Military Review

Find an aircraft carrier: space reconnaissance

144

Not so long ago, Alexander Timokhin in his wonderful articles Sea warfare for beginners. We bring the aircraft carrier "to strike" и Sea warfare for beginners. Targeting problem examined in detail the problem of searching for aircraft carrier and naval strike groups (AUG and KUG), as well as aiming missile weapons at them.


If we talk about the times of the USSR and about the current intelligence capabilities of the naval fleet (Navy) of the Russian Federation, then the situation is really quite sad, and the use of missile weapons long range firing can be extremely difficult. However, this can be said not only about the Navy, but also about the intelligence capabilities of the armed forces of the Russian Federation as a whole. Lack of early warning aircraft (AWACS), radar, radio and optical-electronic reconnaissance aircraft (analogues of the American Boeing E-8 JSTARS), complete absence of heavy high-altitude unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), insufficient quantity and quality of reconnaissance satellites and communication satellites, aggravated after the imposition of sanctions due to the lack of a domestic element base.

Nevertheless, intelligence and communications are the cornerstone of modern armed forces, and without them, there can be no talk of any confrontation with a modern high-tech enemy. Based on this thesis, we will consider what space systems can be effectively used to detect and track AUG and KUG.

Reconnaissance satellites


The Legend system of global satellite maritime space reconnaissance and target designation (MCRTs), created in the USSR, included US-P passive radio reconnaissance and US-A active radar reconnaissance satellites.

Find an aircraft carrier: space reconnaissance
Images of satellites US-A (above) and US-P (below) from the ICRC "Legend"

In his article, Alexander Timokhin speaks of the rather low efficiency of the Legend MCRC, and this is quite simple to explain. According to data taken from the site navy-korabel.livejournal.com, in different time periods of operation of the ICRC "Legend" (from 1975 to 2008), there were from 0 (!) to 6 working satellites in orbit:

“The largest number of Legends spacecraft (six) could be observed in orbit only once during 20 days at the third stage (in the period 04.12.1990 - 24.12.1990), which is 0,2% of the total operating time of the ICRC system. A group of five spacecraft worked 5 "shifts" with a total duration of 175 days. (1,5%). Further (in the direction of decreasing the number of CAs) it goes on increasing: four CAs - 15 episodes, 1201 days. (ten%); three - 10 "shifts", 30 days. (1447%); two - 12 "shifts", 38 days. (2485%); one - 21 episodes, 32 days (4821%). Finally, none - 40 time intervals, 12 days. (1858% of the total and 15% of the second period).

In addition, the "Legend" never functioned in its standard configuration (four US-A and three US-P), and the number of US-A in orbit never exceeded two. Of course, three or more US-Ps were able to provide a daily unauthorized survey of the World Ocean, but without US-A, the data obtained from them lost in reliability. "

It is clear that in this form the ICRTs "Legend" system could not physically provide the USSR / RF Navy with reliable intelligence about the enemy's AUG and KUG. The main reason here is the extremely short lifespan of satellites in orbit - an average of 67 days for US-A and 418 days for US-P. Even Elon Musk will not be able to output via a satellite with a nuclear power plant every two months ...

In exchange for MKRTS Legend, the Liana space reconnaissance system is being commissioned, which includes the Lotos-S (14F145) and Pion-NKS (14F139) satellites. The Lotos-S satellites are designed for passive radio intelligence, and the Pion-NKS for active radar reconnaissance. Permission "Pion-NKS" is about three meters, which allows you to detect ships, made with the use of technologies reduce visibility.


Image and layout of the Pion-NKS satellite of active radar reconnaissance, which is part of the Liana system

Taking into account the delays in the commissioning of satellites of the Liana system, as well as the continuing problems of the Russian satellites with the period of active existence, it can be assumed that the effectiveness of the Liana system will be far from desired. In addition, the orbit of the Liana satellites is at an altitude of about 500-1000 km. Accordingly, they can be destroyed by SM-3 Block IIA missiles, with an impact area of ​​up to 1500 km in height. There are significant numbers of SM-3 rockets and launch vehicles in the United States, and the cost of the SM-3 is likely lower than the Lotos-S or Pion-NKS satellites combined with the cost of putting them into orbit.

Does it follow from this that satellite reconnaissance systems are ineffective for searching for AUG and KUG? In no case. It only follows from this that one of the most priority areas for the development of Russian industry should be the development of electronic components in general, and "space" electronics separately. Certain work in this direction is underway. In particular, STC Modul received 400 million rubles for the creation and launch of the production of chips intended for use in new generation spacecraft... Those interested in this topic can be recommended to read history the development of space microprocessors in two parts: Part 1 и Part 2.

So what spacecraft (SC) can most effectively search for AUG and KUG? There are several possible options.

Conservative solution


The most conservative way of development is the continuation of the improvement of reconnaissance satellites of the ICRC Legenda - Liana line. That is, the creation of fairly large satellites located in orbits of the order of 500-1000 km. Such a system will be effective if several conditions are met:
- creation of artificial earth satellites (AES) with an active life of at least 10-15 years;
- the output of a sufficient number of them into the Earth's orbit (the required number depends on the characteristics of the reconnaissance equipment installed on the satellite);
- equipping reconnaissance satellites with active systems of protection against anti-satellite weapons, primarily of the "ground-space" class.

The first point implies the creation of a reliable element base capable of functioning in a vacuum (in leaky compartments). The implementation of the second point largely depends not only on the cost of the satellites themselves, but also on the reduction in the cost of putting them into orbit, which implies the need to develop reusable launch vehicles (LV).

The third point (equipping reconnaissance satellites with active protection systems against anti-satellite weapons) may include something like a tank complex of active protection (KAZ), which ensures the defeat of incoming anti-missile warheads with kinetic elements, blinding of optoelectronic homing heads (GOS) with laser radiation, emission of smoke and aerosol curtains, infrared and radar traps. Application possible inflatable decoys with the simplest unit for maintaining orientation and simulating performance.

If the kinetic defeat of the warheads of anti-missile missiles is quite difficult to ensure (since appropriate guidance systems will be required), then the means of ejecting false targets and protective curtains may well be implemented.

Constellation AES


An alternative option is to deploy in low reference orbit (LEO) a large number of small satellites with multispectral sensors on board, forming a distributed sensor network. It is unlikely that we will be the first here. Having gained experience in deploying huge clusters of Starlink communication satellites from SpaceX, The United States is highly likely to use this groundwork to create large networks of low-orbit reconnaissance satellites, "winning in numbers, not skill.".


As of October 24, 2020, 893 Starlink satellites were launched into orbit, 45 satellites were de-orbited, in total, it is planned to launch from 12 to 000 satellites

What will the huge number of LEO reconnaissance satellites give? Global overview of the planet's territory - u "Classic" surface fleet и mobile ground missile systems (PGRK) of strategic nuclear forces (SNF) there will be little chance of escaping detection. In addition, such an intelligence satellite network is almost impossible to disable at once. Compact satellites are more difficult to destroy, and anti-missiles will be more expensive than the satellites they target.

If some of the satellites fail, one carrier can put several dozen small-sized satellites into orbit at once to make up for the losses. Moreover, if "large" launch vehicles can be launched only from cosmodromes (which are quite vulnerable targets in the event of war), then small satellites weighing 100-200 kilograms can be launched into orbit ultralight launch vehicles... They can be placed on mobile launch platforms or on stationary ones, but without the need to deploy complex and cumbersome infrastructure - something like "jump launch sites". Such missiles can, if necessary, promptly withdraw a reconnaissance satellite as soon as possible after receiving a request.


Project of an ultralight methane launch vehicle "Aniva" of the Russian company Lin Industrial

Since the enemy does not have information about the launch time and the orbit into which the satellite will be launched, the "sudden" launch of the reconnaissance satellite into orbit will create an effect of uncertainty that makes it difficult to camouflage the AUG and KUG by evading a meeting with the reconnaissance satellite's field of view.

By the way, the short service life of the ICRTs "Legend" satellites, which caused their insufficient number in orbit, led to the decision on the advance production of the US-A, US-P and "Cyclone-2" launch vehicles and their storage. In order to ensure the possibility of prompt launch into orbit within 24 hours from the moment of making a decision on their launch.

“The possibility of operational deployment of satellites of the ICRTs“ Legenda ”system was confirmed during a pair launch on May 15 and 17, 1974, and was tested during the Falklands War, by the beginning of which (02.04.1982/14.06.1982/29.04.1982 - 01.06.1982/XNUMX/XNUMX) the satellites of the system were absent in orbit, but on XNUMX/XNUMX XNUMX - XNUMX/XNUMX/XNUMX two US-A and one US-P were launched. "

Russia does not yet have the competence to create and launch satellites into orbit, the number of which is in the hundreds and thousands. And no one has them, except SpaceX. That is not a reason to rest on our laurels (given our overall lag in the element base and the creation of reusable launch vehicles).

At the same time, America's plans to create a huge network of small satellites are already openly announced. In particular, the United States and Japan are planning to jointly create a constellation of low-orbit detection satellites for an anti-missile defense (ABM) system. As part of this program, the Americans plan to launch about a thousand satellites into an orbit with an altitude of 300 to 1000 kilometers. The first 30 experimental satellites are scheduled to enter service in 2022.

The DARPA Advanced Research Projects Department is working on the Blackjack project, which provides for the simultaneous launch of 20 small satellites operating as part of a single constellation. Each satellite will perform a specific function - from warning of a missile attack to providing communications. The satellites of the Blackjack project weighing 1500 kg are planned to be launched in groups every six days using a launch vehicle with reversible stages.


Groups of promising small satellites should function as a team, jointly solving the tasks of reconnaissance, navigation and communications

The US Space Development Agency (SDA), also involved in the Blackjack project, is developing the New Space Architecture project. Within the framework of this, it is planned to launch a satellite constellation into orbit, which provides the solution of information tasks in the interests of anti-missile defense and includes commercially available satellites weighing from 50 to 500 kg.

The directly indicated programs do not relate to the means of detecting AUG and KUG, but can be used as a basis for creating such systems. Or even get such functionality in the process of development.

Maneuvering spacecraft


Another way of detecting and tracking AUG and KUG can be maneuvering spacecraft. In turn, maneuvering spacecraft can be of two types:
- satellites equipped with engines for orbit correction, and
- reusable maneuvering spacecraft launched from the Earth and periodically landing for servicing and refueling engines.

Russia has competencies both in the development of ion engines and in the creation of maneuvering satellites, some of which (the so-called "inspector satellites") are attributed to the functions of strike spacecraft capable of destroying enemy spacecraft through a controlled collision.


Russian ion engine ID-200 KR

Theoretically, this makes it possible to equip satellites of the MKRTs "Liana" with propulsion systems. The possibility of promptly changing the satellite orbit will significantly complicate the AUG and KUG the task of avoiding the intersection with the field of view of passing satellites. The notion of "dead" zones will also become rather blurred. In addition, the ability to actively maneuver, coupled with the presence of active protection systems, will allow satellites to avoid being hit by anti-satellite weapons.


The ability of reconnaissance satellites to maneuver and change orbit will not allow the AUG and KUG to avoid detection due to the planned evasion from meeting with the field of view of passing satellites and use the "blind zones" of their view

The disadvantage of maneuvering satellites is the limited supply of fuel on board. If we plan a satellite's life cycle of about 10-15 years, then it will be able to make adjustments extremely rarely. A way out of this situation can be the creation of specialized spacecraft-refueling vehicles. Considering the experience of the Russian Federation in the creation of maneuvering satellites and in the automatic docking of spacecraft, this task is quite solvable.

As for the second option (maneuvering reusable spacecraft), then, unfortunately, our competence in their creation can be largely lost. Too much time has passed since the automatic flight of the Buran, and all reusable launch vehicles and spacecraft projects are in the early stages of development.


The "Buran" spacecraft was the first in the world to carry out a fully automatic horizontal landing at the airfield - Russia can no longer create spacecraft of the "Buran" type


The project of the fully reusable launch vehicle "Korona" of the SRC "Makeeva", like other projects of Russian reusable spacecraft, is in the stage of pictures and mock-ups

At the same time, the United States now has at least one spacecraft, on the basis of which an orbital reconnaissance vehicle can be created. It is an unmanned spacecraft Boeing X-37B, the concept of which is similar to the concept of the space shuttles "Space Shuttle" and "Buran".


Boeing X-37B

The Boeing X-37B is capable of launching into orbit and gently lowering 900 kg of payload to Earth. The maximum period of its stay in orbit is 780 days. He also has the ability to intensively maneuver and change the orbit within the range from 200 to 750 kilometers. The possibility of launching the Boeing X-37B into orbit with the Falcon 9 launch vehicle with a reusable first stage allows in the future to significantly reduce the cost of launching it into orbit.


