Military Review

Important military reforms of Stalin

172

Leon Trotsky is rightfully considered the creator of the Workers 'and Peasants' Red Army. However, it must be admitted that the level of training and equipment that allowed our homeland not only to withstand, but also to win in a battle with the most powerful military force on the planet at that time - the German Wehrmacht and its many allies, the Red Army acquired thanks to the decisions adopted and implemented in life by Joseph Stalin.


Everything is learned in comparison ... The army of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, created in 1922, was very large. However, what was this army? Somehow the uniform and armed Red Army men were filled with fighting spirit and readiness not only to defend their country, but also "to bring liberation to all working people oppressed by world capital." That's just in the upcoming "war of motors", in which the fate of battles was to be decided not by horse lavas and dashing carts, but tanks and combat aircraft, their chances of winning were, frankly, small.

Stalin was one of those who understood this best. The first military reform, carried out in the USSR in the early to mid-20s, was aimed at reducing the number of almost five million Red Army, which in peacetime had nothing to feed and nothing to support. The army was transferred to the territorial-militia system, which, however, was combined with the personnel system. It got to the point that by 1928, almost 60% of the rifle divisions of the Red Army were "territorial", not counting even 20% of the regular number of soldiers and commanders. It could hardly be called an army at all ...

In fact, Stalin began to create real armed forces when the economic prerequisites appeared for this - in the middle of the 30s. By the end of this decade, the Stalinist transformation of the Red Army was largely completed. What were its highlights? First of all, until 1939, there were no territorial units left in the army - only personnel ones. At the same time, there was a development, and in fact, the creation from scratch of new types of troops - tank, airborne, chemical, air defense and communications, as well as others, which actually did not exist before. The Red Army was rapidly becoming one of the most modern armies in the world.

Major transformations have been undertaken to improve the country's military command structures. The main focus was on the introduction of the principle of rigid one-man command and the creation of the most efficient command and control bodies. In 1939, such a "relic" of the revolution and the Civil War as the Revolutionary Military Council was finally abolished, and the People's Commissariat for Military and Naval Affairs was transformed into the People's Commissariat of Defense. The General Staff (instead of just the headquarters) appeared in the Red Army back in 1935. Two years later, the status of the government structure responsible for military issues was significantly strengthened - the Defense Committee was created in the Council of People's Commissars instead of the corresponding Commission.

Special mention should be made of the Stalinist reform of the manning system of the Red Army. In 1939, the draft age for citizens of the USSR was changed from 21, which it had been from 1925, to 19 or 18 (for those who graduated from high school). This made it possible to more actively replenish the ranks of the Armed Forces, create a huge personnel reserve for them. The size of the Red Army has almost doubled in comparison with 1936 - up to 2 million people. By 1941, it will more than double, by the time of the Great Patriotic War, the Red Army will have more than 300 divisions, although almost half of them will be at the stage of formation. In comparison with 1937, by 1941, the staffing of, for example, the rifle units of the Red Army increased more than three times compared to 1937, and in such branches of the army as armored, automobile, air defense - more than six times!

Stalin's important military reform was a radical change in the approach both to the system of military training of the population and to the education of command personnel for the army. In 1937, there were not even 50 military schools in the USSR, at the beginning of 1941 their number exceeded two hundred. In all schools and other educational institutions, compulsory initial military and pre-conscription training was introduced, the frequency and duration of training sessions for reserve servicemen of all categories increased significantly.

In parallel with all this, the Red Army was being saturated with combat aircraft, armored vehicles and other types of weapons.

As a result, we can say that the transformations and reforms carried out in the military sphere by Stalin were undertaken in three main directions. Firstly, the transfer of the Red Army to a full cadre base and a radical improvement in the system of manning the Armed Forces with privates and command personnel. Secondly, the improvement of the structure and composition of the army - from its higher command bodies to lower divisions. Thirdly, the material and technical re-equipment of the Red Army, the creation in its structure of the most modern services at that time.

In conclusion, it remains only to note that история does not know of other examples of such deep, large-scale and successful military reforms carried out in such a short time frame and without any help and support from outside.
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  1. The comment was deleted.
  2. Aerodrome
    Aerodrome 15 November 2020 09: 52
    10

    In conclusion, it remains only to note that history knows no other examples of such deep, large-scale and successful military reforms carried out in such a short time frame and without any outside help and support.
    nothing to add +
    1. Machito
      Machito 15 November 2020 10: 52
      18
      Superfluous verbiage is useless. Stalin's military reforms brought victory to the USSR in the war, and France blew it in 40 days.
    2. Finches
      Finches 15 November 2020 11: 15
      +6
      Thundering with fire, sparkling with a gleam of steel,
      The cars will go on a furious campaign,
      When he sends us into battle comrade Stalin
      And the first marshal will lead us into battle!
      1. The comment was deleted.
      2. Imobile
        Imobile 15 November 2020 20: 32
        -10 qualifying.
        Many people like Comrade Stalin
      3. Alexander Suvorov
        Alexander Suvorov 16 November 2020 07: 02
        18
        Gunners Stalin gave the order!
        Artillerymen, calling the Motherland of us!
        And hundreds of thousands of batteries
        For the tears of our mothers,
        For our Motherland - fire! The fire!

        Favorite song of my late grandfather, by the way an artilleryman!
    3. Alekseev
      Alekseev 15 November 2020 11: 38
      -11 qualifying.
      Quote: Aerodrome
      In conclusion, it remains only to note

      That the article is superficial, complex and ambiguous issues of the development of the armed forces are treated one-sidedly.
      A balm for the souls of "some civilians" who are now dreaming of the coming of a "good tsar".
      Indeed, very large-scale measures to develop industry and increase the potential of the Red Army led to the creation of an army that was very numerous in terms of the number of l / s weapons.
      But ... quality was not achieved.
      That is why more than 20000 tanks, thousands of aircraft, artillery systems and millions of soldiers and officers were burned in the fire of the battles of 1941, and, often, 1942. The result of the work of the industry in the pre-war years was lost, cadres were largely lost during the repressions, then order and discipline in the units was undermined.
      We must remember about the price of victory and not fill the heads of the youth with harmful jingoistic patriotic recipes.
      Of course, the merit of the Soviet leadership and Stalin personally for turning the country into a single military camp is beyond doubt.
      But he did not manage to do everything to ensure Victory within the country, despite industrialization and collectivization. The reasons have long been known and have been discussed more than once, in particular on this site.
      Quote: Bearded
      brought victory to the USSR
      not only life-and-death struggle and heroic work of the rear, but also lend-lease supplies.
      In such positions as explosives, cars, steam locomotives, rails, high-tech equipment, high-octane gasoline, i.e. something without which it is also impossible to successfully wage a war, they reached 50-90% of the resources used. And the food for the troops does not need to be discounted.
      Any complex historical issue should be considered comprehensively, without overemphasizing achievements and hushing up failures, without propaganda husks.
      1. Doccor18
        Doccor18 15 November 2020 12: 37
        10
        ... then the order and discipline in the units was undermined.

        What do you mean?
        The discipline was iron! Both grandfathers served and fought. With what, and with discipline there was complete order.
        but also lend-lease supplies ...

        Now it's all clear.....
        1. Ua3qhp
          Ua3qhp 15 November 2020 13: 36
          +8
          Deliveries under Lend-Lease and not only, by the way, this is the same merit of Stalin. You must be able to negotiate the same with potential allies.
          1. Boris55
            Boris55 16 November 2020 09: 23
            +3
            Quote: Ua3qhp
            Lend-Lease supplies

            Lend-Lease supplies accounted for about 10% of all the country's needs. These supplies have saved many lives, but they were not gratuitous. We only paid for them at the beginning of this century.
            1. Alexey RA
              Alexey RA 18 November 2020 17: 42
              0
              Quote: Boris55
              Lend-Lease supplies accounted for about 10% of all the country's needs.

              For some items - up to 100%. Including components for the manufacture of gunpowders.
              Quote: Boris55
              These supplies have saved many lives, but they were not gratuitous. We paid for them only at the beginning of this century.

              Only "peaceful" equipment that was not returned after the war was subject to payment. For Lend-Lease in the name itself contains the principle of providing assistance: to lend for the duration of the war.
              In total, the USSR and the Russian Federation paid 722 million dollars, with a total cost of LL almost 11 billion. Moreover, the payment was in dollars of the 70s - 90s at prices of the 40s. This is roughly the same as with the current rubles 1: 1 to pay debts of the times of the USSR. smile
              1. mat-vey
                mat-vey 19 November 2020 05: 55
                +2
                Quote: Alexey RA
                For some items - up to 100%. Including components for the manufacture of gunpowders.

                For example? Just Kemerovo gunpowder in 1942 was for some time the only factory producing artillery gunpowder, and it seems that on domestic components, if you have other information I will be grateful. And Lend-Lease gunpowder (artillery) had a very limited temperature range with stable characteristics.
                1. Alexey RA
                  Alexey RA 19 November 2020 12: 02
                  0
                  Quote: mat-vey
                  For example?

                  I relied on Vernidub's data:

                  1. mat-vey
                    mat-vey 19 November 2020 12: 48
                    0
                    And this one did not come across "The military-industrial complex of the USSR in the 30-40s of the XX century: the industry of ammunition", authored by Andrei Nikolaevich Balysh.
                    I only find excerpts ... As for gunpowder, Lend-Lease is more detailed here, but the numbers seem to converge.
              2. Cyril G ...
                Cyril G ... 23 November 2020 23: 30
                +1
                Quote: Alexey RA
                Only "peaceful" equipment that was not returned after the war was subject to payment.


                Torpedo boats, frigates we returned after the war
            2. Baron pardus
              Baron pardus 20 November 2020 02: 21
              +1
              The Land Lease deliveries were really not "out of the kindness of the soul" one can only recall the words of the FDR "If the Russians win, you need to help the Germans, if the Germans win, you need to help the Russians - let them kill each other more." It is clear that the P40 was not a great aircraft - but better than none. It is clear that the M3 was an armored shed with a cannon. It sometimes withstood a 20mm projectile, but no more. But better than nothing. Why are we there - the Americans gave the British in exchange for the islands 50 ancient destroyers - two of which sank on the way to England - nothing personal - just money. If you don't want to, don't buy destroyers and live as you know. My grandparents and grandparents told me about the American carcass that saved heaps of lives - it was. But it was BUSINESS. And the words of the FDR "Let them kill each other as much as possible" must be carved in stone at every Russian and German school. So that neither we, nor the Germans have questions with whom they are dealing.
      2. zenion
        zenion 15 November 2020 17: 18
        +3
        alekseev (alexei) Was everything supplied with trained crews under Lend-Lease, and so on? Or it was necessary to train personnel in the country. You would first read how the Americans began to fight the Japanese and what it turned out to be for them. How the Americans then fought the Germans and how they won by calling for a lend-lease from Stalin with a request to start attacks in certain places of the front, help Stalin out, otherwise you will again have to retreat to Great Britain.
        1. Alexey RA
          Alexey RA 18 November 2020 17: 46
          0
          Quote: zenion
          How the Americans then fought the Germans and how they won by calling for a lend-lease from Stalin with a request to start attacks in certain places of the front, help Stalin out, otherwise you will again have to retreat to Great Britain.

