Military Review

Sultan Bayezid I and the crusaders

278

Jean de Nevers, Sigismund of Luxembourg, Bayezid I


Article "Timur and Bayazid I. Great generals who did not divide the world" was told about the successes of the Ottoman power, headed by Sultan Bayazid I. It seemed that Byzantium was living out its last days and the Ottoman expansion was about to splash out beyond the Balkan Peninsula. Timur, who was to crush Bayazid's power, was dealing with the ungrateful Tokhtamysh at that time.

Sultan Bayezid I and the crusaders
The troops convince Timur to start a war against Tokhtamysh Khan. Miniature, 1533

At the call of Pope Boniface IX, European crusaders came out against the threat to seize Rome and desecrate the Cathedral of St. Peter Bayazid.


Crusade against the Ottomans


In 1396, a huge army of crusaders (about one hundred thousand people) set out from Buda. This army was led by the King of Hungary Sigismund I of Luxembourg and the 25-year-old son of the Burgundian Duke Philip II the Brave, Jean de Nevers.

In the portrait, the creation of which is attributed to Pisanello, we see Sigismund of Luxembourg in 1433:


Sigismund of Luxembourg. 1433, Kunsthistorisches museum

В history Sigismund entered under the nickname "Red Fox". Among other things, he became famous for the phrase:

"I am a Roman king and above grammar."

It was he who founded the personal knightly order of the Dragon "to protect the Cross of the Lord and fight the pagans."

Suspected of the murder of his mother-in-law Elizabeth of Bosnia, who was the regent of Hungary.

And in this portrait from the hall of the crusaders at Versailles, we see another leader of this campaign - Jean de Nevers:


Ironically, it was after the Nikopol battle that ended in defeat that he would receive the nickname "Fearless". Some believe that the nickname was originally mocked.

In addition to the Hungarian army, troops from Burgundy, Hospitallers, Teutons, as well as knights from England, Scotland, Flanders, Lombardy, Germany, Poland, Bohemia, Castile and Leon went on a campaign. From France here, among other knights, were Constable Philippe d'Artois, Grand Admiral Jean de Vienne, Count Angerrand de Coucy (son-in-law of King Edward III of England and Knight of the Garter), Marshal Jean le Mengre Busico - one of the most famous and illustrious knights France, cousin of King Henri de Barre and royal nephew Philippe de Barre. Each of them led his own detachment. The Venetians and Genoese sent their warships, the Genoese also sent crossbowmen, who later played an important family, covering the retreat of King Sigismund and the Grand Master of the Hospitallers to the Danube.

As you can imagine, it was very difficult to manage such a "motley" army, and even with so many noble persons in its composition. And the willfulness of some high-ranking French and Burgundians had very sad consequences. But no one expected a catastrophe, and King Sigismund, having examined the united army, said:

"Even if heaven falls to earth, the spears of the Christian army will hold it."

The plans of the leaders of this campaign were truly grandiose: it was supposed to liberate the entire Balkan Peninsula from the Ottomans, followed by a march to Constantinople. Then it was planned to cross the Hellespont and move through Anatolia and Syria to Palestine - to liberate Jerusalem and the Holy Sepulcher. And then, with victory, return to Europe by sea.

The beginning of the campaign seemed successful: Nish, Vidina, Ryakhovo and some other cities were captured. However, Nikopol was not immediately taken.


Battle of Nikopol, miniature from the chronicle of Jean Froissard

While the crusaders were besieging Nikopol, the Ottoman troops approached the city, the number of which, according to some sources, reached 200 thousand soldiers, including 15 thousand Serbs of Stefan Lazarevich.

However, it should be said that modern researchers consider the data on the size of the armies of both sides to be significantly exaggerated. Some historians even speak of 12 thousand Christians and 15 thousand Ottomans (Serbs, in their opinion, were about 1). This, of course, does not make the Battle of Nikopol and the victory of the Turks in it less important and significant.

Battle of Nikopol



The first to meet with one of the advanced Ottoman units was the detachment of the French Chevalier de Courcy. The victory in this meaningless battle inspired the crusaders, who imagined that all subsequent clashes with the enemy would follow this scenario.

The decisive battle took place on September 25, 1396.

Bayezid, with whom the famous Ottoman commander Haji Gazi Evrenos-bey was then, placed the infantrymen in the center of his position, protected by rows of wooden stakes dug into the ground. The Rumelian (European) cavalry units were placed on the right flank, the Anatolian cavalry on the left flank. Archers and detachments of lightly armed horsemen (akinji) were put forward: their task was to start a battle and send the enemy to the well-fortified main forces of the Turkish army, after which the Ottoman heavy cavalry (sipahi or spahi) had to strike the flanks of the crusaders.

In the center of the Christian army there were French and Burgundy detachments, behind them were the Hungarian, German, Polish troops, Hospitallers and other allies. The right flank was entrusted to the Transylvanians. On the left flank, detachments of Wallachian ruler Mircea I the Old were placed - Bayezid's longtime enemy, who in 1404 would be able to seize Dobruja from the Ottomans weakened by the defeat of Ankara.


Mircea I of Wallach, portrait in the bishopric of Argesh

The Hungarian king Sigismund, who had already dealt with the Ottomans and knew their tactics, sent scouts ahead, with the help of which he hoped to obtain information about the enemy's forces and the location of the Ottoman units. He asked for a postponement of the offensive and was supported by some of the Allied commanders, including Angerrand de Coucy and Jean de Vienne. However, the young knights from France and Burgundy, led by Philippe d'Artois, did not want to wait and moved forward.


Jean-Baptiste Moses. Portrait of the Constable of France Philippe d'Artois, 1835

Philippe led the vanguard, followed by the main forces of the French and Burgundians, led by Jean of Neversky and Angerrand de Coucy. All the other Crusader units remained where they were, partly because of disagreement with the recklessness of the Allies, partly because they simply did not have time to line up for battle. The Ottoman archers could not inflict much damage on the advancing knights, since their arrows could not penetrate the armor of the Europeans, in the worst case, the advancing ones received light wounds.

The Franco-Burgundian cavalry had to move up a gentle hill, nevertheless, it overturned the Ottoman advance units, but ran into a pre-prepared palisade. Some of the knights lost their horses, others were forced to dismount to dismantle the stockade. In the subsequent battle, the Ottoman infantrymen were defeated and retreated, leaving their positions. De Coucy and de Vienne offered to stop and wait for the Allies' approach, but their sensible advice was not heard. The French and Burgundians continued their offensive and, driving the retreating Ottoman infantry in front of them, reached a flat plateau, from which they saw the enemy's heavy cavalry ready to attack. The blow of the sipahs was terrible, many French and Burgundians were killed, including Jean de Vienne - the oldest of the French knights who took part in that campaign.


Francis Dure. Bust of Jean de Venier, Museum of French History, Versailles

The rest tried to retreat, but were surrounded and captured.

Seeing the desperate situation of the French and Burgundians, the detachments withdrew from Wallachia, further complicating the already disastrous situation. King Sigismund stood in the center with his troops, Hospitallers and crusaders from Germany, Poland and other countries. He nevertheless decided to attack the already practically defeated Ottomans. The Hungarian horsemen almost overturned the upset their ranks during the pursuit of the vultures - and the fate of the battle was again in the balance. The outcome of the battle was decided by the blow of the Serbian cavalrymen who were in the reserve, who entered the rear of the Hungarian cavalry. Convinced of the complete defeat of their troops, King Sigismund and the Grand Master of the Hospitallers left the battlefield. By boat, they went down the Danube to the sea, where they met with the Venetians, who brought them to Constantinople on their ships. Thus, almost all the French and Burgundians were killed or captured, the Hungarians, Germans, Poles and Hospitallers for the most part retreated and scattered in flight.

Almost all the prisoners of the Christian army were executed, only the most noble of them were redeemed by the king of France Charles VI, paying 200 thousand gold ducats (but two of the most noble lords of France - Philippe d'Artois and Angerrand de Coucy, died in Bursa without waiting for ransom).

At parting, Bayezid invited the freed knights to his feast and invited them to return with a new army. "I liked beating you!" He said mockingly.


Bayazid Yildirim (Lightning)

Let's say a few words about the future of the leaders of this unfortunate campaign. Sigismund of Luxembourg, as we remember, was taken by the Venetians to Constantinople. On the way to Hungary, he arranged in Croatia the "Bloody Cathedral in Krizhevtsy" - the murder of representatives of the opposition-minded nobility of this country who had arrived for negotiations. He took prisoner and deprived his brother Wenceslas of the Czech crown. In 1410 he became king of Germany, in 1433 he was elected emperor of the Holy Roman Empire of the German nation. It was he who gave guarantees of safety to Jan Hus - and allowed him to be burned at the stake in Constanta. Under him, the Hussite Wars began and ended.

Jean de Nevers, after the death of his father in April 1404, inherited the crown of Burgundy.


John the Fearless of Burgundy

In France, Jean became an active participant in the struggle of the parties, surrounded by the mad Charles VI. In November 1407, he organized the assassination of the Duke Louis of Orleans, who rivaled him for influence on the king, on the rue Barbett in Paris. And in September 1419, on the bridge, Montero himself became a victim of assassins, who turned out to be the knights from the retinue of the Dauphin (the future King Charles VII).

And now let's return to the Balkans at the end of the XIV century and see that after the Battle of Nikopol, the whole of Bulgaria was under the rule of Bayazid, it will restore its independence only after the next Russian-Turkish war, in 1877.

And Sultan Bayezid again went to Constantinople, who this time saved one of the knights released for the ransom - Marshal of France Jean le Mengre Busico, who (the only one) risked to return and fight the Ottomans again. The squadron led by him defeated the Turkish fleet in the Dardanelles in 1399 and pursued its remnants to the Asian coast of the Bosphorus. Ahead this brave knight had many adventures, ending with the Battle of Agincourt (1415), in which he commanded the vanguard and death in English captivity in 1421.

However, the fate of Constantinople, in general, had already been decided. But fate took pity on the ancient empire for the last time. Salvation this time came from Asia: in 1400, the invincible troops of Tamerlane entered the Bayezid state.


In the next article we will talk about the war between Timur and Bayazid, about the great battle of Ankara and its consequences.
Author:
Articles from this series:
Ryzhov V.A. Timur and Bayazid I. Great commanders who did not divide the world
278 comments
Information
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must to register.

I have an account? Sign in

  1. Kot_Kuzya
    Kot_Kuzya 29 October 2020 06: 17
    +5
    Oh, how tired of these tales about 100 and 200 thousand troops on medieval battlefields. These numbers can be safely divided by 10, or even 20. For example, in the Italian wars of the 16th century and in the Thirty Years War, the usual number of armies on the battlefield was from 10 to 30 thousand maximum, an army of more than 30 thousand was simply impossible to feed. In the battle of Narva in 1700, Karl the 12th had 10 thousand people under the command, Peter the Great had about 30 thousand. Even in the Battle of the Nations in 1813, Napoleon had only 200 thousand people, the anti-Napoleonic coalition, in which the field of Europe participated, and then managed to collect only 300 thousand people. And Europe in 1813 is not Asia or Europe in 1396, the density and population are simply incomparable.
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 29 October 2020 06: 51
      +9
      Brother in the tail! You don’t want to acknowledge the beauty of the word and the power of the figure behind the eyewitness! At one time my grandmother used to say that rumors should be divided by three !!! Well, in an era when counting to 100 and the ability to use two mathematical techniques, he spoke of "great literacy"! What do you want!!!
      Modestly embellished !!! laughing
      1. Korsar4
        Korsar4 29 October 2020 08: 05
        +9
        Repeatedly repeated classics from A. V. Suvorov: “Why should you feel sorry for them, the bastard?” (c).
        1. Proxima
          Proxima 29 October 2020 16: 21
          +4
          The Battle of Nikopol is a typical example of the battle of a one-man and disciplined army with a motley and poorly controlled drinks army. A copy of the battle on Kalka - one to one. belay
      2. vladcub
        vladcub 29 October 2020 18: 18
        +4
        Brothers "in the tail" sounds cool.
        Good evening, namesake. Know how to emphasize your feline essence.
        PS. Comrades, look how many "cats" the whole mafia has developed on the site! And the dog owners are not visible. I don't like mice, but I sympathize with them
        1. sivuch
          sivuch 30 October 2020 15: 22
          +1
          Yeah, the cat mafia. And there is no one to drive to the tree.
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 30 October 2020 18: 25
            +2
            There is. In the fourth year of life, my dog ​​realized what cats are for.
            1. sivuch
              sivuch 30 October 2020 19: 17
              +1
              That's right, for sports. Good for dogs, safe for cats.At least my Squirrel never learned to climb
              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 30 October 2020 19: 24
                +1
                Here you can discuss.
          2. Phil77
            Phil77 30 October 2020 18: 29
            +2
            Quote: sivuch
            Yeah, the cat mafia.