Boeing X-37B projections

At the moment, the United States states that the X-37B is used only for experiments and research. However, Russia and China suspect that the X-37B could be used for military purposes (including as a space interceptor). If placed on the Boeing X-37B reconnaissance equipment, it can effectively conduct reconnaissance in the interests of all branches of the US armed forces. Supplementing existing reconnaissance satellites in threatened directions or replacing them in case of failure.

A division of Sierra Nevada Corporation of the private company SpaceDev is creating the Dream Chaser reusable spacecraft, which is being developed on the basis of the Soviet project of the BOR-4 experimental reusable spacecraft. The general concept of launching and landing the Dream Chaser spacecraft is comparable to that of the unmanned X-37B spaceplane. Both manned and cargo versions are planned.


Prototype of a manned version of the Dream Chaser reusable spacecraft

The cargo version of the Dream Chaser Cargo System (DCCS) should be capable of launching 5 tons of payload into orbit and returning 1750 kg to Earth. Thus, if we assume that the mass of reconnaissance equipment and additional fuel tanks is 1,7 tons, then another 4,3 tons will fall on fuel, which will allow the reconnaissance version of the Dream Chaser Cargo System to carry out intensive maneuvering and orbit adjustments for a long time. The first launch of the Dream Chaser Cargo System is planned for 2021.


Image of the cargo version of the Dream Chaser reusable spacecraft


Both the Boeing X-37B and Dream Chaser have a soft return and landing profile. This will significantly reduce the amount of overload experienced by the cargo returned from the station (in comparison with a spacecraft with a vertical landing). Which is critical for sophisticated reconnaissance equipment. In particular, the landing overload of no more than 1,5G is declared for the Dream Chaser spacecraft.

With the optional combustible Shooting Star module, the payload of the Dream Chaser Cargo System can be increased to 7 tons. It will be able to operate in orbits, up to and including highly elliptical or geosynchronous.


Dream Chaser Cargo System with Shooting Star Module

Considering the potential capabilities of the Dream Chaser Cargo System with the Shooting Star module, the Sierra Nevada Corporation has proposed to the US Department of Defense that the Shooting Star modules be used as "orbital outposts" for reconnaissance, navigation, control and communications, as well as for experiments and other missions. It is not yet definitively clear whether the module is being considered separate from the reusable Dream Chaser Cargo System spacecraft or whether they will be used together.

What is the niche of reusable unmanned spacecraft in terms of conducting reconnaissance of the AUG and KUG?

Reusable reconnaissance satellites will not replace reconnaissance satellites, but they can be supplemented in such a way that the task of concealing the movement of AUG and KUG will be much more complicated.

conclusions


The question arises, how realistic and economically justified is the deployment of large satellite constellations to detect AUG and KUG, as well as targeting missile weapons? After all, it has been repeatedly said about the enormous cost of the Legend MCRC system, coupled with its rather low efficiency?

As for the ICRC "Legend", the issues of its high cost and low efficiency are inextricably linked with the short time of active existence of reconnaissance satellites from its composition (as mentioned above). And promising space systems should be free from this drawback.

If the problems of creating reliable and modern spacecraft and satellites, promising reusable launch vehicles, manned and unmanned spacecraft are not solved in the Russian Federation, then neither Tanksneither aircraft carriers nor fifth-generation fighters will save us. For military superiority in the foreseeable future will be based on the capabilities provided by space systems for various purposes.

However, any military budget is not rubber, even the United States. And the best option may be the creation of a single reconnaissance space group, acting in the interests of all branches of the armed forces (AF).

Such a constellation can include both satellites and reusable orbital maneuvering spacecraft. In many ways, such an association will not have contradictions and competition for resources, since the "working zones" of various types of aircraft will hardly overlap. And if they do, it means that the Armed Forces will act within the framework of solving a single task. For example, in the framework of a joint attack on the enemy's AUG by the Air Force (Air Force) and the Navy.

The issue of interspecies interaction is one of the most important. In particular, the same USA is paying heightened attention to it. And it will definitely bring results. For example, the latest AGM-158C LRASM anti-ship missiles should also be used from B-1B bombers of the US Air Force, which implies the need for close cooperation between the Air Force and the US Navy.

Of course, the space reconnaissance group alone is not yet capable of providing a XNUMX% probability of detecting AUG and KUG, as well as targeting anti-ship missiles at them. But this is the most important and critical element of the combat effectiveness of the armed forces in general, and the Navy in particular.

We will talk about other means of reconnaissance and target designation in the next article.
Author:
Photos used:
navy-korabel.livejournal.com, bastion-karpenko.ru, spacelin.ru, zvezdaweekly.ru, topwar.ru
144 comments
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  1. Lexus
    Lexus 12 November 2020 05: 55 New
    +7
    Thanks to the "breakthroughs" of the Raspilkosmos, we will catastrophically "sag" in many areas.
  2. Asad
    Asad 12 November 2020 06: 00 New
    13
    The article did not add optimism in the morning! And what will competent comrades say? In addition, the Musk satellite constellation does not seem to me just the Internet either!
    1. Asad
      Asad 12 November 2020 08: 33 New
      +8
      Yes, and the author is a well-deserved plus!
      1. My doctor
        My doctor 12 November 2020 09: 27 New
        -10 qualifying.
        Quote: ASAD
        Yes, and the author is a well-deserved plus!

        I would put a minus. The text for the article is huge, I have not read it, but I condemn it. I chose two paragraphs at random and it was enough for me.
        Since the enemy does not have information about the launch time and the orbit into which the satellite will be launched, the "sudden" launch of the reconnaissance satellite into orbit will create an effect of uncertainty that makes it difficult to camouflage the AUG and KUG by evading a meeting with the reconnaissance satellite's field of view.
        The question arises: how long before the launch of the rocket should Russia and the United States warn each other?
        Russia has competencies both in the development of ion engines and in the creation of maneuvering satellites, some of which (the so-called "inspector satellites") are attributed to the functions of strike spacecraft capable of destroying enemy spacecraft through a controlled collision.
        How much power do ion thrusters develop?
        I've had enough.
        1. Kalmar
          Kalmar 12 November 2020 10: 48 New
          +7
          [quote = My Doctor
          Since the enemy does not have information about the launch time and the orbit into which the satellite will be launched, the "sudden" launch of the reconnaissance satellite into orbit will create an effect of uncertainty that makes it difficult to camouflage the AUG and KUG by evading a meeting with the reconnaissance satellite's field of view.

          ] The question arises: how long before the launch of the rocket should Russia and the United States warn each other? [/ Quote]
          That paragraph is generally quite controversial. The launch of the launch vehicle, in theory, can be tracked (by the forces of the same satellite reconnaissance). In order for the newly arrived satellites to detect the KUG / AUG, you need to put it into the correct orbit, for the calculation of which you need to know the approximate position of the KUG / AUG (and if there is more than one of them?).

          Quote: MyVrach
          How much power do ion thrusters develop?

          If we talk about cravings, then it is small. But the ion engine can produce it for a long time with very economical fuel consumption. And this already makes it possible to smoothly accelerate the satellite for certain purposes: changing the orbit, attacking another satellite, or something else. The efficiency of such an engine (in comparison with "conventional" ones) will, in theory, make it possible to perform such maneuvers more than once.
          1. Shopping Mall
            12 November 2020 11: 17 New
            +2
            Quote: Kalmar
            That paragraph is generally quite controversial. The launch of the launch vehicle, in theory, can be tracked (by the forces of the same satellite reconnaissance). In order for the newly arrived satellites to detect the KUG / AUG, you need to put it into the correct orbit, for the calculation of which you need to know the approximate position of the KUG / AUG (and if there is more than one of them?).


            This is not a question of "fitting" an AES to an aircraft carrier, but rather the creation of a zone of uncertainty for an aircraft carrier. It is hardly possible to plan a strike with a passage through the "dead zones" and "windows" of satellites, if the latter periodically unpredictably change orbits, from time to time new satellites are launched, after learning about the AUG release (during a threatened period) the enemy launches new satellites, the trajectory of closes the "windows" used in scheduling.

            We'll have to adjust plans, and during this time something may change again.
        2. Shopping Mall
          12 November 2020 11: 12 New
          +4
          Quote: MyVrach
          Quote: ASAD
          Yes, and the author is a well-deserved plus!

          I would put a minus. The text for the article is huge, I have not read it, but I condemn it. I chose two paragraphs at random and it was enough for me.
          Since the enemy does not have information about the launch time and the orbit into which the satellite will be launched, the "sudden" launch of the reconnaissance satellite into orbit will create an effect of uncertainty that makes it difficult to camouflage the AUG and KUG by evading a meeting with the reconnaissance satellite's field of view.


          The question arises: how long before the launch of the rocket should Russia and the United States warn each other?


          So what? According to the agreement, we send them the launch time, generic type of rocket, geographical launch area, launch azimuth. This will not give exact data on the orbit of the launched satellite. Or do you think that the USA notifies us about every correction of the orbit of the secret X-37B?

          Memorandum of Understanding between the Russian Federation and the United States of America on the establishment of a joint data exchange center from early warning and missile launch notification systems
          signed by the presidents of the Russian Federation and the United States on June 4, 2000 in Moscow

          https://www.armscontrol.ru/start/rus/docs/0604summit-jc.htm

          Quote: MyVrach
          Russia has competencies both in the development of ion engines and in the creation of maneuvering satellites, some of which (the so-called "inspector satellites") are attributed to the functions of strike spacecraft capable of destroying enemy spacecraft through a controlled collision.
          How much power do ion thrusters develop?
          I've had enough.


          The power of the engine given in the article is 3 kW, tests have shown that the specific thrust impulse is up to 4 seconds. Draft ID-500 KR but according to open sources 200-80 mN.

          Take 100 mN, then for a satellite with a mass of 1500 kg, the acceleration will be 0,00007 m / s, per day the speed will be about 6 m / s. Then count yourself. Ionic engines for orbit correction incl. and put.

          These engines are not for making evasive maneuvers, but for smooth orbit correction with minimal fuel consumption.
          1. Vale-90
            Vale-90 12 November 2020 12: 50 New
            +4
            Well done! Fight back well ... There is both the number of inspections per year (like 5) and the warning period for launch (like 2 days) ... I don't insist, from memory.
        3. ccsr
          ccsr 12 November 2020 13: 39 New
          +2
          Quote: MyVrach
          The question arises: how long before the launch of the rocket should Russia and the United States warn each other?

          They are obliged to notify at least a month in advance - this is legal after the meeting between Brezhnev and Nixon, and all experts have known about this for a long time.
          Quote: MyVrach
          How much power do ion thrusters develop?

          I think this is an advertising statement because I have not yet heard of these engines being used to correct the orbits in modern heavy satellites. Maybe I'm wrong, then I'll apologize.
          Quote: MyVrach
          I've had enough.

          You are not alone in this assessment, because the article contains a bunch of all sorts of statements that are doubtful for a person who has an idea of ​​space exploration. I do not understand at all why the detection of AUG is a strategic reconnaissance task according to the author of the article, although since Soviet times it has been a reconnaissance task for the Armed Forces (Navy) type, and not even for the GRU GSh's reconnaissance space assets.
          Further, I note that from the point of view of its detection, the AUG resembles a Christmas tree brightly decorated with electric lamps in a night forest, which, among other trees, cannot be overlooked, because geostationary satellites record their powerful radars around the clock. Moreover, even approaching our shores at a distance of closer than 1000 miles, they already fall into the reconnaissance zone of the radio-technical forces of the Aerospace Forces, not to mention the fact that constant reconnaissance of space communication lines is being conducted and in which they will always be found working, even if they turn off all radar and VHF and HF communications facilities. Although the shutdown of all radar and communications equipment should already be a signal for the rise of reconnaissance aircraft of the Navy and other branches of the armed forces.
          In general, the article, I would say controversial, and the allegations that thousands of satellites are decisive and allegedly will reveal the passage of combat control signals of our Strategic Missile Forces, which are carried out via wire and fiber-optic communication lines, in my opinion, sheer profanation, because this cannot be present time. All the calculations that a bunch of satellites will allegedly be withdrawn in a day, in my opinion, is not decisive when we plan to launch a missile strike with the SNF on duty - all this is like a dead poultice, because the bill will go for tens of minutes, and not for a day.
          1. Shopping Mall
            13 November 2020 08: 06 New
            -1
            Quote: ccsr
            You are not alone in this assessment, because the article contains a bunch of all sorts of statements that are doubtful for a person who has an idea of ​​space exploration. I do not understand at all why the detection of AUG is a strategic reconnaissance task according to the author of the article, although since Soviet times it has been a reconnaissance task for the Armed Forces (Navy) type, and not even for the GRU GSh's reconnaissance space assets.


            I do not recall that the concept of "strategic" was present in the article.

