Military Review

Combat aircraft. Pain and sorrow like a king

52

Disappeared from history


Indeed, it would be better if Armstrong-Whitworth lost the competition then. There would not be this nightmare and headache - the search for a place where their offspring can be adapted.


Combat aircraft. Pain and sorrow like a king

From 1937 to 1945, throughout the Second World War, "Wheatley" was a bomber (not for long, thank God), a night bomber, a transport aircraft, a glider towing aircraft, an anti-submarine patrol aircraft ...

But once the war was over, the RAF did not rush, of course, with axes at the surviving Wheatleys. But, probably, there were few planes that disappeared so quickly into stories.

But let's start in order.

You will not confuse the Wheatley with any aircraft. He is very peculiar in appearance. Such a strange tail unit ... Such a peculiar fuselage ... And the whole plane is somehow very clumsy in appearance. And not only in appearance. In fact, he was even more awkward than he looked. But "Wheatley" had some kind of excuses for that.


AW23 - seaplane tanker


This story began in a very distant aviation by the standards of 1931, when the British Air Ministry announced a competition for a transport aircraft, which, if necessary, could be converted into a bomber at minimal cost.

Bristol, Handley-Page and Armstrong-Whitworth fought for the order.

The Armstrong-Whitworth designers designed the aircraft under the AW23 designation.


They ended up with a very large monoplane with a low wing and a spacious fuselage. The aircraft had a very original tail unit - the keels were in the middle of the stabilizer and were supported by additional horizontal beams. Original, but cumbersome.

Retractable landing gear was made progressively. But they did not rise completely, but only up to half of the wheels, which were retracted into the engine nacelles. It was believed that in this design, the wheels would be able to protect engines from damage during an emergency landing on the belly.

The engines at that time were quite: Armstrong-Siddley "Tiger" VII, 14-cylinder radial air-cooled, 810 hp. from.

The prototype AW23 made its first flight on June 4, 1935. The plane turned out to be quite good, the testers noted decent controllability, stability and reliability. However, AW23 lost the competition. And the Handley Page HP.51 "Harrow" and Bristol 130 "Bombay" went into production for the RAF.

The only copy of the AW23 was converted into a seaplane tanker. And until 1940, the plane was fueling the "Short" seaplanes. And in 1940 it was destroyed during a raid by German bombers.

Wheatley heavy night bomber


Meanwhile, a new competition began. A heavy night bomber that could fly 2 km at a speed of at least 000 km / h. For comparison: the Fairey "Hendon" bomber was then in service with a range of 360 km and a speed of 1 km / h.

In this situation, "Armstrong-Whitworth" had a huge advantage, since it already had a virtually finished aircraft that fit the terms of the competition. And so it happened, and in August 1935 the firm received an order for 80 aircraft.


The plane was named "Whitley" after the suburb of Coventry, where the Armstrong-Whitworth plant was located.

The new AW38 aircraft, as expected, turned out to be almost a copy of the AW23, retaining its external features - a short and wide wing of a thick profile, a two-fin tail with originally located keels, and the location of firing points.

By the way, the designers saved so much by not fulfilling the requirements of the terms of reference for weapons, which should have consisted of four 7,69 mm machine guns. The Armstrong-Whitworth decided that the bomber did not need onboard installations, two machine guns would be enough: one in the bow, the other in the stern.


The wing was moved from the lower to the middle position in order to more conveniently place the bomb bay. To further reduce the landing mileage, the designers installed hydraulically operated flaps along the trailing edge. As a result, it really turned out to be a completely normal night bomber. A low landing speed, decent flight characteristics, one and a half tons of bombs - at that time this was quite enough.

Armament AW38


Defensive weapons, let's say, were. Branded Armstrong-Whitworth turrets with 7,69-mm Lewis machine guns. The turrets were rotated with the help of a pedal drive by arrows, lifting the barrels of machine guns was also manual. The front shooter performed the duties of a bombardier, for which he had to leave the machine gun and lie on the floor of the cabin to the sight in a special hatch.



The pilots were stationed nearby, above the bomb bay. The co-pilot usually performed the duties of a navigator, for which his seat could move back and turn to the navigator's workplace behind the back of the crew commander. The radio operator was stationed behind the pilots.


The aircraft was very seriously equipped by the standards of that time. Since the flights of night bombers are not an easy matter, the Wheatley was equipped with an autopilot and a radio compass.

There was a bomb bay under the pilots and radio operator. The main bomb bay contained four bomb racks that could hold one 500 lb (229 kg) bomb each.

Another 12 small bomb bays were located in the center section and wing consoles. The center-section bomb bays held one 250 pound (113 kg) bomb, and the cantilever bombs each held a 112 pound (51 kg) or 120 pound (55 kg) bomb.


