Military Review

Little-known pages from the history of the war. Battle of Voronezh

27
Summer 1942 of the year - the most formidable and most alarming summer of war. Most of our citizens know it because the fate of the country was being decided at that time. The famous Stalingrad battle began, but for some reason, not many people know that there was another battle, the importance of which is still not fully appreciated so far - this is the battle for Voronezh. For some reason, our well-known commanders sometimes only casually mentioned her in their memoirs and no more than that, the battles for Voronezh and our historians do not particularly appreciate their attention, probably due to the fact that the attack of the enemy in this direction was a complete surprise for the Headquarters The Supreme Command, which assumed that, as in the previous year, the summer offensive would unfold on the Central Front in the direction of Moscow.

Little-known pages from the history of the war. Battle of Voronezh


And as a result, everything happened the other way around, at the end of June, the enemy delivered his main blow right at the junction of the two Soviet fronts of Bryansk and the Southwest, the von Weichs army group launched an attack on Voronezh with the forces of the German 2nd Army, the Hungarian 2nd Army and 4th tank army. At the same time, the 4th Panzer Army of Gotha acted as the main striking force of the group. The operation, codenamed “Blau”, was commanded by Field Marshal von Weichs. Voronezh was the main turning point of the German formations to the south, as well as the main base, with the help of which it was supposed to provide flank cover for the main strategic direction of the entire military company in 1942 in the direction of Stalingrad.

From the first day of the offensive and throughout the first week of German aviation daily, massive raids were carried out directly on Voronezh itself, according to the accounts of eyewitnesses who survived all this horror, they bombed the city with devilish accuracy and this is not surprising, because Lipetsk was nearby, where in the late 20s future commanders of the Luftwaffe comprehended military aviation science, so this area was very familiar to them without topographic maps.

As a result, at the end of the first week of the offensive, the Germans reached the Don River by July 6. Due to the fact that the main bridge over the Don in the Semiluk area was not blown up by someone's negligence in time, the Germans forced the main water barrier without any difficulty and broke into the streets of the city. The defense of Voronezh at the initial stage of street battles against such an armada at that time had mainly fighters of several regiments and individual battalions of the NKVD troops, as well as local civilian militiamen, on the outskirts of the city also defended units of the 232 SD, which stretched their defenses along the front almost on 80 km. Nevertheless, the city did not surrender. Fierce street battles unfolded on its streets, separate parts of the Southwestern Front continued to be drawn into battle on the streets of the city, as well as reserves hurriedly thrown into battle directly from the wheels.



Understanding the seriousness of the situation, the Soviet command nevertheless managed to pull up to Voronezh part of the retreating 40 army, 60 army, 5 tank army and the newly formed tank corps. Heavy tank battles took place on the outskirts of the city, where, faced with the best infantry and tank units of the enemy, our units suffered heavy losses and, as a result, the massive counter-offensive operations of the Red Army were unsuccessful, alas. The scores of the cars shot down on both sides went by many hundreds, the intensity of the battles reached such bitterness that not only soldiers but also generals with the rank of commanders died in battles. Nevertheless, our troops still managed to hold the rokadnoe highway to Moscow. Here's how the English historian J. Fuller wrote about these dramatic days: “The battle for Voronezh began, and, as we will see, for the Germans it was one of the most fatal during the war. The Russians, concentrated ... north of Voronezh, arrived in time to save the situation, perhaps they saved the entire campaign. There is no doubt that this was the case. ”

Who had to be in Voronezh, he probably knows that most of the city, the so-called right bank, lies between the Don and Voronezh rivers, and its smaller part, the so-called left bank, is on the left bank of the Voronezh river. At that time, according to various data, at least half remained in the city, which is about 200 thousand of its inhabitants, that is, thousands of civilians were essentially on the front line, where fierce street battles took place. A few days later, most of the right bank (main) part of the city came under the control of the German troops. The only exception was the northern town of the agricultural institute, where the multi-day battles were simply terrifying, for the most part, turning into hand-to-hand combat for each house. Bridges across the Voronezh River were blown up (except for the railway), along the remaining supports of this bridge, to the right bank, the northern part of the city, for the remaining bridgehead in the hands of our troops, reinforcements and ammunition were constantly being transferred. Our main units and subdivisions entrenched in the left-bank part of the city. However, on July 7, the commander of the German group, von Weichs, announced to his soldiers the final seizure of Voronezh, but this was far from the case, it was only the beginning of the battle for Voronezh. On the same day, the Voronezh Front was formed. The Soviet Information Bureau for several weeks did not dare to inform the country of the terrible truth about the city beating for life and death, replacing it with the streamlined words "... hard fighting in the Voronezh region."

