Military Review

People's military vehicle Volkswagen Kubelwagen

75

Volkswagen Kubelwagen became the most massive passenger car in Germany during the Second World War. The appearance of this machine is familiar to almost everyone, even people who have never been fond of history... "Kubelvagen" often appears in photographs, newsreels and is a familiar guest of historical reenactments. This model can be found in museums and private collections. Due to the large volume of serial production, a sufficient number of these cars have survived to this day.


The Volkswagen Kubelwagen was mass-produced in Germany from 1939 to 1945. Until the summer of 1945, the German industry managed to produce 50 435 of these cars in various modifications. Thanks to this, the Kubelwagen became the most common passenger car in the Wehrmacht and SS troops. The car received its nickname Kübelwagen (Kübel in translation from German - "pelvis") for its characteristic appearance. The military convertible, characterized by good maneuverability, reminded the soldiers of a wash basin. The official designation of the model was Volkswagen Typ 82.

The story of


The history of the appearance of the military vehicle Volkswagen Kubelwagen is inextricably linked with Hitler's desire to create a people's car. Adolf Hitler promised his supporters that he would be able to provide every German family with his own passenger car. The renowned designer Ferdinand Porsche was brought in to fulfill such a daunting task. The phrase Volkswagen, which has become a real symbol of Germany (translated from German as "people's car"), was first heard in 1935 at the opening of the next Berlin Motor Show, even before the appearance of the company of the same name.

The Volkswagen plant itself was founded only on May 26, 1938 in the little-known town of Fallersleben, today it is the city of Wolfsburg. The new plant was built on the basis of a maximum output of 500 thousand cars per year. At the same time, in reality, the production of passenger cars developed by Porsche amounted to 44 cars. These were the early versions of the Beetle, which became the brand's bestseller after the war. The plant did not manage to expand the production of civilian passenger cars. All the cars produced went not to the people, but to the officials. Already from September 1, 1939, the plant was completely reoriented to the production of military products.

People's military vehicle Volkswagen Kubelwagen

At the same time, the military turned to Ferdinand Porsche with a request to create an unpretentious light car that could be operated off-road and in difficult climatic conditions, back in January 1938. The first prototypes, designated Typ 62, were tested in November 1938. The car was considered very successful, despite the lack of all-wheel drive.

A compact and maneuverable vehicle with a center differential and light weight could compete with some examples of the Wehrmacht's all-wheel drive vehicles. In 1939, the Typ 62 was modernized and received its recognizable angular body. The first models were tested in combat conditions during the Polish campaign of the Wehrmacht. After all the modernization and design changes (including the results of tests in real combat conditions), the car received a new designation Volkswagen Typ 82. Under this designation, the car will be mass-produced in February 1940, having created 30 different modifications on the basis of a light military vehicle.

Technical features of the German "pelvis"


The new light military vehicle differed from the civilian model by a special maximally lightweight 4-door open all-metal body with flat panels and rear wheel gears. Wheel arrangement - 4x2, rear-wheel drive. The features of the military model included the presence of an interwheel self-locking differential, as well as an increased ground clearance of 290 mm. Also, the Volkswagen Typ 82 was fitted with 16-inch wheels. For operations in North Africa, special tires with a wider tread width were used, which had a positive effect on passability on sands.

The Volkswagen Typ 82 car had a rather modest size and low weight. Maximum length - 3740 mm, width - 1600 mm, height with an extended tent roof - 1650 mm. With the roof folded down, the height of the car body did not exceed 1100 mm. The wheelbase is 2400 mm. The curb weight is only 715 kg, the gross vehicle weight is 1160 kg.


The car body was assembled from longitudinally reinforced thin sheet metal (they had a characteristic type of stamping). The body had a folding canvas roof and a folding windshield. The lack of a full-fledged roof was due to the desire to lighten and simplify the design of the machine as much as possible. The body had four side doors that opened in different directions. Under normal operating conditions, the vehicle was designed to carry four people, including the driver. On the flat front of the car, which had a pronounced wedge-shaped shape, there was a spare wheel. At the rear was the engine. At the same time, all forms of the car were chopped, angular, which formed its widely recognizable appearance.

The car was equipped with a 40-liter fuel tank, which was located in the front trunk compartment. The location of the tank was clearly indicated by the filler neck on the right side of the trunk lid. In some cases, a bracket was installed above it in the factory or already at the front, which was used to accommodate a single MG34 / 42 machine gun. In bad weather conditions, the folding canvas roof could be extended. If necessary, special removable side windows could be inserted into the side openings above the doors.

The first production cars Volkswagen Kubelwagen were equipped with an air-cooled gasoline engine with a volume of 1 liter and a power of 23 hp. Since March 1943, cars with a new 1,1-liter four-cylinder engine went into serial production. Engine power increased to 25 hp, which was increased by simple boring of the cylinder bore. There were no other changes in its design. The engine was paired with a 4-speed manual gearbox. The engine power was enough to provide a small car with a maximum speed of 80 km / h and a highway range of up to 440 km. The low-power engine had its advantages: fuel consumption per 100 km was about 9 liters, which was a very good indicator for that time.