Behind the fuselage bomb bay there was another small separate compartment for lighting bombs.

The bomb release drive was mechanical. The cables released the locks of the bombs, under the weight of the bombs, the hatch doors were opened, and then closed with the help of ordinary rubber bands.

Wheatley's Challenges


Tests of the first copies of the Wheatley showed that it is a very reliable aircraft, obedient in control and simple for technicians. In terms of flight data, the Wheatley outperformed both the Hendon and Hayford, especially in terms of speed.

But at the global level, the novelty did not look very good. By that time, Italian cars appeared from the Savoia Marchetti S81 (which developed 340 km / h) and S79 (which accelerated to 427 km / h). The Wheatley, with its 309 km / h, looked rather weak. The ceiling was also not the Whitley's forte, although it was still a bomber. But even the outdated Hayford biplane, which climbed 6 m, was overtaken by him, while the maximum height for the Wheatley was 400 m.

But it so happened that the Royal Air Force did not even have another car in the future. Hampden and Wellington were delayed in construction and testing. The Handon turned out to be a completely useless aircraft and after a series of accidents and disasters it was removed from service.

And therefore, when the answer to the beginning of the growth of the Luftwaffe was required, there was nothing better than the Wheatley at hand. It was decided to eliminate the most critical flaws and take the vehicle into service. The air already smelled like war, and the AW38 still met the requirements of the Air Force in a number of parameters.

The aircraft was equipped with more powerful "Tigers" of the XI series with a capacity of 935 liters. sec., which raised the maximum speed up to 330 km / h. The wing was slightly changed, making V by 4 degrees, which had a positive effect on the stability of the aircraft. There are new hydraulically powered turrets designed for the more modern Vickers K machine guns.

The Air Force wanted to order 320 aircraft. The capabilities of Armstrong-Whitworth showed that no more than 200 vehicles could be produced within the time frame of the agreement. And production began.


Production machines expectedly had flight data, much more modest compared to prototypes. The speed is not more than 296 km / h and the ceiling is only 4 877 m. For comparison: the He 111, which was shining then in Spain, gave out 368 km / h and 5 900 m, respectively.

But, nevertheless, "Wheatley" began to replace the old "Hayfords" in parts.

Overall, I liked the plane. Mainly because it was simple (like a British bomber). This aircraft did not cause any problems for either the flight crew or the technical.

Modernization: "Merlin" pulled out


Modernization began simultaneously with production. For example, a retractable shooting tower under the fuselage with two 7,62-mm Browning Mk2 machine guns. It was a hefty duralumin barrel, glazed and weighing half a ton. It was installed not on all aircraft, since in the released position the product of the Fraser-Nash company FN 17 significantly reduced the already not brilliant speed of the Whitley.

With speed, everything was generally sad. "Wheatley" in this regard was inferior to all peers (from Germany, Japan, and even the USSR) by more than 100 km / h.

Something had to be done about it. First, we tried to fly around a plane with a Bristol Pegasus XX engine. Did not like. Then they put in a Rolls-Royce Merlin. It got better. "Merlin" produced 1 liters. from. at an altitude of 030 m. And with it "Wheatley" gave out 5 km / h. True, the plane was unarmed and fairings were installed instead of the turrets.

The Merlin X had a two-stage supercharger, which was very good for the engine's altitude and provided a wider range in terms of power. On takeoff, "Merlin" X developed 1 liters. from. ("Merlin" II gave 065 hp), and had a maximum at an altitude of 880 1 m - 720 1 hp. from.

Serial "Wheatley" series IV with "Merlins" accelerated to a speed of 393 km / h. The bomb load has also increased. Now it was possible to take up to 3 kg of bombs, two bombs of 178 kg and 908 bombs of 12 kg. In general, "Merlin" pulled out.


And the fourth series was immediately replaced by the fifth, in which a new Nash-Thompson turret with four Browning 7,62 mm machine guns was installed in the tail. This unambiguously increased the defensive firepower of the aircraft, but gave rise to the appearance of huge "dead zones" above, below and along the sides of the aircraft.




Quantity is more important than quality


And in this form, "Wheatley" went into mass production. And then the Second World War began. Even if the British wanted to change the Wheatley to something else on the assembly line, more modern, it was not so easy to do it.

In addition, the British Defense Department believed that quantity was sometimes more important than quality. Therefore, the feverish assembly of "Wheatley" only increased. And the plane itself was included in the top five most essential aircraft, along with the Spitfire, Hurricane, Blenheim and Wellington.

However, there were problems with mass production. The Merlins were needed on the Spitfires and Hurricanes in the Battle of Britain.

At the outbreak of the war, the Whitley made up one sixth of all RAF aircraft, and were armed with eight squadrons.