            Quote: ccsr
            Further, I note that from the point of view of its detection, the AUG resembles a Christmas tree brightly decorated with electric lamps in a night forest, which, among other trees, cannot be overlooked, because geostationary satellites record their powerful radars around the clock. Moreover, even approaching our shores at a distance of closer than 1000 miles, they already fall into the reconnaissance zone of the radio-technical forces of the Aerospace Forces, not to mention the fact that constant reconnaissance of space communication lines is being conducted and in which they will always be found working, even if they turn off all radar and VHF and HF communications facilities. Although the shutdown of all radar and communications equipment should already be a signal for the rise of reconnaissance aircraft of the Navy and other branches of the armed forces.

            Here: Naval Warfare for Beginners. We bring the aircraft carrier "to strike" https://topwar.ru/176082-morskaja-vojna-dlja-nachinajuschih-vyvodim-avianosec-na-udar.html
            the author shows a different point of view, and I agree with her. Demonstration of the flag is one thing, when the AUG is not hiding, the other is combat work.


            Quote: ccsr
            In general, the article, I would say controversial, and the allegations that thousands of satellites are decisive and allegedly will reveal the passage of combat control signals of our Strategic Missile Forces, which are carried out via wire and fiber-optic communication lines, in my opinion, sheer profanation, because this cannot be present time.


            And this is where? How do you manage to comment on something that is not in the article? The article only mentions the detection of PGRK as large mobile objects.

            Quote: ccsr
            All calculations that a bunch of satellites will allegedly be withdrawn in a day, in my opinion, is not decisive when we plan to launch a missile strike by the SNF on duty - all this is like a dead poultice, because the count will go for tens of minutes, and not for a day.


            But the "pile" of satellites is crucial in order to strike at us, accurately identifying targets. And again, what does the day have to do with it? The possibility of a quick withdrawal is primarily important in the context of the restoration of a satellite constellation, the integrity of which has been violated by the enemy.
            1. ccsr
              ccsr 13 November 2020 11: 59 New
              +1
              Quote: AVM
              I do not recall that the concept of "strategic" was present in the article.

              Well, since this is not a strategic task, why then the wave was driven - let it remain at the level of the operational tasks of one and the fleets, and then there will be no need to say how important it is for the defense of our entire country.
              Quote: AVM
              And this is where? How do you manage to comment on something that is not in the article?

              And where did you drag Musk's projects to argue your point of view? Did they become decisive for our defenses or do you think that we should follow his path? By the way, now the Americans have launched a reconnaissance satellite worth a billion dollars and somehow managed without Musk's ideas - why would it?
              Quote: AVM
              But the "pile" of satellites is crucial in order to strike at us, having accurately identified the targets.

              Do not fantasize so primitively, because reconnaissance is just an auxiliary structure of the armed forces, and it is conducted in a comprehensive manner, in several directions, and it does not affect the combat potential of the country - you apparently do not know this alphabet. So even if you launch a million satellites into orbit, the nuclear missile power will not change from this, and the command for use can be given even in the absence of data from space reconnaissance, thanks to other types of strategic reconnaissance, even on indirect signs of the enemy's preparation for war.
              But you can continue to mislead people, although by and large you have no idea that it is much cheaper to "steal" someone else's information in real time, which was practiced even under Tsar Pea on the same Lourdes and in other places of the Zvezda system ...
          2. Sckepsis
            Sckepsis 13 November 2020 16: 53 New
            0

            Further, I note that from the point of view of its detection, AUG resembles a Christmas tree brightly decorated with electric lamps in a night forest,

            And you read Timokhin's article. I myself can’t stand this comrade, but it was there that he put everything on the shelves. And there is even a historical example, yes.
    2. Blackmokona
      Blackmokona 12 November 2020 09: 54 New
      0
      Grouping Mask clean internet.
      Everything else is planned to be done separately and contracts are already being actively distributed by the Pentagon.
      Of course, everything that Musk does in the form of cheapening of access to orbit and cheapening of satellites will be used in these programs.
    3. SovAr238A
      SovAr238A 13 November 2020 15: 06 New
      0
      Quote: ASAD
      The article did not add optimism in the morning! And what will competent comrades say? In addition, the Musk satellite constellation does not seem to me just the Internet either!


      She (Mask's group) will have 80% of the money coming from the military ...
      Of course, there will be a civilian segment, but all of its gigantic carrying capacity and multiple redundancy is for military needs.
  3. Doccor18
    Doccor18 12 November 2020 06: 49 New
    +2
    The third point (equipping reconnaissance satellites with active protection systems against anti-satellite weapons) may include something like a tank complex of active protection (KAZ), which ensures the defeat of incoming anti-missile warheads with kinetic elements, blinding of optoelectronic homing heads (GOS) with laser radiation, emission of smoke and aerosol curtains, infrared and radar traps.

    Even with the tank Afghani, so far, no way ...

    ..that small-sized satellites weighing 100-200 kilograms can be launched into orbit with ultralight launch vehicles. They can be placed on mobile launch platforms or on stationary ones, but without the need to deploy complex and cumbersome infrastructure - something like "jump launch sites".

    But this is a real problem and a threat that needs to be countered.
  4. Bez 310
    Bez 310 12 November 2020 07: 21 New
    12
    Yeah...
    In general, everything is bad with reconnaissance and command control at sea,
    and no improvement has been seen yet.
    1. Vale-90
      Vale-90 12 November 2020 09: 39 New
      +1
      M.V. greetings. It is not difficult for you to specify the year of the story "Departure to an aircraft carrier", this is when he separately slipped into Yap. sea ​​and "Flitex" -82. One time event?
      An article by green scouts from Khvalynka (a certain Mikhailov) came across as 266 ODRAE profiled Midway and Enterprise .... On Courage, he kicked him a bit.
      Damn, I just noticed the letter "K" in the word Nikolaevka and missed (((
      1. Bez 310
        Bez 310 12 November 2020 11: 09 New
        +2
        I don’t remember exactly, I only remember
        that he was already the navigator of the AE.
        1. Vale-90
          Vale-90 12 November 2020 12: 51 New
          0
          4 years of graduation ... like Sobolev's "Crazy Career")))
          1. Bez 310
            Bez 310 12 November 2020 14: 20 New
            +1
            No, not at all.
            The regiment launched an attack on an aircraft carrier
            approximately in 1986.
            And "4 years of graduation" I was removed from my post
            navigator "backfire", and sent to the Tu-16
            "the eternal second navigator".
            1. timokhin-aa
              timokhin-aa 12 November 2020 14: 31 New
              +1
              And "4 years of graduation" I was removed from my post
              navigator "backfire", and sent to the Tu-16
              "the eternal second navigator".


              For what?
              1. Vale-90
                Vale-90 12 November 2020 14: 55 New
                0
                Read "Naval aviation eats (s)" .... Added- "And drinks" ... Everything is written there. And to re-read the forum for 15 years ... Sometimes I look through, with nostalgia, when everyone was friends and lived peacefully, until February 2014. And now no one has even gathered for 40 years. In groups of 2-3 people.
              2. Bez 310
                Bez 310 12 November 2020 15: 02 New
                -1
                This is not the place to discuss my service.
                Here, aircraft carriers from space are looking for ...
            2. Vale-90
              Vale-90 12 November 2020 15: 02 New
              +1
              .The regiment launched an attack on an aircraft carrier
              approximately in 1986.
              .
              I see, it means that I moved the dates. In September 1982 we were redeployed. to Leonidovo, flew there, then back. And at the end of Sept. two crews for the "beauty pageant" in the 33rd center. We rested there for a month. By the way, Yagoptsev (Chkalovets) was there at that time. Coincidence. I remember that the fighters from Tushek Knevichi, at the second command post, had a strong fight, under the windows of the house of the head center. Upon arrival, Gudkov met them personally. We are in An-26 to Nikolaevka, and they are depressed for a conversation.
  5. Bradley
    Bradley 12 November 2020 07: 34 New
    0
    Ehh, read a lot. I'll come home from work and read it.
    Question to the author: is there an option to do it all in a video, with voice acting and pictures? It will be gorgeous under popcorn!
    1. Shopping Mall
      12 November 2020 08: 13 New
      +4
      In my opinion, I previously found VO articles in the form of audiobooks with alternating pictures, but I don’t remember where.
  6. Pashhenko Nikolay
    Pashhenko Nikolay 12 November 2020 07: 52 New
    +6
    What is it all about these aircraft carriers. There are a lot of much more dangerous ships with tomahawks on board. First of all, you need to look after them.
    1. Vale-90
      Vale-90 12 November 2020 10: 39 New
      0
      Miscellaneous tools. Low trajectory Trident, Tomohawks (slow), carrier aircraft for stripping, DESO for disembarkation, police for restoring order, transport ships to feed captured Aboriginal people ... all according to plan
  7. New Year day
    New Year day 12 November 2020 07: 53 New
    14
    Very interesting! It turns out to be bad with this case during the Soviet Union, but now it is better to remain silent. And again, everything rests on the technological backwardness, personnel, and "rogozin with seagulls". After all, even the available budget could be more fruitfully used for defense. But the golden calf overshadowed everything.
    For whatever reason, it's the same everywhere: there are no satellites, no ships, no airplanes, damn it, we don't even have our own washing machines, but we swung at microprocessors.
    After the war, Stalin created an atomic bomb for several years, and now for 20 years and nothing.
    Is this a mistake or a crime?
    1. Shopping Mall
      12 November 2020 09: 09 New
      +2
      Quote: Silvestr
      Very interesting! It turns out to be bad with this case during the Soviet Union, but now it is better to remain silent.


      I would not say that, just the Legend system was already very new, and even the US-A satellites with a reactor. And the short lifespan of satellites was compensated by their storage and enormous possibilities for launching into orbit - there are many carriers, in quantity and in type.
      1. Liam
        Liam 12 November 2020 12: 15 New
        0
        emission of smoke and aerosol screens

        Is it in space then?
        1. Shopping Mall
          12 November 2020 12: 53 New
          +1
          Quote: Liam
          emission of smoke and aerosol screens

          Is it in space then?


          It is clear that the mixtures must be specific, but in some ways space is much better for these purposes - they are not blown away by the wind.
          1. Liam
            Liam 12 November 2020 13: 01 New
            +1
            Quote: AVM
            It is clear that the mixtures should be specific, but in some ways space is much better for these purposes - they are not blown away by the wind

            Without words...
    2. Kalmar
      Kalmar 12 November 2020 10: 54 New
      +1
      Quote: Silvestr
      After the war, Stalin created an atomic bomb for several years, and now for 20 years and nothing.

      Then the world was really on the verge of a big war, so everyone understood: we need to work for a result. The experience of the Second World War showed where attempts to cheat are leading. Now times are different: "we are not going to fight with anyone," the USSR got a solid nuclear arsenal (a kind of stash for an emergency), so the priority is now not the result, but visibility plus the development of budgets.
  8. Ercog
    Ercog 12 November 2020 07: 55 New
    +1
    Great article!
  9. bar
    bar 12 November 2020 08: 37 New
    +1
    So what spacecraft (SC) can most effectively search for AUG and KUG? There are several possible options.

    Judging by the article, we have none. And there is only one possible option - start and end recourse
  10. Rurikovich
    Rurikovich 12 November 2020 08: 52 New
    +3
    Yeah laughing If Timokhin even outlined the problem and described the real state of affairs, then Mitrofanov told another fairy tale with hypothetical assumptions, because in reality, as always, we have especially developed mercantelism in terms of cutting the budget and the complete absence of an ideological basis for an equitable distribution of the national wealth. Therefore, no matter how much you dream of different space groups there, the result is completely different.
    And shapkozakidatelstvo well, not at all an option. This means that we will continue to talk a lot, draw bright animations too, but the quantitative and qualitative gap with potential opponents will only get worse. And the next trouble (as in the song) will not make us stronger, but may be the last. Especially against the background of a de facto raw material economy, degradation of the education system, demographic catastrophe ... request
    1. Shopping Mall
      12 November 2020 09: 20 New
      +4
      Quote: Rurikovich
      Yeah laughing If Timokhin even outlined the problem and described the real state of affairs, then Mitrofanov told another fairy tale with hypothetical assumptions, because in reality, as always, we have especially developed mercantelism in terms of cutting the budget and the complete absence of an ideological basis for an equitable distribution of the national wealth. Therefore, no matter how much you dream of different space groups there, the result is completely different.
      And shapkozakidatelstvo well, not at all an option. This means that we will continue to talk a lot, draw bright animations too, but the quantitative and qualitative gap with potential opponents will only get worse. And the next trouble (as in the song) will not make us stronger, but may be the last. Especially against the background of a de facto raw material economy, degradation of the education system, demographic catastrophe ... request


      And what is especially "fabulous" in the article? The reason for the ineffectiveness of "Legend" is shown, real (existing) technologies are shown, the fact that we do not have them, these are our problems, we and aircraft carriers can say that they do not, and much more.

      Timokhin identified the problem, and then what? Cry and go give up? Build 3 aircraft carriers? Or 2? Without a developed space, there is no defense in principle (well, if only you close yourself, like Comrade Kim-Jong-Un), without defense there is no independence, and if there is no defense, then today's troubles and problems will seem like a "golden age".

