Military Review

One of the prototypes of Stirlitz could be Lev Efimovich Manevich

56

The legendary intelligence officer Stirlitz, aka Maxim Isaev, aka Vsevolod Vladimirov, has forever become an element of the national cultural code. The hero of the works of the writer Julian Semyonov fell in love with many of our fellow citizens from books, but especially from the famous television series "Seventeen Moments of Spring". The folk hero is a fictional character, but when creating it, Yulian Semyonov was inspired by many illegal Soviet intelligence officers. Among them could well have been Lev Efimovich Manevich, who for a long time successfully worked in Europe under the assumed name of the Austrian businessman Konrad Kertner.


Manevich was not deprived of attention from Soviet writers. As Konstantin Simonov said, intelligence comes to fame posthumously. It happened with Sorge, it happened with Manevich. The novel by the Soviet front-line writer Yevgeny Vorobyov "Land on demand" was written about this Soviet intelligence officer, based on which a feature film of the same name was shot in 1972.

The unusual childhood of Lev Manevich


Lev Efimovich Manevich was born on August 20, 1898 in the small town of Chausy, Mogilev province. The future scout came from a poor family of a small Jewish employee. In those years, Gomel, Mogilev and Bobruisk formed a kind of Belarusian settlement belt. In the Russian Empire from 1791 to 1917, this was the name of the geographical border of the territory beyond which Jews could not permanently live, with the exception of a number of categories that were constantly changing. Such injustice and infringement of civil rights caused a large spread of revolutionary ideas among the Jewish population of the Russian Empire. It was from small towns and cities outside the Pale of Settlement that a large number of famous revolutionaries and political figures later emerged.

The elder brother of Lev Manevich, Yakov, was no exception. He was imbued with revolutionary ideas that were floating in society at the beginning of the 1905th century. From a young age he took part in revolutionary activities and joined the RSDLP (b). In XNUMX, while serving in the army, Yakov was arrested for possession in the barracks weapons, Bolshevik proclamations and explosives. He got off relatively easily: he was sent for correction to the disciplinary unit on the territory of the Bobruisk fortress. Here Yakov Manevich took part in the battalion uprising on November 22, 1905. Later, 13 rebels were sentenced to death, and the rest of the participants to hard labor.


Yakov Manevich was lucky, his comrades did not leave him in trouble. The battle group freed Jacob, after which he managed to get abroad, first to Germany and then to Switzerland. In the spring of 1907, his younger brother Lev also went to Zurich. Relatives sent the young Leo abroad after the death of his mother, deciding that he would be better there. In 1913, Lev Manevich entered the local polytechnic college, where he very quickly mastered spoken German. Excellent knowledge of the language will be very useful to him in the future in intelligence work. There, in Switzerland, Lev Manevich learned two more languages: French and Italian. These languages ​​were spoken in some Swiss cantons, and Leo showed an ability to learn foreign languages.

The brothers continued to follow the revolutionary agenda. In Switzerland, they attended several of Lenin's speeches. Both met the revolution in Russia in 1917 with enthusiasm and left for their homeland in the summer of the same year.

How Lev Manevich became a scout


Upon arrival in Russia, Lev Manevich quickly decided on his future. After the October Revolution, he volunteered for the Red Army, and in 1918 for the RCP (b), having received the coveted party card. The civil war that began in the country seriously shook Lev Manevich, throwing our hero into various corners of the former empire. In 1918, he was in Baku and managed to fight as part of the First International Regiment against the Musavatists, and in the spring of 1919 he fought on the Eastern Front against the troops of Admiral Kolchak. During the civil war, Lev Manevich was very active in party work in all the cities where he found himself: in Baku, Ufa, Samara.

Manevich ended the civil war as a commissar of an armored train. It was at this time of his life that he would meet a real comrade in arms, Yakov Nikitich Starostin. In the name of this man, many years after the end of the civil war, Manevich will introduce himself, having fallen into a Nazi concentration camp. A comrade in arms from the past, whose biography Lev Manevich will ascribe to himself, will save his life for the last time.