The Volkswagen Kubelwagen received mechanical drum brakes and an independent torsion bar suspension. Compact independent link-torsion bar suspension of all wheels made the car comfortable when driving on different types of terrain. At the same time, the flat and smooth bottom increased the cross-country ability, allowing the car to literally slide through the mud without being caught by any protruding elements.

Strengths and weaknesses of the Volkswagen Kubelwagen


Volkswagen Kubelwagen had very good cross-country ability for non-four-wheel drive vehicles. Almost all 4x4 cars turned out to be more practical in mud baths. At the same time, among cars with a 4x2 wheel arrangement, Kubelwagen really had no competitors. The positive qualities of the model were high ground clearance (approximately 29 cm) and low weight. In many respects, the cross-country ability of the people's military vehicle was determined precisely by its light weight - 715 kg. The latter circumstance contributed to the fact that a pair of "true Aryans" could always push the car out of almost any mud.

At the same time, the lack of engine power was attributed to the disadvantages of the car, in later models - only 25 hp. In this regard, the power of the air-cooled engine was not always enough, especially when operating the car in difficult front-line conditions. The car often moved through mud, off-road, rough terrain, including with significant differences in altitude. Due to insufficient power, the engine often had to be used at the limit of its capabilities, which led to overloads, overheating and often became the cause of breakdowns. At the same time, the VW engine was very simple and maintainable, almost any mechanic could easily figure it out. An air-cooled engine was also found to be preferred for hot and cold climates and was less vulnerable to bullets and shrapnel due to the lack of a radiator.


Independent wheel suspension, which was the advantage of the machine, behaved differently in different theaters of war. In the Soviet Union, under the conditions of the Eastern Front, it often failed, while in Europe with a much more developed road network, the Germans did not experience such problems. At the same time, the Volkswagen Kubelwagen was highly regarded by the allies. American and British soldiers loved to use captured military convertibles, and in some cases even swapped their Willys MB for Volkswagen.

In terms of driving comfort and behavior on the road, the Volkswagen Typ 82 confidently bypassed the Willys MB. Affected by the presence of a full-fledged body with doors with a landing as close as possible to ordinary passenger cars. The landing on the famous American jeep was specific and high enough. The independent suspension of the Volkswagen Typ 82 was softer than the Willys MB, and the German car was easier to steer. Of course, the all-wheel drive Willys MB with a twice more powerful engine was the real king of off-roading, but in the conditions of the Western Front and the presence of a developed road network, off-road qualities often faded into the background.
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  1. polpot
    polpot 2 November 2020 18: 03
    20
    Thank you for a great article on the famous car.
    1. Borik
      Borik 2 November 2020 18: 31
      13
      Simple, cheap and useful vehicle of the German army ..
      1. ccsr
        ccsr 2 November 2020 19: 27
        16
        Quote: Borik
        Simple, cheap and useful vehicle of the German army ..

        The same useful vehicle existed in the NNA of the GDR, which was armed with an army "Trabant":

        Moreover, such a machine was assigned to each company commander, which of course aroused the envy of any of our companies, because there are always a lot of things in a company, and it is very convenient to have your own transport when solving them. So the Germans have always paid great attention to light passenger cars and this commands respect from all who served in the army. Details about the Trabant car are described on the website:
        What surprises its design?
        First, it's front-wheel drive. Yes, it is now customary to make fun of the model, but in some ways, she was ahead of her time. The car was also remembered for the transverse engine layout. In those days, only the Swedes from Saab, and the Germans with their Trabant, had such a layout.
        By the way, the motor of this little girl produced 26 horsepower. And he didn't have a gas pump. Where did he go? They threw it out as unnecessary, because it made the car heavier and made it more expensive.

        https://pikabu.ru/story/trabant_601__narodnyiy_avtomobil_iz_gdr_6458338
        1. Blacksmith 55
          Blacksmith 55 2 November 2020 21: 59
          10
          Trabant, this is a plastic car, the whole body is made of plastic, therefore it is light, and only 2 cylinders, 2 stroke.
          In short, a motorcycle with a roof.
          1. Pane Kohanku
            Pane Kohanku 3 November 2020 09: 48
            +9
            In short, a motorcycle with a roof.

            There was also a funny commander's car in the Japanese Imperial Army.
            Kurogane Type 95: Japan's first all-wheel drive SUV.
            https://autohs.ru/avtomobili/legkovye/kurogane-type-95-pervyj-yaponskij-vnedorozhnik.html

            as a power unit, a motorcycle 2-cylinder air-cooled engine was chosen. Its 32 hp. enough for a car weighing 1100 kg to accelerate to 75 km / h on a road with good coverage. The engine was interlocked with a 4-speed manual transmission and a 1-speed transfer case.
            Serial production of the Kurogane Type 95 began in 1936 at the Nihon Nainenki factories. The cars of the first series were designated as Type A and were produced until 1938. After modernization, the 95th received a 1,4 engine, and the seats in the cabin increased from 3 to 4. In addition, there was a 1944 Type C modification, with a two-seater cab and an onboard platform.

