Military Review

What Russia has prepared to protect its soldiers in Karabakh

46
The previous article looked at experience combat use of MRAPs by the US Army.



Today we will talk about what Russia has in this direction.
The domestic MRAP park can be conditionally divided into large and small.

Typhoons


Large MRAPs are represented by vehicles of the Typhoon series, which have a prefix to the name indicating the platform - Typhoon-K (Kamaz), Typhoon-U (Ural). Capacity 12-16 people. The armor in the base holds 7,62 in a circle, with the ability to increase protection due to additional modules, up to protection against heavy machine guns. Weight ranges from 18 to 25 tons.


Typhoon K. Photo: Vitaly V. Kuzmin


Typhoon U. Photo: Vitaly V. Kuzmin

Taking into account the high cost and complexity of operation mentioned in the last article, at first glance it is not clear why it was necessary to create two cars to solve the same problem?

At first, this decision seems bad, because it leads to an increase in cost, because instead of one large series, two small ones will go into production. So after all, it will also be more difficult to maintain - the range of spare parts required for availability at maintenance points will increase.

However, not everything is so simple. If one plant is made a monopoly, its design bureau will relax and stop "trying". Where will the army go if there are no alternatives? Therefore, "and so it will do."

Foreign experience in this regard is similar. Competition directly affects quality. But at the same time, the state must "guarantee" the design bureau at least a small profit as a result, even if a different option is adopted. In addition, some individual technical solutions can be adapted to the car that won the competition. (For example, in the USA, in addition to companies specializing in army tractors (Oshkosh), firms that traditionally deal with aircraft took part in the competition for the creation of MRAPs).

Monovolume or cabin + compartment


In the army, both options are used (mono-volume or cabin + compartment), and each of them has its own advantages and disadvantages.

Monovolume improves habitability. It gives the best opportunities for moving the crew inside the vehicle (the ability to quickly replace the driver). Potentially better engine protection (in certain layouts). Another distinctive feature of monovolume is better stability in the presence of potentially hazardous impurities (gas) in the air. The machine is sealed, and the general air conditioning system allows you to comfortably stay inside.

In turn, a separate landing module is also not without its advantages. It allows the development of a unified chassis based platform. That is, (if necessary) the troop compartment is removed. And in its place is installed any other promising module, including weapons modules (air defense, OTRK, barrel artillery).

It also allows you to replace only the armored capsule if the cockpit was blown up (explosions of mines and IEDs of pushing action occur under the front wheels). The armored capsule is placed on a new chassis.

Or vice versa, if there were hits from large calibers or grenade launchers into the armored capsule, and its repair may be impractical, then in this case only it is replaced.

Ergonomics and fit options inside


Survival is influenced not only by the class of protection, but also by how the fighters are placed inside the capsule. The fact is that the secondary damaging factors can be loose equipment or protruding parts of the "interior".

At the moment, research is underway in this direction, similar to those carried out in the field of civilian automotive industry. The impact of various factors on the safety of fighters is being studied - the optimal distance from the head to the ceiling, the angle at the knee joint, the method of fastening the back, the design of the belt system and head restraints, etc. As a result, various options are gradually tested and the most successful ones are selected.

There is a video of comparison of Ukrainian and Russian MRAPs on the network (below it is "rewound" to the moment we are interested in).


In this video, the author points out that the Typhoon has an unsuccessful mount weapons, which the fighters will run into. But in the Ukrainian car, weapons are offered to be stored in boxes.

I think that in the event of the start of shelling, the soldiers will only be happy to rest against their weapons, and not rush to their boxes en masse.

In reality, the boxes are intended for storing "additional equipment", but not for fixing the regular one. That is, in the Ukrainian version, in fact, there is no alternative to weapon mounts (besides the fact that Kraz himself not soon).

It should also be understood that in this video only "one of" the options for using the internal volume was considered. In it, the developers provide for the availability of a volume of 20 liters for the needs of each soldier to accommodate additional equipment. And this volume is located behind back of each fighter.