Paper baptism


The bombers received their baptism of fire in the raids on Germany. Conditionally combat, since it was not bombs that fell on German cities, but leaflets. On the night of September 3-4, 1939, after England entered the war, the Wheatleys scattered 6 million leaflets over Germany. For fear of receiving the same answer, the British refrained from using bombs.

And until the spring of 1940, the Wheatleys carried only paper.

"Strange War" did not imply bombing of ground targets. Therefore, the first real Whitley raid took place on the night of March 20, 1940, when 30 Whitleys and 20 Humpdens attacked the German seaplane base at Silt. One Wheatley was shot down by anti-aircraft fire, and the results of the raid were ineffective.

Normal combat work began only after the Germans captured Belgium and the Netherlands. Only then did the Wheatleys begin striking railroads and highways in order to impede the movement of German troops. And on May 15, a full-scale air war began.

Throughout the second half of May, the Wheatleys tried to bomb the refineries on the Rhine. The results were negligible, the disgusting training of pilots and navigators affected. On May 16, for example, out of 78 bombers that took off, 24 reached the target area. There is no need to talk about effective night raids with such training.

In June, a group of 36 Wheatleys were to fly over the English Channel, fly over France and Switzerland, bypass the Alps and bomb Turin and Genoa. Thirteen cars out of 13 flew. Already an achievement, but the damage was again minimal.


"Raids of a Thousand Bombers"


On the night of 26 August 1940, almost a year after the outbreak of World War II, the first British bombs fell on Berlin. Of the 81 bombers allocated for this operation, there were 14 Wheatleys.

Gradually the British pilots improved their level of training and the number of aircraft increased. Mannheim on December 7, 1940 bombed 134 aircraft, Hanover on February 10, 1941 - 221 aircraft, Kiel in April 1941 - two waves: 288 and 159 aircraft, respectively.

However, the further the intensity of the work of the British bomber aviation increased, the stronger the Luftwaffe fighters worked in response. And here the lagging behind "Wheatley" as a combat aircraft began to appear.


Slow speed, insufficient radius of action, weak defensive armament, lack of body armor - in all these indicators, the Wheatley was much worse than Wellington. Stirling and Halifax were on the way. There was no talk of any use during the day (even under fighter cover), so the night sky became the arena for Whitley's work.

But taking into account the flight characteristics of the Stirling and Halifax, which also began to fly at night, the value of the Whitley gradually became minimal.

Combat missions were assigned to more modern vehicles, and "Wheatley" began to be used for training and auxiliary purposes. The Whitley's last major military operation was the 30 April 1942 raid on Ostend. After that, all the squadrons armed with "Wheatley" began to re-equip with new equipment.

True, from time to time "Wheatley" from the training squadrons were attracted for massive raids on the German cities of Cologne, Essen, Bremen, Duisburg, Oberhausen, Stuttgart and Dortmund. The so-called "raids of a thousand bombers".

But the effectiveness was again low. The Luftwaffe pilots understood perfectly well that the defenseless Whitley was an excellent reason to draw the Abschussbalken, and did not rush to the Stirlings. Still, 8 machine guns and 2 - there is a difference, is not it?

So most of the Wheatley ended up in the training units. Everyone studied on them - pilots of multi-engine cars, navigators, radio operators.


Anti-submarine patrol aircraft


The second largest place of use is aviation under the Coastal Command. There "Wheatley", able to stay in the air for a long time, was very useful. The role of the patrol anti-submarine aircraft was on his shoulder. But - in remote areas where the appearance of enemy fighters was not expected. There "Wheatley" could work day and night. But where the enemy fighter could work, there "Whitley" preferred not to fly.

Was the Wheatley as good as the patrol plane? Well, not quite. Weak defensive armament and speed made it a potential victim for enemy aircraft. But the bomb load made it possible to take additional tanks with fuel, and bombs, which could make a sad life for any submarine.


It's just that the Anson, which had been replaced by the Whitley, was even worse armed and even slower.

"Wheatley" Mk VII


The first use of "Whitley" against German submarines occurred in September 1939. And it turned out quite successfully. So much so that even a special modification of the aircraft was developed. It differed from the base one by the presence of four fuel tanks, which increased the flight range to 3 km, and the ASW Mk II radar for detecting surface ships.

Radar is a more than useful thing for such an aircraft, but the radar antennas were installed above the rear fuselage, receiving antennas - on the farms under the wings and under the nose. All this greatly worsened the aerodynamics and the speed dropped to 350 km / h, the ceiling and the rate of climb decreased. Plus, the mass has grown, since in addition to the radar and antennas, the locator operator and his equipment have also been added.

It was the Whitley Mk VII version. It was produced in the factory.

And the first victory over the German submarine was won by "Wheatley" of the 5th aircraft family. Whitley, 77th Bomber Squadron, attacked and sank U-705 in the Bay of Biscay. On November 30, in the same area, "Wheatley" VII of the 502nd Squadron won a victory: U-206 went to the bottom.

