveloped places, some semi-dump sites, windbreaks and places are completely deserted. But every year some developer no, no, and even encroach on a park or square, a playground or a sports box.
    But 3 km. from the city, the fields are endless ... (they have stopped sowing them for 15 years already).
    1. Roman_LKW
      Roman_LKW 2 December 2020 13: 31
      0
      I don’t know about you, but here in Kiev, it’s not so easy for a developer to start construction in a park, square or playground - people immediately start running up and down the fence, right down to the duty tents, so that the builders do not put up a fence at night.
  9. Bear
    Bear 1 December 2020 19: 07
    +8
    Good evening to all.
    I personally know V. Astrakhantsev. An excellent manager and business executive. For three years, huge work has been carried out to improve the city and its surroundings. The situation with public transport, repair of roads and road infrastructure and landscaping has changed dramatically, for the better. But, apparently, they put the squeeze on him "from above" on the adoption of this general plan of development, and he, as a decent person, made the only correct decision. Of course it is a pity that he could not realize his full potential for the benefit of Pereslavl and the region.
    And in the area, indeed, a disaster is brewing. Waste water from houses and cottages falls into the lake, no one bothers cleaning them, not only summer residents, but also local ones, by the way, too. This year, the taste of "mildew" was very clearly felt in the water in late summer, early autumn, due to an increase in the concentration of blue-green algae in the lake.
    We need to fight against further development and destruction of the unique ecosystem. But first you need to start with yourself, at least and put a normal septic tank and not shit in the lake.
    1. Livonetc
      Livonetc 1 December 2020 19: 44
      +1
      I don't quite understand you.
      Then the situation has changed dramatically.
      "Great work has been done."
      Then the wastewater enters the reservoirs.
      How does the wastewater get into the lake?
      This is a crime before and now.
      And an increase in the level of algae is not for household waste, but for fertilizers used in agriculture.
      Concerning Pereslavl.
      No "huge work" was done.
      Perhaps a solid bridge has been rebuilt.
      The problem with the roads is, in principle, in the Yaroslavl region.
      Federal highways do not count.
      I will not give an assessment of the activities of officials.
      Especially their relationships.
      For comparison, it is very revealing to consider another city of the Golden Ring - Suzdal.
      Heaven and earth with the same, in fact, objective initial data.
      Over the past 10 years, the situation has certainly improved somewhat, but not dramatically.
      In particular, the improvement is related to the increase in the number of summer residents from the Moscow region.
      More real money appeared in the area as a result of the development of many local small businesses.
      I have a dacha in the Pereslavl region, but there are no bodies of water nearby.
      Water from a well, sewerage in the form of a septic tank with infiltration of settled water into the ground.
      Everything is in accordance with all norms.
      1. Bear
        Bear 2 December 2020 06: 49
        -2
        Good morning. I will try to explain.
        The question in the article was raised about the rejection of the general plan for the development of the territory around Lake Pleshcheyevo. Everyone is naturally afraid of the deterioration of the ecological situation, but at the moment it is already deplorable due to the fact that already in a huge number of rebuilt private houses and buildings along the coast there are no normal septic tanks, and the discharge is carried out into the ground, without proper cleaning.
        No agricultural work is carried out along the coast of the lake.
        With V. Astrakhantsev, I spoke more than once, and he complained that it is practically impossible to solve the above problem at his level without support from above, such is the system.
        Here, rather a question to the prosecutor's office and other supervisory authorities.
        And on account of the fact that apart from the bridge, nothing was done - you got excited. A new road along the "left" coast, new buses and an increase in their number, new lighting, improvement of residential areas, solving problems with the removal of solid waste.
        Suzdal, since Soviet times, was chosen as the standard of the Golden Ring, and budget funds were constantly poured into it, such a lubok "a la rus" for foreign tourists.
        Of course, thanks to the Moscow summer residents, small business has risen, no one denies, but without budgetary injections, there is no point in talking about serious changes in the area as an attractive place for tourism and preserving the "pearl" of Lake Pleshcheyevo.
  10. bandabas
    bandabas 1 December 2020 19: 34
    +3
    Everything is solved simply. The guarantor arrives in a blue helicopter, says, "Ayya-yay." And a miracle happens. Until the next reset.
    1. Akuzenka
      Akuzenka 2 December 2020 13: 45
      +1
      Everything is solved simply. The guarantor arrives in a blue helicopter, says, "Ayya-yay." And a miracle happens. Until the next reset.
      The guarantors change, the miracle remains!
  11. Nyrobsky
    Nyrobsky 1 December 2020 20: 05
    +6
    With the arrival on the Yaroslavl land of the Lyubertsy-Moscow "Varangians" such as Mironov, Sleptsov, Volkov and others, who pulled up their teams to the tasty posts of the city and region, the capital of the Golden Ring of Russia pretty faded and looked ugly. There were fewer flowers and more dirt, it became worse with transport and roads, and the only thing that is going well for them is the sale of municipal property, markets and other tasty pieces of land where you can earn money, but again not for everyone. Fact.