One of the prototypes of Stirlitz could be Lev Efimovich Manevich

Lev Manevich, fluent in foreign languages, educated in Switzerland, well-proven in battles, wounded and shedding blood for the new power, did not go unnoticed by the command. After the end of the civil war, his military career was on the rise. In 1921, Manevich successfully graduated from the high school of the staff service of the command staff of the Red Army, and in 1924 - from the Military Academy of the Red Army.

Already in August 1924, Manevich was in the service of the Intelligence Directorate of the Red Army. During these years he was assigned to the Secretariat of the Revolutionary Military Council of the Republic for special assignments. In fact, all these years he was engaged in preparation for overseas business trips and intelligence activities abroad. From 1925 to 1927 he was on a business trip in Germany. After returning to the Soviet Union in May 1927, he headed a separate sector in the Intelligence Directorate of the Red Army. At the same time, in 1928, he managed to undergo an internship as a commander of a rifle company in the 164th regiment, and after successfully completing in 1929 the courses that were organized at the Nikolai Yegorovich Zhukovsky Air Force Academy, in May-October 1929 he was an intern at 44th aviation detachment. All this was necessary for his future intelligence work in Europe. The main points of application of the intelligence's efforts were to become new technologies in industry, especially aviation.

The work of an illegal scout


At the end of 1929, Lev Manevich will go on his reconnaissance mission, from which he will never return home. For successful work, he legalized himself in Austria under the assumed name of a local merchant Konrad Kertner, the intelligence agent's pseudonym was the name Etienne. In Vienna, the Soviet intelligence agent successfully legalized himself by opening his own patent office. The cover was excellent and provided access to the latest in European industry. At the same time, being an aviator, having the necessary education and skills acquired during his studies in the USSR, the newly minted Austrian Konrad Kertner made many useful contacts with pilots, technicians, mechanics, equipment adjusters and some aircraft designers.

Having legalized in Austria, by 1931 Manevich reoriented himself to Italy, which was of great interest to the USSR. Military intelligence needed information not only about the state of the country's armed forces and the transfer of troops, but also about the state and capabilities of the Italian military industry, about the military-political plans of fascist Italy. In 1931, in Milan, Konrad Kertner, with the help of his friend, an Italian aeronautical engineer, opened a new patent office, Eureka. The scout met the engineer at the international aviation exhibition in Leipzig, persuaded him to become his companion.


This period of work in Italy was the most successful for Etienne. In Lombardy, Eureka represented the interests of a number of real Austrian, Czech and German firms that were interested in supplying products to the Italian market. Kertner's success was a contract with the German company "Neptune", which was engaged in the production of batteries, in which the Soviet Union showed special interest. Here in Italy, the "Austrian businessman" worked especially closely with the novelties of the Italian aircraft industry and military shipbuilding. The large shipbuilding company Oto Melara was of particular interest to the scout.

For the USSR, the spy, legalized in Austria and Italy, became a very valuable employee who supplied the center with a lot of information useful for the Soviet defense industry: drawings, patents, analytical notes, plans. In 1931-1932 alone, Lev Manevich's residency, which grew to 9 source agents and three auxiliary agents involved in solving secondary tasks, transferred 190 valuable documents and information reports to Moscow. 70 percent of the information received by the Center was rated very highly by the Soviet command. Among the information transmitted were data on aircraft engines, navigation instruments, instruments that make it easier for pilots to fly in conditions of poor visibility, information on armor steels, new models of surface ships and submarines.

The flow of this information dried up in October 1932. One of the recruited agents was discovered by Italian counterintelligence and split. At a meeting with Konrad, at which the agent was supposed to give the Austrian a package of blueprints for the new plane, the "Austrian businessman" was detained. This happened in Milan on October 3, 1932. The Soviet intelligence officer was accused of military espionage and was caught red-handed on the spot.