True, even here the Wheatleys were gradually, since 1942, replaced by more modern machines.

Transport and landing version of "Wheatley"


And of course, the former bomber could not help but become a transport aircraft. If you remove the rear turret, then in its place you get a good platform for dropping, for example, paratroopers. Great Britain was somewhat late with the creation of its own airborne forces, so during the course of the war it had to improvise.


The Whitley could carry 10 paratroopers with full gear and 1 kg of cargo in bomb bays.

On February 7, 1941, 8 Wheatleys from the 78th Squadron transferred 37 specially trained parachutists-saboteurs to Malta. This was the first use of the Wheatley troop carrier.

And on February 27, 1942, in fact a year later, 12 Wheatleys of 51 Squadron were used in Operation Beating. The operation was completed more than successfully, a team of paratroopers from under the noses of the Germans in the city of Brunenwal stole the secret Würzburg radar.

Wheatley-towing vehicle


In the first half of 1942, three squadrons of towing aircraft were formed from "Wheatley", united in the 38th air group.
"Wheatley" 5th series could tow one glider type "Horse" or "Hotspar".
But it did not come to practical application. When the British decided to use gliders in amphibious operations, the Wheatley no longer remained in the army as tugs.


In the summer of 1943, the Wheatleys from the tug squadrons were again recruited to spread leaflets over Western European cities.

The last Wheatley left the assembly hangar in June 1943. A total of 1 units of all modifications were produced. In 814, all Wheatleys were declared obsolete and removed from service.

The Last Whitley - Britain's Pain


Armstrong-Whitworth retained one copy of the Whitley, which served until March 1949.

In general, the aircraft cannot be called successful. On the one hand, so many of them were made that it was impossible to simply “throw it out and forget”. The war was going on, and every plane that could benefit or damage the enemy had to do it.

Therefore, the entire first half of the war was spent trying to somehow stick the Wheatley somewhere. The plane was still too slow and too weakly armed for that war. Even in times of need, even in the night sky.


Indeed, the Whitley is the pain and sorrow of the RAF.

LTH Whitley Mk.V

Wingspan, m: 25,20
Length, m: 21,75
Height, m: 4,57
Wing area, square m: 105,72

Weight, kg
- empty aircraft: 8 707
- normal takeoff: 12 690
- maximum take-off: 15 075

Engines:
2 x Rollse-Royce Merlin X x 1145 HP from.

Maximum speed km / h: 364
Cruising speed, km / h: 336
Practical range, km: 2 400
Rate of climb, m / min: 240
Practical ceiling, m: 7 200
Crew, prs: 5

Armament:
- four 7,69 mm machine guns in an electrically controlled tail turret
- one 7,69 mm machine gun in the nose turret
- up to 3 150 kg bombs
Author:
Articles from this series:
Combat aircraft. Hans, bring me a normal bomb!
Warplanes: Box of Irregular Pencils
52 comments
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  1. Lech from Android.
    Lech from Android. 14 November 2020 05: 02
    0
    Four machine guns in the tail boom turret belay , it would be better if they put one cannon ... there would be more view. The plane is certainly interesting, especially the keels and stabilizers.
    Thanks to the author for the work hi I swallowed the article with interest.
    1. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 16 November 2020 18: 52
      0
      Quote: Lech from Android.
      Four machine guns in the turret of the tail boom, it would be better if they put one cannon ... there would be more view.

      Savings, sir ...
      By the mid-30s, the KVVS offered a smooth transition from a rifle caliber to 12,7 mm and then to 20 mm. But the Treasury demanded savings - and it was decided not to rush and at the end of the 30s go straight to guns. And at first, the British did not work out with guns (and first of all they were put on fighters) - and the KVVS bombers remained with batteries of rifle-caliber machine guns.
  2. Kruglov
    Kruglov 14 November 2020 05: 11
    0
    Informative. Thanks. But with the dates you need to be careful. 1395! laughing Doesn't fit into any gate! laughing
    1. Lech from Android.
      Lech from Android. 14 November 2020 05: 13
      -1
      1395 year
      Thought is ahead of the fingers ... it looks like a man in his mind has already prepared an article about the year 1395 ... what will it be? smile
      1. Grandfather
        Grandfather 14 November 2020 05: 20
        +4
        Quote: Lech from Android.
        1395 year
        Thought is ahead of the fingers ... it looks like a man in his mind has already prepared an article about the year 1395 ... what will it be? smile