If you look closely, you can see that the chairs are not at wall level, but pushed forward.

There is a landing pattern with an extended passage.


Time will tell which option will be "rejected" by the military as a result of exploitation in Syria. Although I think the answer is obvious.

I would also like to separately mention the restraints for the head. They prevent dangerous loads on the cervical spine that occur during blasting.

Battle Modules


There are a lot of combat modules developed, with a kind of electronic filling and in different calibers.

As for the calibers, it should be borne in mind that the MRAP has a large height. Because of this, the recoil momentum acts on the chassis with a large lever, which helps the body to rock. As a result, despite the significant weight, it becomes difficult to conduct aimed fire from a 30-mm cannon at a distance adequate for this caliber (2–3 km).

Therefore, it is assumed to use smaller calibers, conventionally "before KPVT"

Remote controlled module or turret


The remote control option is certainly more technological, but it has its drawbacks - fault tolerance.

Whatever problem arises (control panel, barrel, turning mechanism, optical system), the entire module becomes non-combatant. Which is very relevant if we remember stories about the operation of such equipment in remote areas.

In the case of a turret, if something happens, another weapon is simply installed.

The use of a grenade launcher


The customer (represented by the Ministry of Defense) was proactively asked to develop systems for shooting smoke screens. However, this option was not approved. The situation may change in the future.

As an alternative, it remains possible to include a pair of GM-94 with different types of ammunition in the "standard delivery set".

This solution will allow the use of smoke, gas, stun and fragmentation grenades.


There is also a version of "Typhoon-K" in this design (KAMAZ-63969).


As can be seen from the shape of the cockpit, this is a more "tanking" version, which also affects the weight. It is close to 28 tons.

The following systems are available as "options" in this version (and in other vehicles):

- an autonomous diesel installation supplies power to the grid when the engine is off;
- automatic fire extinguishing;
- all-round cameras;
- automatic tire inflation.

Small MRAPS


Small cars are serially represented by "Tigers" of various modifications, among other things, differing in protection classes (from 3 to 5). Capacity from 5 to 7 people (numbers up to 9 are officially indicated).

They are characterized by everything the same as for the "big" brothers. They test different technical solutions: how to sit, what to sit on, how to mount weapons, place ammo, etc.

I would also like to mention the Strela car.


On the hull from the factory there are special mounts for transportation on the external sling of the Mi-8 helicopter over distances of up to 500 km. This solution is most relevant in mountainous areas (where 500 km is not 500 km on the German Autobahn, but 1000 km of a mud safari with slopes of 20 degrees).

Otherwise, it was announced that this car in comparison with the "Tiger" (about the same as the new razor "Gillette" with three blades versus the one with only two) is the same, but only faster, lighter, and better protects. How much this is true is difficult to say.

What is missing from our MRAPs?


Technically speaking, Russia has everything it needs. Therefore, improvements require not so many parameters.

One of the main tasks is patrolling and surveillance. In order to implement this function as efficiently as possible, it is necessary to equip the existing samples with an optoelectronic complex on a retractable mast. Such complexes are actively used in the organization of modern observation points on the state border of the Russian Federation (and everywhere in the world).

They usually include high-magnification optics in combination with various bells and whistles in the form of a thermal imager, etc. Despite the fact that light reconnaissance UAVs are now actively used, such a mast makes it possible not to depend on the presence of a drone in the air. It will also greatly increase the potential of the equipment in the context of autonomous monitoring of the area, increase the safety of the crew, eliminating a number of situations when it may be necessary to leave the protected vehicle.

This solution also makes it possible to increase the survival of the vehicle itself, due to the ability to conduct surveillance from behind shelters, hiding a large side projection behind a fence, house or natural landscape elements. At the same time, increasing the secrecy of such an observation post. Such a solution allows you to protect vehicles from ATGM attacks or from a large-caliber machine gun on a pickup truck.

Another "technical" aspect of development is the replacement of foreign components with domestic ones. Work in this direction is also underway. For example, initially French tires were used, now their Russian counterparts have appeared. The situation is similar with engines (although there are some complaints).