      In the USA, too, saw cut and capitalism, but somehow they have not yet rotted to the ground, so that you can live under the capitalist system. The question is when the national elites will understand that as soon as they are deprived of the opportunity to maintain their "resource base" and move to cozy houses in Europe and the United States, they will immediately be ripped off as sticky, and that there is no other way out, how to develop their "pole force "no.

      And why remember the cut? You can saw without high technologies, dig holes and bury holes there, or, for example, a billion dollars were sent to Syria, go and see if 900 million of them later returned to offshore accounts, and if they did not return, then this billion is clearly possible find the best application in the RF.
      1. Vladimir1155
        Vladimir1155 12 November 2020 10: 09 New
        +1
        I support, completely, we have billions of sawing to replace curbs and mowing grass ... for defense, even if they steal 10 percent, even if satellites will be .. let satellites launch better
      2. Rurikovich
        Rurikovich 12 November 2020 11: 03 New
        +6
        hi The United States may have a cut with capitalism, but, dear author, we must not forget how different their budget is from the budget of the Russian Federation, how many MAPLs they have against ours. I'm not talking about quality. Therefore, with the current approach, one can only dream of a working group of satellites. In pictures and animations. Because the stolen million from 350 million (for example) is less noticeable than the same amount from 35 million. wink
        Timokhin described the problem, because the target designation problem is really a problem for anti-ship missiles at the stated combat distances. And nichrome all these fancy "Calibers" with "Zircons" do not stand without target designation! Therefore, we return to the current state of the material and technical part in this area in Russia. Remind me how many launches are made from Vostochny? But in the same Syria, at least the result is visible, in contrast to the East!
        For the 80s, the USSR worked on the development of the Navy in a complex, realizing the importance of aviation at sea and starting the construction of aircraft carriers, trying to create the same "Legend", building nuclear submarines in such a number that would provide cover for the SSBN deployment area at least off its coast, not speaking of the open ocean ... Is today's Russia capable of this? NO! For the money went for its intended purpose (quality is another matter), in contrast to the current funding. Therefore, the deployment area of ​​Russian missile carriers in their bases, because the missiles beautifully fall only into non-self-propelled shields during exercises, and another question is whether they will be able to hit the real target in the absence of a space group. You raised only the decline of space, and the decline EVERYWHERE ... In space, in the air, in shipbuilding, in electronics. The nuclear submarine is armed with torpedoes dating back to the 60s, and you are talking about space ...
        With u. hi
  11. Dmitry V.
    Dmitry V. 12 November 2020 09: 20 New
    +8

    What was my surprise - to build an aircraft carrier in ... a pond?
    They then will dig a channel to the sea? :)

    Curiosity sorted out me - I went to see.
    The satellite was not deceived :)
    Aircraft carrier in the pond.
    1. Dmitry V.
      Dmitry V. 12 November 2020 09: 30 New
      +5
      And go up to the deck - no problem.

      and planes available

      it's a pity only the aircraft carrier is immovable, because ... made of stone

      The building of the PLA Museum in the form of an aircraft carrier 70 km from Shanghai to the west - google maps to help;)
      Handsome Chinese - they know how to surprise.
  12. Vale-90
    Vale-90 12 November 2020 09: 25 New
    -1
    As you have a lot, different systems for different purposes are collected together.
    And you are probably confusing the discovery process with the targeting process. It's like a mute with binoculars and a deaf person with a rifle.
    1. Shopping Mall
      12 November 2020 10: 08 New
      +2
      Quote: Vale-90
      As you have a lot, different systems for different purposes are collected together.


      Various development options are shown, they can be combined. Those. existing "large" satellites can be supplemented, possibly replaced by a network of small satellites. A separate topic is maneuvering vehicles; in any case, they will not replace, but supplement the satellite.

      Quote: Vale-90
      And you are probably confusing the discovery process with the targeting process. It's like a mute with binoculars and a deaf person with a rifle.


      The targeting process is different for different types of weapons. For a projectile with a semi-active laser seeker, the target must be illuminated, and before that, its approximate coordinates must be determined in order to aim the projectile at the capture zone, and for a projectile with GPS guidance, there are enough coordinates. And if it is possible to update the data in flight, then the projectile with GPS can be corrected, for example, if a tank was shot at a parking lot, and it was moved 20 meters to the right.

      The same with anti-ship missiles - a lot depends on their guidance system, its capabilities - the angle of view, the ability to select targets, perform additional search maneuvers, the ability to enter coordinates in flight (adjustments to the control center).

      Orbital systems determine the coordinates of targets, can determine their course and speed, and issue these data to the RCC carrier, which determines the zone into which the RCC will be sent to capture the target of its own seeker, taking into account these data, and then the above factors + the RCC speed come into play. If the targets have changed course, and it is possible to transmit the updated data to the anti-ship missile system (targets have not yet left the satellite's field of vision), then good. No - the question arises whether the target will have time to get out of the zone into which the RCC is directed, and in which it can find the target of its own GOS.

      Actually, "Legend" and "Liana" are just needed not only for detection, but also for issuing the anti-ship missile center. Moreover, this can only be done by satellites with radar or optical reconnaissance means, but not RTR satellites.
      1. Vale-90
        Vale-90 12 November 2020 10: 33 New
        0
        You are wrong. In the Legendary time, 670 made their own control center. And the process itself - it was impossible to work together X-22 and KSR, Tu-16 and Tu-22. The aircraft captured the target itself, from the suspension. Boats after the start.
        Moscow was engaged in the legend, and inf was transmitted to Vladik. Time.
        The same 675 could receive a picture, but this is not a control center.
        However, there is a BEZ-310 here. Mikhail Vladimirovich. (With a black eye laughing ) Navigator of the "Two" regiment from Mongohto in the late 80s, he will explain to you the difference between Obn and Nav.
        All that I knew I told ... http: //samlib.ru/editors/s/semenow_aleksandr_sergeewich333/avianosec-1985-86.shtml
        Details from MRAshnikov. I'm an anti-submarine man.
        1. Shopping Mall
          12 November 2020 10: 44 New
          +1
          [quote = Vale-90] You are wrong. In the Legendary time, 670 made their own control center. And the process itself - it was impossible to work together X-22 and KSR, Tu-16 and Tu-22. The aircraft captured the target itself, from the suspension. Boat-after start. [/ Quote]

          And the "Legend" was not planned for SSGN projects 949 and 949A with the anti-ship missiles "Granit"? It is clear that the 670s are not designed for this (and why would they need it with a firing range of 80 km?), As well as the Tu-22M3 with the ancient Kh-22, which is 10 years younger than the Legend.

          [quote = Vale-90] Moscow was engaged in the legend, and inf was transmitted to Vladik. Time. [/ quote]

          It depends on how it was transmitted and in what form. If in analog, then of course, all this will take a lot of time, but now, the delay in transmission from the satellite to the other end of the world will be several seconds.

          [quote = Vale-90] The same 675 could receive a picture, but this is not a control center. [/ quote]

          No, not TSU. But if the picture contains the coordinates of the target (the satellite knows its own, knows its orientation, measures the distance to the target) and there is a series of images that allows calculating the course and speed (based on the change in coordinates), then this will already be the control center. [/ quote]

          I repeat, what for one type of weapon can be considered only detection, for another type of weapon control center.

          One anti-ship missile (conditionally) needs the coordinates of a target with a deviation of no more than 500 meters in order for it to find it with its GOS with an acceptable probability, the other - 5000 meters, respectively, the task of the primary control center is greatly simplified.
          1. Andrei from Chelyabinsk
            Andrei from Chelyabinsk 12 November 2020 12: 45 New
            +3
            There is something else. In order to receive satellite reception, the appropriate equipment is needed, and EMNIP could not put it on the plane. Therefore (again - EMNIP) for the MPA the Legend was a means of intelligence, but not TsU.
          2. Vale-90
            Vale-90 12 November 2020 12: 55 New
            -1
            Well, okay. Let it be so .. M + D + gum)))
          3. Vale-90
            Vale-90 12 November 2020 13: 44 New
            -1
            I thought, I thought ... You probably should have reduced to one sign. and reconnaissance and weapons of destruction in time. For example, from 1970 to 1980 ... etc.
            You can also naval thought))) the strategy of using AVM (AVMA). There is Piskiper, or it was removed. There is D-5 or before. All aircraft carriers are nuclear or not all. The presence of MRAD in MA or not .... And you got the cavalry attacking the MLRS "Grad" ... Not a very good example, but somewhere like that.
        2. Andrei from Chelyabinsk
          Andrei from Chelyabinsk 12 November 2020 11: 57 New
          +3
          Quote: Vale-90
          Moscow was engaged in the legend, and inf was transmitted to Vladik. Time.

          For the Air Force, yes. But the ships often (in the course of one BS the count could go hundreds of times) trained in the preparation of the control center for the anti-ship missile system according to the Legend data, which they received directly from the satellite. hi
          1. Vale-90
            Vale-90 12 November 2020 12: 59 New
            -1
            So I wrote. Picture. The coordinates "walk". At best, shooting in exercise. a place. And with a narrow BP missiles to hit and capture ??? Well, you can ... The first one that comes across.
            And where is the guarantee that it will not "roll up"? And I don't know how to distinguish AVM from Tr.S. Judging by the laid out pictures, only by the size of the mark. You need to say what now. What happened, passed.
            1. Andrei from Chelyabinsk
              Andrei from Chelyabinsk 12 November 2020 13: 46 New
              +4
              Quote: Vale-90
              And with a narrow BP missiles to hit and capture ??? Well, you can ... The first one that comes across.

              There it was like this - the satellite passes over the same middle-ground and "removes" the position of AB, "merging" the picture on the TAVKR, which was located there, practically in real time. It turns out that the area where the AUG / AUS was located was detected with high accuracy, and the "Basalt" flies quickly ... Selecting targets is already "on the conscience" of the AGSN, they knew how to do this on heavy anti-ship missiles.
              Quote: Vale-90
              You need to say what now.

              So it would be something to talk about ...
            2. Fizik M
              Fizik M 12 November 2020 14: 10 New
              0
              Quote: Vale-90
              And with a narrow missile DN

              is it narrow? wink
              1. Vale-90
                Vale-90 12 November 2020 15: 08 New
                -1
                So the muzzle is narrow. in "22" 3,5 degrees.
                1. Andrei from Chelyabinsk
                  Andrei from Chelyabinsk 12 November 2020 15: 24 New
                  0
                  EMNIP at Basalt "muzzle" was much wider :)))
                  1. Vale-90
                    Vale-90 12 November 2020 16: 18 New
                    0
                    The scan depends on the diagrams. The beam is narrow, runs wide.
                    1. Fizik M
                      Fizik M 12 November 2020 18: 47 New
                      -1
                      Quote: Vale-90
                      The beam is narrow, runs wide.

                      USU
                      1. Vale-90
                        Vale-90 12 November 2020 18: 55 New
                        +2
                        I put it for a long time ...
            3. Cyril G ...
              Cyril G ... 19 November 2020 00: 40 New
              0
              Quote: Vale-90
              At best, shooting in exercise. a place. And with a narrow BP missiles to hit and capture ??? Well, you can ... The first one that comes across.
              And where is the guarantee that it will not "roll up"? And I don't know how to distinguish AVM from Tr.S.

              Semyonov, I'm surprised, well, you can't not know the materiel to such an extent, from the word in general. I have already told you several times, I will repeat again - do not speak for history - you are talking transcendental nonsense that has nothing to do with reality, and for other things, everything that does not apply to anti-submarine aviation. Either you do not know that it is simply enchanting for an officer of the headquarters of the flotilla, or you have already forgotten that it is sad for sure then every day you will learn something new in the interior of your caches. So remember - the Progress P-6 and P-35 and Basalt complexes had a completely combined control system - type 2 radio command (guidance through a rocket) + ARGSN. Accordingly, the operator was quite able to see the order and select the target on his own. And by the way, some of the ships of Project 675 were completely re-equipped with Basalt. Learn materiel Semenov. However, I think it will not help you.
        3. Fizik M
          Fizik M 12 November 2020 14: 11 New
          +3
          Quote: Vale-90
          Moscow was engaged in the legend, and inf was transmitted to Vladik. Time.

          no
          the boats had their own antennas for direct operation
          1. Vale-90
            Vale-90 12 November 2020 15: 09 New
            0
            So he wrote. By 675. Aviation itself, the boat received a picture. Points. Where is that?
            1. Fizik M
              Fizik M 12 November 2020 18: 48 New
              0
              Quote: Vale-90
              Aviation itself

              aviation, I personally did IT
              but the pilot's TUS is "jerky" ...
  13. Vladimir1155
    Vladimir1155 12 November 2020 10: 04 New
    0
    very interesting article, you need to develop promising tracking tools
  14. Operator
    Operator 12 November 2020 10: 16 New
    -7
    Radar satellites with a resolution of 3 meters cannot detect AUG - the experience of using the Soviet "Legend" showed that it did not cope with this task. All AUG detections from space were made visually by cosmonauts from the Salyut space station.