            In the army, the Type 95 has proven itself very well. Distinguished by excellent cross-country ability and reliability, it was highly valued not only in the Japanese army, but also in the American and Soviet, where it ended up as trophies. In addition, Kuragan did not differ in high fuel consumption, it did not exceed 4 liters per 100 km of roads with good coverage.
            In total, from 1936 to 1944, 4775 copies were produced

            Also:
            http://trofmash.ru/gallery/kurogane-type-95-1936/
            Trophy use. In the battles near Lake Khasan and Khalkin-Gol, many of these vehicles were captured, after the victory, the soldiers of the Red Army frolicked on them, driving along the Sino-Mongolian territory. The American military as part of the occupation forces in Japan and after the war were also very fond of the captured Type 95 kurogan and exploited them with might and main for their own purposes.

            It is somewhat reminiscent of the famous morgunovka motorcycle stroller! laughing "Don't make a noise! ​​I'm disabled!" drinks
          2. ccsr
            ccsr 3 November 2020 12: 37
            +4
            Quote: Blacksmith 55
            In short, a motorcycle with a roof.

            In fact, yes, but riding a motorcycle with a sidecar and riding a Trabant are two big differences, and that's what we must proceed from. But I emphasized that this car was a company link, and any Soviet company commander would dream of having at his disposal even this "motorcycle with a roof" in any region of the USSR. Here I am 100% sure of this, because I know how difficult it was to knock out the UAZ from the commander of a separate battalion for company needs.
            1. ycuce234-san
              ycuce234-san 3 November 2020 22: 43
              -1
              how difficult it was to knock out the UAZ


              This, by the way, can become the next step in the provision of household services by civilian enterprises - short-term rental of cars and trucks that meet the army's requirements for import substitution and everyday travel, with delivery to the address upon request. Domestic car factories, competing for the attention of service workers using their fleet for such purposes, will greatly improve the quality of their SUVs and buses, including all-terrain buses, trucks. It’s even strange that the Americans do not use this massively.
              1. ccsr
                ccsr 4 November 2020 09: 57
                +6
                Quote: ycuce234-san
                This, by the way, can become the next step in the provision of household services by civilian enterprises - short-term rental of cars and trucks that meet the army's requirements for import substitution and everyday travel, with delivery to the address upon request.

                This is unlikely to find understanding in the military environment, because the commander should have everything of his own and always at hand. And trusting combat readiness to those who do not depend on you is the height of recklessness - we paid for this in the Great Patriotic War, when we hoped that the Commissariat of Communications would provide the military with stable communications during hostilities. The same problems arose during the transfer of equipment from the civilian sector to military units. And it’s hard to believe that for distant Hanizons there will be structures that dream of providing them with the same transport - this is hardly possible except for large cities.
                That is why Americans buy vehicles for themselves, and do not rent them.
                1. ycuce234-san
                  ycuce234-san 4 November 2020 10: 51
                  0
                  This is a car for "business" and not part of a regular technical park, and it may well be constantly at the disposal of the duty officer, drive around the clock and only for maintenance and repair it will be taken by businessmen. This resource saves for standard equipment - for example, civil trucks and commercial heavy pickups are economical, have a mileage resource of millions of kilometers, and it is advisable to make all-terrain buses and commuter vehicles on their basis. SUVs are already taken into account and go to the army during mobilization, and so they will already be in it in a little more. In small towns, work is in short supply, and commercial organizations may well be organized as network structures - the same transport companies and supermarkets cover the needs of entire regions in this way.
        2. VladGTN
          VladGTN 3 November 2020 21: 33
          0
          The classic Saab (the same years as the Trabi) has a longitudinal engine. Crosswise only on the latest models, joint with GM
  2. Egoza
    Egoza 2 November 2020 18: 23
    11
    There would be an opportunity, so many would like to buy such a "machine"
    1. tihonmarine
      tihonmarine 2 November 2020 18: 38
      +2
      Quote: Egoza
      There would be an opportunity, so many would like to buy such a "machine"

      Only gas mileage is a bit too much by our standards. For a collection just right.
    2. svp67
      svp67 2 November 2020 19: 04
      12
      Quote: Egoza
      There would be an opportunity, so many would like to buy such a "machine"

      Madam hi
      Well, such, not such, but her daughter and granddaughter, so please ...

    3. Avior
      Avior 2 November 2020 19: 43
      12
      Soviet Luaz was even better

      Fishing, hunting, mushroom picking is a great option
      1. pereselenec
        pereselenec 3 November 2020 04: 02
        +2
        Quote: Avior
        Soviet Luaz was even better

        What?
        1. Avior
          Avior 3 November 2020 07: 25
          +9
          Compared to Trabant?
          Four-wheel drive, increased power engine, all-metal body, much higher ground clearance, much more cross-country ability, which is in civilian versions, and even more so in military


          In short.
          hi
          1. Pane Kohanku
            Pane Kohanku 3 November 2020 09: 55
            +4
            In short.