Application tactics


In conclusion, I would like to consider one episode of the practical application of MRAPs as a patrol vehicle.


What tactical remarks can you make based on what you see?

1. It is necessary to exclude patrol missions on vehicles not equipped with protective systems.

2. It is necessary to be flexible in the configuration of patrol cars, taking into account the characteristics of the area. Consideration should be given to including both lethal and non-lethal weapons (gas, smoke, stun grenades) in self-defense equipment. The presence of only lethal weapons in some situations can, on the contrary, reduce safety. When an officer, on the one hand, needs to protect his soldiers, and on the other, he does not want the whole world to discuss “pregnant Fatima killed by outrageous peacekeepers” on social networks the next day.

3. Crews should be prepared for different scenarios. So, for example, it is necessary to prescribe protocols of action and regularly train personnel. In the situation shown, the hatches must not be left open.

Based on the specifics of the tasks and the equipment used, I consider it necessary to apply an integrated approach, from technical retrofitting to the selection and training of crews. Up to the creation of a separate unit based on the military police.

conclusions


On the whole, Russia is adequately developing this type of technology. The possibility of a sharp increase in the output of such machines, if necessary, is provided (due to the distribution of production among different plants). Work is underway to replace imported components.
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46 comments
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  1. Ross xnumx
    Ross xnumx 24 November 2020 18: 22
    +14
    What tactical remarks can you make based on what you see?

    Based on what he saw from the video, where unknown people are trying to set fire to Russian military equipment, one can draw only one conclusion, if the USSR had also fought against Nazi Germany, then ...
    War does not tolerate half measures. The inviolability of a serviceman of the Russian Federation performing his duties must be unconditional. Everything else is from the category of shame to which weak rulers doom their own army.
    1. bk0010
      bk0010 24 November 2020 18: 26
      +22
      Quote: ROSS 42
      War does not tolerate half measures
      Exactly. And so that the whole world in social networks does not discuss
      "Pregnant Fatima, killed by outrageous peacekeepers"
      it is necessary to promptly destroy the "journalists" of the enemy, and not sacrifice their soldiers for the convenience of bureaucrats who will have to scold.
      1. The comment was deleted.
    2. The comment was deleted.
      1. The comment was deleted.
    3. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 25 November 2020 12: 43
      +6
      Quote: ROSS 42
      Based on what he saw from the video, where unknown people are trying to set fire to Russian military equipment, one can draw only one conclusion, if the USSR had also fought against Nazi Germany, then ...

      So they are Kurds. Which are our situational allies, and which our patrols seem to be protecting.
      So it is not USSR fighting against fascist Germany, USSR in conditionally allied Romania. smile
  2. 7,62h54
    7,62h54 24 November 2020 18: 29
    +11
    It would be more correct to say not soldiers, but peacekeepers. This is more than fighting. And so the article is another repetition of information.
    But what did Russia really bring to Karabakh to protect the peacekeepers, besides the armored personnel carrier?
    I don't think the author knows, he can't see it from the sofa.
    1. Krasnoyarsk
      Krasnoyarsk 24 November 2020 19: 05
      +6
      Quote: 7,62x54

      But what did Russia really bring to Karabakh to protect the peacekeepers, besides the armored personnel carrier?

      I, too, from the title of the article, hoped to find out what our peacekeepers use to drive along the roads of Karabakh? And I read an incomplete analysis of the performance characteristics of Russian mrapov. The word Karabakh was mentioned only once, and then in the title of the article. request
      1. rumpeljschtizhen
        rumpeljschtizhen 24 November 2020 23: 34
        +1
        So there are no blacks in service ... this topic has been on the site for 5 years already ... there are some samples and peacekeepers ride on armored personnel carriers 82
        1. Krasnoyarsk
          Krasnoyarsk 25 November 2020 00: 58
          0
          Quote: rumpeljschtizhen
          and the peacekeepers ride on the BTR 82

          Yes, I know what the peacekeepers ride in Karabakh.
          I thought the article would tell something new. And that's how it is.
    2. Sling cutter
      Sling cutter 24 November 2020 20: 16
      +2
      Quote: 7,62x54
      I don't think the author knows, he can't see it from the sofa.