    The reason is as simple as a nail - as a rule, AUG were deployed in areas of developed shipping and did not maintain the standard order of the order, and therefore it was not possible to distinguish ships from their composition from commercial ships by the radar picture. As an exception, AUGs were detected by radar away from areas of developed shipping according to the characteristic order of the order.

    For radar tracking from space, it is required to have several dozen corresponding satellites in orbit with a picture resolution of no more than one meter for continuous tracking of specific aircraft carriers from the moment they leave the naval base. However, the cost of launching several dozen radar satellites into orbit with nuclear or isotopic sources of electricity (and their regular replacement as the resource of the power plant is exhausted) is too high even for the United States.

    Therefore, the current trend in the field of space tracking of surface ships is the use of universal satellites for radio and optical reconnaissance.

    The RTR satellites are located in an orbit with an altitude of ~ 900 km and catch the radiation of even cell phones, not to mention the radio technical means of ensuring the takeoff and landing of carrier-based aircraft and, moreover, the signals of numerous radio stations and radars of ships and aircraft of the AUG.

    Optical reconnaissance satellites are located in an orbit of ~ 300 km with a picture resolution of 10 cm and unambiguously determine the class and type of surface ships, but their capabilities are limited by the presence / absence of clouds.

    In this regard, the most reliable means of tracking the AUG are nuclear submarines with the direction finding of the characteristic low-frequency hydroacoustic noise of the propeller-driven group of aircraft carriers at a distance of up to 1000 km (global tracking of the AUG in the water area of ​​the World Ocean) and the "Container" ZGRLS with radar of the AUG ships at a distance of up to 6000 km from the location of the ZGRLS (local tracking of the AUG in the coverage area of ​​the RF coastal missile-carrying aircraft). The accuracy of determining the coordinates (from 10 to 100 km) is quite sufficient for capturing a target of the AUG order type with further determination of AB as part of the order using the RGSN RKR.

    PS No need to tell readers that the satellites will shoot down, and the ZGRLS will be bombed - no one argues that this will happen, but the trick is that this will not affect the drowning of the AUG in full force - as long as the enemy will shoot down and bomb , "Zircons" and "Daggers" will have time to sink the NK according to the coordinates previously received online from satellites and ZGRLS.
    "Against scrap [1-Mtn special warhead weighing 400 kg] no reception" (C) bully
    1. The comment was deleted.
    2. Fizik M
      Fizik M 12 November 2020 14: 09 New
      +3
      Quote: Operator
      Radar satellites with a resolution of 3 meters cannot detect AUG - the experience of using the Soviet "Legend" showed that it did not cope with this task

      DO NOT SHOOT SHOOT, IT HURTS
      especially given the fact that videos with the work of "Legends" (screens) have long been on YouTube
      Quote: Operator
      All AUG detections from space were made visually by cosmonauts from the Salyut space station.

      wassat
      fool
      YOU in kashchenko are tired of waiting lol
    3. Vladimir1155
      Vladimir1155 12 November 2020 21: 05 New
      0
      your message about the inability of the Legends specifically does not prove that modern satellites cannot
    4. ccsr
      ccsr 13 November 2020 12: 17 New
      +1
      Quote: Operator
      All AUG detections from space were made visually by cosmonauts from the Salyut space station.

      Sorry, but this is complete garbage, because already in 1988, even the districts began to supply the Most system, which made it possible to use the GRU GSh satellites to obtain sufficiently accurate data about the enemy in certain theaters of operations, and even tank columns could be identified from the images. And these "cows" at sea are generally a trifling task for reconnaissance, because these heaps of metal cannot be overlooked when conducting reconnaissance in a combined way, including by the electromagnetic radiation of ship systems.
      I do not know if this system was in the fleets, but in August 1988, at a training camp near Minsk, Akhromeev demonstrated this to Yazov and the entire top military leadership of the country. Of course, now there are problems with our orbital group in terms of quantity, but not everything is as deplorable as the author of the article is trying to explain.
      Quote: Operator
      Optical reconnaissance satellites are located in orbit ~ 300 km with a picture resolution of 10 cm

      This is not entirely true, and even at a resolution of 10 cm, the capture of the territory is too small, so less accurate resolution parameters are preferable - this has been known since ancient times.
      Quote: Operator
      "Against scrap [1-Mtn special warhead weighing 400 kg] no reception" (C)

      With this I completely agree, and the Americans are well aware of this, which is why they are not afraid of our satellites, and they are more concerned with how we can prepare and secretly deliver a pre-emptive strike before they are ready to respond.
      1. Operator
        Operator 16 November 2020 12: 06 New
        -2
        The Soviet "Legend" had too low a resolution (~ 10 meters), so it could classify the AUG only by the order of its order. In the event of a deliberate violation of the formation, only the aerial reconnaissance satellites could then classify the AUG, and in fact the cosmonauts on the Salyut. The same applied to tank columns - in the form of a column, tanks were radar-classified from space, but not in the form of individual vehicles.

        Now the resolution of radar satellites has reached ~ 1 meter, which makes it possible to classify single surface targets by their silhouette. The band of the classification radar survey from an altitude of 900 km is about 1000 km.

        Geostationary RTR satellites have a band for the classification of radio devices of the short-range drive of an aircraft carrier of the order of the Earth's hemisphere, medium-orbit (900 km) such as "Liana" or "Sphere" - 4000 km.
        1. ccsr
          ccsr 16 November 2020 13: 11 New
          -1
          Quote: Operator
          The same applied to tank columns - in the form of a column, tanks were radar-classified from space, but not in the form of individual vehicles.

          This is not so, because the resolving power of the optoelectronic reconnaissance was already at the level of 0,5-1,2 meters, and this is quite enough for decoders to distinguish a tank from a truck. You might not be able to tell the difference, but experts could easily.
          Quote: Operator
          but in fact, the astronauts on the "Salute".

          This was tested during the training of reconnaissance cosmonauts, but the idea failed completely, and this topic was given up in the seventies, which is why the Almaz program was curtailed.
          Quote: Operator
          The Soviet "Legend" had too low a resolution (~ 10 meters), so it could classify the AUG only by the order of its order.

          I agree with this, but the fact is that this data was enough to track the movement of the grouping during the day, and this satellite cannot be used for precise target designations, and it was not planned.
          1. Operator
            Operator 19 November 2020 13: 07 New
            -1
            In my commentary on satellite detection of tank columns in the 1980s, the emphasis was on the word "radar".
  15. S. Viktorovich
    S. Viktorovich 12 November 2020 10: 56 New
    +3
    Correct article. I would like the notorious "Sphere" to take these conclusions into account.
    1. Tsoy
      Tsoy 12 November 2020 15: 02 New
      +1
      Correct article. I would like the notorious "Sphere" to take these conclusions into account.


      Unlikely. Since now there is talk that the sphere will become a system that will accommodate the messenger, glonass and others satellites. That is, out of the estimated 6 hundred in orbit, a certain number are already flying, as it were. They requested 1.5 trillion rubles. There are no prototypes yet, but they are already saying that this is the answer to the Starlink.
  16. EvilLion
    EvilLion 12 November 2020 11: 20 New
    -2
    I love it when the Buran is remembered, but the American analogue did not fulfill the tasks assigned to it and was decommissioned. What makes you think that Buran would perform better? Here is at least one confirmation, besides belief in our superiority. Now no one has any reusable ships, and hardly anyone can make them for a reasonable price.

    The latter should be considered key, since Russia and the United States, and, possibly, China are quite capable of reproducing unique technologies, one should not think that people have become dumber, the question is whether this will be economically justified.
    1. Shopping Mall
      12 November 2020 11: 41 New
      +2
      Quote: EvilLion
      I love it when the Buran is remembered, but the American analogue did not fulfill the tasks assigned to it and was decommissioned. What makes you think that Buran would perform better? Here is at least one confirmation, besides belief in our superiority. Now no one has any reusable ships, and hardly anyone can make them for a reasonable price.

      The latter should be considered key, since Russia and the United States, and, possibly, China are quite capable of reproducing unique technologies, one should not think that people have become dumber, the question is whether this will be economically justified.


      1.The USA used the Buran developments in the X-37B

      2. Our superiority was not, there were competences in automatic landing, which, most likely, the United States did not have at that time.

      3. Russia is currently not capable of reproducing much of what was produced during the Soviet era, and there is little sense in China and the United States to do this. It is foolish to reproduce the secret of "Damascus steel" when high-alloy powder ones appeared.
      1. EvilLion
        EvilLion 12 November 2020 14: 55 New
        -1
        For example, Russia will not build the IL-2 now.
        1. Vale-90
          Vale-90 12 November 2020 16: 22 New
          0
          What for? Su-25 is, not much difference tongue
          1. EvilLion
            EvilLion 12 November 2020 16: 23 New
            0
            The very fact that the IL-2 will not be built is important. As well as a steam locomotive. There are no specialists in the design of steam locomotives at all.
            1. Vale-90
              Vale-90 12 November 2020 16: 42 New
              0
              Yes I understand. There are archives, but no such steels (for example). They offered to recreate "Satan", but in fact a new rocket. Motanka instead of metal, other fuel, etc. electronics, etc. weight distribution and aerodynamics. Like 29 and 4. Conversion of inches and pounds to cm and kg. and everything swam. And the performance characteristics decreased significantly ...
      2. Tsoy
        Tsoy 12 November 2020 15: 06 New
        +1
        1.The USA used the Buran developments in the X-37B


        What exactly?

        2. Our superiority was not, there were competences in automatic landing, which, most likely, the United States did not have at that time.


        The shuttles had an automatic landing system just not used so there were always people inside. And even the first launch was with a crew on board.
    2. Vale-90
      Vale-90 12 November 2020 13: 02 New
      0
      Unique technologies are no longer unique and not even technologies. The technology was in Leskov's left-hander.
      Moreover, most of the crafts on the machines from there are not the first freshness.
      Very expensive.
  17. The eye of the crying
    The eye of the crying 12 November 2020 12: 26 New
    +1
    Since the enemy does not have information about the launch time and the orbit into which the satellite will be launched, the "sudden" launch of the reconnaissance satellite into orbit will create an effect of uncertainty that makes it difficult to camouflage the AUG and KUG by evading a meeting with the reconnaissance satellite's field of view.


    After the first orbit, the parameters of the orbit will be determined.
    1. Shopping Mall
      12 November 2020 12: 56 New
      0
      Quote: Eye of the Crying
      Since the enemy does not have information about the launch time and the orbit into which the satellite will be launched, the "sudden" launch of the reconnaissance satellite into orbit will create an effect of uncertainty that makes it difficult to camouflage the AUG and KUG by evading a meeting with the reconnaissance satellite's field of view.


      After the first orbit, the parameters of the orbit will be determined.


      This is yes. But large satellites can be maneuverable, and if we have a threatened period, then they can change their orbit themselves, and if we are talking about promising small satellites launched by thousands, then there will be almost no "blind spots" and "windows".
      1. The eye of the crying
        The eye of the crying 12 November 2020 14: 02 New
        0
        Quote: AVM
        large satellites can be maneuverable, and if we have a threatened period, then they can change their orbit themselves


        Can be maneuverable due to what and for how long? Ion engines are low-power, you can't take a lot of fuel for chemical ones.

        Quote: AVM
        if we are talking about promising small satellites launched by thousands


        Hundreds of thousands, which is already there. The satellites are cheap, the withdrawal is generally free.
        1. The comment was deleted.
          1. The eye of the crying
            The eye of the crying 12 November 2020 16: 29 New
            0
            Quote: AVM
            that the latest Russian ion engine will accelerate a satellite weighing 1,5 tons to 6 m / s per day, while the orbit will change by more than 250 km


            Yes TNB with her, with orbit. It is important how much the observed area is displaced. If 250 km per day is 11 km per hour. For some reason, it seems to me that this will affect the detection in almost no way.

            Quote: AVM
            This is happening now, practically in front of your eyes, and is being done by a private company.


            Just for the record: this is a unique private company with unique resources, and it launches communications satellites. Surface observation satellites are much more expensive. How many orders of magnitude - I do not know.

            Quote: AVM
            there are actually 4 phased array antennas on the Starlink satellites. So the big question is, can they potentially receive a radar image of the surface and with what resolution?


            Starlink are communication satellites. They are not designed to receive echoes.
            1. Shopping Mall
              12 November 2020 16: 39 New
              -1
              Quote: Eye of the Crying
              Quote: AVM
              that the latest Russian ion engine will accelerate a satellite weighing 1,5 tons to 6 m / s per day, while the orbit will change by more than 250 km


              Yes TNB with her, with orbit. It is important how much the observed area is displaced. If 250 km per day is 11 km per hour. For some reason, it seems to me that this will affect the detection in almost no way.


