Military Review

Invention and improvement. R. J. Gatling Machine Guns

51
Invention and improvement. R. J. Gatling Machine Guns

Gatling machine gun mod. 1862 Photo Wikimedia Commons


In the middle of the XIX century. a number of countries were looking for ways to increase the firepower of small arms weapons... Various systems with various features were created and put into service, however, most of these developments later went into history... The most successful invention of that time can be considered a multi-barreled machine gun designed by Richard Jordan Gatling. Its scheme with various changes and innovations is still widely used.

The path to invention


R.J. Gatling (1818-1903) developed an interest in technology from his youth and regularly proposed new ideas. For example, in the late thirties, he filed a patent application for a propeller for a self-propelled ship - but it turned out that a few months ago such an invention had already been registered. Later Gatling created several agricultural machines for different purposes. First, they dispersed around the district, and then began to be exploited in other states.

In the forties, after a serious illness, the inventor became interested in medicine. In 1850 he graduated from the Ohio College of Medicine, but did not begin to work in a new profession, continuing to develop and introduce new mechanisms and devices for various purposes. Over the years, Dr. R. Gatling received a number of patents for various inventions, but only one, received in 1862, brought him fame.


Weapon scheme from the first patent

At the start of the Civil War, R. Gatling lived in Indianapolis (Indiana). The city quickly became a key logistics center in the North. The necessary goods passed through it, and wounded and crippled soldiers returned from the front. As Dr. Gatling later recalled, it was this that led to the emergence of a new weapon.

At that time, a typical battle was a skirmish of two lines, then turning into hand-to-hand combat. The main reasons for this were the limited performance of available army muskets and rifles. Many shooters were required to create the required density of fire, and each of them was at risk of injury or death.

R. Gatling reasoned sensibly that increasing the rate of fire of a single weapon would increase firepower and, consequently, reduce the required size of the rifle subunit. At the same time, the number of soldiers at risk will also decrease - both wounded or dead. A parallel reduction in the size of the army made it possible to reduce the losses from disease on the march or in the camps.


Machine gun mod. 1865 - scheme from the patent

Known Solutions


The simplest option for increasing firepower has been known since the Renaissance. It was then that multi-barreled shooting and artillery systems became widespread, capable of firing in a volley or sequentially. In the middle of the XIX century. this concept led to the emergence of mitrailleuses with a block of barrels and a common breech with a large number of chambers. Such a weapon was inconvenient for reloading, but it provided salvo fire.

Also during this period, revolvers with a rotating block of barrels became widespread. During firing, the block rotated around the longitudinal axis and alternately brought the barrels to the common trigger. This design also made it possible to increase the rate of fire in comparison with single-barrel systems.

Probably, R. Gatling was familiar with these systems and took into account their peculiarities when developing his own project. He could borrow some components or ideas, but supplemented them with his own suggestions. It was his author's innovations that ensured the solution of all assigned engineering problems - and made it possible to create an effective weapon.


Diagram of a machine gun for a unitary cartridge

Original design


R. Gatling developed the idea with a rotating block of several barrels. He proposed to equip each barrel with its own bolt group and the simplest trigger mechanism. In fact, a key component of the new weapon was an assembly of six barrel-bolt systems. Such an assembly was placed in a common casing and could rotate. With the help of a simple system of guides, each barrel, passing in a circle, sequentially received a cartridge, sent it, fired a shot and threw out the sleeve.

The ammunition supply system was designed from the ground up. Gatling used an open-top box magazine. Unitary cartridges in a burning paper sleeve had to pass through it under their own weight and go to the bolt group, which occupies the upper position inside the casing.

The proposed scheme had no automation and needed an external drive. In this capacity, a handle rotated by the shooter was used. The force was transmitted to the block of barrels through an angular gear transmission. The rate of fire depended on the speed of rotation of the handle.