          Since when did Churchill become an American? And why would Churchill ask for help from the USSR in January 1945, if the Germans had already gotten up ten days ago, and Patton was cutting their wedge from the south? wink
          No one asked for anyone's help - Vinnie was just wondering if he would be kind dear genie The USSR is finally notifying the Allies about its operations, so that the parties can somehow coordinate their actions.
      3. Alexander Suvorov
        Alexander Suvorov 16 November 2020 07: 07
        17
        alexeyev (alexey)
        brought victory to the USSR
        not only life-and-death struggle and heroic work of the rear, but also lend-lease supplies.
        Everything is clear with you, amerik5anskiy henchman, but do not tell me when these same deliveries began and in what volume ?! And I will tell you when, when it became clear that the Germans could not defeat the USSR! So shove your Lend-Lease into your sales account and do not shine.
        1. mat-vey
          mat-vey 16 November 2020 15: 22
          0
          Quote: Alexander Suvorov
          And I will tell you when, when it became clear that the Germans could not defeat the USSR!

          Not well, the element of waiting is visible, but on the other hand, delivery across the ocean cannot be established instantly either.
          And again on the other hand - most of the Lend-Lease cars came in semi-finished products and they were assembled at Soviet car factories, curtailing the production of soybeans (albeit losing to the Western, but their own) technology. And many other nuances ... But in general, with Lend-Lease it was easier than without him. and would have won without him, but with him I will repeat it easier ...
        2. Icarus
          Icarus 22 November 2020 00: 44
          -1
          Everything is clear with you, amerik5anskiy henchman, but do not tell me when these same deliveries began and in what volume ?! And I will tell you when, when it became clear that the Germans could not defeat the USSR! So shove your Lend-Lease into your sales account and do not shine.

          I can suggest objectivity for the sake of.
          On October 1, 1941, the first Moscow Protocol on the supply of the USSR was signed in Moscow, the expiration of which was determined on June 30, 1942. The Lend-Lease Law was extended to the USSR on October 28, 1941, as a result of which a loan of $ 1 billion was granted to our country. From the beginning of 1942, mass deliveries of equipment under Lend-Lease began.
          Thanks to the idiot Tukhachevsky, who was responsible for arming the army, the Red Army entered the Great Patriotic War with a significant shortage of service radio communications. So, for example, the average provision of the Red Army with radio stations of the RAF was 46 percent, while the Leningrad Military District was provided with them only by 30 percent, the Western Special - by 27 percent, the Kiev Special - by 30 percent, the Odessa - by 39 percent. ... If the average provision of ST-35 telegraphs in the army was 35%, then in the districts: LVO - 27%, PribOVO - 33%, ZAPOVO - 28%, KOVO - 30%, ODVO - 30%.
          The lack of radio stations on most of the tanks and aircraft significantly reduced their combat effectiveness and led to heavy losses, not to mention the impact of the lack of communication on the interaction of formations and units.
          Thanks to the massive deliveries of radio stations under Lend-Lease (in just 3 years - about 46 thousand pieces), the Red Army has an opportunity to provide radio communications for units and formations. How many losses could have been avoided, there would have been communication and proper interaction between units at the beginning of the Second World War! (http://history.milportal.ru/vklad-lend-liza-v-obespechenie-krasnoj-armii-sredstvami-radiosvyazi-v-gody-velikoj-otechestvennoj-vojny/)
      4. Alexey RA
        Alexey RA 18 November 2020 17: 37
        +3
        Quote: Alekseev
        The result of the work of the industry in the pre-war years was lost, cadres were largely lost during the repressions, then order and discipline in the units was undermined.

        What discipline are you talking about in the 30s, if the permanent Disciplinary Charter of the Red Army was adopted only in 1940? And before that, the commanders could only count on the class consciousness of the fighters.
        ... the poor combat training of the troops during the times of Uborevich and Yakir was due not only to the low qualifications of the commanders of the Red Army, but also to poor military education.
        The level of the latter can be judged, for example, by the collective portrait of the command staff of the 110th rifle regiment of the BBO, made by the division commander K.P. Podlas in October 1936: “The younger [sie] are familiar with their elders, loosely, leaves his leg, sitting, accepts orders, bickering ... Lots of torn uniforms, dirty, unshaven, torn boots, etc. " At that time the middle commanders of the 44th and 45th divisions of the KVO also walked "unshaven, with dirty collars": this is how "red officers" were brought up in their cadet years ...
        For example, this is what the cadets of the United Belarusian Military School looked like in August 1932: "The weak front bearing is striking; the uniforms "did not wash almost all summer" and "came to the color of oil."
        Seeing a commander with rhombuses in his buttonholes (that is, in the old-fashioned way, a general!), "The day cadets ... hesitated, one scratched his cheek and twisted his head, not knowing what to do: stand or sit." (It is appropriate to cite here the memories of General V.V. Glazatov about the Odessa cadet school at the turn of the XNUMXth-XNUMXth centuries. "When the command" Smirno "was given at the school, - he said, - the senior officer looked not at the cadets, but at the tips of bayonets - try just move, you can immediately see everything. What was the drill bearing! "
        Unsightly looked at Yakir and Uborevich and the younger commander of the Red Army. Unstretched, unshaven, often in a torn tunic, and even without insignia (!), In principle, he could not be demanding, he could not persistently work out with the fighters all the details of their preparation.
        One could argue with such a commander, he could be called a "bastard" and cursed - the low level of discipline was another factor that led to the poor combat training of the Red Army in the mid-30s. However, the general atmosphere of the "proletarian state" did not contribute to the strengthening of discipline either. The Red Army soldier was seen not so much a soldier as a citizen, "comrade such and such." The fighter could criticize the platoon commander and the foreman at the Komsomol meeting - what kind of military discipline could we talk about?
        © Smirnov. Great maneuvers.
      5. serezhasoldatow
        serezhasoldatow 26 November 2020 10: 39
        0
        There is a very short time for such transformations. The rest of your commentary is a blizzard ... liberal.
  3. Svarog
    Svarog 15 November 2020 09: 52
    19
    In conclusion, it remains only to note that history does not know other examples of such deep, large-scale and successful military reforms carried out in such a short time and without any help and support from outside.

    Military reforms could not have taken place without economic reforms, where history also knows no examples ... when in 30 years the country from a backward agrarian economy turned into an industrial power ... and a lot of things history does not know ... for example, prices began to go down under Stalin .. Now there is not enough Stalin with a team of like-minded statesmen .. But the basis for everything was socialist ideology and this must be remembered.
    1. Terenin
      Terenin 15 November 2020 10: 03
      +3
      Quote: Svarog
      Now there is not enough Stalin with a team of like-minded statesmen ..

      By the way, like Peter the Great with a team of like-minded people, he was forced to leave Moscow due to the impossibility of overcoming the opposition of the boyars in all spheres.
    2. Uncle lee
      Uncle lee 15 November 2020 10: 04
      11
      Quote: Svarog
      .But everything was based on socialist ideology

      And without this, industrialization and the army would not have been built!
      1. The comment was deleted.
    3. paul3390
      paul3390 15 November 2020 10: 10
      26
      And economic - without the deepest social. It was precisely the well-functioning social lifts of the Land of Soviets that made it possible to provide both the economy and the army with personnel. Just remember that the elevators must go both up and down. Until the very execution basement for the most distinguished ..

      This is precisely what the current decaying neo-feudal Putinism does not understand. When, by the fact of an approximate birth, you are inviolable, no matter how you screw it up. And your place is actually a hereditary feud. Such a country will not survive long.
      1. Svarog
        Svarog 15 November 2020 10: 14
        11
        Quote: paul3390
        This is precisely what the current decaying neo-feudal Putinism does not understand. When, by the fact of an approximate birth, you are inviolable, no matter how you screw it up. And your place is actually a hereditary feud. Such a country will not survive long.

        This is what demographic indicators show. hi
      2. Krasnoyarsk
        Krasnoyarsk 15 November 2020 10: 35
        15
        Quote: paul3390

        This is precisely what the current decaying neo-feudal Putinism does not understand.

        Why, he doesn't understand ... That's why there is no raster article, because there is a double-edged sword.
        And without this article, only a certain period, with a separate chamber and a sauna. And there is either amnesty or parole. So that's it. And you say - does not understand.
      3. zenion
        zenion 15 November 2020 17: 21
        +9
        paul3390 (Pavel) Under Stalin, they were looking for the necessary personnel among the people, and not among their relatives.
      4. EvilLion
        EvilLion 17 November 2020 08: 45
        -1
        It is immediately obvious that he was born on Putin's maternity capital.
    4. bar
      bar 15 November 2020 10: 19
      -3
      Quote: Svarog
      But everything was based on socialist ideology

      Backed by a powerful "dictatorship of the proletariat".
      "Colt and a kind word are better than just a kind word."
    5. Konnick
      Konnick 15 November 2020 10: 47
      +7
      The more seriously I study the history of the Great Patriotic War, the more I am convinced of Stalin's genius.
      1. Doctor
        Doctor 15 November 2020 12: 24
        -10 qualifying.
        The more seriously I study the history of the Great Patriotic War, the more I am convinced of Stalin's genius.

        Yes, they won back brilliantly ... wink
      2. bamu
        bamu 15 November 2020 15: 55
        -11 qualifying.
        27 million dead, half of the country in ruins. And this is your military genius?
        1. Valerikk
          Valerikk 15 November 2020 19: 06
          +4
          27 million dead, half of the country in ruins. And this is your military genius?

          Could you do better?
          1. bamu
            bamu 15 November 2020 19: 57
            -3
            On June 22, Germany deployed 4058 tanks and assault guns, 3909 aircraft, 37099 guns on the border. The USSR had 15687 tanks, 10743 aircraft, 59787 guns and mortars on the border.
            In total, the USSR had 25786 tanks, including 394 KV and 1110 T-34 and 24488 aircraft. In terms of personnel, 3562 thousand. from germany and 3061 thousand. from the USSR. At the beginning of the attack on the USSR, Germany had only about 900 medium tanks, the rest were light, they even had almost no chance against our T-26 and BT.
            Plus, for every German tank, the Red Army had about 5 anti-tank guns.
            On June 23, 1941, open mobilization began, and by July 1, 5,3 million people had been drafted into the ranks of the Armed Forces. But on July 1, the mobilization, of course, did not end. It was just beginning. As a result, by the end of 1941, a total of 14 million people were mobilized.
            Where is the global superiority of Germany?
            1. The comment was deleted.
              1. Valerikk
                Valerikk 15 November 2020 21: 24
                +4
                Hmm, maybe I'll reveal a great secret, but the Red Army won.
                It turns out that Stalin was not so far from Mars.
                1. Imobile
                  Imobile 17 November 2020 09: 26
                  -3
                  Defeated Russian People, and Stalin smeared himself on the side
              2. mat-vey
                mat-vey 16 November 2020 15: 26
                0
                Quote: Imobile
                And a few years before that, Germany did not have an army at all.