From prison to concentration camp


The Italian counterintelligence and the investigation were never able to find out the real identity of Konrad Kertner, he did not recognize his belonging to the Soviet intelligence. The investigation itself took a very long time, the final court decision and verdict were passed only in February 1937. Austrian citizen Konrad Kertner was sentenced to 16 years in prison (later the sentence will be reduced, but this will not save the intelligence officer). After sentencing, the intelligence officer will be sent to serve his sentence in the prison of Castelfranco del Emilia. At the same time, in the homeland, already during the investigation, by a secret order of the NKO of the USSR of December 16, 1935, Manevich, who was at the disposal of the Intelligence Directorate of the Red Army, was awarded the rank of colonel.


While in prison, Lev Manevich contracted tuberculosis. In the spring of 1941, the already sick prisoner was transferred to the south of the country to a convict prison located on the island of Santo Stefano. Manevich stayed in this prison until September 9, 1943. The island was liberated by the American military, who released some of the prisoners from prison, including Manevich. Here история played a cruel joke with the scout. Instead of freedom, he ended up in the dungeons of the Gestapo. After the liberation, Manevich, with some of the freed prisoners, sailed on a schooner to the Italian city of Gaeta, which was occupied by German troops only a day before their arrival.

The Germans quickly sent all the prisoners who arrived to the Ebensee concentration camp, located in Austria. Realizing that his legend would most likely not be believed that he could be uncovered, on the train on the way to the concentration camp, Manevich changed his jacket for the jacket of the Russian prisoner of war Yakovlev who died from typhus. Upon arrival at the camp, he clarified that his name was not Yakovlev, but Yakov Starostin, and there was simply confusion in his name. Here Manevich combined the biography of a comrade-in-arms known to him from the Civil War with the information that he managed to learn about a prisoner of war who died on the train.

The new legend did not arouse any suspicion among the SS, it was under the name of Yakov Starostin that the Soviet intelligence officer was kept in Hitler's concentration camps. In addition to the Ebensee camp, these were the Mauthausen and Melk camps. In the camps, the scout conducted clandestine work and, even being seriously ill, continued to demonstrate to the prisoners the will to resist and endurance. It was again liberated by American troops in early May 1945. However, grave illness and camp deprivation had their say. Lev Manevich died on May 12, 1945 and was buried in the vicinity of Linz. Before his death, he revealed his real name and occupation to the camp comrade Soviet officer Grant Airapetov.