Broadwell store

This weapon design had a number of important advantages. First of all, it provided the possibility of firing bursts without interruptions between shots, characteristic of single-shot guns and rifles. At the same time, the well-coordinated work of the calculation made it possible to reduce the time for equipping the store and the intervals between queues. Already the first samples had a rate of fire of 200 rds / min. - as a whole rifle unit. Due to the use of black powder, the barrel bore quickly became covered with carbon deposits, but the presence of several barrels made it possible to increase the number of shots before cleaning.

The weapon did not have any special requirements for the calculation. The shooters had to load cartridges into the store, fire with direct fire and rotate the handle. None of these processes required complex preparation, and even an inexperienced calculation could take full advantage of the technical advantages of their weapons.

By way of improvement


The first experimental machine gun of the new system was assembled in artisanal conditions in 1861. The following year, the Gatling Gun Company was founded, and in November of the same year, R. Gatling received a patent US 36836 for his invention - "Improvement in revolving battery-guns". By this time, they managed to collect a small batch of products for demonstration to the military, but it was soon destroyed by fire.


American Army machine gun battery, 1877. Photo by Yellowstone National Park Collection

Since 1863 R. Gatling offered his weapons to the army, but for several years he did not succeed in this matter. The commanders doubted the need for such a weapon, and also criticized its high cost. In addition, there were suspicions that Dr. Gatling secretly sympathized with the Confederation. Until the end of the Civil War, only one machine gun was added to the army.

At the same time, R. Gatling worked on improving the existing design. An improved version of the machine gun was patented in 1865. It could fire up to 350 rounds per minute - significantly more than the base product. Shortly thereafter, the US Army first purchased a large batch of machine guns and soon adopted them.

In 1871, an updated machine gun with an improved ammunition supply system appeared. It was designed for a unitary cartridge with a metal sleeve and had two magazines: during firing, using one, it was possible to equip the second. When turning the block of barrels, the spent cartridges were removed from the chamber and fell out of the weapon under their own weight.


Machine gun mod. 1893 with a drum magazine. Photo Wikimedia Commons

In the same period, L.U. Broadwell. It was made in the form of a block of 20 magazines for 20 rounds - they were assembled into a cylinder and could rotate around a vertical axis. Having consumed one magazine, the shooter had to turn the entire block and continue firing. Depending on the caliber of the machine gun, Broadwell's magazine could hold up to 400 rounds. Later, a replaceable drum magazine was created with horizontal placement of cartridges.

Initially, the Gatling machine gun was built on a wheeled carriage. In the future, new versions of such a machine, portable products, etc. were introduced into production. Special machines for mounting on saddles were produced by order of Great Britain - this version of the weapon was nicknamed the Camel Gun ("Camel machine gun").

The most important innovation appeared in 1893. This time R. Gatling removed the manual drive and replaced it with an electric motor. The load on the gunner was dramatically reduced, which simplified combat use. However, the electrical systems of that time were not perfect, and working with a battery could become a separate problem.

Care and return


By the beginning of the XX century. Gatling machine guns became widespread and were actively used by many armies on all continents. Other companies have developed and produced artillery systems of a similar design.


A Hotchkiss M1879 Gatling cannon on a Russian warship. Photo Navy.su

However, the time of such weapons was coming to an end. During that period, the machine guns of H. Maxim and J. Browning appeared and entered service, which reloaded due to the energy of the shot. This gave clear advantages over an external drive system.

The USA, the first to adopt the Gatling machine gun, abandoned it in 1911 and completely switched to modern automatic models. Soon other countries followed this path. For several decades, the multi-barrel scheme with a rotating block went into the shadows due to the lack of real prospects.

However, already in the interwar period, work began in different countries to create automatic samples of the Gatling scheme. Some projects, such as the Soviet machine gun I.I. Slostin, reached the test, but did not advance further and did not enter service. Various technical problems and difficulties did not allow to surpass the "traditional" designs.

The triumphant return of the Gatling scheme took place in the fifties, when the 20-mm was created in the USA aviation gun M61 Vulcan. Soon, new weapons and machine guns of this scheme of American and Soviet development appeared. They have found application in aviation, in anti-aircraft complexes and on ships. The century-old scheme has proven to be quite useful.