            But it sounds good! Only we are not the mafia. We are the movement! wink laughing wink
            All power to the cats!
            Or maybe a party? bully
            1. vladcub
              vladcub 30 October 2020 19: 52
              +2
              Well, the world has gone crazy: cats are already playing hockey! How to live further ?!
          3. vladcub
            vladcub 30 October 2020 19: 49
            +2
            Quote: sivuch
            Yeah, the cat mafia. And there is no one to drive to the tree.

            Do not speak. On the site, not a single dog, dog breeders, perhaps 1-2 will be. I do not know for sure.
            True, the dogs are already somehow not correct: a friend of Alf has such a respectable dog, but he is afraid of a street cat! She went out for a walk, and her "guard" hugs her leg: he saw the Eternal Cat
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 30 October 2020 19: 57
              +1
              I do not know for sure.
              Do not you know. At least five people I know. Including me...
    2. VLR
      29 October 2020 07: 38
      14
      Are you sure you read this article carefully enough? And they did not miss, in particular, the following:

      "Modern researchers consider the data on the size of the armies of both sides to be significantly exaggerated. Some historians even speak of 12 thousand Christians and 15 thousand Ottomans" (quoted from the article).
      Or do these figures seem too high to you?
      1. Icelord
        Icelord 29 October 2020 11: 52
        +2
        No. Personally, I don’t think so, probably even somewhat underestimated. With a margin, so to speak. Criticism protection smile
      2. Icelord
        Icelord 29 October 2020 11: 55
        0
        Approximate mob. Turkey's stock is, in principle, more or less clear. There, (I do not pretend, my IMHO) there should be more
      3. Icelord
        Icelord 29 October 2020 13: 22
        0
        And it is not possible to count Christians at all, there is such a hodgepodge that the number of knights is very vague, and how many troops each of them brought in is completely unknown. After all, he could take a dozen, and a couple of hundred
    3. Esoteric
      Esoteric 29 October 2020 17: 12
      +2
      And you will not achieve anything with such questions. Historians have a method, "scientific", and it is so scientific that it is impossible for a mere mortal to understand it. Here comes an interesting analogy with physicists, in particular with Rutherford. "
      If a scientist cannot explain the meaning of his work to the cleaning lady who is cleaning his laboratory, then he himself does not understand what he is doing. "Compare with historians and their" sacred "knowledge, an ordinary person, their knowledge, and" method "cannot understand in any way.
  2. Catfish
    Catfish 29 October 2020 07: 37
    13
    Good morning everyone! hi
    This battle is further proof that a crowd of thousands of people is not yet an army.
    And about the crusaders well at one time wrote Averchenko in the "General history, processed by" Satyricon ". smile

    "... When a city appeared in the distance, the crusaders asked:
    - Listen, is this Jerusalem?
    - Нет.
    - No? Are there Jews in it?
    - There is.
    - Can you interrupt them?
    "Do you a favor."

    ... they went on and, seeing Jerusalem, rushed at it, began to plunder and burn.
    - Where is the Holy Sepulcher? They asked after a vain search.
    - Didn't hit again! - they answered. "This is not Jerusalem at all, but Constantinople."
    1. The leader of the Redskins
      The leader of the Redskins 29 October 2020 08: 12
      +2
      Good morning to you too, Marine.
      But do not dispel my doubts? It seemed to me that in the penultimate picture Jean Nevers looks very much like ... Well, ours. The first and only zeroed ... laughing
      I keep thinking - either I haven't woken up yet, or there is too much of it everywhere)))
      1. Kot_Kuzya
        Kot_Kuzya 29 October 2020 08: 20
        +7
        So this is it. Don't you know that he is immortal? Ivan the Terrible and Peter the First, that's the same he is, only then there were no photographs.
        1. VLR
          29 October 2020 08: 48
          10
          In 2016 (it seems) the newspaper The Telegraph published a comic article about "Putin's immortality" - based on similar portraits. By the way, do you remember the elf Dobby from the Harry Potter adaptation? In 2019, Putin was even asked if he knew that B. Johnson found a similarity. Putin said something like this: they say, I know about the country's tasks and that's enough.
      2. Catfish
        Catfish 29 October 2020 08: 22
        +2
        Hello my friend. hi
        But it's true that there is something, but this is most likely under the influence of the latter -
        ... there is too much of it everywhere
        laughing
        I wonder if our beloved loves to walk on bridges? wink
        1. Van 16
          Van 16 29 October 2020 09: 00
          10
          Look at the painting "Portrait of the Arnolfini couple", 1434, Jan van Eyck
          smile
          1. Catfish
            Catfish 29 October 2020 09: 21
            +8
            M-de-s ... However ...
            1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
              Kote Pan Kokhanka 29 October 2020 10: 33
              +9
              It doesn't bother you that the central figure of the picture is the Cat!
              1. Catfish
                Catfish 29 October 2020 11: 11
                +9
                This is intelligence, OUR intelligence in the enemy's den. laughing
                1. Lexus
                  Lexus 30 October 2020 01: 06
                  16
                  Uncle Kostya hi , the growth of the Kabaev couple is clearly exaggerated. Divide by three too?
                  1. Catfish
                    Catfish 30 October 2020 08: 46
                    +2
                    Hi Lesha, hi enough and half. laughing
                    1. Lexus
                      Lexus 30 October 2020 11: 13
                      12
                      Pay attention - there are "elevators" on the floor. He even then "flaunted" them. laughing
              2. Korsar4
                Korsar4 29 October 2020 11: 12
                +9
                And everyone sees his own in the picture.
              3. Kot_Kuzya
                Kot_Kuzya 29 October 2020 11: 34
                +4
                Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
                It doesn't bother you that the central figure of the picture is the Cat!

                This is not a cat, this is a dog. As you know, Putin is a big dog lover, he seems to have as many as 5 dogs living at home. He was given puppies by the Japanese prime minister, the Serbian president and someone else.
                1. Icelord
                  Icelord 29 October 2020 12: 07
                  +6
                  So yes, it looks like a dog, lapdog, then they were like that
                  1. Phil77
                    Phil77 29 October 2020 18: 47
                    +7
                    Igor, hello! Yes! It's a dog!
                    1. Icelord
                      Icelord 29 October 2020 18: 50
                      +6
                      Sergei hi ... Now the question remains, is not the guarantor in the picture smile
                      1. Phil77
                        Phil77 29 October 2020 18: 52
                        +6
                        Quote: Icelord
                        Is the guarantor in the picture

                        I don’t want to answer. I have idiosyncrasy, on the current ones, hmmm, who’s above the word! winked
                      2. Lexus
                        Lexus 30 October 2020 01: 16
                        20
                        Sergei hi,
                        Taking into account the fact that "they-s" hid in a "hole" from Kovidly in the vicinity of Moscow, I consider it inappropriate to use the adverb "above" in determining "them-s" geolocation relative to the vertical axis OZ. laughing
              4. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 29 October 2020 13: 00
                +4
                he seems to have as many as 5 dogs living at home.
                Che, right in the bunker?
                1. Catfish
                  Catfish 29 October 2020 13: 38
                  +4
                  right in the bunker?

                  "Bunkering - refueling a vessel with fuel and engine oils. Bunkering can be carried out at the berth, on the roadstead, on the move or while drifting on a river, in a lake, at sea or in the ocean. A vessel or a car with a tank, supplying a bunker to another vessel ... "
                  In this case, everything is bunkering in a row, incl. and dogs. Just in case ... I guess. laughing
                  Only, no matter how overkil occurred from overload.
                  1. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 29 October 2020 18: 33
                    +5
                    As for me, Uncle Kostya hi , in the picture given by you - inclining in the open sea.
                    1. Lexus
                      Lexus 29 October 2020 18: 52
                      18
                      Hello Antonhi
                      Judging by the way Putin's dogs wag their tails to the west and the rats are already at a low launch, the Rossiya ship will not get up on an even keel.
                    2. Astra wild2
                      Astra wild2 29 October 2020 20: 57
                      +2
                      Colleague Lexus, I haven't seen the rats jump overboard yet.
                    3. Lexus
                      Lexus 29 October 2020 21: 07
                      19
                      For this purpose, they have "life rafts" in Vnukovo-3 in even rows.
                  2. Astra wild2
                    Astra wild2 29 October 2020 21: 09
                    -1
                    Colleague Lexus, where do you see tail wagging?
                  3. Lexus
                    Lexus 29 October 2020 21: 13
                    18
                    Ruined economy, ruined industry, impoverished population and, at the same time, concessions in everything. What else needs to happen for the rose-colored glasses to fall off?
                  4. Astra wild2
                    Astra wild2 30 October 2020 11: 24
                    0
                    Colleague Lexus, 1. I don't wear glasses, I don't like them.
                    2. Regarding economics - not to me, since school I don't like exact sciences.
                    3. With industry, you are right and wrong: if we compare it with the industry of the Union, then yes, but the industry is starting to rise: new items of military equipment, we have had an exhibition and sale "Ivanovsky Textile" for several years now, I have a gas stove of production Tula.
                    3. The impoverishment of the people in this is primarily the fault of the Central Committee of the CPSU, when they HAVE PASSED THE COVENANTS OF VI LENIN. The collapse of the USSR and the impoverishment of the people are links in one chain.
                    The current leadership of the KPRF continues its previous policy. If for that matter V.V. is even decent than G.A., at least he does not pretend to be a Leninist.
                  5. Lexus
                    Lexus 30 October 2020 15: 38
                    16
                    The exact sciences, not the humanities, are at the head of progress. You may not like the laws of physics and chemistry, but you cannot influence them in any way, they, in turn, hold you in their hands at every moment of your life. There are no radical novelties B and BT and are not expected (I understand this quite seriously). Assembling products from imported components and on foreign equipment - there is a degradation to the level of the Third World countries. As for the noneshnyh communists, I agree with you (Putin, by the way, I remember, admitted that he still keeps his party card). Therefore, you should not apply the concept of decency to the devil - he still very much as always hides his true guise under the guise of virtue, not even letting a tear drop for the sake of, exclusively, personal selfish interests. Some things are simply impossible to explain at the level of instincts - you need to think.
                  6. Astra wild2
                    Astra wild2 30 October 2020 19: 04
                    -1
                    A colleague Lexus, there are a lot of people like me, and "schizic physicists" have to reckon with this, we had a neighbor, the head of the department of physics and mathematics, and he told himself so.
                    I do not know about gas stoves, but textiles are MANDATORY on imported raw materials, because cotton is not produced in Russia.
                    About imported equipment. To be fair, during the first five-year plan, in the Soviet Union they also worked on imported equipment. There was no corresponding level. Even in the 70s, the Soviet Union bought some machines. My dad once came home from work, he was an engineer, and he says: a German machine was installed in production and it is better than ours, more convenient.
                    Somehow numbers flashed on the site, I did not remember, but the essence is this: 60% of precision electronics are imported from us, and a few years ago it was at least 90%. In the spring, there was a wild noise on the site: they were outraged by the government's decision to have some of our programs on imported telephones and televisions. Then I almost cried that our programs were complete crap: almost everyone was in favor of American technologies, and my pupil, a cadet's own son, and the named brother in civilian life, says that Yandex is now very good. He and his wife only have our programs, and I have Google.
                    I hope you agree that TRAITORS appeared in the party even before Gorbachev?
                  7. vladcub
                    vladcub 30 October 2020 20: 24
                    +1
                    Astra, apart from emotions with argumentation, is not very good. But what is she right: "new items of military equipment", and they imply OWN PRODUCTION, only a stupid person will produce weapons from imported components. At one time, they clapped their ears and scratched their turnips, and the Fleet with dviguns in its deep ass was. It seems that Gascutter said that Saturn is starting to produce gas turbines, but when it will still be deployed.
                    Our Kolomenskoye diesel is inferior to the Germans and the Americans. Even China is doing better: while we were under Ye. Be, the Chinese bought a license from the Germans and they were on horseback.
                    What are the Chinese good fellows, they have been since the 80s, all their developments aside and let's buy licenses for electronics from the Japanese and Americans, and now Huawei and Xiaomi are stepping on amers' bells
                  8. Lexus
                    Lexus 30 October 2020 20: 46
                    +6
                    Svyatoslav hi
                    The reality is that the search for "smart" ones in the Russian defense industry will end with zero results. Either hardware, or accessories, or both. The Chinese mined technologies, and ours - "a beautiful picture".
                2. Lexus
                  Lexus 30 October 2020 20: 39
                  +7
                  In some ways you are right, but in others you are not.
                  A country in which physicists are valued as "schizos" will always be second-rate. Cotton was not an imported raw material in the USSR. The first five-year plan of the Union took place after the "great agrarian power of the Republic of Ingushetia". In the 70s. the overwhelming majority of machine tools and materials were domestic. Something was bought and soon copied - this is a normal practice of self-respecting states. Modern Russian electronics - the day before yesterday - was produced on decommissioned equipment from not the leading manufacturers, in fact, due to obsolescence. The basis of Russian software is free open source programs or (un) licensed copies (not your own). I have Yandex, but it is in scripts, castrated by "hands". If I let him go, I would not be able to answer you now - there is so much extra shit. NOT ONE office, except for Yandex and Myla.ru, did not finish fouling mail with advertising. This is the height of idiocy. People who do not own scripts massively refuse boxes on Yandex and Soap. There are always traitors, but a successful country is proud not of their declared amount (pests are self-declared), but of the ability to catch and neutralize them in a period of time that excludes the onset of negative consequences from their "activities". The union, in fact, burned out on this. But ... those destructive processes that took place in the USSR "under the roof" are gaining momentum in Putin's Russia without any attempts to conceal them.
                3. Astra wild2
                  Astra wild2 31 October 2020 09: 55
                  -2
                  For me, scripts and prch are a parallel world. And my "baby" (195cm height) is very good at this.
                4. Astra wild2
                  Astra wild2 31 October 2020 10: 37
                  -1
                  I am well aware of the fact that the Soviet Union had its own cotton. Mom had a friend from Uzbekistan, she worked as a planner in the textile industry. I wrote a lot about cotton, but I was little and was not interested, I just remember that we bought some kind of cotton abroad.
                  I agree, advertising has already gotten both on the Internet and on TV.
                  What are scripts or scripts is parallel to me. And the "kid" (height 195cm) is well versed in this.
                  Probably, it was badly identified or the wrong ones if the traitors were in the leadership.
                  I read a lot of interesting things about this at Martirosyan
                5. Icelord
                  Icelord 1 November 2020 19: 02
                  -1
                  I am from Uzbekistan, and my mother wrote her doctoral thesis on cotton genetics, a senior initial employee at the Academy of Sciences of Uzbekistan, five books on this topic. So, in Uzbekistan, thin-fiber varieties practically do not grow, the climate is not the same. And coarse and medium fibers are practically not suitable for fabric. They are technical, except that sackcloth will come out. In Tajikistan and Turkmenistan there is normal cotton, but it is not enough. So, of course, I had to buy. In Bangladesh and India
            2. Hantengri
              Hantengri 30 October 2020 21: 15
              +3
              Quote: Astra wild2