                But there was an educated population, quite advanced science, and, although shabby, but advanced production. Well, and the plans of Dawes and Jung.
                1. Imobile
                  Imobile 17 November 2020 09: 29
                  -5
                  According to the statistics of the Stalinists, the USSR was more educated and had the best industry in Europe, add to this the size of the country
                  1. mat-vey
                    mat-vey 18 November 2020 06: 04
                    -1
                    Quote: Imobile
                    According to the statistics of the Stalinists, the USSR was more educated and had the best industry in Europe

                    No, well, it happens in the heat of controversy ... but why is it so primitive?
              3. EvilLion
                EvilLion 17 November 2020 08: 53
                0
                In the USSR, at the beginning of the 30s, there was also nothing that could seriously be called an army. As there was no industry with cadres, the Germans had it, like engineers, and then Hitler had to prom. to give developed Czechoslovakia so that it is bolder to the east per. German officers with PMV also did not go anywhere, but tenth graders can be called up and trained in a year.
            2. Valerikk
              Valerikk 15 November 2020 21: 19
              +5
              Where did I talk about global superiority?
              I suggest you put yourself in the shoes of Comrade. Stalin in the same conditions, with the same knowledge and capabilities. And answer a simple question.
            3. Vikxnumx
              Vikxnumx 16 November 2020 09: 46
              +2
              On June 22, Germany deployed 4058 tanks and assault guns, 3909 aircraft, 37099 guns on the border. The USSR had 15687 tanks, 10743 aircraft, 59787 guns and mortars on the border.

              And an army run in battles!
              Can you give the composition of the Soviet mechanized corps on June 22, 1941?
              No infantry, no ZenAP, no rembats ... And no experience from the soldiers and commanders!
              And what about the availability and development of aircraft by the personnel?
              And the grandfathers withstood!
            4. EvilLion
              EvilLion 17 November 2020 08: 48
              -2
              I understand that, having lived until 2020, you are mentally in the 80s, but I will try to tell everyone a known fact. The invasion army of Germany is 4 million, the Red Army in the West. districts it is 2.8 million. No extra 10 thousand tanks do not cover this in principle, especially since the Germans had complete superiority in artillery until the end of the war, and transport simply cannot be compared.
            5. strannik1985
              strannik1985 18 November 2020 21: 08
              0
              Where is the global superiority of Germany?

              These figures are for the USSR not "on the border", but throughout the entire territory of the western VO.
        2. paul3390
          paul3390 15 November 2020 19: 31
          +7
          One might think - it was Comrade Stalin who shot and spread rot in concentration camps of our prisoners of war and civilians. In terms of combat losses, we went bash with bash, in general.
          1. bamu
            bamu 15 November 2020 19: 54
            -6
            The blame for the catastrophe of 1941 lies entirely with our command, the general staff, headed by Zhukov and Stalin, as the first person of the state. The army was beheaded and intimidated by repression, the commanders were afraid to show even the slightest initiative, all the while waiting for orders from above. Marshal of the Soviet Union AM Vasilevsky wrote: “Without the thirty-seventh year, perhaps there would have been no war at all in the forty-first year. In the fact that Hitler decided to start the war in XNUMX, an assessment of the degree of defeat of military personnel that took place in our country played an important role. " Marshal Konev expressed a similar opinion in conversations with Simonov.
            1. Andrey VOV
              Andrey VOV 15 November 2020 21: 25
              +5
              Or maybe the same cliches about armada of tanks will be enough ... 25 thousand tanks were in the entire Red Army from Brest to Vladivostok ... this is like an example when he manipulates numbers to please himself
            2. EvilLion
              EvilLion 17 November 2020 08: 56
              +1
              Yes, without 37, the Tukhachevskies would have surrendered the country without a war. To call the army decapitated after 37, when illiterate conspirators were replaced by generals with many years of service experience and higher education, can only be due to a misunderstanding. The same Prudnikova, from acquaintance with the army until 37, is only baptized, that thank God, these people got into a conspiracy, and after them they managed to fix something.
            3. Alexey RA
              Alexey RA 18 November 2020 17: 55
              +2
              Quote: bamu
              The army was beheaded and intimidated by repression, the commanders were afraid to show even the slightest initiative, all the while waiting for orders from above.

              You tell about the intimidated commanders Kirponos - this figure managed to cancel the order of the chief of the General Staff to strike the flanks of the 1st TGr and began to shuffle the mechanized corps KOVO at his own discretion. Or Muzychenko - this one did not completely give the mechanized corps to his army, moreover, he grabbed the forces of the "alien" mechanized corps passing through his strip.
              The bad initiative in the Red Army has burst from all cracks at all levels. They uprooted it for two years - and all the same, violent attacks happened. Why bad? Because it was not supported by knowledge and experience. So "initiative" generals multiplied, who, for example, meeting a tank battalion bypassing the enemy on the road, threw it instead of bypassing into a frontal attack on anti-tank guns - despite all the plans and orders.
              1. mat-vey
                mat-vey 19 November 2020 06: 01
                0
                Quote: Alexey RA
                Tell us about the intimidated commanders Kirponos

                But in modern films - what is the eagle (I don't remember the movie - I accidentally stumbled upon it, decided not to raise my nerves and switched it over).
          2. Sergey Valov
            Sergey Valov 15 November 2020 20: 01
            -1
            Those. the leader of the country did not control his subordinates? Are you self-righteous?
    6. Van 16
      Van 16 15 November 2020 11: 37
      10
      "when in 30 years the country from a backward agrarian economy turned into an industrial power"

      Everything is correct. And the opposite example - for the past 30 years, the exact opposite process has been slowly but steadily, when we are turning from an industrial power into a backward resource-based economy.
      1. EvilLion
        EvilLion 17 November 2020 08: 57
        -1
        We are not the USA at all.
  4. A. Privalov
    A. Privalov 15 November 2020 09: 53
    -8
    In conclusion, it remains only to note that history does not know other examples of such deep, large-scale and successful military reforms carried out in such a short time and without any help and support from outside.

    In conclusion, it should be noted that parallel to the "implementation of such deep and successful reforms" there were repressions in the Red Army in 1937-1938 - large-scale political repressions ("purges") against the command and control personnel of the Red Army and the Red Army. The repressions were expressed in dismissals for political reasons, arrests and the imposition of death sentences in trumped-up cases.
    No outside help or support was required for this.
    1. Terenin
      Terenin 15 November 2020 10: 04
      11
      Quote: A. Privalov
      1937-1938 - large-scale political repressions ("purges") against the command and control personnel of the Red Army and the RCVMF.

      And if there were no "cleansing", would you have won the war?
      1. Svarog
        Svarog 15 November 2020 10: 11
        0
        Quote: Terenin
        Quote: A. Privalov
        1937-1938 - large-scale political repressions ("purges") against the command and control personnel of the Red Army and the RCVMF.

        And if there were no "cleansing", would you have won the war?

        Of course not .. the country would be torn apart. You need to understand what time it was, on the one hand the collective West was "against" .. on the other hand, the nobility .. that is, the whole world was against the young socialist state ..
        1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
          Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 15 November 2020 10: 47
          +3
          ... ... on the other hand, the nobility ..

          What the fuck was the 'nobility' at the time of the purges? Maybe boyars too?
          1. Egoza
            Egoza 15 November 2020 11: 11
            +8
            Quote: Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
            What the fuck was the 'nobility' at the time of the purges? Maybe boyars too

            The same thing! I personally know the Countess, born in 1926, and her father, a naval officer, was repressed for having and reading the book "Mein Kampf" Aha! A colleague tried (as it turned out later) But the family was not touched, she graduated from the university too - an excellent translator
            1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
              Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 15 November 2020 11: 26
              +2
              Come on, to say that the 'exes' in the 30s were some kind of organized serious force is at least silly.
              I personally know the Countess, born in 1926,

              Countess, born 26 - it sounds)
              Estates institutions, emnip, Soviet power canceled by its decree back in November 17th, no?
              1. Egoza
                Egoza 15 November 2020 11: 50
                10
                Quote: Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
                Estates institutions, emnip, Soviet power canceled by its decree back in November 17th, no?

                You can cancel anything, but the "spirit" will remain. The nobles were and remain nobles. Soviet people are and will be, although the USSR no longer exists. The Stalinists were exactly the same, are and will be, no matter how much one would like to "abolish" them
            2. EvilLion
              EvilLion 17 November 2020 09: 06
              -1
              For this in any country, the military is repressed 100%.
        2. Jacket in stock
          Jacket in stock 15 November 2020 12: 47
          -5
          Quote: Svarog
          west - "against" .. on the other hand, the nobility ..

          It's funny about the nobility.
          In 1937, everyone went under the knife, for example, my grandfather was neither a nobleman, nor did he read Meinkampf, because he could not, and the word "Trotskyism" would hardly have been translated into Russian. All his fault is that the district militia had a plan for these very Trotskyists (as evidenced by the full rehabilitation, posthumously, and a pension to his wife). And his family also got it, his daughter, my aunt, kicked out of the telephone operators and sent the hemp to uproot (who knows what kind of work, he will understand. And who does not know - she returned home with a groan "finish me ...") father was almost kicked out of the FZU, not to mention further problems in employment.
          If there were no repressions before the war, they would not have surrendered so massively in 1941, and they would not have gone to the police to take revenge on the communists.
          1. Svarog
            Svarog 15 November 2020 12: 59
            +6
            Quote: Jacket in stock
            It's funny about the nobility.

            Not funny at all. Try to look at history in a non-biased way ... the energy of hatred against the nobles has been accumulating for centuries and splashed out in 17 year in full, just like the nobles, had a persistent hostility towards the people of Russia. And they broadcast this hatred while abroad in exile, but there were also those who did harm inside Russia. However, even among the nobility there were those who faithfully served the USSR and adopted modern ideology.
            As for those who were not guiltyly convicted .. In my family, my great-grandfather was also convicted .. But despite this, my grandmother had a photo of Stalin next to the icon. There were excesses, no one here argues, but it was not because of socialism, not because of Stalin ... because of those who wrote denunciations in pursuit of their own benefit ..
            But here's an interesting historical fact .. when Khrushch came to power, he began to pour mud on Stalin .. and ordered an investigation into the "innocent convicts" .. as you understand, the investigation was carried out with bias .. And only 0,4% were rehabilitated from convicts .. That is, the figure speaks for itself, that there were very few innocent people.
            1. Imobile
              Imobile 15 November 2020 18: 54
              -5
              Stalin's portrait is an indicator of wretchedness. There were only a few of them. My situation is more interesting. My grandfather was a groom at the NKVD. There was a very big robbery, he came, and the horses were driven. He began to observe, it turned out that they stole at night, and investigated during the day. And who was shot in the end? Not their
          2. EvilLion
            EvilLion 17 November 2020 09: 07
            -2
            And my grandfather had 4 convictions in those years, but for some reason everything was an ordinary criminal offense. I'm afraid 95% of your grandfather is the same. But the most innocent, as is known in the zone.
            1. Jacket in stock
              Jacket in stock 17 November 2020 10: 19
              0
              Quote: EvilLion
              ordinary crime. I'm afraid 95% of your grandfather is the same.