Modern aircraft cannon M61A2. Photo by US Navy

Modern guns and machine guns of the Gatling scheme, like their predecessors, use movable assemblies that include multiple barrels and bolts. They are capable of developing a rate of fire of thousands of rounds per minute, aided by slower heating of the barrels and more efficient cooling in the intervals between shots. Working automation systems and convenient external drives, as well as capacious and fail-safe ammunition supplies have been created.

The main invention of Dr. R.J. Gatling immediately showed all its capabilities and then found its place in the armies of the world. In the future, the original scheme was repeatedly updated and improved with the use of advanced technologies. A new stage in the development of the scheme began in the middle of the last century and continues to this day. As a result, weapons with a rotating barrel block are firmly entrenched in the arsenals of the leading armies and will never leave them, as it was in the past.
Author:
51 comment
Information
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must to register.

I have an account? Sign in

  1. Tugarin
    Tugarin 30 October 2020 15: 34
    23
    I once covered the entire AK-630. Eh, youth ...
  2. Borik
    Borik 30 October 2020 15: 39
    +6
    The progenitor of all automatic multi-barreled guns. The Gatling had one major drawback. Big problems with shooting at the front. Therefore, more often the shooting was carried out with direct fire.
    1. a.hamster55
      a.hamster55 30 October 2020 17: 49
      +1
      A slightly different era. For connoisseurs of the Lend-Lease era. I don’t understand what kind of device?
      1. Engineer
        Engineer 30 October 2020 18: 56
        +8
        I'm not an expert, but this is a watch.
        Clock - intervalometer. Launches the camera at a specific interval between frames
        winding- winding (hour)
        1. a.hamster55
          a.hamster55 30 October 2020 19: 59
          +2
          Thank you dear Denis! It really looks like a clockwork because of the spring winding crank. For preservation and possibly noiselessness, it is packed in porous rubber. And there is also a plug with wires, and maybe that's why it seemed to me a clockwork for 48 hours, to detonate a land mine.
          1. Engineer
            Engineer 30 October 2020 20: 43
            +5
            It's my pleasure
            I only recognized by the inscription - the wire with the connector did not get into the frame. And the box itself is very original, as if it was made in an expensive workshop, and not in a mass factory. Maybe even teak
            plug with wires

            Just right for pairing with an aerial camera
            https://collections.qm.qld.gov.au/objects/SH980/camera-timing-device
            https://www.britishmuseum.org/collection/object/H_1958-1006-1975
            5 hours of shooting in a complete plant
            1. a.hamster55
              a.hamster55 30 October 2020 21: 17
              +6
              And all the other devices from Lend-Lease that have been in my hands are of excellent workmanship, although there was a war.
              1. Engineer
                Engineer 30 October 2020 21: 26
                11
                The era of cunning electromechanics. Meticulous finishing of sometimes utilitarian things. Basic calculations in mind and on paper
                Time of the titans
                We exchanged all this for IT technologies and planned aging.
                Well, I’m something about mine already)
    2. Mister X
      Mister X 30 October 2020 23: 52
      +8
      hi
      The 1871 model was distinguished from the earlier ones by the presence of a swivel / hinge.
      That is, the trunks could be deployed without moving the carriage.
      1. CTABEP
        CTABEP 31 October 2020 13: 20
        0
        This is the first time I hear about this, thanks, interesting. It was always incomprehensible - to transfer the fire all this fool was deployed, but it looks like it.
        1. Snail N9
          Snail N9 1 November 2020 06: 41
          +2
          "Gatling" is the "calling card" of the colonial wars of the second half of the 19th century .... As there in the Vitai Lampada of Sir Henry Newbolt:

          White sand is impregnated with red,
          The jammed "Gatling" is mournfully silent,
          The bloody feast is ruled by Rock,
          The square fell apart, and the colonel was killed ...
  3. Greenwood
    Greenwood 30 October 2020 16: 08
    +7
    As a result, weapons with a rotating barrel block are firmly entrenched in the arsenals of the leading armies and will not leave them.
    Yes, and looks cool in the movies. bully
    1. sergo1914
      sergo1914 30 October 2020 16: 52
      +2
      Quote: Greenwood
      As a result, weapons with a rotating barrel block are firmly entrenched in the arsenals of the leading armies and will not leave them.
      Yes, and looks cool in the movies. bully