            Beast machine. The family was 969th. drinks
          2. your1970
            your1970 6 November 2020 10: 56
            -1
            Only in your photo is the military version - Front End Transporter (TPK) with a seat in the middle
            1. Avior
              Avior 6 November 2020 14: 25
              +2
              I have three photos smile
    4. NEXUS
      NEXUS 2 November 2020 22: 50
      +2
      Quote: Egoza
      There would be an opportunity, so many would like to buy such a "machine"

      You know ... I remembered our Yo-mobile. How his poor fellow wasn’t mocked and how Russians were not exasperated over him. However, this was the first real attempt in the new history of Russia to create a people's car, and not where they were assembled in China or Taiwan and in the Russian Federation.
      But the very idea of ​​such a car was actually initially very ambitious, which most Russians did not even know, laughing at all this stupidly and pointlessly.
      Here is a video about this very Yo-mobile. And then a quite reasonable question is asked, why the Yo-mobile really did not go into series, if there was money and a plant and support from the authorities?

      And for me personally, the answer to this question lies on the surface. Yes, we could do it! Yes, it would be innovative and we could be proud of this car. But the automobile giants and oil producers, the Rothschilds and the Rockefellers, buried this project, because they did not need such a competitor in the market, and even with such characteristics.
      1. evgen1221
        evgen1221 3 November 2020 19: 05
        +1
        Here, rather, our authorities killed the machine with the next collapse of the ruble - it should have cost around 20 thousand and was out of competition in price. But the collapse of the ruble began to cost the price of Kia Rio. And who would take what? - I would have Rio for the same price. That's the end of the fairy tale about her
        1. kytx
          kytx 7 November 2020 16: 25
          +1
          There, the very original idea was not viable in our conditions. Our businessmen are unable to create a hybrid with a rotor for ridiculous money. Even Mercedes bought the Hybrid from Toyota so as not to waste time and money on development. And here is some speculator Prokhorov.
      2. AllXVahhaB
        AllXVahhaB 7 November 2020 18: 36
        +2
        Quote: NEXUS
        But the automotive giants and oil producers, the Rothschilds and the Rockefellers, buried this project

        Well auto giants and Rothschilds with Rockefellers didn't bury Tesla ??? And the answer to this question lies on the surface - our Capital in general and Prokhorov, in particular, do not earn money with this, in principle they cannot do this! They only know how to suck resources and parasitize on the Soviet heritage!
      3. bar
        bar 8 November 2020 09: 07
        +2
        this was the first real attempt in the modern history of Russia to create a people's car

        It was just an attempt by Misha Courchevelsky to wash his image of dirt and become a decent person, even somewhere a politician, even somewhere a patron of the arts. And if you write what you write, then it is quite a success. Nobody was going to create a real car, it was an ordinary PR project for little money. Several completely fake samples with completely fake "technical characteristics", created by the hands of several Belarusian students and Russian unemployed for small money from hand-held materials and Chinese engines from lawn mowers. The biggest project costs were spent on advertising, dragging these freaks to exhibitions and presentations. Even VVP managed to fit into this fornicator.
        PS If anything, I am writing this quite competently, I myself barely got away from this "project".
        1. kytx
          kytx 9 November 2020 21: 36
          0
          The whore was complete. People who are in the subject are tired of twisting a finger at their temples.
  3. sergo1914
    sergo1914 2 November 2020 18: 24
    14
    Ferdinand Porsche is a rugged, big-headed and very productive devil. Practically everything I touched would fire.
    1. svp67
      svp67 2 November 2020 19: 05
      +6
      Quote: sergo1914
      Practically everything that I touched would fire.

      The main thing is that in tank building he had an almost "blank" shot.
      1. Alexey RA
        Alexey RA 2 November 2020 19: 25
        16
        Quote: svp67
        The main thing is that in tank building he had an almost "blank" shot.

        It's a pity. More to the Reich of such designers as Porsche. smile
        However, Henschel did well too. Especially when the company, which has been engaged in rolling stock all its life, forgot about the railway dimensions and the maximum carrying capacity of standard platforms when designing the Tiger.
  4. Sergey M. Karasev
    Sergey M. Karasev 2 November 2020 18: 28
    +7
    It looks like our LUAZik in spirit. Also lightweight, cheap, simple, maintainable, with excellent cross-country ability in mud, despite the weak engine. It doesn't matter that the engine is in the back and the drive is 4 * 2.
  5. Constanty
    Constanty 2 November 2020 18: 30
    16
    The car received its nickname Kübelwagen (Kübel in translation from German - "pelvis") for its characteristic appearance


    This is bullshit!

    The name comes from the specially shaped bucket seats. They provided additional lateral support to prevent falling out of the vehicle. Initially, the soldiers called the light all-terrain vehicles Kübelsitze because of these seats. Later - Kübelsitzwagen. Over time, the abbreviated name Kübelwagen was adopted.
    1. alpamys
      alpamys 2 November 2020 19: 29
      +4
      Quote: Constanty
      The car received its nickname Kübelwagen (Kübel in translation from German - "pelvis") for its characteristic appearance


      This is bullshit!

      The name comes from the specially shaped bucket seats. They provided additional lateral support to prevent falling out of the vehicle. Initially, the soldiers called the light all-terrain vehicles Kübelsitze because of these seats. Later - Kübelsitzwagen. Over time, the abbreviated name Kübelwagen was adopted.