In 1965, Lev Efimovich Manevich was posthumously awarded the title of Hero of the Soviet Union. In the same year, his grave was found. The scout's remains were transferred and solemnly reburied at the large memorial cemetery St. Martin in Linz, where the fallen Soviet soldiers were buried. At the same time, a monument was officially installed on the grave with the inscription: "Here lies the ashes of the Hero of the Soviet Union, Colonel Lev Efimovich Manevich."
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  1. parusnik
    parusnik 28 October 2020 06: 10
    +6
    After the liberation, Manevich, with some of the freed prisoners, sailed on a schooner to the Italian city of Gaeta, which was occupied by German troops only a day before their arrival.
    ...Out of the frying pan into the fire...
    1. vladcub
      vladcub 28 October 2020 17: 42
      +3
      I can imagine what it was like for him: he was released and full of happiness swam into the hands of his enemies
  2. Catfish
    Catfish 28 October 2020 07: 02
    +9
    Well, at least I learned that everything was not for nothing, the country turned its neck to the Nazis, and the Nazis at the same time, and he, the Soviet intelligence officer, is in the camp of the victors in the Great War.
    But there is one moment, the title of Hero was awarded only in 65, and somehow the grave was quickly found immediately. And this is twenty years after the Victory. No matter how much Khrushchev was criticized, all this became possible only during the notorious "Khrushchev thaw", or even now they would not know anything.
    With Richard Sorge it was even more interesting, our country learned about its hero-scout after the screening of the feature film "Who Are You Doctor Sorge?" At the Moscow Film Festival. filmed by the French director Yves Siampy, filmed in the west, not with us. And immediately after that, they gave the Hero and all that rest, however, they were ashamed to report that his family was shot in the dungeons of the NKVD.
    Richard Sorge "Ramsay"
    1. Phil77
      Phil77 28 October 2020 08: 21
      +8
      Greetings, and there is also such a book. * Advertising bureau of Mr. Kochek *, author Vartes Tevekelian, about Vasily and Yelizaveta Zarubins, our scouts. He also acted under the identity of a merchant. Quite a convenient * legend * for a scout.
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 28 October 2020 09: 01
        11
        There was a film "Tehran 43" about how our intelligence service thwarted the attempt on the Big Three, but in reality our intelligence group of professionals under the leadership of Hero of the Soviet Union Gevork Andreevich Vartanyan and his wife Gohar worked there. They have worked as illegal immigrants all their lives, and God knows which of the current Western politicians previously worked for them, in different countries for forty-five years. And they never burned out.
        You can also remember "Dead Season", a film about Konon the Young (Lonsdale), then our people traded it for Grevel Win, Penkovsky's liaison. British newspapers wrote that "Traded a red shark for a British sprat."
        1. Astra wild2
          Astra wild2 28 October 2020 17: 22
          +1
          Good evening Konstantin, and I thought that "Dead season" was about Abel
          1. Catfish
            Catfish 28 October 2020 17: 44
            +3
            Good evening, Vera. love The film about Abel has not yet been filmed, apparently the time has not come yet.
            1. Astra wild2
              Astra wild2 28 October 2020 20: 57
              0
              Somehow it turns out not logically: about Abel-Fischer the time has not come, but about the Young?
              1. Catfish
                Catfish 29 October 2020 05: 29
                +2
                Perhaps there are different levels of contacts abroad, some are still alive, Trump, for example. laughing
            2. Lewww
              Lewww 3 November 2020 00: 10
              0
              The film about Abel has not yet been filmed, apparently the time has not come yet.

              You are wrong, Cat, the film was shot and not one, for example

              documentary "Secrets of Intelligence. William Fischer (Rudolph Abel)"

              and artistic https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I0GVYudZZo4
              1. Catfish
                Catfish 3 November 2020 05: 07
                +1
                Thanks for the information, I found the film, though, how shall I put it ... not really fictional, but these are details. My "problem" is that I haven't watched TV for a long time.))
                1. Lewww
                  Lewww 3 November 2020 10: 34
                  +1
                  Three colors on the channels History and Arms several times showed documentaries about many Soviet intelligence agents: Sudoplatov, Eitingon, Vartanyan, Korotkov, Fitin, and others, including little-known illegal immigrants. Filmed with the participation of the SVR press center.
                  1. Catfish
                    Catfish 3 November 2020 11: 18
                    0
                    Thanks, but there is no TV, I'll try it some other way.
        2. Lewww
          Lewww 1 November 2020 17: 29
          0
          "But in reality our intelligence group of professionals worked there under the leadership of Hero of the Soviet Union Gevork Andreevich Vartanyan and his wife Gohar."
          = = = The word "professionals" is clearly superfluous here. A professional among them could only be called Vartanyan, who studied for some time in an English intelligence school. smile
          1. Catfish
            Catfish 1 November 2020 17: 37
            +1
            the word "professionals" is clearly superfluous here

            Yeah, amateurs ... and almost half a century on the "illegal" without failures. laughing
            And the superfluous here, in my opinion, is your comment.
            1. Lewww
              Lewww 2 November 2020 15: 48
              0
              Dear Cat, I want to note that at the time of the events described, 21-year-old Vartanyan had not even finished the courses of the English intelligence school, and his future wife Gohar was only 17 years old.
              Only a person who did not understand the meaning of this expression could call them intelligence professionals in 1943.
              1. Catfish
                Catfish 2 November 2020 16: 18
                0
                Thank you, enlightened, otherwise, before communicating with you, I had no idea about the true meaning of the word "professional". Keep up the good work and everyone's gratitude is assured to you.
                1. Lewww
                  Lewww 2 November 2020 23: 55
                  0
                  "before communicating with you, I had no idea about the true meaning of the word" professional "
                  = = = it looks like it is, judging by your comments in my original post
                  the word "professionals" is clearly superfluous here. A professional among them could only be called Vartanyan, who studied for some time in an English intelligence school.
                  1. Catfish
                    Catfish 3 November 2020 05: 08
                    0
                    What is the post - so are the comments. request
      2. Catfish
        Catfish 28 October 2020 09: 10
        +3
        Seryozha, hi! hi Sorry, I forgot to say hello, the head with a lack of sleep is plague. smile
        1. Phil77
          Phil77 28 October 2020 09: 22
          +6
          Quote: Sea Cat
          Sorry