              No, really.
              Don't slander my grandfather.
              He was a normal hard worker, carpenter and joiner.
              And half of the village turned out to be such "enemies of the people".
              True, some were able to return - the members of the "troika" were themselves arrested and shot. Those who did not have time to be convicted were returned to their homes, and those who already had a sentence were sent to the escort. This is the kind of "revolutionary justice".
              What is there 0,4%, these are only those who survived and were not afraid to seek rehabilitation later. And in fact, all 94% of the political were there for nothing. And the real enemies just sent out plans to capture the "Trotskyists" in the field.
      2. A. Privalov
        A. Privalov 15 November 2020 10: 12
        -8
        We won for sure. Without any doubts. hi
        ... The bulk of the victims of political repressions in the Red Army in the pre-war years were the so-called participants in the "military-fascist conspiracy" and "Trotskyist organizations" whose cases were considered by the Military Collegium of the USSR Supreme Court. In order to obtain the necessary testimony from those under investigation, they were subjected to massive bullying, beatings and torture. The use of "physical measures" during the investigation against "enemies" and "spies" was sanctioned by the highest party and state leadership of the USSR. The overwhelming majority of commanders, chiefs and political workers accused of participating in a "military-fascist conspiracy" were sentenced to death by shooting. For only a few of them, this sentence, which was not immediately carried out, was subsequently commuted to forced labor camps.

        Do you believe they were enemies, conspirators and spies? That they absolutely had to be hidden underground?
        1. Terenin
          Terenin 15 November 2020 10: 15
          +5
          Quote: A. Privalov
          We won for sure. Without any doubts. hi

          I doubt it, however No.
        2. mat-vey
          mat-vey 15 November 2020 12: 34
          +1
          Quote: A. Privalov
          Do you believe they were enemies, conspirators and spies? That they absolutely had to be hidden underground?

          Something so common ... There were both those and others, and just slovens and embezzlers. And of course there were mistakes. And there were those who were then restored.
        3. EvilLion
          EvilLion 17 November 2020 09: 10
          -2
          There were all over the world, in the USSR in conditions of severe social upheavals and, of course, there were no offenses since the time of the revolution. And all sorts of sabotage engineers who received money from the former owners in Paris to manage and bring the enterprise to the concession to the former owners were not there either. There was nothing. Country of elves. Everyone knows.
    2. paul3390
      paul3390 15 November 2020 10: 14
      +8
      Repression was expressed in layoffs for political reasons

      And what - shouldn't the army be politically reliable ?? After all, the USSR is not Latin America, where the military organizing pronunciamentos is a national sport .. And as for the fabricated ones, weren't they tired of portraying Comrade Stalin as a bloodthirsty idiot, who just took the command of his left foot and shot half of his command staff? Especially if you consider that before the 37th, he was generally never noticed in particular bloodthirstiness ..
      1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
        Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 15 November 2020 10: 55
        +3
        ... not tired of portraying Comrade Stalin as a bloodthirsty idiot,

        Fortunately, it is not customary to do this at VO. But, unfortunately, a critical attitude towards the Stalinist period is not welcome here either. I have never met a single article in a similar tone, only snot with syrup from Kharapuzhny.
        1. mat-vey
          mat-vey 15 November 2020 12: 36
          0
          Quote: Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
          But, unfortunately, a critical attitude towards the Stalinist period is not welcome here either.

          So part of the mistakes that these were mistakes can only be understood in hindsight, and some are still in a controversial position. Only the main directions and decisions turned out to be correct and sometimes it feels like the only correct ones.
    3. Egoza
      Egoza 15 November 2020 10: 18
      +8
      Quote: A. Privalov
      The repressions were expressed in dismissals for political reasons, arrests and the imposition of death sentences in trumped-up cases.

      And right all, all the cases were fabricated, and all those arrested were "angels"! And weren't there those who were dealt with and released? (read the book by aircraft designer Yakovlev)
    4. Krasnoyarsk
      Krasnoyarsk 15 November 2020 10: 42
      10
      Quote: A. Privalov

      In conclusion, it should be noted that in parallel to "the implementation of such deep and successful reforms" there were repressions in the Red Army in 1937-1938 -

      Privalov put on a worn-out record. Aren't you tired of carrying this nonsense yourself?
      If a embezzler, or a drunkard, or some other swindler is fired from the army, is this repression? This is exactly what is missing today. I hope there are no examples of those that need to be "repressed"?
      1. A. Privalov
        A. Privalov 15 November 2020 14: 15
        -4
        Quote: Krasnoyarsk
        Privalov put on a worn-out record. Aren't you tired of carrying this nonsense yourself?
        If a embezzler, or a drunkard, or some other swindler is fired from the army, is this repression? This is exactly what is missing today. I hope there are no examples of those that need to be "repressed"?

        Quote: Egoza
        And right all, all the cases were fabricated, and all those arrested were "angels"! And weren't there those who were dealt with and released? (read the book by aircraft designer Yakovlev)


        The main blow of the repressions was directed against the commanding staff of the highest echelon: the deputy people's commissar of defense of the USSR, the commanders of the troops of the military districts (fleets), their deputies, the commanders of corps, divisions and brigades. The command and control staff of directorates and staffs in the corresponding levels, the teaching staff of military educational institutions were significantly affected.
        As an example:
        In the period from 1937 to 1941 from the representatives of the highest command personnel of the Red Army SHOT:
        Marshals of the Soviet Union 2
        Commanders 1st and 2nd rank 19
        Fleet flagships 1st and 2nd rank 5
        Komkory 58
        Rank 1 flagships 5
        Divisional commander 122
        Kombrigi 201


        I will ask a direct question and ask for a direct answer.
        Do you believe that these people maliciously made their way into the highest ranks of the Red Army and in fact were enemies, intelligence spies of various states, participants in military-fascist conspiracies?
        1. Krasnoyarsk
          Krasnoyarsk 15 November 2020 15: 56
          0
          Quote: A. Privalov


          I will ask a direct question and ask for a direct answer.
          Do you believe that these people maliciously made their way into the highest ranks of the Red Army and in fact were enemies, intelligence spies of various states, participants in military-fascist conspiracies?

          I will just as directly answer you with the words of Yezhov, which you will find in the minutes of his interrogation. This is the first thing. And second, you will not believe, but the conspiracy of the military against Stalin. it was against Stalin, he was. And it, as you understand, was not prepared by the rank and file. And third. And where is the list given by you? Who launched it in the media?
          Here are the data on the number of divisions in the Red Army
          On the date of Personnel Mixed Territorial
          01.01.1935/3/23 [19] 42 XNUMX XNUMX
          01.01.1936/3/25 [19] 42 XNUMX XNUMX
          01.01.1937 49 4 35
          01.01.1938 50 2 34
          01.01.1939 84 2 14
          And now, on 86 divisions according to your list, 122 division commanders were "repressed".
          Does this mean anything to you?
          1. A. Privalov
            A. Privalov 15 November 2020 17: 07
            +3
            Quote: Krasnoyarsk
            I will also directly answer you with the words of Yezhov, which you will find in the minutes of his interrogation.

            Is this a direct answer? You send me to look for the protocols of Yezhov's interrogation, and from them to guess what it was you wanted me to answer directly. This is not a direct answer. This is an excuse.
            Quote: Krasnoyarsk
            conspiracy of the military against Stalin. it was against Stalin, he was. And it, as you understand, was not prepared by the rank and file.

            Without serious confirmation - names, positions, dates, this is just the usual idle chatter.
            Quote: Krasnoyarsk
            Does this mean anything to you?

            No, he doesn't. Several division commanders could have changed in one division over the years of repression. There are lists of names for division commanders.

            I will indicate the data source in a couple of hours when I return home.
            1. Krasnoyarsk
              Krasnoyarsk 15 November 2020 18: 07
              -1
              Quote: A. Privalov
              You send me to look for the protocols of the interrogation of Yezhov,

              Seek and find. If you really want to know the truth, and not just pour slop on my homeland from the words of the Yakovlevs, Svanidze, Posners, and others like them.
              Quote: A. Privalov
              This is not a direct answer.

              Of course no. But the trouble is that if I tell you, you will question my words. Is not it? Therefore, I suggested that you yourself read the words Yezhov said during the interrogation. That is to say - the primary source.

              Quote: A. Privalov

              Without serious confirmation - names, positions, dates, this is just the usual idle chatter.

              No, well, dear, who is to blame for you that you still don't know these names? Those. it turns out that you are not in the subject. Then why are you eager to argue? If you did not know or have forgotten the Pythagorean theorem, then what, I have to prove it to you here? Or still give a link - see uch. mathematics for grade 5?
              Quote: A. Privalov

              I will indicate the data source in a couple of hours when I return home.

              Not worth it. This topic has been irrelevant for me for 30 years.
              1. A. Privalov
                A. Privalov 15 November 2020 18: 41
                0
                Quote: Krasnoyarsk
                Quote: A. Privalov
                You send me to look for the protocols of the interrogation of Yezhov,

                Seek and find. If you really want to know the truth, and not just pour slop on my homeland from the words of the Yakovlevs, Svanidze, Posners, and others like them.
                Quote: A. Privalov
                This is not a direct answer.

                Of course no. But the trouble is that if I tell you, you will question my words. Is not it? Therefore, I suggested that you yourself read the words Yezhov said during the interrogation. That is to say - the primary source.

                Quote: A. Privalov

                Without serious confirmation - names, positions, dates, this is just the usual idle chatter.

                No, well, dear, who is to blame for you that you still don't know these names? Those. it turns out that you are not in the subject. Then why are you eager to argue? If you did not know or have forgotten the Pythagorean theorem, then what, I have to prove it to you here? Or still give a link - see uch. mathematics for grade 5?
                Quote: A. Privalov

                I will indicate the data source in a couple of hours when I return home.

                Not worth it. This topic has been irrelevant for me for 30 years.


                The direct answer is yes / no. I have nothing to question here.

                Here you go. What should be expected from you: excuses and verbiage.

                The source is not for you, but for those interested in the topic.

                Souvenirov O. F. "The Tragedy of the Red Army 1937-1938". - M .: TERRA, 1998 .-- 528 p. - ISBN 5-300-02220-9.