              +2
              Colleague Lexus, there are a lot of people like me, and this "schizo physicists" have to reckon with

              Why reckon with you! You, after all, do not even know how to solve quanta! (joke)
              Quote: Astra wild2
              Do you agree that TRAITORS appeared in the party even before Gorbachev?

              Future traitors, opportunists, got into the party as soon as it became clear that it had established itself in power for a long time. Those. at least a year from 1921, and even from the 18th. It was not difficult: I learned 3-4 correct slogans, mastered the revolutionary rhetoric, in extreme cases, if necessary, read several works of the "Founders". And forward, to the benefits of communism, for your beloved. The main thing, at the same time, is to work intensively with your elbows, plotting, thinking through intrigues and pressing, on the way "up", all these ideological and straightforward, like crowbar Pavok Korchagins, so that they do not get in the way of serious people ...
            3. Astra wild2
              Astra wild2 31 October 2020 09: 49
              0
              Khan, something like this, and I decided when I read Martirosyan.
            4. Icelord
              Icelord 1 November 2020 19: 12
              -1
              Yes, what are you, what traitors? The communist idea by itself is not viable. Is poverty in North Korea from traitors? There were no successful socialist countries, this is scientific proof, an experiment has shown. Theory myth
  3. Catfish
    Catfish 30 October 2020 08: 45
    +4
    Anchorage on the high seas? I believed that this was done in the coastal zone and taking into account the fact that one side of the vessel lay down on the ground. On the high seas, such tricks are fraught with the same overkill.

    "Admiral Scheer" bul-bul ...
  • Kote Pan Kokhanka
    Kote Pan Kokhanka 29 October 2020 13: 48
    +4
    Nafig-nafig is the Skripals' conspiratorial cat !!! laughing
    1. Lexus
      Lexus 30 October 2020 01: 31
      15
      Vlad hi , considering that the cat sniffed the "newbie", he would not have been allowed to the "Haspodar-anpyrator" for a cannon shot. "Soaked" in the tunnel.
  • Kot_Kuzya
    Kot_Kuzya 29 October 2020 13: 59
    -1
    Quote: 3x3zsave
    Che, right in the bunker?

    Did he show you personally?
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 29 October 2020 18: 36
      +5
      And you (!) Apparently Peskov told you at a joint booze.
      1. Lexus
        Lexus 29 October 2020 18: 55
        18
        I look and the "witnesses of Judah" have already come to you. request
      2. Catfish
        Catfish 30 October 2020 08: 53
        +7
        He was used to communicating, especially after a glass.
      3. Lexus
        Lexus 30 October 2020 15: 49
        18
        What a "press" - such a secretary. Watery.
  • Aviator_
    Aviator_ 30 October 2020 13: 30
    +4
    the central figure of the picture is the Cat!

    The impression that this is a dirty "favorite lapdog of the queen", and not a noble cat.
  • Astra wild2
    Astra wild2 29 October 2020 21: 14
    -1
    Leader, I used to think that one should be baptized when it seems, but prompted that one should pinch oneself
    1. Catfish
      Catfish 30 October 2020 16: 20
      +3
      ... you have to pinch yourself.

      Vera, don't do someone else's work, but rather keep a professional by your side. wink
      1. Astra wild2
        Astra wild2 31 October 2020 19: 15
        -1
        A professional "pinch"? No, thank you, and so the prices are biting, and also a pickpocket. If you want, keep near you, but I will manage
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 31 October 2020 19: 40
          +1
          Well, I didn't mean a pickpocket, what a flirt you are ... love
  • Phil77
    Phil77 30 October 2020 18: 36
    +1
    Vladimir the Many-Faced ???????? wink
    1. Lexus
      Lexus 31 October 2020 05: 35
      +2
      Impersonal.
  • hohol95
    hohol95 29 October 2020 11: 44
    13

    Good day! hi
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 29 October 2020 13: 04
      12
      "The Templar is an example to all the guys!"
      1. Icelord
        Icelord 29 October 2020 13: 34
        +6
        Anton hi ... I don’t know, the presence of a beard and mustache makes it very difficult to wear a hauberk and a helmet. Especially in hot weather smile
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 29 October 2020 18: 14
          +6
          Igor! hi
          An example is how, together, on a lame mare to enter paradise laughing
          1. Lexus
            Lexus 30 October 2020 01: 44
            15
            In connection with the deprivation of LLC "Lame mare" of the license for the carriage of passengers for violation of the regime of self-isolation, this direction is served by the State Budgetary Institution "Alien Horseradish".
            1. Astra wild2
              Astra wild2 30 October 2020 16: 00
              0
              Rough, but witty.
              However, in our city, carriers from various LLCs prevail. One GBU, 7 private
      2. hohol95
        hohol95 29 October 2020 16: 25
        +5
        Only now Pope Clement V succumbed to the temptations of the King of France Philip IV and the Templars were gone!
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 29 October 2020 19: 15
          +4
          Only Pope Clement V gave in
          He was not even a cardinal. How not to give in?
          1. Astra wild2
            Astra wild2 29 October 2020 20: 43
            +4
            Hello, my poet.
            I didn’t expect you to be such an expert on the Vatican.
            If so, why not write an article? I am serious and Vadim Smirnov invites new authors every day.
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 29 October 2020 20: 49
              +6
              My Beautiful Stranger! hi
              This is not the Vatican, this is the result of the "Avignon sitting".
              1. Pane Kohanku
                Pane Kohanku 30 October 2020 12: 36
                +4
                This is not the Vatican, this is the result of the "Avignon sitting".

                My favorite moment from Druon's "French She-Wolf" is when Pope John XXII of Avignon, when asked by Ambassador Bouville about "giving money", simply asks: "How much, Bouville?"
                Bouville felt himself the most unhappy man. The Holy Father is right, everyone agreed that it is necessary to abandon the crusade, but this is not done in the same way, it is impossible in a nutshell, and most importantly, without any compensation, so to speak, to destroy such an undertaking.
                “I have no doubt, Holy Father,” answered Bouville, “that His Highness Valois will obey you; but only he had already bound himself with the word, had put his prestige at stake and incurred great expenses.
                - How much does His Highness of Valois need so that his personal prestige does not suffer too much?
                “I don’t know, Holy Father,” Bouville muttered, blushing. “His Highness Valois did not authorize me to answer such questions.
                - Can not be! I know him too well and I am sure that he foresaw such a turn of the matter. How many?
                - He has already distributed money in advance to the knights of his fiefs to equip their troops ...
                - How many?
                - He took care of these new powder vents ...
                - How much, Bouville?
                - He made an order for various kinds of weapons ...
                “I’m not a military man, Messire, and I don’t require you to bill for crossbows. I only ask you to tell me the amount that His Highness Valois wants to receive in compensation for his losses,
                Daddy watched with a smile as his interlocutor spun in the chair, as if he was being grilled on coals. And Bouville himself could not help smiling, seeing that all his cunning tricks burst like a soap bubble. So, you need to name a number! He spoke as softly as Daddy and whispered:
                - One hundred thousand livres ...
                John XXII shook his head.
                - Quite in the spirit of Count Karl of Valois. I remember that the Florentines at one time, in order to do without his help, had to give more. True, the Sienese got him to agree to leave their city for a slightly smaller amount. Later, the King of Anjou was forced to pay him approximately the same amount as a token of gratitude for the help he did not ask him for! Well, this is the same way of getting money as everyone else. You know, Bouville, your Valois is a great swindler! Okay, tell him the good news ... We will give him this hundred thousand livres and our papal blessing!
                In general, dad was happy to get off with such a price! But Bouville did not remember himself with happiness that unexpectedly and, moreover, so successfully fulfilled his mission. Bargaining with the Pope himself, as if with a Lombard merchant, was indeed painful for him! But the decision of the holy father was not dictated by generosity, he just estimated the price that one has to pay for power.


                This is my usual phrase when they ask for money for expenses - "How much, Bouville?" drinks
            2. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 30 October 2020 18: 33
              +2
              My Priceless Beautiful Stranger! I know too much about the "inner workings" of the portal to run for this election.
          2. hohol95
            hohol95 29 October 2020 21: 29
            +4
            However, the chronicler Giovanni Villani reported that Clement was elected with the assistance of the French king Philip IV, to whom he pledged to cede church revenues for five years within France and promised complete obedience.