  12. Van 16
    Van 16 1 December 2020 21: 56
    +4
    How many such situations are there in Russia. At least take the Bashkir Shikhans, I saw from, the beauty is indescribable, and is destroyed in the pursuit of profit ..
  13. 7,62h54
    7,62h54 1 December 2020 22: 04
    -1
    There are such "Pleshcheevye Lakes" in Russia in every city, in every region.
    The battle with the welfare of Russians continues.
  14. Van 16
    Van 16 1 December 2020 22: 23
    +4
    About the creative intelligentsia ..
    I may be wrong, but when the museum of Konstantin Vasiliev in the Moscow region was closed, only Mikhail Zadornov (his kingdom in heaven) and the folk-rock group Wind of Water (thank you very much) came to support the museum.
    1. Akuzenka
      Akuzenka 2 December 2020 13: 48
      +1
      The creative intelligentsia are professionals. Until they are paid, they will not be indignant. They don't care as long as they get paid. In this, the creative intellectual is fundamentally different from the person.
  15. Klingon
    Klingon 1 December 2020 23: 27
    +1
    in Russia they wanted to spit on ecology and ecosystems. If oligators - deputies - governors and other terminators feel the urge to build something for themselves - the mountains will be leveled, the gorges will be filled up and then at least the lunar landscape
    1. Akuzenka
      Akuzenka 2 December 2020 13: 50
      +3
      What do you want. so that they spend "their" money on improving the lives of citizens? They will send them into their pockets. Capitalism is like that. It will only get worse.
  16. Cowbra
    Cowbra 2 December 2020 00: 44
    +2
    Yes, familiar melodies. I predict what will happen next - they will build it up. For example, not giving a damn about the Ramsar Convention signed by Russia. For the first time, chtol? Want an example? Remember the sickly song "Malinki" from Zhanna Friske? The song is dedicated to the construction of a holiday village
    a) On the territory of the reserve
    b) Even in the sanitary protection zone of the reservoir.
    There is not something to build, it is even forbidden to pick mushrooms there. But who will plant him - he's a monument! These are dachas from the Prosecutor General's Office ...
  17. Vladimir NN
    Vladimir NN 2 December 2020 02: 24
    +2
    Sand dam.
    In the Soviet years, on the Trubezh River near Pereslavl-Zalessky, a sand dam was built with concrete gutters, more than forty meters high, to form a reservoir. The expediency of a reservoir of this size being built in this area is not clear, since Lake Pleshcheyevo is nearby. In the event of a breakthrough of this dam, Pereslavl could be washed away together with people into Lake Pleshcheyevo. After the collapse of the USSR, the need for it seemed to have disappeared.
    In general, Pereslavl resisted. And those who conceived and designed this structure have already disappeared.
    This construction is now like an abandoned monument to the conquerors of the Russian land. 56 ° 40'51.5 "N 38 ° 54'05.6" E
    https://zen.yandex.ru/media/id/5f5775c43da152505ee92503/damba-iz-peska-5f5776ca692a906cd0b83081
  18. Yaroslavl
    Yaroslavl 2 December 2020 09: 20
    0
    we are ruled by the Lyubertsy people, they do their own business and have a gesheft ... why do they need a lake or, say, fk shinnik? but in general they don't really know what it is ... Putin will instruct random people, the main thing is that they stand in front of him ... .that is the result ... and so throughout the country ... in Khabarovsk they took a local in general
  19. Bersaglieri
    Bersaglieri 2 December 2020 12: 59
    0
    Is there any way to make a reserve of federal significance?
  20. tolancop
    tolancop 2 December 2020 13: 56
    0
    Unfortunately, the commercialization of the coastal zone has been going on for a long time. I have been to PZ many times and the changes over the past 15 years are significant. The park near the museum with Peter the Great's boat 15 years ago had free entrance, about 5 years ago, when I was there for the last time, the entrance to the park was already paid. Of course, the maintenance of the park also requires money, but ... unpleasant. And the area in front of the park was upset. And recently I read that the approach to the Xin-stone is now paid ... We arrived ...
  21. syndicalist
    syndicalist 2 December 2020 15: 05
    0
    In my village, such "hearings" were held until it was possible to push through the necessary decision on the general plan. Now, on the beautiful river bank, there are ugly barracks and inflatable stadiums for Fonbet's online casinos.
  22. Andrey VOV
    Andrey VOV 2 December 2020 22: 19
    0
    And where does the military review ???
  23. Elturisto
    Elturisto 7 December 2020 12: 02
    0
    Muscovites mutilated the Pirogovskoye reservoir, now they have taken up Pleshcheyevo.