        about air defense and missile defense .... exactly. yes
  3. Alien From
    Alien From 14 November 2020 05: 26
    +6
    I don't know how anyone, I was wondering) thanks to the author)))
  4. Asad
    Asad 14 November 2020 05: 28
    0
    Very interesting! It is easy to read the author, in contrast to some ,, comrades ,,! Roman is a well-deserved plus!
  5. Free wind
    Free wind 14 November 2020 06: 12
    +1
    On all fours to move to the stern of the paratroopers is absolutely bad. Yes, and the stern gunner, in the event of hitting, has virtually no chance of getting out. The nose of the plane could have been made sharper, for 35 years it was almost everywhere, but then they began to change, and the British gave up on this business, although the English industry was at its best. But damn, how did the system of measures get them, with their inches, it's a fucking thing. We do not have levers and taps for their threads; when repairing their equipment, we have to get out as best you can.
    1. Job74
      Job74 19 November 2020 11: 18
      -1
      I watched a newsreel on YouTube - a soldier parachuting from Wheatley into a rectangular cutout in the floor - that's a tough thing. Apparently, one full-time dentist was assigned to the paratrooper group.
    2. AlNikolaich
      AlNikolaich 25 November 2020 16: 18
      0
      Greetings! In general, I agree
      Only tools for both the American and the "imperial" system of measures are now in abundance. You need to search in tool firms. If not available, they will be delivered under the order. At least "firm", at least China ...
  6. Fitter65
    Fitter65 14 November 2020 06: 51
    12
    In "AviaMaster" No. 5 for 1999 there was a monograph on this aircraft, entitled "Bomber flying nose down" by Vladimir Kotelnikov, a fairly well-known specialist in the history of aviation, in contrast to "our" reprint. At one time, I had the good fortune to purchase a model of this aircraft on a scale of 1:72; it was produced in Minsk using Frog's forms.
  7. 2 Level Advisor
    2 Level Advisor 14 November 2020 07: 37
    +7
    good article, besides the plane, I was impressed by the English saboteurs operation Beating .. to push the whole radar from the enemy's territory, and even by the sea, with almost no losses - that's cool of course ..
  8. Toucan
    Toucan 14 November 2020 08: 44
    +9
    The Whitley was a very good bomber for the mid-30s, but the rapid progress of combat aviation made it obsolete. Virtually all British long-range bombers were used only at night, and the Wheatley's obsolescence was not critical. We, too, the last TB-3s were written off already in the post-war period.
    1. voyaka uh
      voyaka uh 15 November 2020 11: 27
      +4
      The reader may get the wrong impression that this strange bomber was the main and only one in the British Air Force during the Second World War.
      This is not true. The main long-range bomber was the Avro Lankaster. They were released about 7,5 thousand pieces.
      And they were the main force in the bombing of Nazi Germany.
  9. Viktor Sergeev
    Viktor Sergeev 14 November 2020 09: 18
    11
    A good plane, especially considering that the first flight was made 15 years after the Battle of Kulikovo.
  10. bk0010
    bk0010 14 November 2020 09: 42
    +5
    2 Merlin to spend on this! 2 Merlin the same Mosquito can be done. And more useful, and the pilots are alive.
    1. The comment was deleted.
  11. Pavel57
    Pavel57 14 November 2020 10: 06
    +3
    Did the British plan to bomb Baku with these planes?
    1. Alf
      Alf 14 November 2020 20: 54
      +3
      Quote: Pavel57
      Did the British plan to bomb Baku with these planes?

      Three questions.
      1. What radars did the Baku air defense zone have in 1940-41?
      2. What fighters were in the air defense of Baku in 40-41?
      3. What air defense fighters of Baku in 40 could fly at night?
      1. Pavel57
        Pavel57 14 November 2020 21: 04
        +1
        Most likely I-16 and searchlights.
        1. Alf
          Alf 14 November 2020 21: 07
          +2
          Quote: Pavel57
          Most likely I-16 and searchlights.

          And what would be the result of the interception? More or less successful interceptions, the Germans established only after the appearance of radars in the air defense.
  12. Bongo
    Bongo 14 November 2020 12: 32
    +5
    Defensive weapons, let's say, were. Branded Armstrong-Whitworth turrets with 7,69-mm Lewis machine guns.

    Is that the Lewis machine gun? what
    1. saygon66
      saygon66 14 November 2020 14: 39
      +5
      - It is, rather, "Browning" arr. 19 year old, Under the British pairon .303 ...
      1. saygon66
        saygon66 14 November 2020 14: 51
        +3
        - It was distinguished by a slightly higher rate of fire ...
    2. Stena
      Stena 14 November 2020 15: 07
      0
      Quote: Bongo
      Is that the Lewis machine gun?

      Hello Sergey!
      Sorry to address you on the topic of aircraft, but nevertheless. You were not confused by the following:
      With speed, everything was generally sad. "Wheatley" in this regard was inferior to all peers (from Germany, Japan, and even the USSR) by more than 100 km / h.