Not everything was well with the information of the Germans, so the commander of Army Group South, von Bock, reported to Hitler about the complete capture of the city, but this information turned out to be incorrect and did not correspond to the actual state of affairs, as a result of the battles for Voronezh affected the fate of von Boc himself, he was later removed from the command of Army Group South (the official wording was due to illness) and sent to the Fuhrer reserve.

The German command tried to further develop its success, that is, to capture the whole city, once the Nazis even managed to cross over to the left bank of Voronezh south of the city, but as they moved towards the center, their units were attacked by our fighter battalion and as a result were completely destroyed, more attempts to capture the Germans did not undertake the left-bank part of the city, but only thought about one thing how to hold their positions.

Commander of the Voronezh Front, Colonel-General N.F. Vatutin at the observation post


We all know about the Nevsky Piglet during the defense of Leningrad, but few know that there was a Nevsky Piglet and in Voronezh - this is the Chizhovsky bridgehead, in late August and September 1942, the Red Army command attempted to secure a bridgehead on the right bank of Voronezh. Not the first time, but our troops succeeded. The Chizhovsky bridgehead, nicknamed by the soldiers as “the valley of death”, began from the flood meadows of the right bank and climbed the steep coastal hills of the southern part of the city. To get to the bridgehead, the troops needed to force the Voronezh River, to force the river, Soviet military engineers invented and used an underwater crossing, the fighters at night constructed this crossing from concrete fragments and broken bricks, covered with water and invisible from the air for half a meter. On one of the nights, equipment and infantry were transferred to the right bank, as a result of a sudden strike, a bridgehead was seized in the right-bank part of the city, which, despite repeated attempts by the enemy to drop our troops, continued to remain with our fighters. The battle on Chizhovka did not stop until the liberation of the city, how many of our soldiers died there, it’s just unknown, still more people are still found in these places, now more than 15 people are buried in a mass grave on the Chizhov bridgehead, but only 000 surnames are known person. This is the largest burial of the Great Patriotic War in Voronezh. It was from Chizhovka that one of the main attacks on the enemy troops was inflicted upon the liberation of the city in January 3545.

As a result, in the course of the unceasing bloody battles in the Voronezh sector, a huge enemy grouping, which the Germans failed to use at Stalingrad, was shackled by the battles. The seriousness of this section of the front for the Germans is also indicated by the fact that at the height of the fighting in Voronezh they had transferred a division even from near Stalingrad. The battle for Voronezh has created all the conditions and prerequisites for the victory of our troops at Stalingrad.

In the autumn of 1942, a protrusion formed in Voronezh’s enemy defense, a kind of “Voronezh Arc”, about 100 kilometers in depth with a base length of about 130 kilometers. The 10 of the German 2 Divisions and the Hungarian 2 divisions were located inside this projection. The Soviet High Command decided to strike the flanks of this projection. Voronezh-Kastornoy operation began on 24 on January 1943, as a result of this operation on January 25, all areas of the city occupied by the Germans were completely liberated, and throughout the entire Voronezh sector, the entire enemy group was completely surrounded, the so-called Stalingrad on the upper Don. Fierce fighting continued until February 17. The enemy tried to break through the encirclement, but was crushed. The enemy lost up to 11 divisions (German 9 and Hungarian 2), almost all heavy weapons and equipment. The defeat of the Nazi troops near Voronezh during the Voronezh-Kastornoy operation rightfully allows us to speak of it as a major success of the Soviet troops in the 1943 year.