            Otherwise, he would not have become a DAD ...
            In addition, the disputes between the French and Italian cardinals did not lead to the election of a successor to Benedict XI, who died in 1304.
        2. Astra wild2
          Astra wild2 29 October 2020 20: 41
          +3
          Lyosha, good evening. So Philip 4 should be called "the tempter serpent"? I don't remember, I think the French call him "handsome"? Was he really handsome or court flattery?
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 29 October 2020 20: 51
            +3
            Was he really handsome or court flattery?
            Death of high school girls !!!
            1. Lexus
              Lexus 30 October 2020 01: 55
              16
              Gilles de Rais lived a little later.
          2. hohol95
            hohol95 29 October 2020 21: 36
            +3
            Good evening! hi Dear astra version 2.0 love
            That's why he is the king of France. Whom to conquer. Who should be tempted!
            Or sue. He became famous for his litigation with the King of England!
            He was married only once. 7 children. Widowed at 37!
            Info taken from WikiWiki! : love
            They point out that he was crowned at the age of 17 and he was really handsome!
            But at the same time he was also called - "iron king".
            1. Astra wild2
              Astra wild2 30 October 2020 08: 43
              0
              You, like most of us, dive into Vika. Wiki in English? And then Viktor Nikolaevich scolds the Russian version of Wiki
              1. hohol95
                hohol95 30 October 2020 10: 13
                +2
                My English is at grade 3 of primary school.
                But I look not only at WikiWiki ...
                I am trying to look through a couple more links for a given query in a search engine. hi
                Sometimes quite interesting books or scientific papers pop up. Or rare magazines. Long forgotten by all.
                1. Astra wild2
                  Astra wild2 30 October 2020 18: 06
                  +1
                  I know something like that in German, a little bit of English. I changed XNUMX schools: I started to learn German, my father changed his place of work and city, and in the new school they made me learn English, but then a "German" appeared and I continued
              2. Pane Kohanku
                Pane Kohanku 30 October 2020 12: 44
                +4
                And then Viktor Nikolaevich scolds the Russian version of Wiki

                Viktor Nikolaevich is so unpredictable that you never know who and for what he will be dismantled in the next analysis. drinks A friendly joke!
                1. Lexus
                  Lexus 30 October 2020 16: 05
                  12
                  "Unlike lies, truth is not flexible." (FROM)
                  If Viktor Nikolaevich got down to business, lawyers are useless. drinks
                2. Astra wild2
                  Astra wild2 30 October 2020 17: 58
                  +1
                  Therefore, I am glad that I am not the only "sinner" and he will not notice me. Where can a lieutenant general distinguish a simple lieutenant. Joke
                  1. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 30 October 2020 18: 48
                    +1
                    lieutenant general
                    Oh, if only you knew, once again!
                    1. Astra wild2
                      Astra wild2 31 October 2020 19: 25
                      +1
                      Imagine, I know for the umpteenth time-12. In my memory, he was 10th, 11th now 12th. In my presence, Viktor Nikolaevich received a "yellow card" from one of our authors, "you know who" (Harry Potter), and I naively thought that he was joking
                    2. Pane Kohanku
                      Pane Kohanku 2 November 2020 15: 53
                      +1
                      In my presence, Viktor Nikolaevich received a "yellow card"

                      Vera, in my presence Viktor Nikolaevich wrote a hell of a lot of articles. yes Particularly gorgeous was the analysis of the bayonet from the "three-line" - it seems, into five parts ... good
                    3. Astra wild2
                      Astra wild2 2 November 2020 19: 14
                      0
                      That was before me
            2. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 30 October 2020 18: 46
              +3
              Victor Nikolaevich, predictable as the price of smelt. Whatever happens, always, more expensive than salmon!
          3. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 30 October 2020 18: 38
            +2
            Wikipedia, this is just the first step. The further, the more interesting. "The farthest comes the one who does not know where to go" (C)
            1. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku 2 November 2020 15: 49
              +1
              The further, the more interesting. "The farthest comes the one who does not know where to go" (C)

              For example, like this? wink
              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 2 November 2020 17: 20
                +1
                I copied it from Artyom.
      3. hohol95
        hohol95 29 October 2020 21: 41
        +4
        All contemporaries unanimously insist that he was absolutely dispassionate and his face resembled a mask. Very beautiful, but a mask. There was never the slightest emotion and feeling on his face, and not only on his face, not by word or gesture, he never showed any human features. A robot, modern speaking.
  • vladcub
    vladcub 29 October 2020 18: 29
    +4
    Good evening, Kostya, how are you not respectful with the knights. Actually, Averchenko had a talent
  • Undecim
    Undecim 29 October 2020 08: 19
    +8
    Quote: Kot_Kuzya
    Oh, how tired of these tales about 100 and 200 thousand troops on medieval battlefields.

    Historians "made these" fairy tales "a long time ago, but the writing brethren for some reason stubbornly ignores this fact, indicating at best that modern historians consider" fairy tales "too high.
    In fact, these figures were considered "overestimated" in the XIV century. True, the approach was somewhat peculiar. The German traveler Hans Schiltberger, who directly observed the battle and spent 30 years in Turkish captivity, gives a very real figure for the number of crusaders at 17 people. But the number of Turks he has is 000.
    The 60th century Ottoman historian Şükrullah estimates Bayezid's army at a "modest" 000, but counts no less than 130 crusaders.
    In the 7500th, historians agreed that the crusaders were from 9000 to 12, Bayezid's army ranged from 000 to 20 people.
    As for the chronicle numbers, the American historian Barbara Tuckman explained this "phenomenon" as follows: "The chroniclers usually brought the numbers in line with the greatness of the event."
    1. Engineer
      Engineer 29 October 2020 11: 26
      +5
      David Nicholl in Osprey brings 16 thousand for the Crusaders and 15 thousand for the Turks. But for the latter, a rather arbitrary estimate.
      1. Icelord
        Icelord 29 October 2020 11: 33
        +5
        Well, Osprey writes popular science books, they don't dig deep at all. So, take an overall assessment
        1. Engineer
          Engineer 29 October 2020 11: 38
          +7
          They write popular science, but they often dig quite deeply. Just in other books. And in Osprey, the authors can simply add what they themselves dug up before.
          1. Icelord
            Icelord 29 October 2020 11: 46
            +5
            Nuuu, yes, if exactly, then of course they do not write, but publish. But you got it wink
      2. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 29 October 2020 18: 22
        +2
        Denis! hi
        It became interesting how the surname of a respected scientist is spelled correctly in Russian transcription: "Nicole" or "Nicoll", and where is the emphasis placed? Shpakovsky, who communicated with him personally, claims that the first ...
        1. Engineer
          Engineer 29 October 2020 18: 29
          +3
          Englishman, then by default without a soft sign, on the first syllable
          But he has a daughter, Antoinette, which hints at the possibility of a French pronunciation.
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 29 October 2020 18: 44
            +3
            Thanks! I will also ask Shpakovsky how the scientist himself positions his surname.
            1. Engineer
              Engineer 29 October 2020 18: 52
              +3
              not at all
              Nicoll-Nicolas is not particularly fond of. He loves Islamic civilization. In principle, the background obliges. He started exactly as a medievalist in Islam
              His criticism of his reconstruction of the Avars and Svyatoslav in Osprey has already laid out
              Here, a Spaniard in excellent English just left no stone unturned from his book about the Crusades. David is very, very biased
              https://www.amazon.com/Crusades-Essential-Histories-David-Nicolle/dp/1841761796#customerReviews
              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 29 October 2020 19: 03
                +3
                Thanks again! Is there a Hispanic version? The fact is that at the moment, reading in Spanish is more accessible to me than in English.
                Meanwhile, any researcher is biased. Axiomatic.
                1. Engineer
                  Engineer 29 October 2020 19: 06
                  +3
                  Didn't see Spanish
                  I drove English into Google translation. The quality turned out to be quite decent. Apparently, the days of promta have passed forever.
                  Spaniard's name is Anibal Madeira
                  After reading this book you'll “learn” that:

                  1 - The conflicts between Islam and Christian powers before the crusades were low scale;
                  2 - Before the crusades there was no excessive violence or atrocities between factions;
                  3 - Jihad was a response to the crusades (the author even translates it “counter-crusade”);
                  4 - Only after the crusades there were serious persecution of Christians in the Islamic world;
                  5 - After the initial Islamic expansion of the caliphs and the Umahyyad, there was no Islamic expansionism and outward attacks; the crusades reinitiated the Islamic expansionism;
                  6 - The main victim of the crusades was the Byzantine Empire;
                  7- Islam had the greatest scientific civilization and western Franks, although they weren't as barbarous as the 10th century ones, were just slightly better;
                  8 - Most of the examples will show Franks in a bad light.

                  After reading this book, you "know" that:
                  1 - Conflicts between Islam and Christian forces before the Crusades were minor;
                  2 - There was no excessive violence or brutality between factions before the Crusades;
                  3 - Jihad was a response to the Crusades (the author even translates it "counter-crusade");
                  4 - Only after the Crusades did serious persecution of Christians begin in the Islamic world;
                  5 - After the initial Islamic expansion of the Caliphs and Umahiyads, there was no Islamic expansionism and external attacks; the crusades revived Islamic expansionism;
                  6 - the Byzantine Empire became the main victim of the Crusades;
                  7. Islam had the greatest scientific civilization, and the Western Franks, although not as barbaric as they were in the 10th century, were only marginally better;
                  8 - Most examples will show Franks in a bad light.

                  As an example
                  1. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 29 October 2020 19: 17
                    +3
                    Mdyaya ... Absolute Afedron!
                    Except for the first point.
                    1. Engineer
                      Engineer 29 October 2020 19: 27
                      +3
                      The problem is that in our country Nicholl is used to judge English historiography in general.
                      And she is often very good with them, and perhaps even the best.
                      Began to read Bishop's handbook about lorica segmented. Fell out of reality
    2. Astra wild2
      Astra wild2 29 October 2020 20: 34
      +3
      Hello, Victor Nikolaevich. I was immediately divided by numbers: 17000 against 200000 infidels or 60000 Islamic warriors against 130000 thousand giaurs, and then I realized:
      Shtiltberger was experiencing the defeat of Christians and he wanted to find an excuse for the defeat. And Sukrulah was just interested in increasing the number of Christians so that their victory would be even more significant.
      ,As I understand it
      1. Icelord
        Icelord 29 October 2020 20: 47
        +4
        You understand absolutely right, only there were much less of them
        P. S and more, author Valery Ryzhov's name wink
      2. Icelord
        Icelord 29 October 2020 21: 06
        +2
        I sincerely ask pardon, the current figured out now that you are writing to your colleague undecim
  • Undecim
    Undecim 29 October 2020 08: 26
    12
    Sigismund went down in history under the nickname "Red Fox". Among other things, he became famous for the phrase: "I am a Roman king and above grammar"
    And he also caused irreparable harm to the history of European and Tartarian Russoarians. After all, it was Sigismund Luxembourg who "reconciled" the popes by ending the Great Western Schism in 1418, which allowed the popes, instead of squabbling among themselves, to focus on rewriting the history of the Euro-Tartarian super-ethnos and concealing the most important documents of this history in their bottomless archives.
    1. Icelord
      Icelord 29 October 2020 11: 09
      +6
      What a scoundrel he was, and after all, not only did he cheat. In general, the type is still smile
      Good day, Victor Nikolaevich hi
      1. Undecim
        Undecim 29 October 2020 12: 28
        +5
        Hello!
        Wretch is not the right word. In addition, the hereditary enemy of the Tartarorians, as he was the great-great-grandson of the Grand Duke of Lithuania, Gediminas.
        1. Trilobite Master
          Trilobite Master 29 October 2020 14: 57
          +4
          Quote: Undecim
          hereditary enemy of the Tartarorus

          I would argue that he is also a renegade, since he was probably a descendant of the Rurik in some kind of knee. I'm not sure, but, in my opinion, the main offspring of Gediminas were from Russian princesses. Yes, and the Polish royal family carried Russian blood, starting with Casimir the First. I remember exactly that Konrad Mazovetsky was married to a Russian princess, so all his offspring are partly Rurik, but you can dig more ...
          So - a renegade and a traitor. A descendant of Rurik, who contributed to the destruction of Russian history.
          laughing wassat
          1. Undecim
            Undecim 29 October 2020 14: 59
            +5
            That's for sure. I saw some kind of small grass tartarorus minus, as much as the coat is wrapped up. "His revenge was terrible!"
            1. Trilobite Master
              Trilobite Master 29 October 2020 15: 12
              +4
              Less - well done! Makes it clear that your remarks do not go into the void, but get
              To the mind, to the heart, to the livers and the rest of the rotten liver

              and spoil the mood.
              To paraphrase the film "Dartagnan and the Three Musketeers":
              - Cons of the Tartarorus? It's great!
              - Cons of the Tartarorus? It's great!
              - Commenting continues!