              If AUG uses "windows", then it will not be able to predict whether the used "window" remains or has already "closed".

              Quote: Eye of the Crying
              Quote: AVM
              there are actually 4 phased array antennas on the Starlink satellites. So the big question is, can they potentially receive a radar image of the surface and with what resolution?


              Starlink are communication satellites. They are not designed to receive echoes.


              This is more a topic for thought. On the other hand, devices are now being developed for detecting people behind the wall, based on wi-fi radiation, so little can you do with several thousand emitters / receivers on those satellites? What is their antenna sensitivity? What information processing algorithms can be implemented? Is there a secret agreement between the US Department of Defense and SpaseX on the deployment on these satellites, if not radar, but RTR facilities. There are many questions. The fact that the US Department of Defense is using Starlink for communication is no secret - open information.
              1. The eye of the crying
                The eye of the crying 12 November 2020 16: 49 New
                -1
                Quote: AVM
                If AUG uses "windows", then it will not be able to predict


                Will be able. SPRN sees all satellites and can calculate all trajectories.

                Quote: AVM
                This is more a topic for thought.


                Basic Radar Equation. To put it simply, R ^ 2 and R ^ 4.

                Quote: AVM
                now developing devices for detecting people behind the wall, based on wi-fi radiation


                All this is direct radiation.
  18. nonsense
    nonsense 12 November 2020 13: 01 New
    +3
    :) will have to be done the old fashioned way, visually from any aircraft ... Scout - remember, the wake of the AUG ships is visually noticeable on the water during the dayto!
    PS: EMNIP in the mid-80s read an article in the "Foreign Military Review" about how the Americans decided to test their detection system during their exercises. They were looking for their own aircraft carrier (I can't remember the name) from space and from planes. And they knew in which area to look (where the exercises are) and could not find! So much for the electronics ...
    1. Andrei from Chelyabinsk
      Andrei from Chelyabinsk 12 November 2020 13: 49 New
      +2
      Quote: nespich
      EMNIP in the mid-80s read an article in "Foreign Military Review" about how the Americans, during their exercises, decided to test their detection system.

      It was, I read :)))) The old man (emnip, Midway or his relative) managed to evade detection by satellites, so he was "safely" lost. However, strictly speaking, there was nothing like "Legend" in the USA
      1. Vale-90
        Vale-90 12 November 2020 15: 14 New
        +1
        However, strictly speaking, there was nothing like "Legend" in the USA
        What for? To follow "Kiev" and "Minsk"? There are the number of launches from both sides, the lifetime in orbit. The USSR was launched a lot, as they died more often.

        The most certain is OSNAZ ships (ships). I remember that even in the film with K. Douglas "The Final Countdown" -1980, they pinned, a fishing spy, OSNAZ watched the Enterprise.
        1. Andrei from Chelyabinsk
          Andrei from Chelyabinsk 12 November 2020 15: 22 New
          +1
          Quote: Vale-90
          But why?

          This is still another question, agree. In general, the Americans wanted, they had a project "Discovery-2" with 42 satellites hanging on the geostationary and monitoring the earth's surface - the goal was set to generate any control center within an hour. But when they thought what it would cost them, they refused
          Quote: Vale-90
          The USSR was launched a lot, as they died more often.

          Yes. To work actively the radar had to climb into low orbits, and there the service life, by definition ... not that. Mother nature cannot be fooled :)
          1. Shopping Mall
            12 November 2020 16: 20 New
            -1
            Quote: Andrey from Chelyabinsk
            Yes. To work actively the radar had to climb into low orbits, and there the service life, by definition ... not that. Mother nature cannot be fooled :)


            SpaseX uses electrostatic motors on its satellites to maintain orbit for 5 years.
            1. Andrei from Chelyabinsk
              Andrei from Chelyabinsk 12 November 2020 16: 39 New
              +1
              Quote: AVM
              SpaseX uses electrostatic motors on its satellites to maintain orbit for 5 years.

              As far as I know, SpaseX on satellites used electric motors instead of conventional chemical ones to put the satellite into the desired orbit. Moreover, the required orbit is not even low, since we are talking about communication satellites. What did I miss?
              1. The comment was deleted.
              2. The comment was deleted.
                1. Andrei from Chelyabinsk
                  Andrei from Chelyabinsk 13 November 2020 09: 40 New
                  0
                  Quote: AVM
                  For orbit correction and maintenance at the end of its service life.

                  That's right, but their orbit is much higher, and accordingly, the cost of maintaining it is less. this is how the engines were on our US-A - they took the reactor into orbit up to 1000 km at the end of the satellite's service life. Well, the dimensions ... A modern communications satellite weighs how much? Kilograms, well, tens of kilograms. And the US-A with its reactor and radar had a weight of 3,8 tons.
                  1. Shopping Mall
                    13 November 2020 10: 04 New
                    -1
                    Quote: Andrey from Chelyabinsk
                    Quote: AVM
                    For orbit correction and maintenance at the end of its service life.

                    That's right, but their orbit is much higher, and accordingly, the cost of maintaining it is less. this is how the engines were on our US-A - they took the reactor into orbit up to 1000 km at the end of the satellite's service life. Well, the dimensions ... A modern communications satellite weighs how much? Kilograms, well, tens of kilograms. And the US-A with its reactor and radar had a weight of 3,8 tons.


                    Everything is so, although, of course, even small satellites still weigh mainly several hundred kilograms, and even multi-ton ones remain. In the comments I gave the calculations for the new Russian ion engine:

                    The power of the ion engine given in the article is 3 kW, the specific thrust impulse is up to 4 seconds. Draft ID-500 KR but according to open sources 200-80 mN.

                    Take 100 mN, then for a satellite with a mass of 1500 kg, the acceleration will be 0,00007 m / s, per day the speed will be about 6 m / s, while the orbit will change by more than 250 km.

                    I think that the ID-200 KR would also be useful on the US-A, although now to fence the atomic rector on the satellite IMHO is a dead end - his place is in deep space.
                  2. ccsr
                    ccsr 13 November 2020 12: 40 New
                    +1
                    Quote: Andrey from Chelyabinsk
                    Well, the dimensions ... A modern communications satellite weighs how much? Kilograms, well, tens of kilograms. And the US-A with its reactor and radar had a weight of 3,8 tons.

                    The comparison is clearly not correct, because communication satellites are always lighter and simpler than those used for reconnaissance. Here is an example of what a Soviet communications satellite looked like on display in the Armed Forces Museum:
                    1. Andrei from Chelyabinsk
                      Andrei from Chelyabinsk 13 November 2020 13: 16 New
                      0
                      Quote: ccsr
                      The comparison is clearly not correct

                      Have you read what this is about? There are NO comparisons, but there is a statement of the fact that the Soviet satellite is much heavier. How can you compare a spoon and a field kitchen by weight? The functionality is different, the purpose is different ...
                      1. ccsr
                        ccsr 13 November 2020 13: 23 New
                        0
                        Quote: Andrey from Chelyabinsk
                        Have you ever read what this is about?

                        You wrote this:
                        How much does a modern communications satellite weigh? Kilograms, well, tens of kilograms. A US-A with its reactor and radar had a weight of 3,8 tons.

                        Why does a communications satellite need a radar? Explain, since you are a "specialist" with us.
                        By the way, there was no "reactor" in your understanding, but there was an RTG, and it weighed only a few tens of kilograms.
                      2. Andrei from Chelyabinsk
                        Andrei from Chelyabinsk 13 November 2020 13: 27 New
                        +1
                        Quote: ccsr
                        You wrote this:

                        Я
                        Quote: ccsr
                        Why does a communications satellite need a radar? Explain, since you are a "specialist" with us.

                        fool How else to write to you that I DIDN'T COMPARE satellites? After all, people have gone, they cannot read three lines, but they will argue ...
                      3. ccsr
                        ccsr 13 November 2020 13: 30 New
                        0
                        Quote: Andrey from Chelyabinsk
                        How else to write to you that I DIDN'T COMPARE satellites?

                        And I realized that you do not understand at all how they differ from each other, hence your dubious conclusions.
                      4. Andrei from Chelyabinsk
                        Andrei from Chelyabinsk 13 November 2020 13: 34 New
                        +1
                        Quote: ccsr
                        hence your dubious conclusions.

                        My conclusion is that the engine that serves to hold a 3,8 kg satellite in a higher orbit is completely unsuitable for holding a 70 ton satellite in a low orbit. Dot.
                        Maybe you will still read what is written?
                      5. ccsr
                        ccsr 13 November 2020 13: 48 New
                        +2
                        Quote: Andrey from Chelyabinsk
                        My conclusion is that the engine that serves to hold a 3,8 kg satellite in a higher orbit is completely unsuitable for holding a 70 ton satellite in a low orbit. Dot.

                        I didn't argue with that - it's obvious. I just said that it is incorrect to compare communication satellites and reconnaissance satellites from the word in general. The author of the article scares us with thousands of Musk satellites, although he apparently has no idea what use they are in conducting reconnaissance.
                      6. Andrei from Chelyabinsk
                        Andrei from Chelyabinsk 13 November 2020 14: 05 New
                        +2
                        Quote: ccsr
                        I just said that it is incorrect to compare communication satellites and reconnaissance satellites from the word in general.

                        So I myself know very well. Or a satellite with a radar operating from a low orbit, with its power, or a conventional repeater. I have already given an example - a field kitchen, and a spoon. Both "devices" are about food, but the functionality is "slightly" different ...
  • Vale-90
    Vale-90 12 November 2020 16: 20 New
    +1
    I meant the photo and the quality of the optics, but so be it, also the rules)))
  • ccsr
    ccsr 12 November 2020 18: 44 New
    +2
    Quote: Vale-90
    The USSR was launched a lot, as they died more often.

    It is not necessary at all - in low orbits, more working fluid was required, so they chose what would be easier, a cheap satellite or its long existence. And especially given the aging of technology and the emergence of new opportunities, keeping an expensive satellite in orbit for several years is often simply unprofitable. Let me remind you that there were developments when they tried to process film images in orbit, and then transmit the negative to the ground, which sharply increased the efficiency compared to the cassettes being fired. But this direction went into oblivion as soon as the means of optical-electronic reconnaissance with high resolution appeared. So what is the point of keeping such satellites in orbit for several years, which would become simply unnecessary due to technological progress?
    Quote: Vale-90
    The most certain is OSNAZ ships (ships).

    The navy does not understand this very well - there still ships with the coastal ones cannot find a common language. I remember how the naval officers, with gnashing teeth, were discussing the appointment of an Osnaz soldier as the chief of intelligence of one of the fleets. they could not forgive him for not hanging out in the sea. In general, a kindergarten. And after they ruined the "Ural", they can generally be treated like irons ...
  • Knell wardenheart
    Knell wardenheart 12 November 2020 15: 24 New
    +2
    Gentlemen, this is all secondary. We do not have a strong economy to maintain the desired level of slander of the tanks and our wet parity-militaristic fantasies. Regardless of whether it is justified or not, natural economic laws tell us now that the time of endless postponing of welfare issues over security issues is IRRIVELY PAST. Are we * creep * whether this time - and now we have no alternative for a sufficiently long period to unequivocally bend swords into plowshares - if we want to survive as a state, survive as a civilization and have real opportunities to protect our interests in about 30 years from now, if we'll take care of the economy. It is she, darling, that should be in the focus of our attention - because no matter what super-mega-vanderwafles our gloomy Teutonic geniuses come up with, we simply will not have the ability to rivet it entirely from our components and in quantities sufficient to was a hemorrhoid for a potential enemy. This trend is growing and will continue to grow as our resource economy further strangles.
    We must attend to peaceful construction and increasing the standard of living, education, labor productivity of the population, the adequacy and ease of the legislative framework and the improvement of the climate for doing business within the country and that part of the CIS that is LIKE LIKE "ours". We must concentrate all ALL the foreign exchange earnings we have not in the defense industry, but on the consistent, long-term and calm modernization of the production forces of our country - unambiguously take out of focus all international adventures and projects that do not serve this purpose directly and in the short-medium term. The state must start seriously improving the internal moral and business climate of the country, which can no longer be called toxic for a long time.
    It is creation, construction, improvement and maximum freedom of internal profit-forming activity that should become our fetishes - and not Poseidons, Vanguards and other Peresvets. All this is VERY cool and great, and the moment for slandering the tanks will inevitably happen in the bright (or not so) future - but specifically now we are TIN LIKE LAGGER and this gaping hole that cannot be covered up with jingoistic demagogy and drinking speeches in praise of Russian weapons.