          Hi Konstantin, I'm at work, we have another * mask * tightening. So, the mood is not up to par. You understand. belay
          1. Korsar4
            Korsar4 28 October 2020 18: 30
            +1
            To what extent have we reached? What is required?
    2. Astra wild2
      Astra wild2 28 October 2020 17: 24
      +2
      "his family was shot in the dungeons of the NKVD" sorry, but this is very mean!
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 28 October 2020 17: 52
        +3
        During interrogation, Sorge admitted that he was a Soviet intelligence agent, but in the USSR they refused him, saying that he had nothing to do with Russia, this is understandable, there was a monstrous battle with Germany in terms of tension and casualties and we simply did not have to aggravate relations with Japan rights. But as for the wife and son of Sorge, I don't know, I can't understand this, perhaps someone from the leadership of the NKVD thus decided to play it safe. The question is - from what?
        In general, in intelligence, as in politics, people work without "white gloves", they have such a job, but there is no romance.
        1. Astra wild2
          Astra wild2 28 October 2020 20: 51
          0
          Brr, and we were hung up with noodles
          1. Catfish
            Catfish 29 October 2020 05: 29
            0
            That's why the people have ears ... laughing
            1. Astra wild2
              Astra wild2 29 October 2020 10: 02
              +3
              Konstantin, good morning. I prefer to wear earrings in my ears. It's prettier.
              1. Catfish
                Catfish 29 October 2020 11: 13
                +3
                You are a reasonable woman, and I am convinced of this once again. smile love
                1. Astra wild2
                  Astra wild2 29 October 2020 11: 53
                  +3
                  Mercy. I love complements
    3. vladcub
      vladcub 28 October 2020 18: 01
      +3
      Kostya, hello. I myself drew attention to this detail: they were awarded the title of Hero of the Soviet Union and the grave was immediately found. It bothers me a little.
      Last year I went to my homeland, to see off, put flowers on the graves and decided to visit my first teacher. I strayed until I found it, the last time she had it about 5 years ago, and then after 20 years
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 28 October 2020 18: 08
        +1
        Hello, Glory. hi
        ... and the grave was immediately found.

        Well, at least so, many do not have this either.
        1. vladcub
          vladcub 28 October 2020 20: 21
          +2
          And some of them didn't even have a real name. I once read that the prototype of Vladimir-Isaev "The password is not needed" was a particularly important intelligence officer: "Comrade Leonid". Nothing else is known about him. Perhaps Dzerzhinsky personally directed him and 2-3 people could know his real name. If these people were: Berzin, Artuzov, and you remember their fate, then ...
          1. Catfish
            Catfish 29 October 2020 05: 35
            -1
            For the first time I hear about "Comrade Leonid" from you, and as for Berzin and Artuzov - they forged a system themselves, which then destroyed them. “The revolution is devouring its children,” as Danton said before his execution.
            1. Astra wild2
              Astra wild2 29 October 2020 10: 05
              0
              You have pictures for every taste
              1. Catfish
                Catfish 29 October 2020 11: 12
                +1
                All this is on the network and it is not so difficult to find
  3. Pete mitchell
    Pete mitchell 28 October 2020 08: 28
    +7
    Great spirit people, thanks to the author.
    It is necessary to talk about such people, especially young people. Boys from Urengoy not capable of such
  4. A. Privalov
    A. Privalov 28 October 2020 10: 56
    +4
    Nothing good would await him if he returned to the USSR.
    Many well-known illegal immigrants were repressed upon their return:

    Sandor Rado was sentenced to 15 years in prison on charges of espionage.