      If memory serves, decent aircraft were built in the USSR, for example SB, DB (Il - 4), ANT, etc.
      Or is it a reprint of a disrespectful author from the "liberal media"?
      Thank you for your attention on the topic indicated by the "author".
      1. Alf
        Alf 14 November 2020 20: 55
        +6
        Quote: Stena
        Quote: Bongo
        Is that the Lewis machine gun?

        Hello Sergey!
        Sorry to address you on the topic of aircraft, but nevertheless. You were not confused by the following:
        With speed, everything was generally sad. "Wheatley" in this regard was inferior to all peers (from Germany, Japan, and even the USSR) by more than 100 km / h.

        If memory serves, decent aircraft were built in the USSR, for example SB, DB (Il - 4), ANT, etc.
        Or is it a reprint of a disrespectful author from the "liberal media"?
        Thank you for your attention on the topic indicated by the "author".

        Everything is much simpler, the author once again kicked the USSR. As they say, what are rich ...
        1. Stena
          Stena 14 November 2020 21: 29
          +3
          Everything is much simpler, the author once again kicked the USSR. As they say, what are rich ...

          Thanks. The picture is clear. Why did it slide down like that? Earlier, like trying to describe the situation more adequately or did it seem to me?
          In the USSR, in my humble opinion, there were excellent bombers at the beginning of the Great Patriotic War.
          For example, SB (ANT - 40, if my memory serves me) - in speed (SB - high-speed bomber) overtook fighters at the beginning of the Spanish Civil War.
          Also SB (if my memory serves me again) bombed Japanese airfields in 1938.
          1. Alf
            Alf 14 November 2020 21: 38
            +3
            Quote: Stena
            In the USSR, in my humble opinion, there were excellent bombers at the beginning of the Great Patriotic War.

            Not certainly in that way. The fact is that at the end of the 30s, progress in the field of aviation was proceeding at such a frantic pace that there were cases when an aircraft that was excellent at the time of its creation, when it hit a unit, was already outdated. SB, for example, proved to be excellent in Spain, but by the 40th year it was already outdated, it was not for nothing that a replacement appeared in the form of a modification of the AR-2 and the new PE-2 and TU-2.
            Quote: Stena
            Also SB (if my memory serves me again) bombed Japanese airfields in 1938.

            In Japan in the 40th year, the KI-48 appeared with superiority in all respects.
            Quote: Stena
            Why did it slide down like that? Earlier, like trying to describe the situation more adequately or did it seem to me?

            I do not want to scold Roman, but this is my opinion. A person really tries to write to me, quickly and interestingly, but with a certain amount, a quality problem appears. I’m not boasting, but if I don’t understand the topic of electronic warfare or the means of PLO, then I don’t go into these topics with comments.
          2. Cherry Nine
            Cherry Nine 15 November 2020 07: 01
            +1
            Quote: Stena
            In the USSR, in my humble opinion, there were excellent bombers at the beginning of the Great Patriotic War.

            Everything is complicated there.
            For the 41st year, there are Ju-88 and Mosquito in the high-speed niche. Against this background, the Security Council is nothing outstanding. The discussed aircraft does not belong to high-speed ones, it is a rather controversial concept of a twin-engine half-strategy, a bomb truck. Pay attention to the bomb load, what kind of SB is there. The British quickly and logically switched from twin-engined engines in this class to full-fledged four-engined engines with quite convincing results.
  13. serg.shishkov2015
    serg.shishkov2015 14 November 2020 14: 41
    +2
    I read the article and a fresh wind blew! Youth! Magazine * Wings of the Motherland *! My opening of WW2 aviation! New planes! * Whitley *, * Stirling *, * Halifax *! Model * Wellington * I already had then! Sorry! I felt a little bit!
  14. Saxahorse
    Saxahorse 14 November 2020 20: 23
    0
    The car is strange, like many of the creation of the British before WWII. The very adoption of such designs into service is surprising. Thanks to the author for this crazy British copy! :))
  15. Alf
    Alf 14 November 2020 21: 08
    +4
    Now it was possible to take up to 3 kg of bombs

    When flying "to the airfield fence", it is actually much less.
    in the tail they installed a new Nash-Thompson turret with four Browning 7,62 mm machine guns. This unambiguously increased the defensive firepower of the aircraft, but gave rise to the appearance of huge "dead zones" above, below and along the sides of the aircraft.

    In place of one barrel there were four, instead of a pedal drive, mechanized. Why are there dead zones, and even "huge"?
    the disgusting training of pilots and navigators affected.

    Roman, what about targeting at night? Which country's aviation had night raids without problems at the moment of reaching the target?
  16. Pavel57
    Pavel57 14 November 2020 21: 47
    0
    Quote: Alf
    Quote: Pavel57
    Most likely I-16 and searchlights.