    As long as we have time.
    1. The eye of the crying
      The eye of the crying 12 November 2020 16: 57 New
      0
      You think politically smile
      1. Knell wardenheart
        Knell wardenheart 12 November 2020 17: 29 New
        +1
        Good toys have to be made of something and someone has to be made, they have to be invented by someone, all these people have to be fed and someone has to build them housing, pave the way, teach and treat their children, while they come up with all these hellish vanderwafels. They need to rest somewhere, watch something, go somewhere to eat and be impressed, etc., etc. And still it is necessary to somehow ensure that they do not climb out of the country like a saucepan - because a smart person with motivation will not be held back by a single Gulag or forced by any special person.
        Politics in general, outside the brackets of this scheme, is a question of reproducing quality with a sufficient increase, for planned and natural development based on its own resources. If you want - this is a view that 1/7 of the land may well be wiped off by the looks and censure of some kind of external world and develop itself. All this is a question of the cohesion of the available funds and minds, available and visible technologies, competent planning and the absence of brainwashing of the population, good and high-quality education and an UNDERSTANDING STRATEGY OF SPENDING every penny that the country earns by outside activities. No, this is not communism or national socialism, it could be called an autarchic technocracy.
        1. The eye of the crying
          The eye of the crying 12 November 2020 17: 33 New
          +1
          Quote: Knell Wardenheart
          And you also need to somehow ensure that they do not climb out of the country like dough from a saucepan


          This is politics.

          Quote: Knell Wardenheart
          autarchic technocracy.


          What is "autarchic"? Autarkic? So autarky has long been impossible.

          PS Kvashnya - dough tub.
          1. Knell wardenheart
            Knell wardenheart 12 November 2020 17: 55 New
            0
            I recommend that you familiarize yourself with the meanings of the word "Kvashnya" before arguing. Wikipedia has a great article on this.
            I believe that stopping emigration from the country is not a matter of politics - it is a matter of adequate lawmaking and professionals at the helm of the economy.
            Autarky is quite possible in large states and, given the unequivocal need for our country to rely on high technologies, it is not a phenomenon that hinders our development or "ties human resources". For example, Austria-Hungary completely covered its own needs through its own production and technological solutions, for a hundred years since then, both technology and the dissemination of information have stepped to a completely different level, and a state with our resources does not have to critically depend on the world financial system when the ability to organize production at home. We have water, territorial, human, transport, energy, material and intellectual resources that are quite sufficient for this, and we also have a sufficient inflow of external income for the consistent modernization of funds to the level of a complex, which will then support itself.

            We are also quite capable of establishing temporary technological cooperation with a number of countries in order to reduce costs - India, Iran, the states of Latin America - this is not a complete list of countries with which we can conduct joint development if there is political will on our part.
            1. The eye of the crying
              The eye of the crying 12 November 2020 18: 11 New
              -1
              Quote: Knell Wardenheart
              I recommend that you familiarize yourself with the meanings of the word "Kvashnya" before arguing


              kvashnya - KVASHNYA - and; pl. genus. -to her; g. 1. Wooden or earthenware vessel for fermenting the dough. Place the dough in the dough.

              Quote: Knell Wardenheart
              I believe that stopping emigration from the country is not a matter of politics - it is a matter of adequate lawmaking and professionals at the helm of the economy.


              The economy does not work without politics. Questions like guarantees of property, independence of courts, appointment of the government, fair division of the budget begin.

              Quote: Knell Wardenheart
              Austria-Hungary fully covered its own needs through its own production and technological solutions


              And once, each feudal castle covered all its needs itself. But since then the world has become more complicated, and it is simply stupid to hope that a country with a population of 140 million people can at least keep up with countries with a population of 3 billion people.

              Quote: Knell Wardenheart
              We are also quite capable of establishing temporary technological cooperation with a number of countries in order to reduce costs - India, Iran, Latin American states.


              Of course, I would like to know with kamim the states Latin America, you want to "technologically cooperate", but after "technological cooperation" with Iran, I am afraid of the answer.

              Quote: Knell Wardenheart
              jointly develop


              This is no longer autarky.
              1. Knell wardenheart
                Knell wardenheart 12 November 2020 20: 38 New
                +1
                Dezha (kvashnya, Ukrainian.Dizha, Belorussian dzyazha.Dzyazhka, bread, Polish dzieża) - bread dough, as well as a wooden tub (sometimes a nest) for its preparation.

                The economy works great in isolation from politics when the center does not infringe on the rights of the outskirts and gives regional budgets and legislators greater freedom. There on the spot people know better how to live and what to build in the first place. If the local "chosen ones" do something wrong, they will be displaced by normal electoral ways. Just what we call "Politics" with a capital letter is the forcing of a certain state will with a tarpaulin boot, support for some "pro-government" candidates in the regions and spending money on this, regardless of the qualities of the manager of this candidate, but depends. from his "line" and loyalty.

                Take it away, if the USSR largely covered its own needs, despite the hellish bias towards the military-industrial complex, terrifying secrecy and a near-zero business climate in hand with the outright politicization of science and production issues, as well as a general denial of world experience as "decadent" - then in the 21st century it has an example of modern technologies and the experience of various states - we can solve these issues without stress. This will provide our population with jobs, give the state the motivation to once again take care of really effective education and medicine.
                If the sword of Damocles of Dogmatics does not hang over all this, then everything will work out.

                Brazil, Argentina, Mexico. There is nothing to be afraid of - if it seems to you that the IRI is "bearded stupid goat herders in turbans with an advantage with a Kalash" - I highly recommend that you familiarize yourself with the available videos on demonstrating their technology, including robotics, and also read under what sanctions the country has been for many years, while managing to develop their own missile program.

                Otnyut, autarky does not imply an "iron curtain" - it is only reliance on our own resources in the production of what we CAN produce ourselves. This means that we do not need to buy Chinese garden shovels and Turkish textiles - if we can launch the production of such products in our country, then we should do this and spend the foreign exchange earnings on other, more important projects.
                1. The eye of the crying
                  The eye of the crying 12 November 2020 20: 45 New
                  -2
                  Quote: Knell Wardenheart
                  when the center does not infringe on the rights of the outskirts and gives regional budgets and legislators greater freedom. There on the spot people know better how to live and what to build in the first place.


                  In order for the center to "not infringe" and "provide", at least an elected parliament is needed. And this is politics.

                  Quote: Knell Wardenheart
                  Subtract if the USSR largely covered its own needs, despite the hellish bias towards the military-industrial complex


                  Exactly - to a large extent. Moreover, it was 2 times larger and ended 30 years ago.

                  Quote: Knell Wardenheart
                  if it seems to you that IRI is "bearded stupid goat herders in turbans for an advantage with a Kalash" - I highly recommend that you familiarize yourself with the available videos on the demonstration of their technology, including robotics


                  Their stealth fighter is especially indicative in this regard.

                  Quote: Knell Wardenheart
                  Otnyut, autarky does not imply an "iron curtain" - it is only reliance on our own resources in the production of what we CAN produce ourselves.


                  You have your own, deeply personal, definition of the term "autarky".
                  1. Knell wardenheart
                    Knell wardenheart 12 November 2020 21: 16 New
                    +1
                    This is not at all an axiom - if you increase the limit on the number of representatives of a region in parliament and at the same time impose the payment of their labor on the regions they represent. This will force the regions to send professionals and not "figures".

                    Probably I didn’t accurately describe how much resources the USSR spent outside (even being more than the current Russian Federation), and also forgot to mention that often entire internal segments of the economy were deliberately torpedoed for "political" reasons - for example, we began to buy sugar from Cuba to the detriment of our industry, distributed loans to the CMEA instead of lending to their own light industry enterprises, etc. The share of covering their own needs from internal resources directly depended on freedom of entrepreneurship, a decrease in the level of secrecy, a decrease in defense spending and the provision of greater freedom for the activities of scientific institutions - all these factors have been ignored for decades, and this is the result.
                    The USSR was not at all ideal and was not a "style icon" - but based on the example of its insane, empty spending and certain successes of the planned economy, it can be assumed that there were resources for internal modernization, the problem was in political will and competence. Now the situation is worse, but not critical.

                    From the point of view of the West, our stealth fighter is also a flying shaitan-arba, this is not an argument. Development is often a long and thankless journey.

                    True, because I'm not a dogmatist :-) I don't cling to a letter, concepts have very wide boundaries, the main criterion is the functionality and success of the scheme.
                    1. The eye of the crying
                      The eye of the crying 12 November 2020 22: 31 New
                      -1
                      Quote: Knell Wardenheart
                      if we increase the limit on the number of representatives of a region in parliament and at the same time impose payment for their work on the regions they represent. This will force the regions to send professionals and not "figures".


                      You didn't say why someone would "increase the limit". They also did not say why "it will make them send professionals".

                      Quote: Knell Wardenheart
                      From the point of view of the West, our stealth fighter is also a flying shaitan-arba


                      The Su-57 is a real plane. And Qaher is a fake. Cargo cult. Flightless toy.

                      Quote: Knell Wardenheart
                      I'm not dogmatic :-)


                      This is yes. You are a dreamer.
                      1. Knell wardenheart
                        Knell wardenheart 12 November 2020 22: 39 New
                        0
                        From the interests of the economic development of the region, which is the first, which is the second. If the salary of the regional leaders is tied to the statistical indicators of the region and their expenses are monitored from the center, this will work very effectively.

                        The fact that the plane is flying is not yet an indicator of its functionality. Stealth items are rated by their ability to be detected by enemy hardware.

                        You are not so difficult to surprise, I think many are dreamers for you.
                      2. The eye of the crying
                        The eye of the crying 12 November 2020 22: 55 New
                        -1
                        Quote: Knell Wardenheart
                        The fact that the plane is flying is not yet an indicator of its functionality.


                        You did not understand. Read the answer again.

                        Quote: Knell Wardenheart
                        You are not so difficult to surprise, I think many are dreamers for you.


                        There is nothing surprising in dreamers.
                  2. Cyril G ...
                    Cyril G ... 18 November 2020 21: 28 New
                    0
                    Quote: Knell Wardenheart
                    West and our stealth fighter is a flying shaitan-arba, this is not an argument.


                    And what an F-35 argument for us! wassat In fact, all these Stealths do not play any role in the global confrontation.
  • Andrei from Chelyabinsk
    Andrei from Chelyabinsk 13 November 2020 09: 56 New
    +2
    Quote: Knell Wardenheart
    natural economic laws are now telling us that the time of endless postponing of welfare issues over security issues is GONE FOREVER.

    What are you talking about now? :))) The country leaned on the military-industrial complex from 1991 to 2009 for about a year. Only since 2010 have there been any significant orders.
    The most important mistake in your reasoning is the opposition of the issues of welfare and security. In fact, investments in security INCREASE the well-being of the population of the Russian Federation, rather than reduce it.
    Quote: Knell Wardenheart
    We must concentrate all ALL foreign exchange earnings we have not in the defense industry

    I am revealing a military secret - foreign exchange earnings are focused on anything but the defense industry.
    Quote: Knell Wardenheart
    It is creation, construction, improvement and maximum freedom of internal profit-generating activity that should become our fetishes.

    It is true that we need to build an efficient economy. That military orders prevent its construction is deeply mistaken.
  • eklmn
    eklmn 12 November 2020 17: 15 New
    +2
    "... Dream Chaser (Runner for a dream), developed on the basis of the Soviet project of the experimental reusable spacecraft" BOR-4 "."
    Ridiculously said "based on" ...!
    Did the Americans stole the blueprints / design or the entire Soviet ship when it flopped into the ocean?
    BOR-4, in turn, was developed on the basis of the American Boeing X-20 Dyna-Soar from the 60s.
    By the way, BOR-4 landed in the ocean on parachutes, Dream Chaser landed like an airplane on the runway. Therefore, their "bases" were completely different ...
  • Old26
    Old26 12 November 2020 19: 34 New
    +3
    Quote: MyVrach
    The question arises: how long before the launch of the rocket should Russia and the United States warn each other?

    It seems to be giving information: when + possible windows, orbital parameters, carrier.

    Quote: AVM
    I would not say that, just the Legend system was already very new, and even the US-A satellites with a reactor. And the short lifespan of satellites was compensated by their storage and enormous possibilities for launching into orbit - there are many carriers, in quantity and in type.

    The system was new, with this, Andrei no one argues. But it has been in operation for 33 years. It could have been brought to the required condition. And the fact that the quality of the components was very low is evidenced by the fact that in the 60s - 70s, photo reconnaissance satellites were launched almost every week, because they had a lifespan of about 10-5 days. As you open "Pravda" (most often), then on the 3-4th page there is a note about the launch of satellites of the "Cosmos" series .... laughing

    Quote: EvilLion
    I love it when the Buran is remembered, but the American analogue did not fulfill the tasks assigned to it and was decommissioned.

    Well, that's not entirely true. The Americans have gained experience in managing large space objects, just as we do in orbital stations. Yes, the program did not go as they planned (a fleet of 4 shuttles would have to provide 52 launches a year, that is, every week). The inter-flight service was significantly longer. And all this, of course, pulled the price. And so. Still, there were 130 launches of this ship. And he coped with one of the main tasks (launching and removing objects from orbit) ...
    1. Sasha_rulevoy
      Sasha_rulevoy 13 November 2020 06: 42 New
      +1
      Quote: Old26
      And the fact that the quality of the components was very low is evidenced by the fact that in the 60s - 70s, photo reconnaissance satellites were launched almost every week, because their lifespan was about 10-5 days.