After battle. The Soviet tank KV-1C (high-speed) and its dead tankman who shot the German tank column. Voronezh Front


The city of Voronezh itself turned out to be the third, after Leningrad and Sevastopol, by the length of stay on the front line, 212 days and nights the front line passed directly through the city. During the entire war there were only two cities - Stalingrad and Voronezh, where the front line passed through the city itself. Voronezh was included in the number of 12 cities in Europe that were most affected in the Second World War and in the number of 15 cities in the USSR requiring immediate restoration, up to a total of 95% of all city buildings were destroyed.

Voronezh and our enemies, especially the Hungarians, remembered for a long time, they almost lost their entire most efficient army near Voronezh, and the German divisions 26, the Hungarian 2s (completely) and the Italian 8s, as well as the Romanian units were destroyed in the Voronezh area. . The number of prisoners was more than at Stalingrad, the total number of captured enemy soldiers taken in the area of ​​the Voronezh Front was about 75 000 soldiers and officers.

At the same time, according to various sources, the losses of the German troops and their allies amounted to 320 thousands of soldiers and officers. Our army has lost even more, in the battles on the Voronezh land about 400 000 Soviet soldiers were killed.

In the years when the country began to mark its cities with the special title “Hero City”, then Voronezh leaders had submitted documents for assigning this honorary title to Voronezh. But, unfortunately, this initiative did not find the initiative from the Moscow leaders, limited only by awarding the city with the Order of the Patriotic War, I degree.

16 February 2008 of the year for the heroism shown by the city’s defenders during the occupation by German troops, which did not allow them to completely capture one of the main centers of the country, the city was awarded the honorary title of the Russian Federation “City of Military Glory”, and Voronezh stands modestly among the cities of military glory, the city never became a Hero City.

PS

“Due to the fact that the main bridge over the Don in the Semiluk region was not blown up by someone’s negligence in time, the Germans forced the main water barrier without difficulty and broke into the streets of the city.”

Yellow dear the bridge was blown up by 605 sappers in the early morning of 5.07.42 (the end of the eastern support collapsed). The Avtoguzhevoy bridge in the area of ​​Old Semiluk was blown up by 4.07.42 by our sappers from 19.00 to 20.00 hours (see the photo of the reconnaissance aircraft from Aug. 1942 in the article by local historian Sdvizhkova, in the picture of Podkletnoe road intersection - St. Semiluki across the Don River there is no bridge In a well-known German photo, German tanks are forwarded across the Don in Old Semiluki by an induced truss bridge. To the left of the bridge you can see the piles of the blown-up bridge. Please correct in A. Lebedev's article. I also have testimony from veterans.


Sent to the editorial board of VO 07.01.2014
Author:
27 comments
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  1. Friend
    Friend 15 August 2012 09: 22
    +5
    Thanks to our grandfathers! Glory to the heroes!
  2. Igarr
    Igarr 15 August 2012 09: 55
    +4
    The beautiful city of Voronezh.
    It is worthy to be a Hero city.
  3. borisst64
    borisst64 15 August 2012 10: 10
    +2
    Voronezh - The city of military glory, carved for centuries by the Kremlin wall. And this is not modest, this is a heroic series !!!
  4. Krasnodar
    Krasnodar 15 August 2012 11: 05
    +2
    The main thing is to be remembered!
  5. Jib
    Jib 15 August 2012 12: 03
    +3
    Thanks, great article. My uncle, the late Kuzhel, Vladimir Maksimovich. In September 1942 he was wounded in the chest at the Chizhov bridgehead. Fought Finnish war began on June 22, was commissioned in January 1943. There was a tanker. Eternal memory of wars.
  6. spd2001
    spd2001 15 August 2012 12: 18
    +4
    The city of Voronezh itself turned out to be the third, after Leningrad and Sevastopol, by the length of stay on the front line, 212 days and nights the front line passed directly through the city. During the entire war there were only two cities - Stalingrad and Voronezh, where the front line passed through the city itself. Voronezh was included in the number of 12 cities in Europe that were most affected in the Second World War and in the number of 15 cities in the USSR requiring immediate restoration, up to a total of 95% of all city buildings were destroyed.