      A kubel is an open container for transporting various materials, garbage, etc., etc. a bucket and a bath can also be called a kubel.
      1. swnvaleria
        swnvaleria 2 November 2020 21: 17
        +1
        font-wagen or what?
        1. alpamys
          alpamys 2 November 2020 21: 47
          +3
          Quote: swnvaleria
          font-wagen or what?

          kyubel current .. capacity in general, kyupel is in Russian something like a priest, although the sound and meaning is very similar to German.
          1. Serg koma
            Serg koma 3 November 2020 09: 06
            +3
            Quote: alpamys
            kyupel this is in russian
            "kyupel" is not in Russian laughing
            DOME, font, wives. (church.). A large vessel, a vat, in which the cult rite of baptism (immersion in water) is performed. Ushakov's explanatory dictionary.
    2. sevryuk
      sevryuk 3 November 2020 12: 09
      0
      These seats are called "Kübelsitz bucket seats" in the dictionary.
      Therefore, the playful designation of this unit should be translated as "bucket" ("pelvis" is too rough). By the way, this word can be translated as "parasha").
  6. Trojan_wolf
    Trojan_wolf 2 November 2020 18: 35
    +6
    Legendary car, thanks for the interesting article.
  7. Andrei Nikolaevich
    Andrei Nikolaevich 2 November 2020 18: 45
    -1
    The smartest man was, Ferdinant Porsche! Historians are outraged that Porsche was a Nazi. And who in Germany was not a Nazi? .. Oh yes! I forgot! The Americans were NOT Nazis. They only supplied fuel to the Wehrmacht, sometimes .. And so - "honest" people ..)
    1. Egoza
      Egoza 2 November 2020 18: 54
      10
      Quote: Andrey Nikolaevich
      Historians are outraged that Porsche was a Nazi. And who in Germany was not a Nazi ?.

      How quickly you forgot Ernst Thälmann! And all the German communists who suffered from the Nazis, but did not join them!
      1. Andrei Nikolaevich
        Andrei Nikolaevich 6 November 2020 13: 33
        0
        Here is just one E. Telman and did not "join")
    2. Revolver
      Revolver 2 November 2020 20: 45
      13
      Quote: Andrey Nikolaevich
      And who in Germany was not a Nazi?

      Who was not a communist in the USSR? It was almost impossible to make a career in any field of activity without a party membership card. As my mother quoted her head of the department (he was a good person, a communist and a war veteran, but no engineer and a very mediocre leader), who got drunk on New Year's (it was in the 1970s, there was forever before Gorbachev's sobriety struggle), “since I'm crying party payments, I should have at least something from this! "
      So, most likely, for Ferdinand Porsche, and Werner von Braun, and many other professionals of the Reich, the struggle for the purity of the Aryan race was purple, but the rules of the game had to be observed. Everyone who was at least someone had to have a party card.
      By the way, those who sawed through the country in Belovezhskaya Pushcha, all made their careers along the party line.
      1. Simple
        Simple 2 November 2020 22: 04
        +3
        Quote: Nagan
        Everyone who was at least someone had to have a party card.


        But even that was not enough to run his firm. The production permit was issued by the partaigenosse. And in wartime conditions, basically, there could be only one thing.

        There is a series of good feature films based on the examples of German companies that were forced to cooperate with that regime.
        For example: the movie "Die Dasslers"
      2. Avior
        Avior 3 November 2020 13: 52
        0
        All right, Porsche, but Heinrich Müller was in no hurry to issue a party membership card and had no desire.
        It was only in 1939 that he was kicked into the Nazi Party, and he was threatened with the end of his career.
        Which did not stop him from being one of the most famous Nazi criminals.
      3. Andrei Nikolaevich
        Andrei Nikolaevich 6 November 2020 13: 36
        0
        Yes. Have made a career in the party line. But the Union was destroyed by the national elite. Warmed up in warm places, pulled up brother-gods and off we go.
  8. Alesi13
    Alesi13 2 November 2020 19: 02
    +8
    I didn't understand about the center differential, if not all-wheel drive, but then the author seemed to be corrected, a typo
  9. Alexey RA
    Alexey RA 2 November 2020 19: 22
    10
    The Volkswagen plant itself was founded only on May 26, 1938 in the little-known town of Fallersleben, today it is the city of Wolfsburg. The new plant was built on the basis of a maximum output of 500 thousand cars per year. At the same time, in reality, the production of passenger cars developed by Porsche amounted to 44 cars. These were the early versions of the Beetle, which became the brand's bestseller after the war. The plant did not manage to expand the production of civilian passenger cars. All the cars produced went not to the people, but to the officials. Already from September 1, 1939, the plant was completely reoriented to the production of military products.

    At the same time, the leadership of the Reich threw 340 thousand citizens of the Reich, who contributed funds for the construction of the plant and hoped to get this very popular car. smile
    1. Revolver
      Revolver 3 November 2020 00: 25
      +4
      Quote: Alexey RA
      At the same time, the leadership of the Reich threw 340 thousand citizens of the Reich, who contributed funds for the construction of the plant and hoped to get this very popular car.