              laughing
              1. Lexus
                Lexus 30 October 2020 02: 14
                16
                Michael hi, be condescending - they, even minus, can get hurt. laughing
            2. Icelord
              Icelord 29 October 2020 20: 19
              +3
              Viktor Nikolaevich, there is not one Russoari here, but several, and not only you but also me and Mikhail are minus. So we can be proud too smile
  • Undecim
    Undecim 29 October 2020 08: 32
    +7
    It was he who gave security guarantees to Jan Hus - and allowed him to be burned at the stake in Constanta.
    The issue of Sigismund's complicity in the death of Jan Hus has been considered controversial since the beginning of the last century.
    1. VLR
      29 October 2020 09: 24
      10
      Well, yes, Sigismund later said "with a blue eye": they say, I did not promise anything, I just gave a travel letter, they themselves understood it wrong, but I am to blame. But his contemporaries did not doubt his treachery: some were indignant, others fully approved (and what else to do with heretics? And do what they were promised? Will it not be fat for them?), But did not doubt. In general, he is a very unsympathetic character who, where by brute force, where by undisguised meanness, achieved all his goals, and even the Hussites recognized him as the king of the Czech Republic. True, he died almost immediately after that.
      1. Undecim
        Undecim 29 October 2020 09: 30
        +9
        In general, he is a very unsympathetic character who, where by brute force, where by undisguised meanness, achieved all his goals, and even the Hussites recognized him as the king of the Czech Republic.
        A typical representative of his time.
        Even today, he would not have particularly stood out against the background of foreign politicians.
        Rpzve that for the better.
        1. Lexus
          Lexus 30 October 2020 02: 17
          12
          Viktor hi, this, when feeling the next bottom, they constantly knock from below.
      2. vladcub
        vladcub 30 October 2020 08: 11
        +1
        "The truth died almost immediately after that" The Lord punished him
  • Icelord
    Icelord 29 October 2020 11: 00
    +8
    Very good article. Thank you, Valery. And the portrait of Bayezid this time looks like the truth. And Sigismund's hat is so stylish, little fashion has changed smile
  • Trilobite Master
    Trilobite Master 29 October 2020 15: 00
    +5
    Thanks to the author for the material. Both the first and second articles, in my opinion, are very worthy creations.
  • Trilobite Master
    Trilobite Master 29 October 2020 15: 57
    +6
    After reading the article, I had one question and one problem. smile
    Question.
    Why don't we defame Stefan Lazarevich with all sorts of words, for the Christian helped the murderer of his father, and even the Muslim in the war against Christians, and even decided, one might say, the outcome of the battle in favor of the Basurman? Maybe we need him ... that? Point out mistakes and anathematize? Don't you think so, colleagues? smile
    The problem.
    Given:
    The Turks and Serbs jointly beat the French, Burgundians and Hungarians, before that they beat each other well. Before and after that, the French were beaten hard by the British, then the French were beaten by the British, the British were beating each other in the War of the Roses, the Swiss were the Burgundians, and the Uzbeks and Tajiks of Timur were the Turks, before that they had twice defeated the Tokhtamysh steppe dwellers, who had previously burned the capital of the Russians, who had previously defeated the steppe inhabitants of Mamai. Lithuania defeated the Mamai steppe dwellers on Blue Waters, but on Vorskla, together with the Tokhtamysh steppe dwellers, it was defeated by the Edigei steppe dwellers, and then, together with the Poles, defeated the Germans near Grunwald, after which the Czechs began to beat everyone in a row for dozens of years, and then by joint efforts (including and by the efforts of the Czechs themselves) were also beaten.
    Search for:
    Who is the coolest in this scenario.
    Intellectually, I understand that they are Russians, but I cannot prove it. smile
    1. Engineer
      Engineer 29 October 2020 16: 08
      +7
      The Swiss are the coolest.
      The rest are either losers, or Asians, or both lol
      1. Trilobite Master
        Trilobite Master 29 October 2020 16: 13
        +5
        Quote: Engineer
        The Swiss are the coolest.

        Then justify why the Swiss are Russian.
        1. Engineer
          Engineer 29 October 2020 16: 19
          +6
          On the contrary. The Russians are the Swiss, lost in three pines in the Pripyat bogs. And they began to use honey as a substitute for beer. With a slight decrease in fighting qualities, of course.
          1. Trilobite Master
            Trilobite Master 29 October 2020 16: 23
            +3
            The fighting qualities of honey or beer?
            1. Engineer
              Engineer 29 October 2020 16: 25
              +6
              Ability to wield a halberd and a pike and fight on foot.
              The dependence of this skill on beer in the 13-15th centuries is well known.
              1. Trilobite Master
                Trilobite Master 29 October 2020 16: 28
                +5
                The question is open. The British drank beer no less, however, either their beer was special, or their metabolism was different - they were drawn to onions.
                The Czechs generally did not drink anything except beer - for no reason, the Wagenburgs began to build.
                1. Engineer
                  Engineer 29 October 2020 16: 35
                  +9
                  The British fought very well in hand-to-hand combat.
                  The halberd bill was almost as common as the longbow.
                  The Flemings drink beer peaks and godendagis.
                  Czechs drink beer chains and pikes and reforged braids.
                  Landsknechts drink piers and halberds
                  Scots drink beer-peaks
                  Swiss - see above.
                  Italians don't like beer. Arming with whatever - the result is not very
                  The French don't like beer. The infantry is so-so.
                  The connection between beer and the combat effectiveness of polearmed infantry is proven.
                  Beer> honey> wine
                  1. Trilobite Master
                    Trilobite Master 29 October 2020 16: 45
                    +5
                    And how they began to distill alcohol in any significant quantities - they came up with firearms ... Nuclear weapons are already a consequence of the spread of drugs ...
                    Yes, perhaps in color!
                    Quote: Engineer
                    The French don't like beer. The infantry is so-so.

                    And the fact that they all at the end of the XNUMXth - beginning of the XNUMXth centuries bend down can be easily explained - they had "Napoleon"!
                    Write your dissertation, Denis. It will be a bomb!
                    1. Engineer
                      Engineer 29 October 2020 16: 51
                      +4
                      And the fact that they all at the end of the XNUMXth - beginning of the XNUMXth centuries bend down can be easily explained - they had "Napoleon"!

                      The law is empirical, at the tip of the pen. To clarify, to reveal fluctuations is still to be done
                      Write your dissertation, Denis. It will be a bomb!

                      I give ideas to professional historians. They are already, unhappy, toil from limited sources and their inability to soar over the problem. Even without beer. Maybe with new knowledge they will make some progress.
                      And I still have a lot of ideas.
                      1. Trilobite Master
                        Trilobite Master 29 October 2020 16: 57
                        +4
                        As you wish. smile
                        Only they will not cope. Do not give them many ideas - no sense, they say, "sources are needed." But to think with your head is not.
                        So it's either you - or nobody!
                      2. Engineer
                        Engineer 29 October 2020 17: 00
                        +7
                        Resolved, I will use VO as a platform for promoting ideas. It's time to finally show people what the real story looks like

                        PS Well, the Swiss are the coolest, I repeat.
                      3. Trilobite Master
                        Trilobite Master 29 October 2020 17: 17
                        +3
                        Quote: Engineer
                        PS Well, the Swiss are the coolest, I repeat.

                        It only means that they are Russians. This is evidenced by their very name - SWISS - that is, subjects of the Russian Tsar. The Swiss - the Swiss - their kings. Ours, definitely.
                      4. Engineer
                        Engineer 29 October 2020 17: 18
                        +5
                        Linguistics is not rolling now. Haplogroup only
                        You can then declare a competition for an honorable second place
                      5. Trilobite Master
                        Trilobite Master 29 October 2020 18: 04
                        +4
                        Let's say you are a supporter of haplogroups, and I am a supporter of linguistics. You drink wine and I drink beer. Well, whose point of view seems more reasonable to you? By the way, I have "Hops and Malt" near my house, so in scientific disputes I will not run out of arguments. smile
                        And what, by the way, do the haplogroups say about the Swiss? What haplogroup is ours today?
                      6. Engineer
                        Engineer 29 October 2020 18: 32
                        +5
                        Our opinion about haplogroups is irrelevant. The main haplogroup has not yet spoken out.
                        Hops and Malt "near the house, so in scientific disputes I will not run out of arguments

                        And I have a craft brewery within walking distance)
                      7. Trilobite Master
                        Trilobite Master 29 October 2020 18: 41
                        +5
                        Quote: Engineer
                        craft brewery within walking distance

                        This means we can discuss on equal terms. However, I'm not far from the "Fragrant World", if anything, for help, if I really press it. smile
                    2. Astra wild2
                      Astra wild2 29 October 2020 19: 51
                      +2
                      Mikhail, I'd rather drink wine than beer, too. I even made myself 9 liters of wine! The first time what happened I don't know yet. I was told that it should settle, but how much?
                    3. Trilobite Master
                      Trilobite Master 29 October 2020 20: 00
                      +4
                      Quote: Astra wild2
                      I'd rather drink wine than beer

                      Therefore, it is better for you to manipulate when sorting out the relationship with a hairpin, and not a club. Beer - for brutal males with a flail and a tambourine. smile
                      As for wine, I think your colleagues will answer you better. A brew, if warm, costs three weeks, well, maybe four. Some keep it for forty days, I don't know why. Tradition, some kind, maybe ... Wine, probably, too. I do not know.
                    4. Hantengri
                      Hantengri 29 October 2020 21: 21
                      +3
                      Quote: Astra wild2
                      Mikhail, I'd rather drink wine than beer, too. I even made myself 9 liters of wine! The first time what happened I don't know yet. I was told that it should settle, but how much?

                      You ask Kwas (Constantine). He's been doing it for years. It turns out pretty well.
                    5. Astra wild2
                      Astra wild2 30 October 2020 11: 30
                      -1
                      You tried?
                    6. Hantengri
                      Hantengri 30 October 2020 13: 31
                      +2
                      Sure! We taste it every year. )))
  • Astra wild2
    Astra wild2 29 October 2020 19: 41
    +2
    In my opinion, this is an overt advertising of alcohol. Here are the moderators pour you.
    1. Engineer
      Engineer 29 October 2020 20: 25
      +3
      As many as five warnings before the eternal ban. You can relax
  • Liam
    Liam 30 October 2020 21: 05
    0
    Quote: Engineer
    Italians don't like beer

    Seriously?)
    1. Engineer
      Engineer 30 October 2020 21: 08
      +1
      Absolutely
      They use disgusting aperoli and, God forgive me, Chianti bully
      1. Liam
        Liam 30 October 2020 21: 09
        +1
        With beer, they also have all the norms. 4 place in Europe in terms of the number of breweries, by the way)
      2. Engineer
        Engineer 30 October 2020 21: 12
        +1
        BUT we talked about the Middle Ages.
        It would have been so 600 years ago, then Itals would have come to visit the French and Germans. And not vice versa
      3. Liam
        Liam 30 October 2020 21: 16
        +2
        The Itals were not visited due to the lack of a centralized state, and the French and the Germans were both beggars compared to the Itals at that time, and Italy was rich). 600 years ago, Itals were at the forefront in military affairs too
      4. Engineer
        Engineer 30 October 2020 21: 18
        0
        Itals were not visited due to the lack of a centralized state

        The Germans didn't have it either
        600 years ago, Itals were at the forefront in military affairs too

        This is, of course, an exaggeration). Well, okay, I don't want to argue
      5. Liam
        Liam 30 October 2020 21: 20
        +1
        Quote: Engineer

        The Germans didn't have it either

        Are you talking about mercenaries or what?
      6. Engineer
        Engineer 30 October 2020 21: 31
        0
        Her.
        The state and the institution of mercenarism, if they are related, is inversely proportional.
        The Germans simply did not have a centralized state.
      7. Liam
        Liam 30 October 2020 21: 44
        +1
        Quote: Engineer
        The Germans simply did not have a centralized state.