    Being on a par with cities such as Leninagrad, Stalingrad, Sevastopol, Voronezh did not receive the status of a hero city? I asked myself. And in the penultimate paragraph he received an answer. But one more question remains - WHY? "The leadership of the city of Voronezh has been trying for a long time to restore historical justice. Since the mid-70s, the Voronezh authorities and war veterans fought for the awarding of the honorary title of" hero city "to Voronezh. But this victory was not easy for the city.
    In 1975, on the eve of the 30th anniversary of the Victory, the Soviet government softened a little and awarded our city the Order of the Patriotic War of the 1997st degree. The order is honorable, but not like the title of a hero. Request letters continued to be sent and were repeatedly rejected. The last official refusal was received in XNUMX by President Boris Yeltsin. "
    East. http://vipvrn.ru//oronezh-city-hero/ No answer
    1. LION
      LION 15 August 2012 13: 06
      +3
      It is believed that the title of Hero City was not given precisely for the huge losses of the Hungarians. They then became allies after the war. They didn’t want to offend. And interestingly, there are medals for the liberation of Prague, Warsaw, Belgrade, but for Budapest - for the capture.
      1. spd2001
        spd2001 15 August 2012 14: 55
        +3
        perhaps. Romanians, after the overthrow of the Antonescu regime, fought together with Soviet troops in Hungary and Austria. However, Odessa, Sevastopol and Stalingrad - Cities are heroes. (?!) As for the medals, respectively, there is no medal for the defense of Voronezh.

        They didn’t want to offend.
        But it would be funny if it were not sad. They got used to them with weapons, they got what they deserved, and Moscow said to them: "Do not be offended, these are all Voronezh residents and others like them, we will not assign a heroic status to their city for this." Although, I would not be surprised if everything was so commonplace. A lot of things were done for the sake of supporting the social regime in Eastern Europe.
      2. Evgeny Ulyanov
        Evgeny Ulyanov 5 November 2017 09: 06
        +1
        As soon as the Germans entered Voronezh (half the city on the right bank), 2 divisions of the Hungarians staged a massacre. What was the massacre literally: they chopped heads, sawed people with saws, pierced their heads with crowbars, burned, raped women and children. The captured Russian soldiers were subjected to terrible torture before their death. Having learned about these atrocities, the Soviet command unofficially ordered the Magyars to not be taken prisoner.
        After 212 days of fighting for Voronezh, Soviet troops liberated the city and captured 75000 Nazis.
        Of the two divisions consisting of Hungarians, not a single prisoner was. 160 Hungarians remain in Voronezh land
  7. Ratibor12
    Ratibor12 15 August 2012 15: 22
    +1
    It is unfair that Voronezh did not become a hero city. Mogilev, for example, was also not given the title of hero. They said that they say you have Minsk and the Brest Fortress, and the third hero city for small Belarus will be busy.
    But Mogilev was called "Madrid on the Dnieper" and "Father of Stalingrad". His defense (23 days) made it possible to prepare for the defense of Moscow. The heroes of "The Living and the Dead" by Simonov were written off from the defenders of the city (Kutepov - Serpilin, Khoroshev - Horoshev).