    Leopold Trepper was sentenced to 15 years in prison, and later reduced to 10 years.

    Rachelle Dubendorfer was convicted of espionage under Article 58-6. Sent for compulsory treatment in Kazan with isolation in a psychiatric hospital. Spent 10 years there.

    Paul Böttcher was sentenced to 10 years in labor camps. Released in 1956.
    1. Astra wild2
      Astra wild2 28 October 2020 17: 19
      0
      I only know the names: Rado and Treper, and no one else
      1. A. Privalov
        A. Privalov 28 October 2020 17: 33
        +5
        Quote: Astra wild2
        I only know the names: Rado and Treper, and no one else

        Rachel Dubendorfer and Paul Bettcher are a married couple from the Red Capella residency.
        1. Astra wild2
          Astra wild2 28 October 2020 20: 53
          -1
          I heard about the "Red Capella", but I thought that everyone died
          1. A. Privalov
            A. Privalov 28 October 2020 21: 50
            +2
            Quote: Astra wild2
            I heard about the "Red Capella", but I thought that everyone died

            Those who were in Germany died. However, the Red Capella also had a separate network located in neutral Switzerland and was out of the reach of the Germans. The group was led by Sandor Rado (codename DORA), who had three subgroups under their leadership: Rachel Dubendorfer (SISSY), Georg Blanc (LONG), Otto Pünther (PAKBO).
            1. Liam
              Liam 28 October 2020 21: 59
              0
              Quote: A. Privalov
              However, the Red Capella also had a separate network located in neutral Switzerland and was out of the reach of the Germans. The group was led by Shandor Rado

              Where the Gestapo did not have time, the nkvdeshniki coped.
              In 1944-1945 Rado was recalled to the USSR, where he was sentenced to 15 years for spying for Britain and the United States
              1. A. Privalov
                A. Privalov 28 October 2020 22: 21
                -1
                Quote: Liam
                Where the Gestapo did not have time, the nkvdeshniki coped.

                Rado is a different story!
                In early 1945, he was sent to the USSR by plane. Fearing arrest on unfounded charges, while stopping in Cairo, he asked for political asylum at the British Embassy under an assumed name, but he was not granted it. Then he tried to commit suicide and was hospitalized. The Soviet embassy in Cairo charged the Egyptian authorities with a fabricated NKVD charge of a criminal offense against Rado and secured his extradition.
            2. Andrey Zhdanov-Nedilko
              Andrey Zhdanov-Nedilko 29 October 2020 21: 49
              0
              But about the "Red Capella" we should better keep silent! I mean its German branch. Its leadership handed over its agents to the Gestapo or the Gestapo themselves revealed, ours collaborated with the Gestapo, survived, and the German agents were sent under the knife of the guillotine ... There is a book by a French author about the "Red Capella" - read, quite interesting!
  5. Lewww
    Lewww 28 October 2020 11: 14
    +8
    Without belittling the feat of Lev Efimovich Manevich, I want to note that he is related to the image of Stirlitz only in the fact that he was illegal.
    The rest is exactly wrong
    1. alstr
      alstr 28 October 2020 14: 13
      +8
      In addition, it is known for certain who the main prototype was Willie Lehman.
      1. vladcub
        vladcub 28 October 2020 20: 34
        +3
        Basically, yes, but: Lehman died in 1942, and the Dales-Wolf negotiations are already another scout. Most likely Semyonov put Lemon as the basis, added 2-3 more and it turned out Stirlitz
        1. Lewww
          Lewww 1 November 2020 17: 18
          +1
          For Semyonov, Stirlitz is a Soviet man, and Willy Lehmann is a German, attracted to cooperation. Lehman served in the Gestapo, and Stirlitz served in the SD.
          There are no parallels either
    2. vladcub
      vladcub 28 October 2020 18: 06
      +1
      That's for sure . Zero intersections. Probably all of Stirlitz's prototype scouts to Sergei.
    3. Looking for
      Looking for 28 October 2020 20: 45
      0
      "For the USSR, a spy who was legalized in Austria and Italy has become a very valuable employee." WHAT ILLEGAL IS THE SPEAKING ABOUT ???
  6. Daniil Konovalenko
    Daniil Konovalenko 28 October 2020 11: 17
    +4
    And how many names have not yet been removed from the "secret" stamp ...
  7. BAI
    BAI 28 October 2020 13: 05
    +3
    This happened in Milan on October 3, 1932. The Soviet intelligence officer was accused of military espionage and was caught red-handed on the spot.