      A soulful episode with him in The Magnificent Seven
      2016 year. Chris Pratt blows up a cart with a machine gun with a saber.
      1. Greenwood
        Greenwood 30 October 2020 17: 06
        10
        Yeah. Even in The Last Samurai it is well shown.
        1. Lexus
          Lexus 30 October 2020 17: 30
          12
          Colleague hi
          and not so epoch-making film projects can boast of very worthy props.


          A fragment from the movie "Tremors 4: The Legend Begins" (2004)

          The video is not loaded for some reason. Some problems at VO with this again.
          1. The comment was deleted.
    2. Avior
      Avior 31 October 2020 10: 36
      +3
      Even in the movies, a machine gun doesn't always help.

      smile
  4. Nikolaevich I
    Nikolaevich I 30 October 2020 17: 32
    +8
    Is repetition the mother of learning? This is the article "about Gatlings and wabchas ... mitraleses" on VO? Well, well ... maybe that's right! I just wanted (preferably ...) to learn something new from the next article! For example, I once read that at the end of the 19th century they tried in every possible way to "radically" improve the "Gatling machine gun"! It was said about the "gatling" electric drive in today's article ... But I wanted to know about the "truthfulness" of such statements as: 1. an attempt to use the "gas drive" in the "gatling" (gas outlet circuit); 2. tape cartridge "food" ... (I, however, assume that the author of that article was joking and thought that he had the right, speaking about the improvements of the "gatlings", to refer to the "gatlings" of the 20th century!)
    Often, in the descriptions of the "gatlings", they are embarrassed to explain, but what "barrel" were these "machine guns"? Usually they write that 5-6-barreled devices were most often used! Well, what is the minimum and maximum "barrel" of "gatlings"? I read about the minimum 3 (4) barrels and 10 (12) maximum ... You can mention the fact that in Russia, somewhere in the late 60s-70s of the 19th century, on the "base" of "gatlings" they made their own "canister ": 10-barreled Gatling-Gorlov and 6-barreled Gatling-Baranovsky ... You can recall the 4-barreled" machine guns "of Farrington (were in service with the Russian Army ...)

    and don't forget the Hotchkiss revolving cannons ...
    1. Saxahorse
      Saxahorse 30 October 2020 22: 24
      +4
      Quote: Nikolaevich I
      an attempt to use a "gas drive" in a "gatling" (gas outlet circuit)

      It was so. They adapted the gas drive from the Colt Browning M1895 machine gun. It worked fine, but in all other respects, the "potato digger" still tore the gatling like a hot water bottle! And since the patent for both products belonged to Colt, the history of the six-barrel was temporarily interrupted at this.

      At first, the Russian army became very interested, they immediately ordered either 12 or 16 batteries. Truth and comments were expressed a lot, hence these designs of Gatling-Gorlov and Gatling-Baranovsky, as a result, were introduced into the American army. However, the Russians quickly became disillusioned with gatlings. With the advent of rapid-fire breech-loading guns and diaphragm shrapnel, all these heaps of gatlings were sent to the reserve for long-term storage. They say a couple of pieces were used in the Russian-Turkish war of 1878 and in the Central Asian campaigns of the late 19th century.
    2. Catfish
      Catfish 31 October 2020 00: 45
      +4
      But such a "machine gun" was invented by the Confederates by the end of the Civil War, steam worked instead of gunpowder, but ... they did not have time to build, let alone apply this unit. request
    3. Oprichnik
      Oprichnik 31 October 2020 01: 12
      +4
      My great-grandfather, a Cossack of the Great Don Army, got into trouble during the Russian-Turkish war of 1870-1878. in the Orhaniye area in exploration. He and his detachment, surrounded by enemies on a high steep hill, were rescued by mountain guns and two grape-shooters, probably Gorlov-Baranovsky, who came to the rescue, who killed most of the Turks and Bashi-bazouks who surrounded the detachment.
  5. Catfish
    Catfish 30 October 2020 18: 40
    +8
    By the beginning of the XX century. Gatling machine guns became widespread and were actively used by many armies on all continents.