    On August 12, I was in Mogilev on the Buinichsky field. They fought here in 1595, 1812, 1941. In July of the 41st, 14 of 39 advancing German tanks were destroyed here during a 70-hour battle. One (commanding T-3) is standing there now. Especially pleasing in it is a hole in the port side, directly opposite the driver.
    According to the will of K. Simonov, his ashes were dispelled on Buinichsky field. Now there is a memorial boulder.
  8. sergey32
    sergey32 15 August 2012 15: 31
    +3
    So, in 96, I rode on the train for a year with a one-armed veteran from Rossosh. So he was indignant at the mediocre use of tanks during the assault on Grozny. He said that during the defense of Voronezh, where he lost his hand, ours burned many German tanks in the city.
  9. spd2001
    spd2001 15 August 2012 15: 51
    +2
    Quote: Ratibor12
    Mogilev, for example, was also not given the title of hero.
    In Russia, they definitely won’t. And according to the laws of Belarus, is there such an opportunity?
    Quote: Ratibor12
    and the third hero city for little Belarus will be busy.
    Was the USSR ?! The USSR is gone, but injustice remains. Paradoxes of life laughing
  10. Argonaut
    Argonaut 15 August 2012 16: 33
    +3
    Voronezh is also one of the turning points of the war.
  11. Robinson
    Robinson 15 August 2012 17: 08
    +1
    Near Voronezh, both sides fought well - first Germans and Hungarians, and then ours. Voronezh is proud and glorious.
  12. spd2001
    spd2001 15 August 2012 17: 25
    +2
    An interesting photo - "After the battle. The Soviet tank KV-1C (high-speed) who shot a German tank column and its dead tanker. Voronezh front". Who made this photo? Did one KV-1 knock out the entire column? Why was the number on the tank changed from 43 (45,46,48 ...) to 39? Was the KV-1 itself hit? Can anyone answer? It seems to me that for the knowledgeable (informed) this photo says a lot. Personally, from this photo, I have more questions than answers.
    1. igordok
      igordok 15 August 2012 18: 49
      +3
      39 is most likely the number of the German trophy team.
      And this photo came across to me on sites that talked about tank ass Zinovia Kolobanov.
      It seems that the photo was taken by the Germans, but then it is strange why the wrecked German tanks got into the photo - not patriotic.

      I am ashamed, but about the battles near Voronezh, I knew practically nothing.
      Thanks to the author.
      1. spd2001
        spd2001 16 August 2012 12: 08
        +1
        suggested that the author of the photo is our correspondent. Then it is marked: Trophy team. The question is added: Why is a killed tanker? (It’s like a wrecked German tank, but only more tragic. Iron is iron and in Africa). So it turns out that this is a very interesting shot. It is clear that there is an explanation for everything, but where it is not clear.
  13. Lech e-mine
    Lech e-mine 15 August 2012 18: 03
    +2
    I was there on a business trip. The historical city is a hero. Thank you to our grandfathers and fathers for defending this region from the fascist scum.
    1. valokordin
      valokordin 15 August 2012 21: 06
      +1
      According to the story of his father, who was flying at the Borisoglebsky flight school, in the summer of 1942. 200 cadets were thrown from the school near Voronezh, who were not completed and no one returned. They wrote a lot about Podolsky cadets, made films, but nothing about Borisoglebsk cadets, infantry pilots, but it’s a pity who knows about the heroic deeds of these guys.
      1. spd2001
        spd2001 16 August 2012 12: 17
        +1
        Podolsk is closer (in every sense of the word) to Moscow. As an option. In general, one gets the impression that in the defense of Voronezh, not everything was "smooth" for someone's biographies or stories. They also started talking about the Rzhev operation not so long ago.
  14. valokordin
    valokordin 15 August 2012 21: 01
    0
    I remember the story of my father, who was flying at the Borisoglebsky flight school, as 200 cadets of the school, instead of letting them finish the flight program in the summer of 1942, they threw them near Voronezh. No one came back.

    A lot of films have been written and shot about Podolsky cadets, but nothing has been written about the Borisoglebsk cadets of infantry pilots.
  15. mind1954
    mind1954 15 August 2012 23: 18
    +2
    Thank you for the article !
    I invite everyone to carefully look at the background of the photo
    crossings. There ZiS-5! This is for those who hait the Soviet auto industry!
    American truck recycled on our roads,
    under the ride, for a long time, "step"!
    The Germans appreciated this car.
    What the German newsreel testifies to !!!