      And who threw the citizens of the USSR, who voluntarily and forcibly acquired the bonds of the "Restoration and Development of the National Economy" loan? They distributed bonds under Stalin and, it seems, at the beginning of Khrushch's rule too. And they extinguished it already under Gorbat. At par, without interest, in rubles, which have greatly lost their purchasing power. At the same time, many managed during this time to pass the bonds into waste paper, stick them on the walls instead of wallpaper, or wipe them off, so that half of them were presented well for payment. My grandmother, oddly enough, kept them, and my mother was already getting the money when she was older than my grandmother, when she "bought" these bonds. And with this money, they threw my mother too. She put them on a book, and Pavlov (remember this prime minister?) Froze the deposits. So she left for America without seeing this money.
      As for the plant, built with the "people's" money of the citizens of the Reich, the Americans bombed it into rubbish, so that after the war it was built practically from scratch.
      1. mat-vey
        mat-vey 3 November 2020 06: 13
        0
        Quote: Nagan
        And they paid off already under Gorbat. At par, without interest, in rubles, which have greatly lost their purchasing power.

        Well, the humpback has a lot of achievements ...
      2. Alf
        Alf 3 November 2020 18: 56
        +1
        Quote: Nagan
        And they extinguished it already under Gorbat.

        I never knew that the humpback ruled in 1981 and 1982, when information about the repayment of loans was printed in newspapers with an exact mention of when and which series was canceled. I understand that America has its own history, but still, still ...
        1. Revolver
          Revolver 3 November 2020 19: 22
          0
          To be honest, I remember going with my mother to the savings bank, she was afraid to carry a bundle of bonds for several hundred rubles alone, and I remember so much that it was already in the perestroika years.
          1. Alf
            Alf 3 November 2020 19: 27
            +2
            Quote: Nagan
            To be honest, I remember going with my mother to the savings bank, she was afraid to carry a bundle of bonds for several hundred rubles alone, and I remember so much that it was already in the perestroika years.

            My parents in 81 repaid the loan in 51, absolutely no problem.
  10. Undecim
    Undecim 2 November 2020 19: 24
    11
    At the same time, in reality, the production of passenger cars developed by Porsche amounted to 44 cars. These were the early versions of the Beetle, which became the brand's bestseller after the war. The plant did not manage to expand the production of civilian passenger cars. All the produced cars went not to the people, but to the officials.
    Here the author is mistaken.

    From 1938 to 1944, more than 700 copies of the VW type 60 were produced. Officially, at the suggestion of Hitler, the car was called Kdf Wagen (Kraft durch Freude or Power through joy).
    1. SARANCHA1976
      SARANCHA1976 2 November 2020 21: 51
      +3
      Floor they had such a sports society
      1. mat-vey
        mat-vey 3 November 2020 06: 21
        +2
        Quote: SARANCHA1976
        Floor they had such a sports society

        "Strength through joy" - it. Kraft durch Freude, KDF. Volkswagen is their brainchild. And in the photo it seems like a gift to the main "ideologist" ... like instead of light "turn signals" there were semaphores ...
        1. Alexey RA
          Alexey RA 3 November 2020 10: 43
          +1
          Quote: mat-vey
          "Strength through joy" - it. Kraft durch Freude, KDF. Volkswagen is their brainchild.

          More precisely, this organization donated 50 million Reichsmarks for the construction of the plant.
          1. mat-vey
            mat-vey 3 November 2020 13: 44
            0
            Quote: Alexey RA
            More precisely, this organization donated 50 million Reichsmarks for the construction of the plant.

            If memory serves, then all the campaigning and subscription work at the KDF was. Those who passed the car at full price should have received the car first simply by exchanging it for it, I don't remember what. Well, let's say vouchers))).
            But here is a war, and therefore - do not understand me correctly, etc., etc. And after the war, excuse inflation and in general all these KDF and DAF Nazi offices, so that we will count something for you and if you please in the queue on a general basis ...
    2. Revolver
      Revolver 3 November 2020 05: 09
      0
      Who is this in the photo near the "Beetle"? It looks like Himmler, but it is not according to his rank, he relied on a huge "Mers", or at least "Horch".
      1. Alf
        Alf 3 November 2020 18: 57
        +3
        Quote: Nagan
        Who is this in the photo near the "Beetle"? It looks like Himmler, but it is not according to his rank, he relied on a huge "Mers", or at least "Horch".

        And about such a thing as "advertising" have you heard? Putin once "accidentally" advertised the yellow Kalina.
    3. Catfish
      Catfish 3 November 2020 06: 14
      +5
      VW in the courtyard of the Imperial Chancellery, if I'm not mistaken. (1945)
    4. Pane Kohanku
      Pane Kohanku 3 November 2020 10: 24
      +4
      Officially, at the suggestion of Hitler, the car was called Kdf Wagen (Kraft durch Freude or Strength through joy).

      the picture is clearly before 1939 - a black uniform with an armband on the figure on the left.
      1. Undecim
        Undecim 3 November 2020 10: 51
        +6
        the picture is clearly before 1939 - a black uniform with an armband on the figure on the left.
        According to the car number - 1938.