      Colleague, only Meehan showed foresight from the couch, maybe he moved into the category of aftarof. wassat
    3. The comment was deleted.
      1. 7,62h54
        7,62h54 25 November 2020 13: 48
        0
        What are dried apricots now?
        1. The comment was deleted.
          1. 7,62h54
            7,62h54 25 November 2020 14: 07
            +2
            Ahhh, barmaley, head connoisseur?
            Do you sit on Food City, weigh it?
            1. The comment was deleted.
              1. 7,62h54
                7,62h54 25 November 2020 15: 12
                +2
                Take care of yourself
                1. The comment was deleted.
              2. businessv
                businessv 25 November 2020 20: 48
                +1
                Quote: memmed memmed
                Well, did you find evidence of the Barmaleevs fighting on our side?

                It will be necessary, we will come to you and find everything we need! And who will stop us? Unless readers with a high, like memmed, want to read our news in the muzzle. Cooler less, you will be more whole.
      2. businessv
        businessv 25 November 2020 20: 46
        +1
        Quote: memmed memmed
        KARABAKH ETO AZERBAIJAN
        So go there, why the hell are you sitting here?
        1. The comment was deleted.
  3. bk0010
    bk0010 24 November 2020 18: 34
    +1
    I believe that the MRAP booking should keep 12.7 round (anti-material rifles are not exotic for a long time, and Browning with DShK is also not uncommon). Better than 14.5 (you don't need to swim MRAP, you also need to drive through the ruins, so there is an opportunity), but 12.7 is the minimum. Upstairs, the MRAP should have several (at least 2) turrets with KPVT and AGS, and most importantly, each with observation equipment. It is also necessary to develop a removable or folding thruster (so as not to interfere with driving at normal speed) mine trawl.
  4. Ensign19
    Ensign19 24 November 2020 18: 53
    -3
    The fact that they are going through bankruptcy procedures does not mean that KrAZ will disappear, but will only be sold and change its owner.
    And then how the card will lie
    1. Ramadan
      Ramadan 24 November 2020 20: 00
      +1
      "... how the card will fall" - that's what we're talking about. A strategic enterprise should not have an uncertain future. Saying "will just be sold and will change the owner" you seem to calm yourself down.
      1. Ensign19
        Ensign19 24 November 2020 20: 19
        -8
        KrAZ is a private enterprise and is not on the "red list", that is, it is not a strategic enterprise.
        The enterprise has almost a full production cycle, 70 percent of the components are "local" production. I would not want to see the fate of ZIL
        1. The comment was deleted.
    2. Alexander Vorontsov
      24 November 2020 20: 20
      +3
      Quote: Ensign19
      will change the owner.

      Bankruptcy is due to the fact that no one buys the products that he CAN produce.
      Including your own army.
      Nothing will change from the change of owner. Unnecessary cars won't be needed overnight.
      Even Kremenchug itself refuses its own equipment: in January the city received two garbage trucks-snow blowers (and there are such hybrids due to lack of funds!) - Chinese Dayun and Belarusian MAZs, and KrAZ was not considered in the tender at all due to bankruptcy, and the antimonopoly commission rejected his complaint.

      It doesn't look like they were saving him.
      1. Ensign19
        Ensign19 24 November 2020 20: 36
        -4
        The enterprise cannot fully function due to the seizure of accounts.
        The owner himself (Zhevago) is on the wanted list in numerous criminal cases.
        Hence, no admission to tenders
        At the expense of demand, that is, according to the same margins, the Armed Forces of Ukraine is going to update the fleet of auto equipment.
        MAZ supplies are going to be abandoned for political reasons
        Perhaps after bankruptcy, the state will buy it back into ownership, or sell it at auction with the condition of preserving production
        1. Alexander Vorontsov
          24 November 2020 21: 37
          0
          Quote: Ensign19
          The enterprise cannot fully function due to the seizure of accounts.