    PS Yes, of course, the Americans had great cars
    cross-country ability, but this, you see, was a "forceful" solution, suitable
    for the army, but hardly for the national economy!
    1. spd2001
      spd2001 16 August 2012 12: 12
      +2
      I also drew attention to this fact. (there is not one Soviet car). I noticed that I had never seen such a thing in the newsreel or in the photo. Not to mention feature films. Used, like some types of weapons.
      P.S. The article is really good, but also informative for me. To my shame, I did not know many moments before.
  16. aviator46
    aviator46 9 September 2012 23: 54
    0
    Although I am interested in the history of the Second World War, I learned about this episode of the war in the first.
  17. Natali
    Natali 5 May 2013 19: 34
    0
    I have been living in this city for 32 years and I will not exchange it for any other city ...
  18. Natali
    Natali 5 May 2013 19: 35
    0
    This is a GREAT CITY!
  19. hot19-81
    hot19-81 1 October 2013 18: 05
    0
    VORONEZH CITY-HERO, undeniably
  20. san sanych
    san sanych 10 August 2015 12: 04
    +1
    I was born in Voronezh, on Chizhovka. The battles there were terrible. Nearby is a forest, which was all pitted with trenches. Even after so many years, traces of former trenches are still visible. And in the 60s they were deep. When they studied at the school every year before May 9, veterans came and talked about the war, about what the fights were. I remember digging a trench under the water supply system, then under the gas. This is on Chapaeva street opposite school number 34. When the excavator poured out its bucket, it seemed to me that there were more human bones there than earth. How many shells, grenades, ammunition we found in the forest. How many unexploded ordnance and aerial bombs were found during construction work. After the army in the 80th year, by the will of fate, he ended up in Moscow. I rode for three years and never returned to Voronezh. I love Voronezh very much. This is my hometown. I often go there several times a year. This year has been three times. Last time on Victory Holidays. Stopped by at Chizhov bridgehead. Eternal memory to all those who laid down their lives in the battles for Voronezh! I believe that VORONEZH IS WELCOME TO THE TITLE OF THE CITY_HEROY.
  21. tiaman.76
    tiaman.76 16 January 2016 12: 37
    +1
    Hero city definitely .. what else is needed to become a city of heroes
  22. Andrey VOV
    Andrey VOV 17 March 2016 19: 44
    0
    Maybe I'm wrong, more knowledgeable people, of course, correct, but if you could not resist then it is not known how the fate of the Stalingrad battle would have ended up .....
  23. evgeny romashov
    evgeny romashov 20 September 2017 11: 53
    +1
    Honor and glory to the defenders of Voronezh. Without diminishing in any way their feat and merit of the author of the article, I recall that not only through Voronezh and Stalingrad, but also through Rzhev the front line passed in 1942. Rzhev, like Voronezh, was awarded only the modest title of a city of military glory and a modest order. Ours could release him during the Moscow counterattack, the Germans left the city, but they returned by Hitler’s formidable roar and held on until 1943. On the Rzhev land during the battles of 1941-1943. our soldiers died, alas, more than in the Battle of Stalingrad - there is little written about this. But in the Rzhev Museum of War, you can buy books of memoirs of residents of the city and the region, you can read the history of the Rzhev-Vyazemsky and Rzhev-Sychevsky operations, including operations "Mars" - in the autumn of 1942, our troops recaptured only half the city and were forced to stop, suffering heavy losses. Not everyone agrees that Rzhev was pulling part of the Germans over, not allowing them to be transferred to Stalingrad, that it was a kind of distracting giant bridgehead that fettered the Army Group Center on the Moscow-Berlin road. Not without reason Churchill sent Stalin a congratulation on the liberation of Rzhev, and on the outskirts of the city a hut was preserved - the only place near the front line, where the Supreme visited in 1943 and from where he ordered the first salute. Thanks again to the author. I was always amazed at why so little was said about Voronezh in Soviet times, I was in it as a child, but I could not find out. It is absolutely necessary to reveal the truth about these pages of the war, it is our duty to the fallen little-known and unknown heroes. The Stalingrad victory, like all of our Victory, was forged in Rzhev, Voronezh, and Vyazma - wherever our soldier fought with the enemy, in all battles of local significance, shootings, reconnaissance, waste, encirclement. My uncle, whom I had never, of course, seen, went missing on the Rzhev land in the fall of 1942. 92 tank brigade. He freed the Jags. We were recently in Zubtsov and Rzhev. Worshiped the earth and monuments.