    And what would be the result of the interception? More or less successful interceptions, the Germans established only after the appearance of radars in the air defense.

    And artillery.
    For the bombing of Baku in the Middle East, the British sent several squadrons of the latest Blainham Mk. IV.
    1. Alf
      Alf 14 November 2020 22: 24
      +1
      Quote: Pavel57
      Quote: Alf
      Quote: Pavel57
      Most likely I-16 and searchlights.

      And what would be the result of the interception? More or less successful interceptions, the Germans established only after the appearance of radars in the air defense.

      And artillery.
      For the bombing of Baku in the Middle East, the British sent several squadrons of the latest Blainham Mk. IV.

      The maximum speed of Blenheim-4 was 424 km / h, with less bombs, the maximum speed of Ishak and Chaika 430-440, not much more. At night, air defense, of course, can shoot, but where? The searchlight hits 1 plane, and the rest, even taking into account the searchlight field? The Britons had the same problem in the Battle of Britain. Once I watched their documentary series, so there a veteran of the air defense of London said so - We just raised the barrels and fired. During the bombing of London, the Germans suffered losses of 0,75% of the number involved. And only when the Beaufighter from the radar rose into the sky, the situation began to change. And we had big problems with the radar then, or rather, they were not. Radar. Day-Yes, the situation would have changed to the opposite.
  17. tralflot1832
    tralflot1832 14 November 2020 21: 50
    +7
    Probably it is necessary to remember the dead crews of these "sheds" with a kind word. They knew very well what they were doing, but still flew to obey the order. They sacrificed themselves and brought our victory in the Great Patriotic War closer. I remember! And ordinary Englishmen also remember, unlike their politicians. The battle for England in the air and the Northern Convoys are sacred for them! And here I completely agree with them!
  18. Pavel57
    Pavel57 14 November 2020 21: 57
    +1
    Quote: Alf
    Quote: Pavel57
    Most likely I-16 and searchlights.

    And what would be the result of the interception? More or less successful interceptions, the Germans established only after the appearance of radars in the air defense.

    In the Baku region, 420 76-85 mm anti-aircraft guns and 60 small-caliber guns were concentrated. In the air defense of Baku there were 19 radar stations (13 "Rus-1" and 6 "Rus-2"), and in the air defense of Moscow there were only three ("Rus-1").
    1. Alf
      Alf 14 November 2020 22: 25
      +2
      Quote: Pavel57
      In the Baku region, 420 76-85 mm anti-aircraft guns and 60 small-caliber guns were concentrated. In the air defense of Baku there were 19 radar stations (13 "Rus-1" and 6 "Rus-2"), and in the air defense of Moscow there were only three ("Rus-1").

      What year? At 40-41-?
      1. Pavel57
        Pavel57 14 November 2020 22: 29
        +1
        1940. But I agree, there was no chance of repelling the attack. Only get the moral satisfaction to strike back at the bases of England and France.
        1. Alf
          Alf 14 November 2020 22: 37
          +1
          Quote: Pavel57
          Only get the moral satisfaction to strike back at the bases of England and France.

          How and where? The radius even from Brest will not reach much. And the ADD never sits near the border.
          From Brest to London 1631 km in a straight line, taking into account the "back and forth" and with a 10% margin, the IL-4 range should be 3500-3800, and it has a maximum speed of 3800 with a ton of "payload", and if you consider that they can only aces will fly, then only guardians will substitute the ass, the Britons will only show figs ... It is also worth considering that ours will have to pass over the territory of Germany, and whether the Fuhrer will give permission for the flight is a question. Again, even if he does, he will have to break through the entire air defense zone of France, and this is also not a sheep sneezed. And what is the percentage of JUST flying ADD to Britain?
          1. Cherry Nine
            Cherry Nine 15 November 2020 07: 46
            +1
            Quote: Alf
            1631 km from Brest to London in a straight line, taking into account "back and forth"

            )))
            Do you have Golovanov with ADD participating in the Battle of Britain with a flight from Soviet Brest or what? Great idea.
          2. Alexey RA
            Alexey RA 16 November 2020 19: 08
            0
            Quote: Alf
            It is also worth considering that ours will have to pass over the territory of Germany, and whether the Fuehrer will give permission to fly over is a question.

            After the bombing of Baku? Yes, after such a thing and the union can come. smile
            1. Cherry Nine
              Cherry Nine 16 November 2020 22: 15
              0
              Quote: Alexey RA
              Yes, after such a thing and the union can come.

              "Can"?
          3. Serg koma
            Serg koma 16 November 2020 21: 56
            0



            Now, if instead of a motor a fiery heart could be used, any goals would be achieved and destroyed by the air armadas of the Red Army Air Force.
            1. Alf
              Alf 16 November 2020 22: 13
              +1
              Quote: Serg Koma
              Now, if instead of a motor a fiery heart could be used, any goals would be achieved and destroyed by the air armadas of the Red Army Air Force.