        This is the exhibition "Gesundes Leben Frohes Schaffen" in Berlin's Messegelände. The exhibition ran from September 24 to November 9, 1938. The car at the exhibition has the number 43002, in the photo in the commentary - 43006. Almost nearby.
        1. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku 3 November 2020 12: 08
          +3
          Almost nearby.

          Thank you Victor Nikolaevich! hi
  11. iouris
    iouris 2 November 2020 21: 20
    +3
    Especially for consumers in the Russian Federation. (It is interesting!)
    I draw your attention to the fact that the Volkswagen enterprise (people's car) was created with the money of the workers themselves. It was supposed to repeat in Germany, the same that was done in the USA by Hitler's friend G. Ford (senior), "whose portrait the Fuhrer of the German people" allegedly had in his office. The Fuhrer also inspired Renault with the idea of ​​a single car, who, in the course of personal communication, also "imbued" with this idea of ​​the Fuhrer of the European people. However, the Fuehrer was deceiving and instead of Volkswagen, and due to force majeure circumstances, he launched the production of the Kubelwagen. The workers had to wait for the victory of the Reich in the war.
    In short, the production of the "beetle" was established after the war. A major of the British army acted as the "top manager", to whom the workers wanted to solemnly present one copy when they left for the islands, but for aesthetic reasons he refused to accept the gift. But the descendants of the Russians are very fond of Volkswagen products.
    Yes, Renault was beaten in prison (they say by the communists) for collaboration (coworking with the Fuhrer), and de Gaulle nationalized his enterprises, and even our Porsche's Ferdinand was put in a French slammer, leaving which he soon died.
  12. Alien From
    Alien From 2 November 2020 21: 32
    +2
    Thanks to the author, an interesting article. By the way, please note that the Porsche prototype is somewhat reminiscent of the modern Cayenne of the first releases)
    1. Alf
      Alf 3 November 2020 18: 59
      +2
      Quote: Alien From
      By the way, please note that the Porsche prototype is somewhat reminiscent of the modern Cayenne of the first releases)

      No, this Cayenne resembles a prototype. The firm is one.
  13. Potter
    Potter 2 November 2020 22: 27
    +6
    Thank you for the article. A couple of remarks:
    - the name "Kübelvagen", a car-tub, was not only the KdF-82. It applied to all light German military vehicles, and appeared in the late 1920s. The first Kübelvagen was a light 2-seater command vehicle based on the Dixie passenger car. Later, light, medium and heavy passenger cars of the Wehrmacht, including even the 3,5-ton Horch-901, also belonged to the Kübelwagens.
    - Volkswagen was not limited to the release of the KdF-82. There was also a version of this machine, the KdF-92, with a completely closed body from a pre-war passenger beetle, 667 vehicles were produced. The second most popular vehicle was the KdF-166 all-wheel drive amphibious amphibious vehicle, they were made by 14283 vehicles. But the KdF-87 car was a land-based all-wheel drive version, front-wheel drive from the 166th, 564 pieces were produced.
  14. Lynx2000
    Lynx2000 3 November 2020 01: 36
    +2
    The article is personal! good
    Quote: Potter

    - Volkswagen was not limited to the release of the KdF-82. There was also a version of this machine, the KdF-92, with a completely closed body from a pre-war passenger beetle, 667 vehicles were produced. The second most popular vehicle was the KdF-166 all-wheel drive amphibious amphibious vehicle, they were made by 14283 vehicles. But the KdF-87 car was a land-based all-wheel drive version, front-wheel drive from the 166th, 564 pieces were produced.

    I agree. yes
    The Kübelwagen Type-82 certainly had advantages and disadvantages. There are difficulties in operating air-cooled engines in cold weather. The engine may not maintain the operating temperature, which leads to poor lubrication of the crank mechanism, may "knock". In extreme heat, overheating is possible, and even with overload. In a liquid-cooled engine, the disadvantages are not only vulnerability from damage to the radiator and engine block, but also in winter operation in order to quickly start after a long stay. Antifreezes have not yet received mass distribution, the cooling liquid was water.
    Willis, also licensed by Ford and Chevrolet, was positioned as a light artillery tractor and chassis.
    Perhaps "heavy steering" is associated with the type of 4x4 wheel drive, it was a transfer of torque to the rear axle through a manual transmission and a transfer case with a front axle connected with a rigid interwheel differential lock ("Part-Time" system). In this case, the axle shafts of the front wheels rotate at equal angular speeds, when driving on a hard surface when cornering, the steering becomes heavy.
    So many modern "crooks" trace their ancestry to the type of drive from the old Willis, except for the "Full Time".
    Compact and maneuverable vehicle with center differential

    A small amendment, the center differential (central in the transfer case) is used in the 4x4 drive, distributes the torque between the rear and front axles 50/50.
    1. Tima62
      Tima62 7 November 2020 09: 16
      +1
      Quote: Lynx2000
      the center differential (central in the transfer case) is used in the 4x4 drive, distributes the torque between the rear and front axles 50/50.