    By the beginning of the twentieth century, Maxim's machine guns had already been flooded, after in 1893, in Africa, the mercenaries of Cecil Rhodes from half a dozen Maxim machine guns mowed one and a half thousand Ndebels like grass, it became clear to the whole world that the time of Gatling's canister was in the past. As it turned out later, not for good, but this is the second question. And by the beginning of the twentieth century, almost all European countries, as well as China and Japan, had acquired Maxims, and the fact that Gatling remained in service in the United States right up to 1911 speaks only of the inertia and sluggishness of the American military department.
    The machine that "killed" Gatling's canister.

    Photo of one of the first versions of the legendary Maxim.
    1. cat Rusich
      cat Rusich 30 October 2020 20: 52
      +7
      Maxim was "born" already in 1883 (the first drawing in 1873) and Maxim's "godfather" Nathaniel Rothschild, who believed in the "baby" and gave money for its development ...
      machine gun Maxim
      machine gun Maxim
      machine gun Maxim
      machine gunMaxim
      "Kid" Maxim immediately began to grow rapidly. At first I "ate" black powder, and in 1899 switched to a "smokeless diet". Maxim is still "alive and well" today ...
      machine gun Maxim in Donbass
      1. Nikolaevich I
        Nikolaevich I 31 October 2020 11: 39
        0
        But the first "maxims" did not exclude a manual drive ... (could be "mechanical" machine guns at will ...)! It is possible that the inventor took into account the fact that the "people" are accustomed to a manual drive (mechanical machine guns) ...
        1. cat Rusich
          cat Rusich 31 October 2020 18: 36
          +1
          Like these ones...
          Bergman-Nordenfelt machine gun 1897
          Bergman-Nordenfelt machine gun 1897 There were also Nordenfelt's "light machine guns" ...
          single-barreled machine gun Nordenfeld
          For a short period of time, Maxim merged with Nordenfelt into Maxim Nordenfelt Guns and Ammunition Co.
    2. hohol95
      hohol95 31 October 2020 00: 07
      +3
      The Mexican revolutionaries preferred a product from Hotchkiss & Co.
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 31 October 2020 00: 31
        +6
        Exactly! "Hotchkiss" mod. 1908 year.

        And the Mexican revolutionaries at work on it (x / f "Juan Galio" Mexico).
        1. Nikolaevich I
          Nikolaevich I 31 October 2020 10: 54
          +3
          I still remember the movie "Golden Bullet"! And there "Hotchkiss" worked!
          1. Catfish
            Catfish 31 October 2020 11: 02
            +3
            So, too, Mexico, Pancho Villa, revolutionaries, guerillas and just bandits, where is there without "Hotchkiss"! laughing
            It's hard for us in the village without the "Nagant", but in Mexico without a machine gun in any way! fellow
            1. Phil77
              Phil77 31 October 2020 16: 02
              +2
              Hi Konstantin! Slightly off topic. But sad! Sean Connory has died.

              Sadly, good actor.
              1. Catfish
                Catfish 31 October 2020 16: 07
                +2
                It's a pity, he, in general, personified the whole cinema era. The name of his main movie hero is known even by those who have not seen films with his participation.
              2. hohol95
                hohol95 31 October 2020 23: 43
                +3
                Eh! Yes, God and we all live 90 years! And stay with Your Mind!
            2. hohol95
              hohol95 31 October 2020 23: 42
              +2
              In one of the old issues of the magazine "Weapon" there was an article that Pancho Villa loved this machine gun! And there it was said that the ancestor of the Bush family gave "a certain amount of dollars" for the head of the late revolutionary! And it is still kept in "one of the student communities" at an American university!
  6. 27091965
    27091965 30 October 2020 19: 23
    +3
    Also during this period, revolvers with a rotating block of barrels became widespread. During firing, the block rotated around the longitudinal axis and alternately brought the barrels to the common trigger. This design also made it possible to increase the rate of fire in comparison with single-barrel systems.