  24. Martina
    Martina 1 February 2018 14: 35
    0
    Tell me, who knows: There has long been a cycle of programs on Voronezh radio about the defense of Voronezh. It was said that German tanks seemed to have entered the Vogressovsky bridge, and civilians were shot from it, departing along the Chernavsky bridge. I remember, but nowhere can I find information.
  25. bzolotaryov
    bzolotaryov 24 January 2020 07: 39
    -1
    In my amateur opinion, the accessibility of Voronezh has played a cruel joke with the Wehrmacht. Without much effort, having crossed the Don and burst into Voronezh, the illusion arose that there was a little more and in their hands a gorgeous bridgehead. If you capture Voronezh with the left bank (Otrozhka, Pridacha, Peschanovka), then from this bridgehead you can develop offensives in three directions: north - Moscow, south - Stalingrad, east - middle Volga. Capturing only the right bank of Voronezh allowed developing the offensive only to the north, in a narrow defile between the Don and Voronezh.
    Leaning against an active, powerful defense and not having sufficient strength to break through it, the Wehrmacht is stuck to its ears in urban battles.
    Having stopped on the right bank of the Don and methodically destroying the city its industrial and transport potential, it would have allowed the enemy to rush to the Caucasus for oil with great forces.
    Or take Voronezh, and only after that rush south.
    But history does not know the subjunctive mood ... The courage and heroism of the defenders of the city of Voronezh, forged significant Wehrmacht forces, and then surrounded and destroyed the enemy troops mired in Voronezh.
  26. Yuri Silin
    Yuri Silin 5 July 2022 06: 20
    0
    My grandfather, a participant in the defense of Voronezh, Silin Petr Fedorovich. Silin Petr Fedorovich began his participation in the Great Patriotic War in the NKVD troops on January 1.1.1942, 2. He participated in the fighting. As part of the 125nd rifle company of the 36th rifle regiment of the 03.6.1942th separate rifle brigade of the NKVD troops of the USSR for the protection of railways from 26.11.42/XNUMX/XNUMX to XNUMX/XNUMX/XNUMX. What did the regiment, in which Sergeant Pyotr Fedorovich Silin served, do. Combat, operational and service activities of the regiment:
    The regiment performed the following tasks:
    a) protection of the South-Eastern and Moscow-Donbass railways, escort of military and national economic railway cargoes;
    b) at the place of deployment, the protection of the military rear of the Voronezh and South-Western (II f) fronts;
    c) at the place of deployment, participation in the protection of internal law and order.
    From December 1, 1941 to January 16, 1942, from July 4, 1942 to September 20, 1943, he was part of the Active Red Army.
    Separate subunits, sniper teams in the zone of the Voronezh and South-Western (II f) fronts took part in hostilities on the front line. The garrisons of the regiment, stationed in the district of the years. Kashiry and Eltsa, took part in the Moscow battle.
    On April 10-15, 1942, the 36th brigade was reorganized into the 41st rifle division of the NKVD troops of the USSR for the protection of railways, the regiment was included in the division.
    From July 3, 1942 to January 25, 1943, the 1st line battalion of the regiment took part in the battles for the city of Voronezh, guarded the railway. bridges, took part in the protection of the rear of the 60th Army (II f). With the approach of fascist troops to the mountains. Voronezh since June 20, 1942, under the command of Major Belomyttsev, commander of the 125th regiment of the 41st rifle division of the NKVD troops for the protection of railways, which is operationally subordinate to the Chief of the NKVD troops for the protection of the rear of the Voronezh Front, defensive work has been carried out at protected objects - strategic railway bridges in near the Ostrozhka station, where 10 bunkers were built. On July 06, 1942, the units repulsed repeated enemy attempts to break through to the bridges and capture them, as well as the regiment commander Belomytsev P.N. realizing the important strategic importance of bridges in ensuring the transport of troops and ammunition, other military equipment, the 21st and 40th armies of the front did not give permission to the 5th engineering sapper brigade to blow up the bridges. On July 07, 1942, at the time of the capture by the enemy of the Agricultural Institute, located 2 km north of the city of Voronezh, he personally organized defense on the western bank of the river. Voronezh. To strengthen the defense of these objects, he sent the retreating units of the 232nd Infantry Division.