                The book for non-commercial use is freely available on the website militera.lib.ru known to connoisseurs and lovers of military history

                In the monograph of Doctor of Historical Sciences, retired colonel O. Suvenirov, one of the first in domestic and world historiography, a special attempt was made to objectively reconstruct the tragic process in the life of the Red Army - the mass repressions of the command staff of the Red Army in 1937-1938. Based on a significant array of documentary sources that were not previously involved in scientific circulation, the author comprehensively analyzes the very mechanism of this process and proves that it was the tragedy of the Red Army in 1937-1938. largely created the preconditions for the heavy defeats of the Red Army in 1941-1942. The indisputable merits of the author include the brief information about more than two thousand army victims of pre-war repressions presented in the appendix ("Martyrology of the Red Army"). The book is intended for officers and generals of the Russian army, for all citizens interested in the history of the Workers 'and Peasants' Red Army, unique in its heroism and tragedy.


                Souvenirov, Oleg Fedotovich 1917-1999 - Soviet and Russian military historian, doctor of historical sciences, colonel. Honorary Academician of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences. Academician of the Academy of Military Sciences of the Russian Federation. For over 30 years he worked at the Institute of Military History of the USSR Ministry of Defense.
                Page 315
                1. Krasnoyarsk
                  Krasnoyarsk 15 November 2020 19: 09
                  0
                  Quote: A. Privalov
                  Here you go. What should be expected from you: excuses and verbiage.

                  This is your verbiage. I explained to you in Russian why I did not give you a direct answer, but suggested that I turn to the original source myself. This is the first thing.
                  And the second is quite simple - Souvenirs, giving the number of "repressed, does not at all speak about the reasons for the repression for each specific person. Here REPRESSED (!!!) and that's it. No, not all. And for what sins?"
                  Look, Ulyukaev was imprisoned, is this also repression? Of course - repression. It was the same in the 37th. But, thanks to Yezhov, the completely innocent, devoted to Sov. Power people. And he explains why. But you are not interested. The main thing for you is to scream about the millions of repressed people. And that Stalin is a bloodsucker.
                  1. A. Privalov
                    A. Privalov 15 November 2020 19: 44
                    -1
                    Quote: Krasnoyarsk
                    This is your verbiage. I explained to you in Russian why I did not give you a direct answer, but suggested that I turn to the original source myself. This is the first thing.
                    And the second is quite simple - Souvenirs, giving the number of "repressed, does not at all speak about the reasons for the repression for each specific person. Here REPRESSED (!!!) and that's it. No, not all. And for what sins?"
                    Look, Ulyukaev was imprisoned, is this also repression? Of course - repression. It was the same in the 37th. But, thanks to Yezhov, the completely innocent, devoted to Sov. Power people. And he explains why. But you are not interested. The main thing for you is to scream about the millions of repressed people. And that Stalin is a bloodsucker.


                    Your explanations are ridiculous and ridiculous. Attempts will be in vain. I cite sources, numbers, dates, and you use some cunning subterfuges.

                    Well, clearly and distinctly - Yes or no:

                    Do you believe that these people maliciously made their way into the highest ranks of the Red Army and in fact were enemies, intelligence spies of various states, participants in military-fascist conspiracies?

                    If you decide to spin again like in a frying pan, then don't even start. Sorry for the time. Better not answer at all. hi
                    1. Krasnoyarsk
                      Krasnoyarsk 15 November 2020 20: 01
                      +1
                      Quote: A. Privalov

                      Do you believe that these people maliciously made their way into the highest ranks of the Red Army and in fact were enemies, intelligence spies of various states, participants in military-fascist conspiracies?

                      Why did you decide that I will answer this absurdity? Specially concocted by you. You know the saying about the question of one ... which even the seven wise men could not answer. This is the case.
                  2. The comment was deleted.
                    1. Krasnoyarsk
                      Krasnoyarsk 15 November 2020 21: 21
                      +5
                      Quote: Imobile
                      Why millions? What's the difference, a million or 100 thousand or a thousand? Chikatila for 100 people, what to declare a hero?

                      Because today there are no less prisoners in Russia than under Stalin, in terms of percentage. And if you consider that it is after the civil war, Basmachi, after the Second World War, Bandera, forest brothers, policemen, etc., etc., etc., then today the crime is higher, hence the "repressed" more. But for some reason you are silent about this. Or do you think that under Stalin, crime was at zero and the NKVD only "repressed" opponents of Stalin?
                      1. The comment was deleted.
          2. The comment was deleted.
            1. Krasnoyarsk
              Krasnoyarsk 15 November 2020 20: 05
              +1
              Quote: Imobile
              All conspiracies against the USSR, there is not a single confirmed case. And everyone understood that this was nonsense. And against Stalin

              If you do not know something, this does not mean that it does not exist or did not exist.
              I recommend reading, at least Yu.I. Mukhin "War and We"
            2. ccsr
              ccsr 17 November 2020 12: 24
              0
              Quote: Imobile
              But then these ended, and the discontent was felt, and they began to destroy whoever came to hand and, under torture, confessed to discontent.

              And who then, on June 22, shot in the backs of our soldiers and organized sabotage in the border districts? Or you think that only Brandenburg-800 organized all this - don't make people laugh ...
        2. EvilLion
          EvilLion 17 November 2020 09: 14
          0
          And in this list included, for example, the stupid divisional commander Vinogradov, ditching his division in the Finnish? And you can just ask, if you have conspirators with Tukhachevsky at the head of the Armed Forces, then whom will they put in office? Your accomplices, or loyal Stalinists?
          1. Imobile
            Imobile 17 November 2020 09: 33
            -3
            Like Putin puts slimes
    5. mat-vey
      mat-vey 15 November 2020 12: 30
      +3
      Quote: A. Privalov
      repressions in the Red Army in 1937-1938 - large-scale political repressions ("purges") against the command and control personnel of the Red Army and the Red Army

      Even if there was this fairy tale (this is about the scale), then given the almost fivefold and accelerated growth of the Red Army, the composition was in short supply for anyone.
      What do you think that politically unreliable should command the army?
    6. Valerikk
      Valerikk 15 November 2020 19: 08
      +3
      The repressions were expressed in dismissals for political reasons, arrests and the imposition of death sentences in trumped-up cases.

      Can you provide a general breakdown in the numbers of these repressions and proof that the cases were fabricated?
      1. Imobile
        Imobile 15 November 2020 19: 45
        -5
        Anything that wasn't fabricated?
        1. Valerikk
          Valerikk 15 November 2020 21: 14
          +1
          Can you or not?
        2. Vladimir1155
          Vladimir1155 15 November 2020 22: 00
          +4
          the case of Tukhachevsky and other traitors was not fabricated, the case of Trotsky and Kamenev with Zinoviev was also not fabricated ... now a couple
        3. Vladimir1155
          Vladimir1155 15 November 2020 22: 03
          +3
          https://vpk-news.ru/articles/35441 вот как воевал "полководец" тухачевский
      2. Vladimir1155
        Vladimir1155 15 November 2020 22: 24
        +1
        Although Primakov and Putna were Trotskyists, and the investigation was strenuously revealing a connection with Trotsky, the conspiracy seems to be oriented towards the right. Yagoda and the same Yenukidze were associated with the right wing. The arguments of Bukharin, Rykov, Tomsky were close to the bulk of the military. The plan to seize the Kremlin had been prepared since 1934 and was planned for 1936, "when Hitler will complete preparations for war." The main role here was played by: M.N. Tukhachevsky, Yu.E. Yakir, I.P. Uborevich, Ya.B. Gamarnik, N.G. Egorov (commander of the Kremlin cadet school located on the territory of the Kremlin), B.S. Gorbachev (deputy chief of the Moscow garrison), A. Yenukidze, R.A. Peterson (commandant of the Kremlin until 1935), Pauker, Bubnov. There are Tukhachevsky's confessions that he was involved in the organization of the Rights as early as 1928.Yenukidze and since 1934 was personally connected with Bukharin, Yagoda, Karakhan, etc. The day before, on May 27, 1937, he admitted that his connection with the right was supported through Gorbachev and Peterson, who were associated with Yenukidze, Yagoda, Bukharin and Rykov. Kork asserted during the investigation: “Back in 1931 I and Tukhachevsky had a conversation about a coup in the Kremlin. Tukhachevsky told me that what I initially learned from Yenukidze in June 1931, that is, that the right has planned a counter-revolutionary coup in the Kremlin, relying on the school of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee, that Peterson, Gorbachev and Yegorov are involved in this case, - Tukhachevsky confirmed to me that we must envisage a coup in the Kremlin as the first step in the final plan of our actions ". Tukhachevsky denied these testimonies, but how? He stated that he learned about the preparation of the "palace coup" in 1934, and not from Cork, but from Gorbachev. ..... https: //kprf.ru/rus_soc/74333.html
    7. Vikxnumx
      Vikxnumx 16 November 2020 09: 50
      +1
      The repressions were expressed in dismissals for political reasons, arrests and the imposition of death sentences in trumped-up cases.

      And how many people were kicked out for alcoholism and inability to command!
      And the Genius Commanders were shot!
      Who offered to give the Japanese part of the Far East ...
      Etc.
    8. EvilLion
      EvilLion 17 November 2020 09: 00
      +1
      That is, you will deny the reality of the Tukhachevsky conspiracy? Well, that is, the USSR is a unique country, there are no conspiracies in it, everyone is happy, and everyone is imprisoned for nothing?

      As for the events after the Tukhachevsky conspiracy, have you at least read Pykhalov's The Great Slandered War? If not, then you simply have nothing to talk about.
      1. A. Privalov
        A. Privalov 17 November 2020 09: 19
        0
        Pykhalova read it. So I have something to talk about. But the point here is not at all a software engineer who decided to publish a book at his own expense, has the right. It's just that I am a man of the old school and am used to drawing information from the works of scientific specialists, not self-taught amateurs. Yes, scientific literature is not tough for everyone. Start with the quite accessible thematic articles of the Military Historical Bulletin. I wish you well. hi
        1. Krasnoyarsk
          Krasnoyarsk 17 November 2020 19: 40
          0
          Quote: A. Privalov
          Yes, scientific literature is not tough for everyone. Start with the quite accessible thematic articles of the Military Historical Bulletin. I wish you well.

          Can you tell me who is the editor-in-chief of this publication and when and how many issues came out?
          1. A. Privalov
            A. Privalov 17 November 2020 22: 12
            0
            Quote: Krasnoyarsk
            Can you tell me who is the editor-in-chief of this publication and when and how many issues came out?

            In my previous commentary, there was an annoying slip of the tongue. I am now reading "Historical Bulletin", so two names have mixed up and thus got into the text.