    Probably, R. Gatling was familiar with these systems and took into account their peculiarities when developing his own project. He could borrow some components or ideas, but supplemented them with his own suggestions. It was his author's innovations that ensured the solution of all assigned engineering problems - and made it possible to create an effective weapon.


    Not much wrong. For the basis of his weapon R. Gatling took the patented in 1861 "Machine Gun" E. Ripley. R. Gatling's guns of 1862, types I and II, were in fact an improved multi-barrel arrangement of the E. Ripley cannon. The main assistance in promoting the development of R. Gatling was provided by the Governor of Indiana, OP Morton, who was present at the shooting and wrote a letter to the Assistant Secretary of War, in which he pointed out the unusual characteristics of this weapon and offered to conduct official tests. During its existence, many different modifications have been made.
  7. Proctologist
    Proctologist 30 October 2020 21: 26
    +3
    The machine gun is the first weapon of mass destruction, not only historically, but also in practice. There are many more people killed by machine gun fire than from nuclear explosions or gas attacks. Like any weapon of mass destruction, the machine gun changed the course of history and showed itself in the shocking results of battles with its first use.

    Our machine gun is hushed up, since there are no Russian roots in it.
    1. a.hamster55
      a.hamster55 30 October 2020 21: 49
      +7
      There were so many wunderwafels ...
      1. cat Rusich
        cat Rusich 31 October 2020 00: 20
        +5
        Frommer Stop M17 Austria-Hungary
        Frommer Stop M17 Austria-Hungary - two "pistols" based on Frommer Stop
        Frommer Stop M17
        Here is Frommer Stop M17 exploded.
        Frommer stop
        Here is Frommer Stop in its original form ... The "gunsmiths" of Austria-Hungary took the usual Frommer Stop pistol - cartridge .32 ACP. They "simplified" it, made a magazine for 30 rounds, made a machine, put 2 "pistols" on it and ... got a Frommer Stop M17 submachine gun.
        Frommer Stop M17
        Didn't go into series ...
      2. Nikolaevich I
        Nikolaevich I 31 October 2020 11: 12
        +2
        Quote: a.hamster55
        There were so many wunderwafels.

        This "waffle" has been one of my favorites for a long time! I also once posted this picture on page VO, as a comment to an article about the appearance of the first aircraft weapons ... But later I lost this picture; since there was a problem with the computer and I lost part of my "archive"! So I am grateful for the appearance of this picture!
        1. a.hamster55
          a.hamster55 31 October 2020 17: 58
          +1
          And thank you for your kind words. The photo has been in my archive for a long time, but I don't remember where it came from, maybe yours or from the Hansa ...
    2. SaLaR
      SaLaR 30 October 2020 22: 14
      +1
      Maybe there are no roots ... But the tree is oh, how strong and fruitful it turned out ..............)))
      1. Nikolaevich I
        Nikolaevich I 31 October 2020 11: 27
        +2
        Quote: SaLaR
        Maybe there are no roots ..

        Well, if not roots, then root branches may have been ...

        "Machine gun" Shmetillo ...
        1. cat Rusich
          cat Rusich 1 November 2020 17: 19
          +2
          The Shmetillo machine gun has an "Austro-Hungarian spine" - made from Chinese rifles "Hanyang 88" manufactured in Hanyang based on the Mannlicher M1888 cartridge 8x52R. It was manufactured in Port Arthur during the siege (Russo-Japanese War of 1904-1905) - it was just that the city had stocks of Chinese Hanyang 88 rifles and cartridges for them; when recharging, turn the shutter along the axis manually.
          1. Nikolaevich I
            Nikolaevich I 1 November 2020 19: 39
            0
            Quote: cat Rusich
            The Shmetillo machine gun has an "Austro-Hungarian spine" - made from Chinese rifles

            Your opinion is completely wrong! What does the "Chinese rifle" have to do with it? Yes, even Austrian! The point is not that! It's a pity you don't understand this! Really ... sorry! request
  8. Saxahorse
    Saxahorse 30 October 2020 22: 29
    +3
    The article is not bad, it reminded me of the ancient piece of iron, beloved by many authors of books "about the populace".