    Well, what does all this have to do with "Stirlitz"?
    Vladimirov - Isaev - Stirlitz was in Japan at that time (according to Semenov).
    1. Astra wild2
      Astra wild2 28 October 2020 17: 16
      +1
      I almost repeated your question
  8. Astra wild2
    Astra wild2 28 October 2020 17: 15
    +4
    Very interesting job. Unfortunately, such materials are very rare.
    I carefully read it completely and do not see a match with Stirlitz.
    I once heard on TV that the main prototype was Willie Lehman, a Gestapo officer, who died in 1942. Then one of the prototypes was Blumkin, he revealed the thefts from Gokhran. And it seems Abel
    P
    S
    "Land on Demand" is a familiar title, but I don't remember it at all.
  9. Tests
    Tests 28 October 2020 21: 38
    +2
    Sea Cat (Constantine), dear, Sorge worked under the leadership of shot enemies of the people, inveterate Trotskyists, meanly infiltrated Soviet military intelligence spies who worked for the intelligence services of Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Hungary, Germany, Italy for many years, Japan, but revealed in time by the glorious organs of the NKVD. How could he be trusted in 1938-1941? ... Well, but seriously, given the purges of people and documents of our special services in the 30-40-50-60-70-80-90s of the 20th century, everyday betrayal from the time of the marked secretary general and before the parade of the FSB Academy graduates on "heliks" everything that is given to us in the media space of the SVR and GRU today does not cause anything but skepticism. Loyalty to the Motherland and the heroism of individual officers cannot outweigh in the scales of public opinion the mass selfishness, protection and squeezing of business, pathological drunkenness or chronic alcoholism of most of the current representatives of our special services, especially those who have earned a big star in the pursuit. Maidanut Ukraine is the clearest example ... I don't want to remember about Kyrgyzstan and other republics of Soviet Central Asia ... Children of Beslan ... What else could be worse?
    1. gsev
      gsev 28 October 2020 23: 43
      0
      Quote: Tests
      Loyalty to the Motherland and the heroism of individual officers cannot outweigh in the scales of public opinion the mass selfishness, protection and squeezing of business, pathological drunkenness or chronic alcoholism of most of the current representatives of our special services, especially those who have earned a big star in the pursuit. Maidanutaya Ukraine is the clearest example.

      It is heroism, love for Russia, for the Motherland, intelligence, the desire to make your country better than even a separate personality can outweigh the shortcomings of the characters you listed. Yulian Semyonov talked a lot with Roman Kim, a writer, underground worker and intelligence officer. A lot of information about this person can be found on the Korean Internet resources. For example koryo-saram.ru. Moreover, he was born into a family of Korean nationalists, was sent to Japan to study, where he was adopted by a Japanese aristocrat. In Stirlitz it is clear that this hero has higher principles than loyalty to communism. During the civil war, the fate of R. Kim came into contact with the tsarist intelligence officers, intelligence service of Sergei Lazo, and Korean partisans. And it seems to me that R. Kim was loyal not only to the USSR but also to Korea and the Korean people. We will probably never know the truth about this stage of his fate. Life left him without adult children. And apparently Yu. Semyonov did not communicate with any of the Soviet intelligence officers so frankly and for so long. It is interesting that Korean resources such as Kore-seram (a person from Korea) have been drifting from the DPRK towards South Korea over the past 8 years. The closeness of the DPRK strongly plays against this country and sympathy for it.