            In fact, we are talking about the "Military Historical Journal".
            http://history.milportal.ru/spravka/
  5. parusnik
    parusnik 15 November 2020 09: 57
    +6
    Everything is relative...
    .... And what actually to compare? The country's economy in 1922 and the economy in 1937 ...
  6. bar
    bar 15 November 2020 10: 00
    -8
    First, ... a radical improvement in the system of manning the Armed Forces with privates and command personnel

    Was the extermination of the old command staff at 37-38 under this article?
    1. bar
      bar 15 November 2020 10: 14
      -11 qualifying.
      Accidentally stepped on the Stalinist anthill. Will gnaw laughing
      1. mat-vey
        mat-vey 15 November 2020 12: 42
        +7
        Quote: bar
        Accidentally stepped on the Stalinist anthill. Will gnaw laughing

        And you take and kill everyone with iron logic - how many were "exterminated", how many were needed for the staffing of the new size of the Red Army, how many "exterminated" will turn out to the total new number of lumps of composition in% - hit the anthill.
        1. bar
          bar 15 November 2020 12: 47
          0
          And you take and kill everyone with iron logic - how many "exterminated", how much the state needed

          What for? To conduct religious disputes is a stupid occupation, "I believe because it is absurd" (c). According to the Constitution, we have freedom of religion.
          Moreover, all this has already been written and rewritten a hundred times.
          1. mat-vey
            mat-vey 15 November 2020 12: 51
            +2
            Quote: bar
            And you take and kill everyone with iron logic - how many "exterminated", how much the state needed

            What for? To conduct religious disputes is a stupid occupation, "I believe because it is absurd" (c). According to the Constitution, we have freedom of religion. Moreover, all this has already been written and rewritten a hundred times.

            What kind of religion is there - solid mathematics will be. Only then excuses for religion will no longer work.
            And yes, retired, and rehabilitated and returned, too, take into account .. Although there were also criminal offenses of officers ..
    2. Egoza
      Egoza 15 November 2020 10: 19
      +9
      Quote: bar
      Was the extermination of the old command staff at 37-38 under this article?

      Isn't it time to reveal the names of those who wrote denunciations against them?
      1. Terenin
        Terenin 15 November 2020 10: 27
        15
        Quote: Egoza
        Quote: bar
        Was the extermination of the old command staff at 37-38 under this article?

        Isn't it time to reveal the names of those who wrote denunciations against them?

        Many home-grown liberal human rights activists will be unpleasantly surprised.
      2. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
        Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 15 November 2020 10: 37
        -3
        ... Isn't it time to reveal the names of those who wrote denunciations against them?

        Those who did not sit down?
        1. EvilLion
          EvilLion 17 November 2020 09: 16
          -1
          In fact, in the 38th, when they began to understand, many already sat down for denunciations.
    3. EvilLion
      EvilLion 17 November 2020 09: 01
      -1
      No, they themselves got into the conspiracy, having rid the army of their "talents".
  7. Egoza
    Egoza 15 November 2020 10: 11
    +9
    And the current and future rulers of Russia still have I.V. Stalin to study and study!
    1. Terenin
      Terenin 15 November 2020 10: 25
      10
      Quote: Egoza
      And the current and future rulers of Russia still have I.V. Stalin to study and study!

      Because Stalin I.V. was a statesman.
    2. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
      Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 15 November 2020 10: 40
      -7
      Quote: Egoza
      And the current and future rulers of Russia still have I.V. Stalin to study and study!

      What? They function in a completely different system.
      1. EvilLion
        EvilLion 17 November 2020 09: 02
        -1
        And I do not see any special differences. The same incompetence at the bottom.
  8. bar
    bar 15 November 2020 10: 24
    -7
    Quote: Egoza
    Isn't it time to reveal the names of those who wrote denunciations against them?

    Disclose, now a lot is available in the archives, especially information about the switchmen.
    1. Igoresha
      Igoresha 15 November 2020 12: 30
      +1
      Disclose, now a lot is available in the archives, especially information about the switchmen.


      Novaya Gazeta claims that Putin closed these archives and historians travel to Kiev. where the archives of the NKVD are open wide as part of decommunization. But again, anonymous letters were always written and spread only under Stalin
      1. EvilLion
        EvilLion 17 November 2020 09: 03
        0
        They don't shoot for anonymous letters. However, you have in front of you 1937 in miniature in Ukraine and Turkey, but for some reason you do not see this. Although here are examples of mass watered. repression.
  9. rocket757
    rocket757 15 November 2020 10: 28
    0
    Everyone is responsible for what he created, created!
    In that terrible war, the Soviet People won ...
    Wouldn't he be like that, no "wise leadership" would have helped!
    1. sergo1914
      sergo1914 15 November 2020 11: 43
      +3
      Quote: rocket757
      Everyone is responsible for what he created, created!
      In that terrible war, the Soviet People won ...
      Wouldn't he be like that, no "wise leadership" would have helped!


      The merits of the developers of strategic defensive and offensive operations, the organizers of the production of military equipment and ammunition should not be belittled. The evacuation of industry in 1941 made it possible for the country to fight. Someone organized it. Specific people. With surname, name and patronymic.
      1. rocket757
        rocket757 15 November 2020 12: 24
        0
        WHERE and WHAT, I begged?
        I have emphasized the MAIN, FUNDAMENTAL!
        I am also proud of our commanders, generals and all our warriors! As well as the heroes of the rear!
        To all our ancestors who put all their efforts on the altar of victory!
        Glory to our great people!
        Nobody is forgotten, nothing is forgotten!
    2. boris epstein
      boris epstein 15 November 2020 19: 03
      +1
      And who raised such a people? After all, the same people under Nicholas II lost two wars - the Russian-Japanese and the First World War.
      1. rocket757
        rocket757 15 November 2020 21: 32
        0
        Don't make your dreadlocks and my slippers laugh ....
        OUR people WERE ALWAYS like that!
        But for some time now, besides this, they want to have a reasonable leadership of the army for victory ...
        By the way, the people DIDN'T LOST those wars, the STATE lost, due to the appropriate reasons, which did not depend on the people ...
    3. EvilLion
      EvilLion 17 November 2020 09: 04
      -1
      The people themselves cannot even fix the road in the yard. The stupidity of the lower-level officials is outrageous even now, and then it was even worse.
      1. rocket757
        rocket757 17 November 2020 09: 48
        0
        The people, society, is able to self-organize and successfully perform many functions, which were later transferred to the management of centralized, specialized structures ...
  10. sergo1914
    sergo1914 15 November 2020 10: 49
    0
    You can treat Trotsky differently, but the creation of the Red Army, practically from scratch, deserves respect. If a person had not been carried away, if he had shaken ambitions ... What tandem would be in power
    1. nnm
      nnm 15 November 2020 10: 57
      +3
      I always thought it was Frunze's merit.
      1. Revolver
        Revolver 15 November 2020 11: 25
        +1
        Quote: nnm
        I always thought it was Frunze's merit.

        As Vladimir Mayakovsky wrote in those days,
        “We replaced the thousand-strong OSRAM with a Bunsen burner.
        Instead of Trotsky, they gave us Frunze. Oh, shame! "
        Or was Mayakovsky also a Trotskyist?
        1. nnm
          nnm 15 November 2020 19: 56
          +2
          Well, Mayakovsky is still an expert in military affairs ...
          Trotsky's merits in building the army are undeniable. But no more than at the level of bawling, charisma, and so on. Yes, it was necessary at a certain stage, but the Army, as a state institution, was recreated by Frunze, as well as the institute of military science. And at the same time I will answer that he was Trotsky's henchman - as a result, they were extremely different in views and were almost irreconcilable enemies.
          1. Imobile
            Imobile 17 November 2020 09: 34
            -2
            What kind of specialist you are - you can look at your comments on Karabakh and laugh!
            1. nnm
              nnm 17 November 2020 11: 30
              0
              For example?))) The fact that almost every time I wrote that without seeing maps of the operational situation with the calculation of forces and means, all "opinions" are just a discussion of news from the Internet?))) And, how did Azerbaijan take the NKR?)) ))
              1. Imobile
                Imobile 17 November 2020 23: 02
                -2
                A good analyst can easily tell the truth from the lie, but you cannot. What sources do you want? With seals and signatures. It is better to keep such analysts away, and then wait, then the seal is not the same, then the signature is not the same. And if they slip you a fake with perfect signatures and seals, it will be a disaster. It's none of your business, analyze
                1. nnm
                  nnm 18 November 2020 06: 11
                  -1
                  Stop talking nonsense, please ...
      2. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
        Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 15 November 2020 11: 30
        -8
        Quote: nnm
        I always thought it was Frunze's merit.

        And who was Frunze if not Trotsky's protege and ally?
      3. sergo1914
        sergo1914 15 November 2020 11: 38
        +1
        Quote: nnm
        I always thought it was Frunze's merit.


        1918-1925 - People's Commissar for Military and Naval Affairs and Chairman of the Revolutionary Military Council of the RSFSR, then the USSR. Trotsky. That's all he is.
    2. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
      Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 15 November 2020 11: 37
      +1
      ... What tandem would be in power

      There would be no tandem, what nonsense? There was a struggle between the concepts of army building. Militia-territorial vs mob.-personnel. The Voroshilov-Stalin clan won, the opponents were cleaned out - everything is in the mainstream of the era.
      ... If a man had not been carried away

      Would have blown away) In 1919, to offer the Politburo a campaign in India - yes, Leibu could not help but be carried away, he was a passionate person to the ends of his sideways. If we have to choose between two evils, then, perhaps, Stalin.
      1. sergo1914
        sergo1914 15 November 2020 12: 00
        -1
        Quote: Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
        ... What tandem would be in power

        There would be no tandem, what nonsense? There was a struggle between the concepts of army building. Militia-territorial vs mob.-personnel. The Voroshilov-Stalin clan won, the opponents were cleaned out - everything is in the mainstream of the era.
        ... If a man had not been carried away

        Would have blown away) In 1919, to offer the Politburo a campaign in India - yes, Leibu could not help but be carried away, he was a passionate person to the ends of his sideways. If we have to choose between two evils, then, perhaps, Stalin.


        IMHO. Could be tandem. Under Stalin's control. Tough. With the initiative within the framework of collegial decisions. There would be no India. Lenin did it. Not without quirks, like the Brest Peace, but it worked. But I found a scythe on a stone. If history had given Ilyich another ten years ...
      2. Cyril G ...
        Cyril G ... 17 November 2020 11: 08
        0

        There would be no tandem, what nonsense? There was a struggle between the concepts of army building. Militia-territorial vs mob.-personnel. The Voroshilov-Stalin clan won, the opponents were cleaned out - everything is in the mainstream of the era.

        In my opinion, this is not the problem - after the Civil War, it was corny for us not to start supporting the army, and that is why it was forced, I will note the decision to introduce a militia structure in the army.
      3. Alexey RA
        Alexey RA 18 November 2020 18: 05
        +1
        Quote: Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
        There was a struggle between the concepts of army building. Militia-territorial vs mob.-personnel. The Voroshilov-Stalin clan won, the opponents were cleaned out - everything is in the mainstream of the era.