              Especially if the USSR could afford the PE-8 armada.
    2. tralflot1832
      tralflot1832 14 November 2020 23: 23
      0
      The Luftwaffe was scattered from Murmansk to Tuapse. The Germans could no longer remove the planes from other fronts and strike at Baku. Stalin perfectly understood the importance of Baku for the USSR. Probably even before the Finnish war, he took care of Baku's air defense not to get stabbed in the back from an Englishwoman ... hi
  19. Pavel57
    Pavel57 14 November 2020 22: 48
    0
    Quote: Alf
    Quote: Pavel57
    Only get the moral satisfaction to strike back at the bases of England and France.

    How and where? The radius even from Brest will not reach much. And the ADD never sits near the border.
    From Brest to London 1631 km in a straight line, taking into account the "back and forth" and with a 10% margin, the IL-4 range should be 3500-3800, and it has a maximum speed of 3800 with a ton of "payload", and if you consider that they can only aces will fly, then only guardians will substitute the ass, the Britons will only show figs ... It is also worth considering that ours will have to pass over the territory of Germany, and whether the Fuhrer will give permission for the flight is a question. Again, even if he does, he will have to break through the entire air defense zone of France, and this is also not a sheep sneezed. And what is the percentage of JUST flying ADD to Britain?

    Iran, Iraq, Suez, Cyprus, etc. 300 DB-3.
    1. Alf
      Alf 14 November 2020 23: 43
      +1
      Quote: Pavel57
      Quote: Alf
      Quote: Pavel57
      Only get the moral satisfaction to strike back at the bases of England and France.

      How and where? The radius even from Brest will not reach much. And the ADD never sits near the border.
      From Brest to London 1631 km in a straight line, taking into account the "back and forth" and with a 10% margin, the IL-4 range should be 3500-3800, and it has a maximum speed of 3800 with a ton of "payload", and if you consider that they can only aces will fly, then only guardians will substitute the ass, the Britons will only show figs ... It is also worth considering that ours will have to pass over the territory of Germany, and whether the Fuhrer will give permission for the flight is a question. Again, even if he does, he will have to break through the entire air defense zone of France, and this is also not a sheep sneezed. And what is the percentage of JUST flying ADD to Britain?

      Iran, Iraq, Suez, Cyprus, etc. 300 DB-3.

      For the British Empire, it doesn't matter. What does the raid on Iraq mean on the state of the empire? Almost nothing, and you can't reach the metropolis. Now the question is, how many DB-3 were there in Baku? The second question is how to accompany them? Nothing, escort fighters in the Red Army Air Force then, and even later, did not appear. That is why Spita and Harrik will rejoice when they see the formation of DB-3 without cover. And the IL-4, with all due respect to Ilyushin, has never been a flying fortress, one Berezin at the top and that's it. And the third question, what are the important British facilities in Cyprus? And in Iraq? In Iran? None. What strategic successes did Ali Pasha's rebellion in Iraq in 41 achieve? None. It turns out to be a one-sided game, Baku is vital for the USSR, and the retaliation is not particularly terrible.
      1. Pavel57
        Pavel57 15 November 2020 00: 07
        0
        The attack on the fleet in Alexandria and the destruction of the infrastructure of the Suez Canal. Everything else is heap. Given the lack of readiness to receive retaliation, this could have worked.
        1. Cherry Nine
          Cherry Nine 15 November 2020 07: 49
          +1
          Quote: Pavel57
          A blow to the fleet in Alexandria and the destruction of the infrastructure of the Suez Canal

          An attack on the fleet by ADD forces? Is this the same ADD that didn't get very well in Helsinki? Luxurious thought.

          And what kind of infrastructure in Suez is somehow not in the know.
          1. Alexey RA
            Alexey RA 16 November 2020 19: 24
            0
            Quote: Cherry Nine
            An attack on the fleet by ADD forces? Is this the same ADD that didn't get very well in Helsinki? Luxurious thought.

            Yeah ... Jerusalem and Athens get ready. smile
            1. Cherry Nine
              Cherry Nine 16 November 2020 22: 16
              +1
              Quote: Alexey RA
              Jerusalem and Athens get ready.

              Voronezh.
  20. BAI
    BAI 15 November 2020 17: 11
    0
    Well, what are your complaints about the plane? The aircraft, developed in 1931, went through the entire war. Who else could do that?
  21. Comrade Kim
    Comrade Kim 17 November 2020 08: 46
    0
    The typical English approach to design naturally gave rise to this freak.
    A strange, doomed to eternal pursuit, and losing to all competitors, even at the development stage.