        That's right. That's why in Italy there were German mercenaries in the service of the same Charles 5. They, the Swiss, are poor people from poor countries who sold their lives for a piece of bread. The Italians lived in a rich country and were not particularly fond of mercenaries in other countries. was good. The decline of the Italian military art - the 16th century, coupled with many other spheres. Before that they were at the level
      8. Engineer
        Engineer 30 October 2020 21: 54
        0
        The Germans often came with the troops of the HRE at the head of the feudal armies to pay homage to rich Italy and to remind who is the master there.
        Friedrich Barbarossa, Frederick II, Ludwig of Bavaria, Charles IV, Heinrich 2
      9. Liam
        Liam 30 October 2020 21: 57
        +1
        ))) And often there were beats. In Germany (which you have among the great warriors) walked all and sundry, up to Bismarck, from the French to the Swedes.
      10. Engineer
        Engineer 30 October 2020 22: 00
        0
        But more often the opposite)
        Germans are generally broad-minded people.
        They themselves walk wherever they can and receive guests.
        In Germany (who are among your great warriors)

        This is something new)
      11. Liam
        Liam 30 October 2020 22: 06
        +1
        The history of mercenarism in the Middle Ages is a fascinating read. All major European countries, including Italy, were trendsetters in military affairs at different periods of history
      12. Engineer
        Engineer 30 October 2020 22: 11
        0
        It was, but specific. Armor, for example, my compliments. Marine business.
        Well, the German element in Italy itself was strong. Up to 12-13 centuries
      13. Liam
        Liam 30 October 2020 22: 22
        +2
        Quote: Engineer
        Armor, for example

        ))

        Whose school is this?

      14. Engineer
        Engineer 31 October 2020 10: 15
        0
        All true.
        Italians are the carriers and drivers of technology. Warriors are so-so, since the 2nd century AD. There are many examples of courage and valor, but they are usually isolated and smeared over a huge population.
        Germans are good soldiers. Already from the earliest appearance
        Suum Kuikwe

        For the love of our Lord, do not hire Italians, this is money down the drain. As for the Germans, send another 10 thousand

        Alba's letter to Philip II
  • VLR
    29 October 2020 16: 41
    10
    "The question is open. The British drank beer no less" ... "how they began to distill alcohol"
    I remembered a song that explains everything a little differently:

    "Scottish warriors wear skirts,
    under which there are no panties.
    They are braver than anyone in the world
    they will drive the English dogs away.

    English warriors walk in trousers
    under which there are panties
    they are braver than anyone in the world,
    they are not afraid of Scottish dogs.

    Irish warriors are not weak either
    no weaker than English dogs.
    Irish warriors go to pubs
    drink your panties on drink.

    French warriors devour frogs
    and rot at the root,
    hearing the sounds of English guns,
    panties are changed five times a day.

    Teutonic warriors walk in formation
    in copper armor over panties,
    they suffer from hemorrhoids
    but they keep better than the French dogs.

    Icelandic warriors flaunt
    in panties made of fish scales,
    at the sight of the enemy, bare
    their swords smelling of fish.

    Jewish warriors wear sidelocks
    shielding panties,
    Jewish soldiers build pubs,
    where the Irish dogs go.

    Slavic warriors will take everyone away,
    despite the panties,
    they don't look at anything at all,
    except for vodka and sausage. "
    1. vladcub
      vladcub 29 October 2020 18: 38
      +3
      Valery, I don’t know such a song
      1. VLR
        29 October 2020 18: 57
        +6
        Well, is it possible to know all the songs. This is an excerpt from the "Song of Dogs, Warriors and Cowards" by a little-known folk-rock group "Tower Rowan", I myself stumbled upon it (the song) on ​​the Internet about a year ago smile
        Someone, somewhere, referred to her.
        The group itself seems to no longer exist.
        1. vladcub
          vladcub 30 October 2020 08: 04
          +1
          I wonder if they still had similar songs
        2. iskanderzp
          iskanderzp 30 October 2020 19: 52
          +1
          Valery! You are not entirely correct. The authors of this opus are "Rats and Schmendra". And the full text looks like this:
          A song about dogs and cowards
          (Tikki and Stas)

          Am G Am
          Scottish warriors wear skirts with no panties underneath.
          G Am
          They are braver than anyone in the world, they will chase the English dogs away
          G Am G
          English warriors walk in trousers with underpants underneath
          Am E Am G Am
          They are braver than anyone in the world, they are not afraid of Scottish dogs

          Am
          How we were inserted, how we were inserted,
          G Am
          How we got in, God! ..
          G
          How they inserted us, how they inserted us -
          Am e am
          So that you are so inserted too ...

          Irish warriors are also not weak, not weaker than English dogs
          Irish warriors go to pubs - drink their panties
          French warriors devour frogs and rot
          Hearing the sounds of English guns, the panties are changed five times a day

          Teutonic warriors walk in formation in copper armor over their underpants
          They suffer from hemorrhoids, but they hold on better than the French dogs.
          Brave Mbwaga warriors are unaware of cowards
          They generally have up to>

          Indian warriors smoke pipes, hammering the panties of the British into them
          They have tin stomachs and their eggs are as tight as a drum
          Icelandic warriors sport fish scale underpants
          At the sight of the enemy, they bare their swords smelling of fish

          Jewish warriors wear side curtains that cover their underpants
          Jewish soldiers build pubs where Irish dogs come.
          Brave warriors of Ukraine All by nature Bulba Taras
          They eat pork fat And wear huge quasi-cowards.

          Tatar warriors devour horsemeat, flashing cowards across the steppes
          The Tatar warrior is such a brute, everything except horse meat, he likes ... roll.
          Slavic warriors will take everyone away, regardless of cowards
          They don't look at anything at all except vodka and sausage.

          Those interested can listen in mp3 format by downloading a search engine.)
  • Astra wild2
    Astra wild2 29 October 2020 20: 10
    +1
    Colleagues: Mikhail, Denis (?) Engineer ,, you have a new look at the development of cold steel. It turns out alcohol does.
    You urgently need to write a scientific work. At least Ph.D.
    1. Icelord
      Icelord 29 October 2020 20: 43
      +4
      It also influences, as I drink, I start to wave some piece of iron from the collection, I have accidentally cut down fifteen chandeliers laughing
      1. Undecim
        Undecim 30 October 2020 00: 35
        +3
        Alcohol and weapons are incompatible. Definitely. Those who disagree should be convinced with their hands.
        1. Icelord
          Icelord 30 October 2020 01: 24
          +2
          Well, while for thirty years the current furniture suffered, although one of my friends was drunk, he accidentally laid the girl down at the camp site, but shooting anywhere is too much
        2. Astra wild2
          Astra wild2 30 October 2020 15: 18
          -1
          Actually I was talking about a COLD weapon
    2. Astra wild2
      Astra wild2 30 October 2020 11: 35
      -1
      How does the wife look at it? After all, this is reflected in the budget
      1. Icelord
        Icelord 30 October 2020 12: 02
        +4
        And at the moment the wife is absent, and those who were used to it, anyway, any saber is much more expensive, so they rather growled for the purchase of a piece of iron. Of course, I tried to cheat the pier for a pittance, I took this and that, but women are such detectives, they rarely managed to lie. Collectors have a joke. The worst dream is when you dream that your wife is selling your collection at the prices she announced. laughing
      2. Astra wild2
        Astra wild2 30 October 2020 15: 41
        +1
        I agree with you: "such sischiks are born" my advice to you: do not try to lie like that in the future. If a woman is smart, she notices what a man's passion is and it is not very difficult to understand that he will buy some shit. It is best to tell half the truth. Type: of course expensive and call 40-50% less and start further, but if you compare with and so on. Even if it doesn't work, it won't get any worse.
        Why is it difficult to deceive us? We are more emotional and therefore more subtly grasp various nuances.
      3. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 30 October 2020 19: 03
        +2
        The worst dream is when you dream that your wife is selling your collection at the prices she announced.
        My spouse, who was named uncle, threw a silver ingot into the trash heap, examining the pantry in his absence.
  • Phil77
    Phil77 30 October 2020 18: 08
    +3
    Quote: Icelord
    waving a piece of iron from the collection, I have already accidentally cut down fifteen chandeliers

    Good evening everyone! Igor! Sorry, but it reminded me !!!!!

    laughing
    1. Phil77
      Phil77 30 October 2020 18: 12
      +3
      Or here's another!

      More clearly! This is how Oleg Tabakov fought against philistinism. Once! laughing
    2. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 30 October 2020 18: 22
      +2
      "Checkers! Checkers!
      O silk cocotte,
      Wipe it up! Wipe it up!
      In the streets of Vienna! "(C)
    3. Icelord
      Icelord 31 October 2020 06: 59
      +1
      Sergei hi Well, I'm not doing it purposefully, like Tabakov, just like, but I can do it like this, and like this, and like this ... oops repeat
  • Korsar4
    Korsar4 29 October 2020 16: 28
    +6
    Mixed marriages are our everything.

    And the tutors in our best homes were not only French.
    1. Trilobite Master
      Trilobite Master 29 October 2020 16: 36
      +6
      Quote: Korsar4
      And the tutors in our best homes were not only French.

      You imply that and they also? Horror!
      Who are they they - do not specify. They are![B] [/ b]
      1. Korsar4
        Korsar4 29 October 2020 19: 30
        +4
        "You can find a surname and even a name for every governor" (almost (s).

        And Bunsha in Ivan Vasilievich also hinted at his proletarian origin.
  • VLR
    29 October 2020 16: 29
    +5
    Saint Stephen Lazarevich and Ankara will fight for Bayazid in such a way that Tamerlane himself will surprise. And in fact, he will save the heir to the throne, Suleiman, who, under his protection, will be able to leave for Bursa. And only then will he betray the Ottomans, when he realizes that everything is over, he will transfer to the Hungarians. More on this in the next article. Then the Serb Milos, fighting for Mehmed, will kill another son of Bayazid - Musa, and become one of the prototypes of Milos Obilic. Then the Serbian despot Georgy Brankovich, the father-in-law of Sultan Murad II ...
    However, I will write about this later, I will not get ahead of myself.
    1. Trilobite Master
      Trilobite Master 29 October 2020 16: 31
      +5
      I am sorry if I got ahead of myself. smile
      We'll have time, then, to slander Stefan ... Okay, postponed. smile
  • 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 29 October 2020 19: 29
    +2
    All in all, "The House That Jack Ditched"
  • Esoteric
    Esoteric 29 October 2020 17: 22
    +1
    Read about the father of modern chronology, Joseph Scaliger, at least in Wikipedia. There, in a very condensed form, literally in three sentences, it is written how he calculated the historical dates that we now use. Curiosity. This is the purest numerology! This is nonsense. But this nonsense is now in our reality, it is according to it that ancient events are counted. Dear historians, please comment on the works of your master. And yes, is there a translation of his works into modern languages, in particular Russian, to admire his flight of thought? There will hardly be an answer.
    1. Icelord
      Icelord 29 October 2020 18: 33
      +5
      You see what a thing, and there are no dates at all. You can read about Svyatoslav from the Byzantines, about Oleg, too, something, a trade agreement concluded with the Romees has been preserved, but with Slavic sources it was tight, or it was not very written, or something else. So there is either roughly calculated dates, or no history at all
    2. Trilobite Master
      Trilobite Master 29 October 2020 18: 36
      +5
      Although I am not a historian, I will try to answer.
      There is such a historical auxiliary discipline - chronology. It has nothing to do with the "new chronology". Within the framework of this discipline, scholars try to date or refine the dating of historical events. The discipline, as for me, is boring, although someone may like it.
      Scaliger can be considered the founder of chronology, but he is not its only source. Since the time of Scaliger, chronology has stepped forward and little is based on his writings, so your words
      Quote: Ezoterik
      this nonsense is now in our reality, it is on it that ancient events are counted

      to put it mildly, they do not correspond to reality. Probably, the main merit of Scaliger as a scientist is his attempt to introduce a "cross-cutting" weather chronology, i.e. "standardize" it by bringing different methods of time reckoning to a single denominator, roughly speaking, combine different calendars. What Fomenko writes about Scaliger is mostly a lie. And the fact that we are now using his timeline is also nonsense. According to Scaliger, we now have 6733.
      1. Icelord
        Icelord 29 October 2020 18: 44
        +5
        Well, I wrote about this. The current is simpler smile
      2. Astra wild2
        Astra wild2 29 October 2020 19: 27
        +3
        Mikhail, good evening, and Fomenko and his rati will like "mostly lies"? After all, they like to cling to such labels, and getting them back is not enough pleasure.
        1. Trilobite Master
          Trilobite Master 29 October 2020 19: 44
          +6
          To me, Vera, their experiences are somehow violet. For me, Fomenko is a deceiver, because so err a person with a scientific mind simply cannot. No way. And yes, good evening. hi smile
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 29 October 2020 20: 40
            +4
            Well, why are you so, Mikhail? Fomenko is a creative producer!
            1. Trilobite Master
              Trilobite Master 29 October 2020 20: 57
              +4
              Quote: 3x3zsave
              creative producer