    From July 07 to July 10, 1942, the regiment fought fierce battles to defend the bridges, repulsed all enemy attacks, and destroyed an enemy infantry company that was trying to capture the bridges. Later, under the command of the regiment commander, Major Belomyttsev P.N. decisive measures were taken to curb attempts to rob goods and restore revolutionary order at the Ostrozhka railway station.
    Fighting in Voronezh
    It just so happened that one of the largest battles during the Great Patriotic War - the fighting in Voronezh - somehow fell out of history. There are references on this occasion that the materials were classified for a long time. But there was nothing secret there, but there were fierce, heavy and bloody battles with heavy losses of Soviet people. Materials about the participation of the NKVD troops in the battles for Voronezh were classified, and they took part in the defense of the city only in the initial period. It can be assumed that at the same time they assigned the stamp "secret" to documents about other participants in the battles. This section shows the events in Voronezh based on previously closed archival materials about the NKVD troops.
    The units of the NKVD troops stationed in Voronezh turned out to be, in fact, the only combat force capable of holding back the enemy's offensive until the Red Army troops approached. By order of the Headquarters of July 4, 1942, and by subsequent order of the commander of the Bryansk Front, units of the NKVD began to prepare for defense on the outskirts of the city. The 233rd regiment of escort troops received the task of preventing the enemy from entering Voronezh from the northern and northwestern direction, the 287th regiment of internal troops of the 13th rifle division - from the west, the 41st regiment of internal troops of the 10th rifle division - from the side Monasteries; the battalion of the 125th regiment of the NKVD for the protection of railways was supposed to take up all-round defense in the area of ​​​​the railway bridge st. Outgrowth. Together with units of the NKVD troops, the training battalion of the 232nd Infantry Division took up defense on the southern outskirts of the city. Parts of the NKVD troops were armed only with rifles and a small number of machine guns; there was no artillery support. At the same time, in the 233rd regiment there were only one battalion, a machine-gun company, a communications platoon, in the 287th regiment - 2 battalions without one company, in the 41st regiment - 3 battalions. Subsequently, units and subunits of the NKVD troops fought rearguard and defensive battles mainly on the approaches of the enemy to river crossings, important objects. So, on July 6, 1942, one of the units of the 125th regiment of the 41st division of the NKVD repelled enemy attacks during the day, trying to capture the railway bridge across the river. Black Kalitva. The personnel left the defense area on orders after the bridge was blown up.
    From the morning of July 14, 1942, during the day, the army units of the front waged stubborn, fierce offensive battles for the liberation of Voronezh from the invaders. The consolidated regiment of the NKVD, together with the 796th rifle regiment and units of the 121st rifle division of the Red Army, successfully led the offensive in the direction of Bishop's Grove. The combined regiment stormed the Dynamo stadium and the Voronezh-1 railway station. The neighbor on the right, the 796th Rifle Regiment of the Red Army, occupied the western outskirts of the city, even to the right the rifle division captured the villages of Podkletnoye and Podgornoye and continued to move in the direction of Semiluk. The neighboring 121st Rifle Division captured the eastern outskirts of the city in the direction of Chernyavsky Bridge. The battalion of the 125th regiment of the NKVD from the side of the Dynamo stadium took part in combing and clearing the forest from the remaining groups of the retreating enemy.
    At the end of the spring of 1942, the German fascist leadership of Germany was ready for decisive action to implement the plan for the summer campaign of 1942 - to capture the Caucasus with a swift throw, go to the Volga, and capture Stalingrad. Hitler and the Wehrmacht considered Voronezh the gateway through which their troops would begin the victorious end of the war. But to pass through these gates proved to be an impossible task. Voronezh, thus, was at the epicenter of the war.
    On January 1, 1944, in the course of hostilities, while performing combat, operational and service tasks, he lost 335 military personnel, of which 31 were killed and died from wounds, 44 were wounded, and 271 were missing. Source - RGVA: f. 38277, op. 1, d. 54, l. one