      Not always, you forgot asymmetrical diffs. For example MAZ 501, 509, all-wheel drive motorcycles Ural, Dnepr.
      Quote: Lynx2000
      Perhaps "heavy steering" is associated with the type of 4x4 wheel drive, it was a transfer of torque to the rear axle through a manual transmission and a transfer case with a front axle connected with a rigid interwheel differential lock ("Part-Time" system). In this case, the axle shafts of the front wheels rotate at equal angular speeds, when driving on a hard surface when cornering, the steering becomes heavy.

      There was no front center differential lock on the Willis. I do not know of a single car in which the front diff lock is activated simultaneously with the front axle. If a front differential lock is installed on the machine, then this is always a separate option that is included separately.
      Well, about easy control - look at the distribution of weight along the axes. On ZAZIKs, the steering wheel also turned very easily, compared to Muscovites and Zhiguli. And if you put 3 bags of cement in the front trunk of ZAZik, you won't turn the steering wheel.
      1. Lynx2000
        Lynx2000 7 November 2020 09: 58
        0
        I agree with you, I was in a hurry, I expressed my thoughts incomprehensibly.
        Yes, at "Part-Time" the front axle is engaged with a central differential lock.
        I drove a Toyota High Lux Surf, the front axle is turned on through a razdatka with a lock, but the left and right wheels were torque transmitted at equal speeds.
        I drove a 2015 Nissan X-Terra, it has a Part-Time all-wheel drive system, similarly, including the front axle, torque is transmitted to the front wheels (left-right) at equal speeds.
        Toyota Fortchuner with Paprt-Time all-wheel drive system, likewise.
        Such a plug-in all-wheel drive system (+ front axle) is considered more reliable, cheaper and simpler in contrast to the Full-Time system (Torsen razdatka), Super-Select (Mitsubishi) ...
        The modern "Part-Time" system is the successor of Willis.
  15. Konnick
    Konnick 3 November 2020 02: 47
    +6
    Quote: Alesi13
    I didn't understand about the center differential, if not all-wheel drive, but then the author seemed to be corrected, a typo

    He did not correct himself. The author ignored types 87, 166 ... These are floating cars with an all-wheel drive transmission, but without an center differential, with a connected front axle and a low gear. Comparing a kübelvagen and a jeep is like comparing a Zaporozhets and a cornfield. Neither in terms of reliability, nor in power, nor in cross-country ability, the Zaporozhets can not be compared with the cornfield. Overheating of the air vent, bursting torsion bars and just low power. No wonder the German soldier was entitled to a week's leave for the capture of a Jeep.
  16. Konnick
    Konnick 3 November 2020 03: 22
    +9
    Quote: NEXUS
    You know ... I remembered our Yo-mobile. How his poor fellow wasn’t mocked and how Russians were not exasperated over him. However, this was the first real attempt in the new history of Russia to create a people's car, and not where they were assembled in China or Taiwan and in the Russian Federation.
    But the very idea of ​​such a car was actually initially very ambitious, which most Russians did not even know, laughing at all this stupidly and pointlessly.


    As a specialist, I will say that from the very beginning it was just an adventurous project, ranging from an impossible-to-make "rotary-blade" engine, which remained at the level of a patent, to a capacitor "superbattery" by Khortov, an electrical engineering teacher from MAMI. This was the first project to cut the state budget. And when they made the yo-mobile, to show the guarantor, they rolled out a plastic shell on a tubular frame with a conventional engine and imported units, without everything originally stated.
    "Well, not shmogla" that's all. The usual pshik, but Prokhorov got it from the budget.
    1. iouris
      iouris 3 November 2020 12: 33
      +4
      Quote: Konnick
      but Prokhorov got it from the budget.

      Hence the project is very successful.
  17. Aag
    Aag 3 November 2020 05: 23
    +1
    "An air cooled engine was also found to be preferred for hot and cold climates and was less vulnerable to bullets and shrapnel due to the lack of a radiator."
    Apparently, talking about protection from bullets and shrapnel, in the presence of a front gas tank, is meaningless ...
    About the center-to-center locking with rear-wheel drive has already been written ...
    There is one more point in the article: "The first production Volkswagen Kubelwagen cars were equipped with an air-cooled gasoline engine with a volume of 1 liter and a capacity of 23 hp. Since March 1943, cars with a new four-cylinder engine with a volume of 1,1 liters went into serial production." Is it logical to assume that before March 1943 the engines were not 4-cylinder?
    And further: "The engine power increased to 25 hp, which was increased by a simple bore of the cylinders. There were no other changes in its design." (!)
    Ie the pistons were left the same?
    Thanks for the article. The only thing I would like to wish the author is to be more attentive to words in technical topics. hi
  18. serg.shishkov2015
    serg.shishkov2015 3 November 2020 06: 07
    0
    He came to us on Victory Day several times !! I made a few photos! Nice assembly! Recognizable!
  19. Kerensky
    Kerensky 4 November 2020 00: 31
    0
    I saw a picture of him with a gas generator. I wonder - a factory version or a garage alteration?
  20. saygon66
    saygon66 5 November 2020 19: 48
    0

    - A direct descendant of "Kübel" - "Iltis" ...