              Eck you put it ... My admiration. fellow
              I just called it a deceiver, and you ...
              Can I call all the opponents of the Fomenko clique that way now? Like, go learn, the producer is creative ... Or when they are very offended: "And you ... And you .. You are a creative producer!"
              Not banned?
              laughing
              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 29 October 2020 21: 05
                +4
                Well, I was not banned for the term "neostromorodny representative of the animal world" ... By the way, sometimes it's easier to switch to Latin, even better to Spanish.
                1. Trilobite Master
                  Trilobite Master 29 October 2020 21: 32
                  +5
                  Quote: 3x3zsave
                  I was ... not banned

                  What is allowed to Jupiter ... And they generally do not consider me a person. I am a trilobite for them and nothing more. A trilobite cannot speak like that. Probably. laughing
                  1. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 29 October 2020 21: 38
                    +4
                    Oh, who would be pitying!
                2. Korsar4
                  Korsar4 29 October 2020 21: 33
                  +4
                  “I have forgotten what it’s called in Latin, but it’s better not to speak without Latin” (c).
                  1. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 29 October 2020 21: 43
                    +4
                    "Carajo, maricon de mierda!"
                    I really want to do a similar airbrushing on the "bucket".
                    1. Korsar4
                      Korsar4 29 October 2020 21: 46
                      +4
                      “The Turkish Pasha's knife broke in half,
                      When I told him: "Pasha, salam" (s).
              2. Astra wild2
                Astra wild2 30 October 2020 08: 32
                0
                We'll ask the moderators.
        2. Icelord
          Icelord 29 October 2020 20: 14
          +3
          I personally would describe them this way ... but I have 8 warnings sad
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 29 October 2020 20: 37
            +2
            2 more and will be banned altogether. Log in and log back in.
            1. Astra wild2
              Astra wild2 30 October 2020 11: 41
              +1
              In my past "life" I had 2 warnings, with one I partially agree, and the other with bias. I think so
              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 30 October 2020 19: 09
                0
                My Beautiful Stranger! Yes, you are a minx! I have only one repeat
                1. Lexus
                  Lexus 31 October 2020 05: 41
                  +2
                  "He who does not take risks does not drink champagne." (FROM) repeat
        3. Esoteric
          Esoteric 30 October 2020 06: 19
          +2
          Each present has its own
          the past.
          R. J. Collingwood "The Idea of ​​History"
          And a very large copy-paste. I apologize in advance.
          The famous English historian and philosopher R J. Collingwood left an interesting work on the question of interest to all: how to assess the degree of reliability of certain historical facts?
          Collingwood wrote: "The criterion of truth that justifies his (the historian's) statements is never the fact that their content was given to him by the source." Considering that, in addition to the mechanical perception of the facts captured by the ancient chronicler, the historian must also take into account "reliability" as a touchstone with which we decide whether these facts are true, Collingwood cites: "Suetonius tells me that Nero at one time intended to remove Roman legions from Britain. I reject this testimony of Suetonius not because some more perfect source contradicts it, for, of course, I do not have such sources. I reject it, because, reconstructing the policy of Nero based on the works of Tacitus, I CANNOT CONSIDER that Suetonius is right ... I can include what Tacitus told me in my own coherent and integral picture of events and I cannot do this with Suetonius's stories. "
          Simply put, any thoughtful researcher has the right to build his own version - provided that it does not contradict logic, common sense, and what we know in general terms about a given era. For example, it is possible to assert with a high degree of probability: a person professing Christianity will never order another person to be executed for refusing to worship pagan gods. However, in the stories about "evil Tatars" we will still encounter this paradox: a Christian khan from the Golden Horde suddenly orders to execute the Russian Christian prince for refusing to worship a pagan idol ...
          There can be only two conclusions: either the chronicler got it wrong and the khan is not a Christian at all, or this story is a fiction ...
          “… Any source can be corrupted: this author is prejudiced, he received false information, this inscription was misread by a poor specialist in epigraphy, this shard was displaced from its temporary layer by an inexperienced archaeologist, and that one - by an innocent rabbit. The critical historian must identify and correct all such distortions. And he does this only by deciding for himself whether the picture of the past, created on the basis of this evidence, is a coherent and continuous picture that has historical meaning. "
          The liar Fomenko is not interesting.
          1. Icelord
            Icelord 30 October 2020 11: 18
            +1
            Well, from the point of view of everyday common sense, this is logical, but science has its own rules. Of course, it is possible to put forward a theory, but the burden of proof lies with the one who put forward it, and while they are not there, the theory will not even move to the rank of a hypothesis. This is a scientific method, so it is accepted. But about the Christian Khan it is interesting, I do not claim to have a comprehensive knowledge of the Golden Horde, so it is possible. But I haven't heard of such people. Please tell me the name of the khan executed and the circumstances of the case.
  • vladcub
    vladcub 29 October 2020 18: 33
    +3
    Quote: Icelord
    Well, Osprey writes popular science books, they don't dig deep at all. So, take an overall assessment

    Look, otherwise V. O will be offended, he always admires this publication
    1. Icelord
      Icelord 29 October 2020 18: 39
      +2
      I hardly think, because what is wrong with popular science books, as I understand it, Vyacheslav Olegovich is positioning himself precisely as a popularizer
  • parusnik
    parusnik 29 October 2020 18: 45
    +5
    In the next article we will talk about the war between Timur and Bayazid, about the great battle of Ankara and its consequences.
    ... It will be a sad story ..
    1. Icelord
      Icelord 29 October 2020 18: 58
      +3
      For the Turks, undoubtedly, and so quite standard for those times. Moreover, Timur helped the Christians in earnest. True, it is unlikely that he set this very goal for himself. smile
  • Astra wild2
    Astra wild2 29 October 2020 19: 19
    +4
    Dear moderators, and you can be good: you did not put Valery and Vyacheslav Olegovich together. For this I love you
  • 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 29 October 2020 19: 59
    +5
    Meanwhile, Valery (for all the daily hustle and bustle in life and at the forum, it is somehow blurred, alas), thanks for the article and your work !!!
  • depressant
    depressant 29 October 2020 20: 58
    +6
    How scary they were - Bayazid Yildirim, Jean de Nevers ... Interestingly, the artists were executed for transferring fearfulness? And if so, then the imagination refuses to imagine what they really were. And the breed is unlikely to have changed over the next 200 years. And I, after reading Dumas, thought that Henry IV, although small in stature, was handsome, and the Duke of Guise - so he in general, even on the podium. And doubts arise that Margot was a beauty.
    And after watching the series "The Magnificent Century", I decided that the Turks were supernaturally beautiful in those distant times. And they looked like they were then ... Bayazids.
    1. Engineer
      Engineer 29 October 2020 21: 27
      +3
      An interesting topic of correspondence of the then portraits of reality

      Facial reconstruction of Richard III, about whom a "black legend" was formed already in Shakespeare's time
      And his oldest surviving portrait (50 years after death, but apparently dates back to lifetime)

      His brother Edward IV, arguably the greatest crowned womanizer of the 15th century.

      He was 194 cm tall
      The artist's contemporary attempt to comprehend his medieval portrait

      Their sister is Margarita of York. Not for the faint of heart!!!!