    Attempts to explain to the victim that a gatling is heavier, more expensive and more difficult to manufacture than a machine gun are usually useless. I think that many more books await us with the knights of the Round Table enthusiastically turning the handle of this funny American organ. laughing
    1. vonWolfenstein
      vonWolfenstein 3 November 2020 16: 46
      +1
      I would like to note that the choice of the Gatling people is due to: A) "Steampunk" appearance. B) Single-barrel machine guns require high-quality unitary cartridges, for the production of which an already developed industry is needed. The clogging of the barrel with carbon deposits from the "smoker" in the six-barrel gun is compensated by the number of these.
      1. Saxahorse
        Saxahorse 3 November 2020 23: 08
        0
        Quote: vonWolfenstein
        The choice of Gatling's hitters is due to: A) "Steampunk" appearance.

        I agree with you! I am sure that this is the main and only motive! And even myself, slightly so, I look with interest at the Winchester or Colt, romance! laughing

        Quote: vonWolfenstein
        The clogging of the barrel with carbon deposits from the "smoker" in the six-barrel gun is compensated by the number of these.

        The breech-loading weapon does not have clogging of the barrel from the smoke detector :) The bullet, having snuggled into the grooves, cleans the barrel to a shine with each shot. On the contrary - yes, in muzzle loaders, carbon deposits are driven inside every time a bullet is hammered.
        1. vonWolfenstein
          vonWolfenstein 8 November 2020 10: 08
          0
          Hmm, interestingly, this moment was not covered in the "popancheskiy" and Ganza branch. Somehow he himself swung to a "post-apocalyptic" novel, but did not advance beyond 3 chapters. The idea was a gatling from trilinear trunks driven by an electric motor driven by a gas generator)))
          1. Saxahorse
            Saxahorse 8 November 2020 18: 41
            0
            Quote: vonWolfenstein
            The idea was a gatling made of trilinear trunks driven by an electric motor driven by a gas generator)))

            There was such a Gatling, wrote somewhere about it :) It was made in the 1890s on the basis of a gas-operated machine gun Colt-Br .. M1895 (potato digger). The scheme looks primitive, but it turned out to be unusually reliable, it works on any, no matter how dirty gunpowder, in addition, as it turned out, it is rather fond of the cartridges, the separation of the bottom of the case from low-quality wartime cartridges was not noticed at all. But when the piston was deployed along the barrel, as in modern schemes, the requirements for cartridges increased markedly.

            By the way, note that even Minier's bullets had grooves on the body of the bullet. Berdanoks have the same grooves. This is to reduce the friction of the bullet on the barrel and grease, they were smeared with goose fat. The barrel lead problem was more serious for breech-loading weapons than the carbon deposit problem.

            In general, good luck with the book! Quite frankly, there are not enough good works of Popadan. I hope you succeed! hi
            1. vonWolfenstein
              vonWolfenstein 8 November 2020 19: 56
              0
              Thanks for the useful information, I will definitely read about this machine gun. All the best!
  9. Revolver
    Revolver 31 October 2020 01: 15
    +1
    Marines defend the Ambassador Quarter during the Boxing Uprising in China. Not a photo, but drawn by a Marine Sergeant.
    US Marines defending the Beijing Legation Quarter during the Boxer Rebellion in 1900 - by Marine Sgt John Clymer
  10. Avior
    Avior 31 October 2020 10: 40
    0
    Application of the Gatling system in logging
    Mythbusters experience

    Expensive firewood is just obtained
  11. certero
    certero 31 October 2020 23: 24
    0
    Quote: Nikolaevich I
    I still remember the movie "Golden Bullet"! And there "Hotchkiss" worked!

    Yes, the impression from the film was the coolest