        The battle of concepts actually ended with the forester came and dispersed everyone... The role of forester was performed by the People's Commissariat of Finance with a military budget - no money but you hold on... Since the terrorist cost the treasury, EMNIP is five times cheaper than the regular Red Armyman - a special choice army building concepts the Red Army did not.
        The 20s for the Red Army were akin to the 90s: the cadets were fed according to the principle "if only they could not stretch their legs," the commanders worked as loaders, and about the commanders' wives, reports went up that it had come to prostitution.
    3. Jacket in stock
      Jacket in stock 15 November 2020 12: 52
      +4
      Quote: sergo1914
      What tandem would be in power

      There are no tandems in power. Two bears cannot get along in one den.
  11. Revolver
    Revolver 15 November 2020 11: 20
    +4
    The main focus was on the introduction of the principle of rigid one-man command

    One-man management was introduced much later, on October 9, 1942, by the Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR "On the establishment of full one-man management and the abolition of the institution of military commissars in the Red Army", the institution of commissars was replaced by the institution of deputy commanders for political affairs (political deputy commanders). And before that, the commissars had their own line of command, from company political instructors to the Main Political Directorate of the Red Army, and their own system of military ranks. Moreover, the special officers were subordinate not to commanders, but to commissars, and the ranks were not army or even state security, but political. It seems that the author is not in the subject.
    1. CommanderDIVA
      CommanderDIVA 15 November 2020 20: 10
      +1
      The author did not edit or polish the article at all, apparently in order to raise the rating and polemics in the comments, I first learned about the special officers, very interesting
  12. nikvic46
    nikvic46 15 November 2020 11: 38
    +1
    What do we know about repression? We are always poked at 37. But the struggle of the Soviet government with its enemies continued since the end of the civil war. If someone does not want to learn history, let him read Sholokhov, Lavrenev and other Soviet writers. Repressions were not out of the blue. After all, the enemies of the new government penetrated literally all government bodies. And besides, some people used their selfish interests. To deny repressions means to understand that the revolution was made out of nothing to do.
  13. Jacket in stock
    Jacket in stock 15 November 2020 13: 17
    +4
    What an interesting headline ...
    And what an empty article.
    Actually, there are only a couple of lines about the reform, and then "water" in half with slogans.
    It seems that there is a dominance of half-educated schoolchildren not only among commentators.
  14. Ragnarok
    Ragnarok 15 November 2020 13: 41
    0
    This is the story of the extortion of the army, party and state. Yesterday - a war against the whole world, today - a cowardly realpolitik; yesterday - the fury of the spirit, today - mundane chores; yesterday - real militants, today - armchair sycophants.
  15. ccsr
    ccsr 15 November 2020 14: 26
    +4
    Author:
    Alexander Kharaluzhny
    Secondly, the improvement of the structure and composition of the army - from its higher command bodies to lower divisions.

    In no way do I doubt that Stalin was a genius as the head of state. But to ascribe to him that all the reforms in the army the day before were successful is to distort our history. First, at the strategic level, a mistake was made when the fleet was withdrawn from the NPO and the NKVMF was created, which led to dire consequences during the war due to the inconsistency of actions and the lack of unity of command in planning joint operations.
    Secondly, a big mistake was the stake on the Commissariat of Communications, which was ordered to provide communications for the conduct of hostilities - before the reform of the communications troops, Stalin did not think of it, apparently he did not understand everything correctly in military affairs in terms of operational command and control of troops.
    Of course, the blame for these mistakes lies primarily with the military leaders themselves such as Tukhachevsky, Voroshilov, Timoshenko, but a lot depended on the leader of the peoples in choosing the right direction for reforming the armed forces, especially since some generals were freaking out before the war. For example, the same order from Tymoshenko regarding the barracks position for pilots, or the assignment of sergeant ranks to them - in general, not all of our pre-war reforms were as successful as the author of the article presents.
    1. mat-vey
      mat-vey 15 November 2020 14: 30
      -3
      Quote: ccsr
      or assigning them sergeant ranks

      Here everything seems to be simple - there is a mass release of pilots, they are entitled to a "dowry", and the sergeant has it several times less. Net cost savings. There the form was unified to the maximum - to save money.
      1. Alexey RA
        Alexey RA 18 November 2020 18: 08
        0
        Quote: mat-vey
        Here everything seems to be simple - there is a mass release of pilots, they are entitled to a "dowry", and the sergeant has it several times less. Net cost savings.

        It's not about clothing allowance. The point is in the placement of the flight crew. The commanders are supposed to have apartments. And the sergeants - the barracks.
        And the point is not at all in economy, but in the combat readiness of the units. The last straw was the inspection of the Air Force units, when, when trying to raise the regiment by alarm, it took half a day to gather crews in the private sector.
        ICHH, our opponents' non-commissioned officer ranks for some reason did not interfere with the pilots. smile
        1. mat-vey
          mat-vey 19 November 2020 05: 49
          0
          Quote: Alexey RA
          The point is in the placement of the flight crew. The commanders are supposed to have apartments. And the sergeants - the barracks.

          And this is not "contentment"? And yes, the graduate of the school has not yet shown himself in any way and in any part.
          1. Alexey RA
            Alexey RA 19 November 2020 12: 08
            0
            Quote: mat-vey
            Isn't this "contentment"?

            So it's not about saving it, but about the ability to quickly assemble flight crews on alert. And saving money here was by no means the main thing.
            Actually, here is what was written about the reasons for the transition to the release of pilots by sergeants in the same order of the NKO of the USSR dated 22.12.1940 No. 0362:
            Young pilots and aircraft mechanics who have just graduated from flight technical schools and who do not yet have the experience and knowledge required of the commander, receive the rank of middle commander of the Red Army, although they hold the positions of ordinary pilots and aircraft mechanics. As a result of this, a situation was clearly abnormal and undermining the foundations of the military organization, when there were no ordinary and junior command personnel in the air units and all pilots and aircraft mechanics were middle-ranking personnel.
            Receiving at the end of schools the rank of junior lieutenant and junior military technician, lieutenant and military technician of rank 2, pilots and aircraft mechanics acquire all the rights of middle command personnel, including the right to live outside the barracks, in a separate apartment and have a family with them. Practice has shown that the extra-bargaining placement of flight technical personnel in apartments with families inflicts the greatest harm on the combat training of flight personnel and the combat effectiveness of our entire aviation.
            What is this harm expressed in?
            1. It is known that each air unit must be ready at any time to relocate to any area in accordance with the requirements of the situation. In the current situation, our air units are often unable to fulfill this requirement. Instead of organized units with a proper military order, they turned into semi-civilian settlements, in which the military make up only a small part, and the majority are members of their families. When the air units are redeployed, the families remain in place, and a new part is settled in place of the departed. This leads to the fact that families of several units live in the garrisons. In some garrisons, there are up to 15 family members per pilot. All this makes our air units immobile and immobile, chaining them to the place of quartering.
            2. It is known that the main requirement for military aviation is to ensure the rapid collection of air units for alarm and rapid lifting into the air to carry out a combat order. In the current situation, when the flight crew, burdened with families, lives in apartments, often at a distance of ten or more kilometers from their airfields, the air unit is not able to quickly assemble on alert. Many hours are spent only on fees and notification of flight personnel. Air units are forced to keep special people and vehicles to provide alerts and alarm collection. All this also undermines the combat effectiveness of our aircraft.
            3. Our pilots must be the best pilots in the world, pilots with high combat flying qualities. It would be deeply mistaken to believe that all these qualities will come by themselves during the war. They can only be instilled by hard hard work in peacetime. In the current international situation, fraught with all sorts of surprises, the transition from a peaceful to a military situation is only one step. Our aviation, which will be the first to take battle with the enemy, must therefore be in a state of constant mobilization readiness. This is required of her by the interests of the country's defense.
            4. At the same time, the task of creating trained and fully prepared pilots for battle is incompatible with the current situation when the pilot is burdened with family concerns. In order to perfectly master his military weapons and successfully defeat the enemy in wartime, the pilot must now concentrate all his strength and attention on combat training, must perfectly know and love his war machine and masterfully own it. At present, the pilot’s attention and energy are bifurcated. Family worries distract him from worries about his military development. A pilot cannot devote himself entirely to military affairs. The family, located near the pilot, constantly reminds himself. Such a split in the attention and energy of the pilot, the inability to fully concentrate on the task of combat training reduces the level of combat training of the pilot, making him poorly trained. Poor preparedness of the flight crew will inevitably lead to accidents and disasters, and in a combat situation will lead to the fact that a poorly trained pilot will be shot down by the enemy.
            1. mat-vey
              mat-vey 19 November 2020 12: 51
              0
              Quote: Alexey RA
              And saving money here was by no means the main thing.

              I don't remember where and from whom I came across, which in the end turned out to be very significant. Considering that everything was already lacking so much.
    2. Cyril G ...
      Cyril G ... 17 November 2020 11: 05
      -1
      I agree, everything is so.
  16. Alexfly
    Alexfly 15 November 2020 15: 47
    -7
    What is the article about? The glorification of the Mustache, so he asked for the war + al, everyone knows its beginning.
  17. Radikal
    Radikal 15 November 2020 16: 27
    10
    Quote: Alekseev
    Quote: Aerodrome
    In conclusion, it remains only to note

    That the article is superficial, complex and ambiguous issues of the development of the armed forces are treated one-sidedly.
    A balm for the souls of "some civilians" who are now dreaming of the coming of a "good tsar".
    Indeed, very large-scale measures to develop industry and increase the potential of the Red Army led to the creation of an army that was very numerous in terms of the number of l / s weapons.
    But ... quality was not achieved.
    That is why more than 20000 tanks, thousands of aircraft, artillery systems and millions of soldiers and officers were burned in the fire of the battles of 1941, and, often, 1942. The result of the work of the industry in the pre-war years was lost, cadres were largely lost during the repressions, then order and discipline in the units was undermined.
    We must remember about the price of victory and not fill the heads of the youth with harmful jingoistic patriotic recipes.
    Of course, the merit of the Soviet leadership and Stalin personally for turning the country into a single military camp is beyond doubt.
    But he did not manage to do everything to ensure Victory within the country, despite industrialization and collectivization. The reasons have long been known and have been discussed more than once, in particular on this site.
    Quote: Bearded
    brought victory to the USSR
    not only life-and-death struggle and heroic work of the rear, but also lend-lease supplies.
    In such positions as explosives, cars, steam locomotives, rails, high-tech equipment, high-octane gasoline, i.e. something without which it is also impossible to successfully wage a war, they reached 50-90% of the resources used. And the food for the troops does not need to be discounted.
    Any complex historical issue should be considered comprehensively, without overemphasizing achievements and hushing up failures, without propaganda husks.