      Six wives of Henry the 8th


      Henry 4 French
      1. andrew42
        andrew42 30 October 2020 20: 21
        +1
        Edward 4 looks a lot like Hugh Grant on the original :)
        1. Engineer
          Engineer 30 October 2020 20: 58
          0
          On Hugh Grant, who has been on steroids since childhood)
    2. Icelord
      Icelord 29 October 2020 21: 59
      +4
      Lyudmila Yakovlevna, don't you like Sigismund too? For me, he is such a prominent man, but it's hard for me to judge, here I would appreciate Margot with great professionalism smile
      1. depressant
        depressant 29 October 2020 23: 03
        +3
        Sigismund has a clearly pathological runny nose - look at his half-open mouth, he is breathing through his mouth. Therefore, Siberian fur malachai is on the head. There is little pleasant here. They all suffered from some incurable diseases, which are now being treated once. And from the portrait gallery, given by Igor, I liked Henry the Fourth most of all - the essence outward, such a cutie! )))
        But what is significant, I remember, was leafing through the portraits of Russian pre-revolutionary workers - regular faces of the Aryan type, literally everything looks the same, and it, this face, is much nicer, nobler and more thoroughbred than the faces of these medieval folded-nosed ones.
        1. Esoteric
          Esoteric 30 October 2020 06: 54
          +1
          I recommend you to watch the movie "Master of the Seas". See how the actors were selected for the crew of an 18th century English ship. Special attention to the sailors. There is not a single one that is not blond. And on the shown French. In general, the film is excellent.
          1. Icelord
            Icelord 30 October 2020 11: 22
            +3
            Well, of course, and Russell Crowe himself, not blond, of course, but quite blond, and it seems that the boy was a midshipman. In general, it's good at least they didn't make the captain a black man smile
            1. Astra wild2
              Astra wild2 30 October 2020 13: 29
              +1
              For this, the director's blacks were added to the list of evil
            2. Esoteric
              Esoteric 30 October 2020 18: 59
              +1
              Here I am about that. In the crew of the English ship, almost all fair-haired, but the French, on the contrary, are shown as brunettes. In our today's very "tolerant" cinematography, you can hardly see the Indo-European type of person. I don't remember the name, I watched a historical English TV series, so there is either a duke or a baron - African American, if it's tolerant smile
              1. Icelord
                Icelord 31 October 2020 07: 16
                +1
                Well, hair color is not an indicator, I judge by myself, my father is Pole, my mother is half Russian, half German, and at the same time I am dark brown-haired, almost dark-haired with gray eyes, and my father was, without almost any, a burning brunette with light blue eyes smile
                1. Esoteric
                  Esoteric 31 October 2020 11: 02
                  0
                  I have the same mixed. His maternal grandfather, a Pole, even from a gentry family, died in 1944 with the rank of captain, studied before the war in the village. Seltsy, in the Ryazan region, grandmother's mother is Tatar, paternal great-grandfather from Erzyans. Probably the Operator will deny me the right to consider myself Russian smile Although his beloved R1a in the country is not more than 40%. I wonder what he thinks about Pushkin smile
        2. Astra wild2
          Astra wild2 30 October 2020 14: 59
          -1
          Lyudmila Yakovlevna, I slightly dislike your expression: "
          Aryan type "not the best associations, but about
          noses agree, the view is not the most attractive "design" by: Bayazid,
          Jean de Nevero, and the Bourbons?
          1. depressant
            depressant 30 October 2020 16: 22
            +4
            So what was meant?
            The fascists came to us to measure our skulls for deviations from the parameters of the Aryan race, with subsequent enrollment in subhuman. And at that time we were more Aryans than they were. Here we have experts, experts on haplogroups, they will explain this issue better than I do.
            1. Esoteric
              Esoteric 30 October 2020 16: 43
              +1
              If you are talking about an operator, then mind me, mind you. Interestingly, he is aware that R1b, for example, is extremely different. And there are a lot of subclades in it. And they are very different from each other. VYot, for example R1b - S21 (aka U106 or M405). German subclade. And here is where their descendants are mostly:
              .
              Interesting, right?
              And the Celtic subclade -R1b - L21, DF27. The above map shows where the descendants of the ancient Germans now live. Scotland is especially interesting to see. Do they consider themselves descendants of the Celts? Here is Ireland - yes, Wales - yes, but Scotland is not very good.
            2. Astra wild2
              Astra wild2 30 October 2020 17: 44
              0
              Lyudmila Yakovlevna, it was then they went to measure it in Europe, and this obscurantism with the Aryans and non-Aryans began much earlier.
              If it were not for the great grief caused by the Second World War, I would be calm about these eccentricities, otherwise I immediately remember Rosenberg, Himmler and the other gang.
              Instead of this term, you can select other definitions, well, at least the "European type" or the Scandinavian type, though a little more letters, but the essence is the same.
              Lyudmila Yakovlevna, s: "we were Aryans to a greater extent than they" if you were about mixed marriages and "fistevalnat" then really, we were cleaner then than now. Perhaps then there was a greater influence of religion among the people, because in villages and even cities until 1917 it is impossible to imagine that a girl would give birth to a non-fetus. She and all her relatives were spat on, and in the 70s and 80s this is not a very rare occurrence. In the second grade, we had colored people: a non-retired woman with the surname Snigereva and a boy with some sort of Arabic patronymic and the surname also matched, and his father was considered Russian.
              1. depressant
                depressant 30 October 2020 18: 15
                +3
                Yes, festival)))
                But in the early 10s, when I visited Moscow, it came as a shock to me a huge number of men with blond hair and natural blondes. I moved to the Moscow region from the south, where the overwhelming majority are black-haired and black-eyed. And here - completely blondes!))) And in the village where she settled, all were Caucasians, as you say. This is no longer the case. Aliens from Central Asia roam everywhere, who feel extremely confident and, I would say, at ease. There are similar to Tamerlane, there are - to Bayazid)))
                There was a sad black janitor in the "Five", but, you see, he quickly quit, he is no longer there.
                But those of the newcomers that do exist are rapidly diluting the local population with active reproduction of the diaspora through intra-ethnic marriages. Ours with ours. And all are mentally strangers. It looks like they put up with us. While.
              2. Icelord
                Icelord 31 October 2020 18: 25
                +1
                Well, how is it Vera, but what about the Russoari? After all, the whole great turturia was smile
        3. Arthur 85
          Arthur 85 30 October 2020 15: 00
          +1
          I'm afraid the runny nose is still not cured, neither chronic nor any. I had a friend in childhood, his mother worked as a manager. shop (who lived in the Soviet Union will understand) - so he always breathed through his mouth, they did not cure him.
        4. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 30 October 2020 19: 14
          +3
          My respect, Lyudmila Yakovlevna! I also breathe through my mouth. The bridge of the nose is broken three times.
          1. depressant
            depressant 30 October 2020 19: 42
            +3
            Anton, welcome! ))))
            Boxer, huh? )))
            Somehow I can't imagine Sigismund boxing.
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 30 October 2020 19: 48
              +3
              Not at all! Difficult childhood, stormy youth ... The last time, at the end of 2014, he stood up for a sweetheart.
              1. depressant
                depressant 30 October 2020 20: 06
                +2
                I like these men who are able to fight, guided by noble reasons love )))
                But even if Sigismund was distinguished by nobility, it is unlikely that he entered into a clinch with the lady's offender. This is if all the ladies were like in the portrait of this poor thing)))
                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 30 October 2020 20: 29
                  +4
                  I'm afraid to disappoint you, but in the end, "all noble reasons" are based on the struggle for the egg.
                2. depressant
                  depressant 30 October 2020 20: 32
                  +2
                  Oh, I wrote this and realized how wrong it was)))
                  Whatever the woman is, it is a matter of honor for a man to intercede for her. Parallel thinking gives out paradoxical opinions))
                  Along the way, with reading VO, I make up a lot of numerical pairs, so as to fit the necessary information in curly braces, excluding excess, but so that the meaning is not lost. Enumeration of the variants of the set along the way leads to the enumeration of the variants of the comment, and the one that I then reject myself is issued)))
                  1. Icelord
                    Icelord 31 October 2020 18: 16
                    +2
                    Lyudmila Yakovlevna, I honestly did not understand everything, but what are numerical pairs, and what is there with the necessary and unnecessary information. If it's easier for someone like me who is not sharp-faced, what are you doing?
                    1. depressant
                      depressant 31 October 2020 18: 26
                      +3
                      Yes, if modestly so, then the proof of Catalan's theorem within the boundaries of his own theory of basic flows. The proof itself fit on two A4 sheets and took 20 minutes of mental effort. But mathematicians are such a people, every comma must be explained. And if not, they will throw it aside and arrogantly say: "We will not read this heresy!" So I'm suffering, the work grows into a whole volume)))
                      1. Icelord
                        Icelord 31 October 2020 18: 45
                        +1
                        Are you writing a dissertation?
                      2. depressant
                        depressant 31 October 2020 19: 56
                        +3
                        Oh no! Just a scientific work, which at best someday will be published after my death on a suitable mathematical website, and at worst - will be thrown into the trash by someone)))
                        But I am not at all sad about this, I finally do what nature was intended for, but I lived my life wrong, formatting it to the established traditions)))
                        So, Igor and Anton, shake your mustache with the correct conclusions from my wrong life)))
                      3. Icelord
                        Icelord 31 October 2020 20: 08
                        +2
                        Oh, so you are a mathematician, but do you work by profession? I confess that mathematics seems boring, but for someone the very thing, I personally know such people
                      4. depressant
                        depressant 31 October 2020 21: 25
                        +3
                        No, Igor, mathematics is not my profession, but it takes every free second of my life, forcing me to a parallel way of thinking. Therefore, one does not dare to call this a hobby, it sounds too frivolous. This is a way of life. I agree that mathematics is boring for a person who is not disposed to it. I suppose you also have something that you are destined for by nature)))
    3. Icelord
      Icelord 31 October 2020 07: 24
      +5
      Anton hi Duc three is quite a bit, you still have everything ahead (I beg you no offense, joke) I also have a mark on my left cheek like the famous Otto Skorzeny and for the same reasons. Which quite clearly proves that intelligent people invented safety techniques, and you should not play around with sharp objects, even if you are sure that Master Yoda is not good enough for you smile
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 31 October 2020 07: 29
        +6
        Igor hi
        So it happened for the second time for the same reason. The edge of its own shield flew in. This was the end of my reenactment.
        1. Icelord
          Icelord 31 October 2020 08: 43
          +3
          So, if at the competition, I would be wearing a helmet, and the blade is dull (the thickness of the cutting edge, according to the regulations, must be at least 5mm) and I would not have had a completely chopped cheekbone. Then, as usual, a dispute began with a colleague, that a katana or a European broadsword was more effective, they began to find out, I have a heavy cavalry sword, he has a Japanese device, respectively.laughing They didn't bother to protect themselves and the blades are not dull training, but quite historical ones put into a razor (oh, and some, especially academic collectors hate me, they say the scent of history hovers over this object, order a replica and mock it, but for such objects without gloves don't you dare even touch laughing ) Why, we are masters, we will always have time to stop the blow. It turned out not always requestbut I won on points. Of course yes smile ... But this is still nonsense. I have an acquaintance in the USA, motivated by a passion for weapons, so he bought an unsuccessful holster for a Glock Compact, and thrusting a pistol into it without looking, shot the buttock, and there, though a compact, but under hefty 40 S&W cartridges, and even expansive bullets equipped and vomited a pound of meat, then for six months he could only lie on his stomach and were afraid to move. Well, I sat down on my skate smile , as my friends often say after a certain number of mugs: "Well, Igor has suffered, he will be bored about his pieces of iron" wassat
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 31 October 2020 17: 22
            +3
            Here, as usual, a dispute began with a colleague about what is more effective than a katana or a European broadsword
            And this cup has not passed you! All my acquaintances, who are keen on history, talk about such a "hack".
            However, I'm more interested in the confrontation of weapons that in real history have never been opposed. For example, scimitar vs katana ...
            1. Icelord
              Icelord 31 October 2020 18: 06
              +2
              and the scimitar is not a weapon at all. Rather, civilian weapons, not military ones, nothing shines for him in such a cut, he is short
              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 31 October 2020 18: 25
                +2
                I, of course, am an amateur in this matter, but more than once I have come across the opinion that the scimitar was "born" as opposed to the European sword, like a "sword ax".
                1. Icelord
                  Icelord 31 October 2020 18: 33
                  +2
                  No, in battle, the janissaries wore a saber, but in peacetime they were taken away, for they were violently rowdy, hence the scimitar, again, to some kind of pasha in the usual time, not in a war without weapons, not comme il faut, but an uncomfortable saber, here pzhalsta, scimitar, the conquered peoples are not allowed to use the same weapon, therefore, various Serbs, Bulgarians, Greeks, etc. were also very fond of. It's like a camisole sword, they also took combatants to the war, but for every day it is the same. However, I'll look at sho, well, at least wiki writes
                2. Icelord
                  Icelord 31 October 2020 18: 43
                  +2
                  Well, of course, they write nonsense, the scimitar of the 16th century, this is strong, no one saw 17, except for Turkish authors who say they were just not preserved, our grandfathers told us laughing ... But in general, the dimensions are given correctly up to 65 cm long, that is, it is short. But in principle, of course, you can fight. And the fact that he is not a combat one becomes clear when you see that not a single scabbard from the scimitar has a suspension, they plugged him into his belt. In battle, it will not work so clearly, it's like the Japanese. Katana civilian, tati battle sword. The first has no suspension, the second has
                3. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 31 October 2020 18: 47
                  +3
                  The question arises: did your comrade fight with you, katana or tati?
                4. Icelord
                  Icelord 31 October 2020 18: 50
                  +2
                  Katana, tati are rare, but often they are only scabbard and differ, although usually tati is more empathetic, but not globally. There is still another sharpening for cutting armor, but these are nuances
  • andrew42
    andrew42 30 October 2020 20: 33
    +1
    Sigismund's headdress is really interesting. Can anyone enlighten what kind of "ushanka" hat? And what was it called and worn in Europe?
    1. Icelord
      Icelord 31 October 2020 09: 21
      -1
      This cap was called, well, in the language of the bearer of this very cap, of course. They dress her coldly, when her head sweats, take them off laughing... In the wild west they loved similar ones, my friends in the USA gave me this, and I was influenced by the romance of Fenimore Cooper, well, all these brave Pioneers, Scouts, Pioneers, I ask, what is it called? It is a hat, they say, when they dress it coldly. Do you understand? And they look at me so pitifully smile
      1. Esoteric
        Esoteric 31 October 2020 11: 18
        +1
        And I like it more like this person sitting on the right:

        Well, here are these magnificent "headgear":
  • Astra wild2
    Astra wild2 30 October 2020 13: 27
    -2
    I don't know what attracted you to her, some kind of kikimora
    1. Icelord
      Icelord 30 October 2020 13: 32
      +1
      Uh .... Sorry, who's the kikimora? I misunderstood, honestly request And the film, you are right completely racist, not a single Negro sales LGBT and there is no smile
      1. Astra wild2
        Astra wild2 30 October 2020 15: 11
        -1
        Margarita, Margot, York. However, the "Arnolfini couple" are also pale toadstools
        1. Icelord
          Icelord 30 October 2020 15: 30
          +2
          And I didn’t see her, Margot this, I saw Putin with an unknown lady and a lapdog, but Margot wasn’t request love I'm talking about Navarre Margot, the wife of Henry IV
  • Arthur 85
    Arthur 85 30 October 2020 14: 56
    0
    And I did not understand a little what it means "became the king of Germany"? Was Germany really? Maybe Prussia?
    1. VLR
      30 October 2020 17: 29
      +5
      The fact is that the Holy Roman Empire, which had an emperor, included not only German lands - for example, the Czech Republic, Hungary. Therefore, the purely German principalities also had a king.