      So the tape ended. The first satellites with the ability to transmit pictures by radio appeared in the late 80s.
      1. ccsr
        ccsr 13 November 2020 12: 45 New
        +1
        Quote: Sasha_rulevoy
        So the tape ended.

        It's not even about the film, but about the obsolescence of operational information - that's why we tried to shoot everything necessary as quickly as possible and immediately throw off the capsule.
        Quote: Sasha_rulevoy
        The first satellites with the ability to transmit pictures by radio appeared in the late 80s.

        This is a delusion, because successful LCIs were completed back in the seventies, and in the early 80s such systems were already on alert.
  • Chikua
    Chikua 12 November 2020 19: 39 New
    0
    Why are they not immediately placing weapons on the satellites to destroy the AUG?
    1. The eye of the crying
      The eye of the crying 12 November 2020 20: 32 New
      0
      Quote: Chikua
      Why are they not immediately placing weapons on the satellites to destroy the AUG?


      Because there is no weapon suitable for this.
      1. S. Viktorovich
        S. Viktorovich 13 November 2020 19: 36 New
        0
        Because Trump isn't ready yet. Will be able - will place.
        1. The eye of the crying
          The eye of the crying 13 November 2020 22: 43 New
          0
          Trump can't do anything.
    2. Vale-90
      Vale-90 12 November 2020 21: 49 New
      -1
      ... I'm too heavy. The rocket will not lift me, - said Donut ... (c) recourse .
    3. Shopping Mall
      13 November 2020 11: 19 New
      0
      Quote: Chikua
      Why are they not immediately placing weapons on the satellites to destroy the AUG?


      While this is extremely difficult and expensive, but if Musk still makes a BFR with both returnable degrees, and this rocket has a resource of at least 50 flights, then it is difficult to even imagine how everything will change. It is likely that space-surface impact systems will become a reality by the middle of the XNUMXst century, if not much earlier.

      The militarization of space is the next step for the United States. SpaceX and lasers in orbit
      https://topwar.ru/155082-militarizacija-kosmosa-sledujuschij-shag-ssha-spacex-i-lazery-na-orbite.html
  • dgonni
    dgonni 12 November 2020 22: 09 New
    +1
    Well, in general, the mattress covers from about 10 years ago came to the same conclusion. And they essentially solved the main problem of quick replacement of out-of-order (downed) satellites. Musk with his reusable rockets and the development of electronic components with their miniaturization give them an edge at the moment. While it is not dramatic, the gap is growing very quickly.
    In cases where Roskosmos continues to degrade and the production of electronic components that at least ensure the operation of the defense industry will not be established. That advantage will become complete and not amenable to leveling by other means.
    Here the author is right to all 101%
    And with the weak, a completely different conversation.
  • Sasha_rulevoy
    Sasha_rulevoy 13 November 2020 06: 39 New
    0
    small satellites with multispectral sensors on board, forming a distributed sensor network


    Four incomprehensible words were put side by side and, as it were, an aircraft carrier was found.

    What is, for example, a "multispectral" sensor? IR camera? Camcorder? VHF radio? Radar? If all together, how do you fit all this into a small satellite?
    1. Shopping Mall
      13 November 2020 09: 23 New
      0
      Quote: Sasha_rulevoy
      small satellites with multispectral sensors on board, forming a distributed sensor network


      Four incomprehensible words were put side by side and, as it were, an aircraft carrier was found.

      What is, for example, a "multispectral" sensor? IR camera? Camcorder? VHF radio? Radar? If all together, how do you fit all this into a small satellite?


      At least a TV + thermal imager, possibly more UV. With a single lens (it is the largest). I suppose that the same USA is planning to have several modifications of them - optical reconnaissance, radar, RTR, as part of groups of small reconnaissance satellites. + separately navigation satellites, communications. Approximately as picture 6
      1. Aag
        Aag 13 November 2020 17: 21 New
        +1
        Thanks to the author for the article! Somewhat controversial, but without frank delirium. Disappointing, but it seems that now there can be one consolation - it could be even worse ...
        And most importantly, which is not always observed at VO, the author actively "speaks in debate", argues, defends, - in one word "is responsible for the market" (forgive me my French) :-)
        hi
  • Xscorpion
    Xscorpion 13 November 2020 14: 25 New
    0
    ... In addition, the orbit of the Liana satellites is at an altitude of about 500-1000 km. Accordingly, they can be destroyed by SM-3 Block IIA missiles, with a kill zone of up to 1500 km in height.

    They cannot. There is no evidence that they are capable of shooting down something at least 500 km. You do not need to blindly believe Vicki. At the moment, the maximum they can boast of is shooting down their own satellite at an altitude of less than 250 km. And then they had to wait 7 days, so that the satellite would take the right position for a successful hit. In case of the slightest mistake, they would have to wait at least a week to try again. Believe me, at an altitude of 500, and even more so in 1000 such nuances will be much more. And then the satellite moved according to their well-known trajectory at a known altitude. Any change in the trajectory of movement, even by a thousandth of an angle, will mean one hundred percent miss. The height of the defeat does not mean that you can get to such a height from any place. It means that if the target is overhead, then at that height it can be shot down. And at a distance of 1 km from the target, the height of the defeat will already be less, and the further you are from the target, the lower the height of the defeat. This is what I want to convey in my own words without clever letters and numbers. this is a super-hit of a satellite, in fact it was not the rocket that shot down the satellite, but the satellite crashed into the rocket.

    In general, after that, you can stop reading.
    1. Shopping Mall
      13 November 2020 16: 17 New
      0
      Quote: Xscorpion
      ... In addition, the orbit of the Liana satellites is at an altitude of about 500-1000 km. Accordingly, they can be destroyed by SM-3 Block IIA missiles, with a kill zone of up to 1500 km in height.

      They cannot. There is no evidence that they are capable of shooting down something at least 500 km. You do not need to blindly believe Vicki. At the moment, the maximum they can boast of is shooting down their own satellite at an altitude of less than 250 km. And then they had to wait 7 days, so that the satellite would take the right position for a successful hit. In case of the slightest mistake, they would have to wait at least a week to try again. Believe me, at an altitude of 500, and even more so in 1000 such nuances will be much more. And then the satellite moved according to their well-known trajectory at a known altitude. Any change in the trajectory of movement, even by a thousandth of an angle, will mean one hundred percent miss. The height of the defeat does not mean that you can get to such a height from any place. It means that if the target is overhead, then at that height it can be shot down. And at a distance of 1 km from the target, the height of the defeat will already be less, and the further you are from the target, the lower the height of the defeat. This is what I want to convey in my own words without clever letters and numbers. this is a super-hit of a satellite, in fact it was not the rocket that shot down the satellite, but the satellite crashed into the rocket.

      In general, after that, you can stop reading.


      The Chinese shot down the satellite at 865 km, also "hit the rocket with the satellite"?

      On January 11, 2007, China successfully tested its own anti-satellite weapons: the FY-1C Fengyun meteorological satellite, located in polar orbit at an altitude of 865 km, was hit by a direct hit from an anti-satellite missile.

      I strongly doubt that the US has inferior technology than the PRC. And the fact that they do not conduct tests in high orbits, rather, indicates that they have more brains, since the fragments will quickly fall from 250 km, and at 865 km they will hang in orbit for much longer.

      You don’t need to tell me about the dependence of the height of defeat on the range, I understand that very well. I have no data at what distance and what height of defeat the United States currently provides, but there is no doubt that work to increase these parameters will be very active. And given that anti-missile missiles are launched from ships, and we are talking about satellites to detect ships, it is logical that they can reach an optimal position to destroy the desired satellites, which will provide the necessary height reach.
      1. Xscorpion
        Xscorpion 17 November 2020 09: 20 New
        0
        There was also a kinetic warhead, and they hit only from the third (according to some sources, from the fourth) time. The gap between the attempts was several weeks. That is, they just waited for the satellite to fly closer to the launch site and then only launched the rocket. And by the way, here we are not talking about an anti-aircraft missile missile defense missile, but about a specific medium-range ballistic missile. That is, they changed the MRBM for an outdated satellite. What kind of success can we talk about, I do not know. In real military operations, the only missile with a nuclear A warhead of a hundred kilotons will land or disable all satellites in an area of ​​hundreds of thousands of square kilometers at whatever height they are, and this has long been known.
    2. ccsr
      ccsr 13 November 2020 18: 23 New
      +1
      Quote: Xscorpion
      And then they had to wait 7 days for the satellite to take the right location for a successful hit.

      I think that a powerful radio beacon also worked there, so that at the final stage the rocket could correct its trajectory.
      You have described everything correctly - this has been known since the time when we were developing the protection of the Almaz combat station from defeat, including from the launch of missiles from aircraft carriers.
  • SovAr238A
    SovAr238A 13 November 2020 14: 31 New
    +2
    a little one-sidedly written.
    These are:
    Only detectors are listed.
    Without the means to convey information to each subscriber, it resembles a dumb and armless, but big-eyed.
    Like that dog - I understand everything, but I can't say anything.

    These are all half-measures - not giving any result in fact.
    Natryndeli, they collected information - what to do with it, what to do with it?


    Availability of means of reporting information about detection and data for target designation in real time - this is what all the variations of Liana and Legend are without.
    The delay in the passage of information by 45 minutes (and this is the average path from the satellite through many instances, headquarters to the BIUS of a particular ship) - makes the information obsolete for full target designation.
    Accordingly, together with the means of detection, a "Sphere" of 600 satellites is needed (the minimum analogue of Starlink). We need a well-thought-out concept of network centricity, which will link all our branches of the armed forces into a single information field ..
    The "first" detected the target - everyone saw it at once - the "second" destroyed the target.
    It doesn't matter who the "first" is. Let it be a satellite, drone, submarine, or just a fighter.
    It doesn't matter who the "second" is. Let it be a fighter, self-propelled gun, tank, MLRS, nuclear submarine or cruiser.
  • Vale-90
    Vale-90 13 November 2020 23: 48 New
    +1
    End of the 80s. Survey and detailed and what we got on the meteo (hands from her black). It also smelled of iodine.
    I cut off the detailed one. Too big.
    1. Vale-90
      Vale-90 14 November 2020 00: 00 New
      0
      There is still one. I pasted the signatures myself, then there were leaflets with stickers in the VHS videotapes. wink
      I begged G.N. Gurinov from the Kom flotilla. (photo, of course). laughing
  • Vale-90
    Vale-90 14 November 2020 11: 38 New
    +1
    Quote: SovAr238A
    The delay in the passage of information by 45 minutes (and this is the average path from the satellite through many instances, headquarters to the BIUS of a particular ship) - makes the information obsolete for full target designation.

    If the SSGN was in the first line, the coordination with the satellite was checked daily. Data directly, the graph was fly-by-link. Picture P-6 is just that. There is no other, since under my rule 675 were already removed from Kamchatka. And I came across more than 670.
    1. agond
      agond 14 November 2020 21: 16 New
      0
      It would be interesting to ask the experts
      1 how long a microsatellite that the United States is launching in large quantities can exist in low orbit?
      2 there are constantly references to the technological lag of our elementary base in the field of radio electronics, but there is a lag, and how critical it is for a small satellite, which is certainly more complicated than the old grandmother's radio in the kitchen, but does not have a ground orientation system (it just rotates) consists of read units, a pair of TV cameras, a recording device with a clock, a transmitter with an antenna and a solar battery and, as it were, everything, and his task is only one to photograph the surface of the earth and transmit the signal received from the matrices of TV cameras. straight to the ground without processing, they will sort it out.
      1. Vale-90
        Vale-90 14 November 2020 23: 36 New
        0
        elementary base ...... oops ....
  • Vale-90
    Vale-90 17 November 2020 19: 45 New
    -1
    I just drew attention to the connectors .... Ion engine, and I saw similar connectors on the RSB-70 "Danube", a copy of the American one with B-29 AN / ART-13 ... It was on the Tu-114. So I mounted two side by side.
    Somehow it does not fit wildly. By time of use.


    Here is the original, filmed in Tu-114.
  • kamakama
    kamakama Yesterday, 13: 45 New
    0
    Anti-missile missiles for satellites (in the sense - to shoot down the attacking orders of the satellite constellation) were especially pleased. Well, you know that it is enough to create a cloud of conditional shrapnel crossing the satellite's trajectory at the right moment (in principle, beyond the horizon for the satellite at the time of the cloud formation) and then they completely knock down everything that comes to hand along a ballistic trajectory. To shoot down (with what?) Each ball with a diameter of a centimeter is not enough money. Another thing is that this will create a bunch of unpredictable debris in a wide range of orbits and altitudes, which can be pretty damaging to the attacking side. The Chinese about 13 years ago tested such a fragmentation missile, until now everyone has to dodge the fragments