          If we're being honest, things didn't go very well without arrest.

          and the Ukrainian Armed Forces is going to renew the fleet of vehicles.

          There is a possibility that Western friends of Ukraine will offer their transport.
          "According to NATO standards".
          TATRA platform.

          I would not like the fate of ZIL to befall him

          In order for him to suffer the fate of ZIL, several factors must coincide.
          The plant should be located close to the center of Moscow, where the cost per square meter of com. real estate is off the charts.
          For the same reasons, workers' salaries compete with Moscow wages.
          And against the background of all these factors, it is still necessary to somehow compete with Kamaz and the Urals.
          So ... had to be put to sleep.
          (to questions about prices.https: //www.lsr.ru/msk/zhilye-kompleksy/zilart/ apartment in a complex built on site from 12 rubles)

          To understand the difference
          KAMAZ sold 2019 thousand trucks in 35,5,

          And at Kraz
          Only 9 cars were sold in 2020 months of 29


          And Ukraine will remain without buses, without trucks, without railways.
          And they seceded from the USSR as a nuclear power and with the 2nd strongest army in the region ...
          1. Ensign19
            Ensign19 24 November 2020 22: 41
            -3
            Swing with KrAZ has been going on for many years.
            Zhevago and his financial and industrial group "Finance and Credit" have been featured in various criminal cases since 2009, and have been wanted since 19
        2. Alexander Vorontsov
          24 November 2020 21: 50
          0
          In the context of the issue under discussion.
          Funny ... firefighter's day reopening.
          1. Ensign19
            Ensign19 24 November 2020 22: 31
            -3
            In the context of the discussion: - so what to throw away now? laughing
    3. businessv
      businessv 25 November 2020 20: 44
      +1
      Quote: Ensign19
      And then how the card will lie

      It will not lie down, it will stand, like the production at KRAZ, unfortunately. Nezalezhnaya cleaned and plundered everything that was possible and impossible too, from chemical plants to planes and missiles. There is only land left, but it will also be sold.
  5. xomaNN
    xomaNN 24 November 2020 20: 23
    +3
    When you see that the Syrian bandits UNPUNISHED throw lighters into the APC, and in response - SILENCE! Guys, why is it forbidden to start with a line over the heads of this aggressive gopota? Humanists?
    And in the East only strength is respected!
  6. kytx
    kytx 24 November 2020 20: 37
    -1
    IMHO mrap is not a full-fledged "war machine"
    but in fact, a truck with easy booking, but this booking is now needed to cut off all sorts of freaks with a shooting, therefore, what is it (mrap) to arm the tenth or even twentieth case
    otvetka should not come from the fighters inside the mess, but something more serious
    all imho
  7. svoit
    svoit 24 November 2020 21: 24
    -3
    Quote: Alexander Vorontsov
    Change of owner won't change anything

    The new owner will start producing Tatra cars there, it doesn't make us any better
    1. Alexander Vorontsov
      24 November 2020 22: 06
      +2
      Quote: svoit
      The new owner will start producing Tatra cars there, it doesn't make us any better

      Why would the new owner need it? It is better to produce "at home" and not to localize somewhere.

      Yes, even to have a reason to localize, you need to be confident in the local sales market.
      And the situation in Ukraine is such that everything is very risky.
      1. Ensign19
        Ensign19 24 November 2020 22: 48
        -4
        Defense Express has an article on Tatra, if you own my own, read
        1. Ensign19
          Ensign19 24 November 2020 23: 06
          -5
          Lied to Ukraine Military Page
          Localization of Tatra will be in Ukraine
  8. Bronekot
    Bronekot 24 November 2020 21: 42
    +1
    The typhoon is good. In addition to being able to fire from the inside. There are no embrasures at all. Only through the hatches, and this leads to losses
    1. Nikolaevich I
      Nikolaevich I 24 November 2020 23: 01
      0
      Quote: Bronekot
      In addition to being able to fire from the inside. There are no embrasures at all. Only through the hatches, and this leads to losses