    The propaganda husk is now, when at all kinds of exhibitions not "having analogues" are being demonstrated, but old T-72s are being restored, when peacekeepers in Karabakh are moving around on the same T-72s, and not even restored ones. This is when from all the irons they scream that the RF Armed Forces are the most modern, they show a funny video on TV where in open positions, on a sunny, cloudless day, a dozen and a half BM-21s are firing, and they are also flying over them in a considerable formation, it is not clear where - probably towards their death turntables, this is when, for a parade on the day of the Navy, the remnants of the once great and mighty Soviet Navy are driven from all fleets, burning the motor resource in order to "threaten" the whole world with the shoes of the sun from Cardin - this I think is a real propaganda not just husk, but devilry ! sad
    1. EvilLion
      EvilLion 17 November 2020 08: 43
      -1
      Yes, yes, we will all die, and everything is gone. It is not clear, however, how, if there is no one to fight in particular.
  18. BAI
    BAI 15 November 2020 17: 31
    +1
    Special mention should be made of the Stalinist reform of the manning system of the Red Army. In 1939, the draft age for citizens of the USSR was changed from 21, which it had been from 1925, to 19 or 18 (for those who graduated from high school). This made it possible to more actively replenish the ranks of the Armed Forces, create a huge personnel reserve for them. The size of the Red Army has almost doubled in comparison with 1936 - up to 2 million people. By 1941, it will more than double, by the time of the Great Patriotic War, the Red Army will have more than 300 divisions, although almost half of them will be at the stage of formation. In comparison with 1937, by 1941, the staffing of, for example, the rifle units of the Red Army increased more than three times compared to 1937, and in such branches of the army as armored, automobile, air defense - more than six times!

    Where and how would these troops have been used if not for the war? Especially considering the doctrine "On foreign territory, with little blood." In 1939 - Germany is the best friend, and even in 1941 war with Germany was expected in 1943.
    1. tovarich-andrey.62goncharov
      tovarich-andrey.62goncharov 15 November 2020 18: 59
      -3
      ... "even in 1941, war with Germany was expected in 1943" - Suvorov (Rezun) writes that in 1942 ...
    2. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 18 November 2020 18: 13
      +1
      Quote: BAI
      Where and how would these troops have been used if not for the war? Especially considering the doctrine "On foreign territory, with little blood."

      And there was no such doctrine. For a big war in the USSR, the doctrine of attrition was adopted: defense, evacuation, mobilization of industry. The winner is the one whose industry is better off on a war footing.
      And songs like:
      And in enemy land, we will crush the enemy
      Little blood, a mighty blow!
      is propaganda. Which in the USSR had nothing to do with real military plans. Here is such a squiggle. ©
      It should be noted that the propaganda speeches of political and military leaders contained somewhat different tasks than the military plans developed under their leadership. So, in 1936, K. Ye. Voroshilov proclaimed the slogan that the Red Army would wage war "with little blood and on foreign territory." But this statement did not prevent the approval of the next year’s plan of evacuation from areas that may be occupied by the enemy, and the next norms of losses for the year of the war, which had very little in common with the mentioned slogan. Therefore, when analyzing preparations for war, it is very important to separate political propaganda from the real direction of military planning.
      © Melia
  19. tovarich-andrey.62goncharov
    tovarich-andrey.62goncharov 15 November 2020 18: 55
    -1
    We all know the party won! (a sarcastic joke, as a response to a very superficial article - just in the spirit of the chants of the first page of the Pravda newspaper a la 70s of the 20th century ...). IMHO.
  20. Shahno
    Shahno 15 November 2020 19: 15
    -3
    Quote: Valerikk
    27 million dead, half of the country in ruins. And this is your military genius?

    Could you do better?

    Not. Better nowhere .. Special thanks to Comrade Stalin for all those killed and ruined. Because there weren't so many of them .. From my grandfather ..
    Ps. Special thanks to the Tomsk Chekists ... From my great-grandfather.
  21. CommanderDIVA
    CommanderDIVA 15 November 2020 20: 17
    0
    The war was won not by Stalin, which does not beg for his merits as a leader, but our multinational people of the USSR, where the Russian people were the backbone, after the confusion of the summer of 1941, the country gathered into a fist and by 1943 we began to win, as comrade Bismarck said in my opinion: Russians harness for a long time, but they drive fast
  22. Unknown
    Unknown 15 November 2020 21: 20
    +2
    Quote: bamu
    The blame for the catastrophe of 1941 lies entirely with our command, the general staff, headed by Zhukov and Stalin, as the first person of the state. The army was beheaded and intimidated by repression, the commanders were afraid to show even the slightest initiative, all the while waiting for orders from above. Marshal of the Soviet Union AM Vasilevsky wrote: “Without the thirty-seventh year, perhaps there would have been no war at all in the forty-first year. In the fact that Hitler decided to start the war in XNUMX, an assessment of the degree of defeat of military personnel that took place in our country played an important role. " Marshal Konev expressed a similar opinion in conversations with Simonov.
    .... incorrect statement. to compare the German General Staff, and its military machine on 22.06.41/XNUMX/XNUMX. with our General Staff and the Red Army, it is impossible. The Germans had a rich experience of WWII, and also the victorious start of WWII. and what did the Red Army have? what could the remaining tsarist generals teach our officer corps? After all, R.I. performed very badly in WWI, and the Brusilov breakthrough was not an indicator, he could not turn the tide of the war, and AUSTRA-HUNGARY could not be withdrawn from the war. the conflict with Japan at Khalkhin Gol, revealed many of the shortcomings of the Red Army, and the war with the Finns too. and notice the shortcomings were not hushed up, they were mentioned. here is a quote from the Finnish war ....... Our comrades boasted that our army is invincible, that we can throw our hats over everyone, there are no shortages. In practice, there is no such army and never will be.

    This prevented our army from immediately realizing its shortcomings and restructuring, reorganizing in relation to the conditions of Finland. Our army did not understand, did not immediately understand that the war in Poland was a military outing, not a war. She did not understand and did not understand that there would be no military walk in Finland, but a real war. It took time for our army to understand this, to feel it, and so that it began to adapt to the conditions of the war in Finland, so that it began to rebuild ............... it was said by I.V. STALIN. only 20 years have passed since the end of the civil war. you need to create your own military industrial complex, and the main thing is cadres, there were not enough specialists everywhere, you need to eliminate illiteracy, it takes time, but it was not enough. in the Red Army on 22.06.41/24/1945 in the units there were still soldiers who did not even have primary education, on VO published a report of one of the corps commanders about this. so there were enough reasons, and the lack of command staff is one of them. it was necessary to withstand three difficult years in order to knock out the German cadres, and learn by ourselves. and the generals at different times, in different ways interpret the role of the Supreme ........ Stalin firmly entered the military history. His undoubted merit is that under her direct leadership, as the Supreme Commander-in-Chief, the Soviet Armed Forces withstood the defensive campaigns and brilliantly carried out all offensive operations.> But, as far as I could observe him, he never spoke about his merits. In any case, I have never heard it. The title of Hero of the Soviet Union and the title of Generalissimo was awarded to him upon written submission to the Politburo of the Central Committee of the party by the commanders of the fronts. And she had fewer awards than the commanders of the fronts and armies. As for the miscalculations made during the war years, he told the people honestly and directly in his speech at a reception in the Kremlin in honor of the commanders of the Red Army on May XNUMX, XNUMX ...
    Source: Vasilevsky A. The work of a lifetime. M., 1978. S. 212, 213, 222, 223, 246, 494, 495, 497, 498-504
    1. Revolver
      Revolver 15 November 2020 23: 17
      +1
      Quote: Unknown
      And she had fewer awards than the commanders of the fronts and armies.
      Stalin's awards were not so few, here is his ceremonial portrait, I do not think that the artist was allowed to subtract, let alone add, anything "from the bulldozer."

      But he himself did not like splendor, he completely refused the Generalissimo's epaulets, said that the marshal's shoulder straps were quite suitable for him. Of all the awards, he, as a rule, wore only one star of the Hero, and then not the Union, but labor.

      In contrast to the same General Secretary of the CPSU Central Committee, Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, Marshal of the Soviet Union, Dear Comrade Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev.
      Only the ribbons fit, because there is not enough space on the chest for all the trinkets. And pay attention to the full title, which the closer to death, the more often they called Brezhnev. And compare in length, and most importantly, in depth and capacity: "Comrade Stalin."
      1. The comment was deleted.
        1. Revolver
          Revolver 16 November 2020 20: 10
          +1
          Is this the one who helped Zhukov to loot, and, moreover, did not forget himself?
          Quote: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vladimir_Viktorovich_Kryukov
          According to the materials of archival investigations No. 0046 and No. 1762 during searches of V.V. Kryukov and L.A. Ruslanova, the following were seized: a Horch 951A car, two Mercedes, Audi, two hundred eight diamonds, and emeralds, sapphires, pearls, one hundred and seven kilograms of silverware, one hundred and thirty-two paintings by Russian artists Shishkin, Repin, Serov, Surikov, Vasnetsov, Vereshchagin, Levitan, Vrubel, Makovsky, Aivazovsky and others, thirty-five antique carpets, ancient tapestries, many antique sets, furs, sculptures made of bronze and marble, decorative vases, a large number of books, seven hundred thousand rubles in cash and more.
  23. Vladimir1155
    Vladimir1155 15 November 2020 21: 55
    0
    And Stalin was a wise and just leader
  24. Saxahorse
    Saxahorse 15 November 2020 23: 27
    +1
    There is almost nothing about reforms in the article and there is nothing. Meanwhile, the reforms of that time were based on a radical change in the approach to the mobilization and deployment of the army.

    In tsarist times, the mobilization scheme in wartime implied the deployment of existing divisions three times, each regiment turned into a separate division. PMA showed that despite the advantages of the scheme, they require an extremely long time on a Russian scale, two to three months, and for all this time the country remains essentially without combat-ready divisions that are fully occupied with their deployment.

    The meaning of the reforms of the 30s, in the creation of cadre divisions of a reduced composition but with a full set of commanders. In wartime, such divisions can be deployed independently of others, which allows mobilization in much less time. That is why, despite the cleansing of the army of personnel appointed by Trotsky, the number of commanders in the Red Army did not decrease, but increased several times. Although the quality of this new commanding staff certainly left much to be desired. Unfortunately, there was no time for full training and advanced training.
  25. EvilLion
    EvilLion 17 November 2020 08: 41
    -1
    In fact, the swelling of the Red Army began at the end of 39, after the start of WWII.
  26. Cyril G ...
    Cyril G ... 17 November 2020 11: 09
    0
    Quote: Nagan
    Moreover, the special officers were subordinate not to commanders, but to commissars,

    it never happened, from the word at all.
  27. Cyril G ...
    Cyril G ... 17 November 2020 11: 15
    -1
    Quote: Saxahorse
    In tsarist times, the mobilization scheme in wartime implied the deployment of existing divisions three times, each regiment turned into a separate division.

    You are wrong to hike. It is you who describe the scheme of the mobilization deployment called the troicad. Under the tsar, everything was not like that, there were divisions of the first order, and there were also reserve brigades of four regimental composition, capable of deploying in 2 divisions. Something like this.
  28. Comrade Kim
    Comrade Kim 18 November 2020 01: 56
    +3
    Quote: bamu
    27 million dead, half of the country in ruins. And this is your military genius?

    No need to juggle the facts.
    Of the 27 million civilian casualties amounted to 18 million.
    Germany has a total of 9 million casualties, or 2 million civilian losses. Moreover, the bulk of them died during the barbaric bombing of the British and American executioners.
    Read about Dresden, or better visit it on the day of remembrance.
    The ratio of military losses of the USSR and Germany: 9 million to 7 million. Dot.