      But is it really necessary to shoot everyone at once ... not seeing the goal, but in the direction? What cartridges are there? And the soldiers may also have to carry out their combat mission on foot! Maybe a machine gun in the DUM will suffice? (Other weapons are also welcome ...)
      1. Bronekot
        Bronekot 25 November 2020 00: 10
        +2
        When they beat you. And the car is standing still, after the explosion it does not go. The armor is trembling, and those who got out into the hatch to shoot, all the wounded fall back. And then we only threw grenades on a regular basis, there was no view after cutting down the review cameras. I felt much more confident in infantry fighting vehicles and armored personnel carriers.
  9. Imperial Technocrat
    Imperial Technocrat 24 November 2020 21: 51
    0
    Typhoon-K at the moment has no equal. Especially the maximum configuration with mammoth foot thick insoles. This even holds a bulletproof cartridge from the DShK heavy machine gun
  10. iouris
    iouris 24 November 2020 23: 01
    0
    A remotely controlled module asks for the roof.
  11. Zaurbek
    Zaurbek 24 November 2020 23: 06
    0
    Typhoon K flickers. And TyphoonU can't see something ... and KamAZ now has a large set of diesel engines of its own. Up to 750hp .....
  12. rumpeljschtizhen
    rumpeljschtizhen 24 November 2020 23: 37
    0
    In fact, in the active parts ... there are no tricks ... some samples from parades that in Syria are not even repainted does not count
  13. Nazar
    Nazar 25 November 2020 04: 47
    -3
    The video raises the question - why are ours there? Tolerate to portray? These monkeys that jump around the armored car from one
  14. Nazar
    Nazar 25 November 2020 04: 50
    -4
    from one automatic burst on top of their heads would have scattered, no one to make a decision or what? Why put your army in such a humiliating position?
  15. pereselenec
    pereselenec 25 November 2020 10: 45
    -3
    What Russia has prepared to protect its soldiers in Karabakh


    BTR-80

  16. businessv
    businessv 25 November 2020 20: 29
    +2
    When an officer, on the one hand, needs to protect his soldiers, and on the other, he does not want the whole world to discuss “pregnant Fatima killed by outrageous peacekeepers” on social media the next day.
    Well, of course, it's better when the whole world writes about an armored car burned by peaceful Kurds with its entire crew. A set of high-voltage probes would make it possible to instantly calm down these pr-and-fools with Molotov cocktails. By knocking out a couple, they would calm down the rest, including the pregnant Fatima.
    1. EvilLion
      EvilLion 1 December 2020 10: 41
      -1
      What kind of probes are you talking about, detonating several grenades on top of the hull will simply carve around with fragments? You come up with some difficulties. It's just that the Russians will either not get into a fight at all, or they will lay down all the enemies.
      1. businessv
        businessv 1 December 2020 17: 47
        0
        Quote: EvilLion
        It's just that the Russians will either not get into a fight at all, or they will lay down all the enemies.

        So the Kurds were not our enemies until the moment of their cooperation with p-i-n-d-o-sami, so I don’t want to call them enemies, and we all understand that they make money this way.
  17. -Dmitry-
    -Dmitry- 26 November 2020 04: 19
    0
    What tactical remarks can you make based on what you see?

    1. It is necessary to exclude patrol missions on vehicles not equipped with protective systems.


    As far as I know, both Typhoons and Tigers are protected from Molotov cocktails, another thing is that in this particular case, open hatches in the troop compartment could play a bad role.
  18. hostel
    hostel 26 November 2020 15: 11
    -1
    Shameful video with Kurds. Was it weak in response to throw a grenade? After all, if a bottle with a combustible mixture got into the open hatches, everything inside would burn out to the delight of the Kurds.
    1. EvilLion
      EvilLion 1 December 2020 11: 12
      -1
      The problem for the Kurds would be that after the air strikes, both they and their women and children in the settlements would have been burned out. But man is really a monkey, he does not realize the consequences.