Military Review

US media: Pentagon postpones large-scale production of F-35 fighters

65
US media: Pentagon postpones large-scale production of F-35 fighters

The US Department of Defense has postponed the launch of full-scale production of fifth-generation F-35 fighters. According to the portal Defense Newsthe reason for this was the delay in testing.


To start full-scale production of the F-35, a special permit is required, which must be signed by US Deputy Secretary of Defense Ellen Lord, writes the portal. However, she cannot give such permission, since the fighter must pass a series of test tests.

(...) fighters must pass a series of comprehensive simulation tests that simulate serious threats that cannot be replicated in real flight tests

- reports the publication.

Earlier, the start of F-35 tests was scheduled for December 2020, but then it was postponed to 2021 without specifying the month.

Thus, the decision to launch a full-scale production can be made either next year or already in 2022, since after the tests it will take time to evaluate the result and draw up a report.

At the same time, as noted, the launch of full-scale production itself is, to some extent, a symbolic decision, since the Pentagon buys F-35 in an amount that allows us to talk about mass production. So, in 2019 alone, 134 5th generation F-35 fighters were delivered to the US security forces, including the Air Force and Navy, as well as the allies. If this is no longer large scale production, then what ...
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  1. Ros 56
    Ros 56 27 October 2020 13: 04
    +3
    I don't know how the tests are there, it has been flying for how many years, but straining with the green American tugriks is clearly visible.
    1. VO3A
      VO3A 27 October 2020 13: 18
      +1
      Admins remove the article, which 134 fighters? Someone reads this nonsense before publishing?
      1. OgnennyiKotik
        OgnennyiKotik 27 October 2020 13: 26
        +2
        This news was translated like that.
        with 134 F-35s delivered to US and international customers in 2019.

        and in 2019, 134 F-35s were delivered to American and international customers.
      2. And Makarov
        And Makarov 27 October 2020 15: 38
        20
        Quote: VO3A
        what 134 fighters?

        Yes, this is for 2019. So half a thousand of them already
  2. ZEMCH
    ZEMCH 27 October 2020 13: 09
    +3
    Very much like "Pentagon Wars" laughing
  3. voyaka uh
    voyaka uh 27 October 2020 13: 10
    +1
    "fighters must pass a series of tests under complex simulations that simulate serious threats" ///
    ----
    The Integrated Modeling Center is not ready. It should have been made by the Pentagon, not Lockheed. It all rested on it.
    1. PSih2097
      PSih2097 27 October 2020 13: 13
      +2
      Quote: voyaka uh
      The Integrated Modeling Center is not ready. It should have been made by the Pentagon, not Lockheed. It all rested on it.

      what have not been shared? After all, Lockheed is one of the largest contractors for the Pentagon ...
      1. voyaka uh
        voyaka uh 27 October 2020 13: 54
        +2
        Lockheed is a stakeholder. Therefore, the audit center was assigned to a third-party firm. But the task turned out to be too technically difficult. The Pentagon swung: "how to use the F-35 in a full-scale nuclear war" belay
        Fig simulate such a thing. laughing
        1. Sergey_G_M
          Sergey_G_M 27 October 2020 13: 57
          +2
          Or maybe they are waiting for tests of the S-400 in Turkey, so that according to their results, the F-35 is tested wink
          1. voyaka uh
            voyaka uh 27 October 2020 14: 04
            0
            The S-400 has already been tested. US and Israeli planes shuttle back and forth for hours and days along the Syrian coast in international waters off the coast opposite Khmeimim. Fortunately, the S-400 is on the very shore.
            1. Sergey_G_M
              Sergey_G_M 27 October 2020 14: 06
              +1
              Well, this is not quite right, in Turkey you can measure everything with your own hands in all modes and ranges.
              1. voyaka uh
                voyaka uh 27 October 2020 14: 10
                -1
                I agree, but you can copy the radar frequency packets
        2. sharp-lad
          sharp-lad 27 October 2020 21: 52
          0
          The Pentagon swung: "how to use the F-35 in a full-scale nuclear war" belay
          Fig simulate such a thing. laughing

          That's not a problem, but who will allow it? laughing hi
      2. Alf
        Alf 27 October 2020 17: 31
        0
        Quote: PSih2097
        Quote: voyaka uh
        The Integrated Modeling Center is not ready. It should have been made by the Pentagon, not Lockheed. It all rested on it.

        what have not been shared? After all, Lockheed is one of the largest contractors for the Pentagon ...

        We did not agree on a rollback.
    2. VO3A
      VO3A 27 October 2020 13: 38
      +9
      The F35 is a hidden reconnaissance aircraft, a target designator, a key element of the information system, as a multi-purpose aircraft it is useless! Moreover, it is not needed by other countries that do not have an information platform for its use as a 5th generation aircraft ... Well, maybe Israel is developing some partial possibilities of its use, but this is in a terrorist vein and in its specific conditions ... Without of the US information platform, this plane is not needed by anyone, it is useless ... The US allies do not buy the plane for themselves, but for the pi_ndos for their operations, but for their own money ... This is a scam called NATO ...
      1. VO3A
        VO3A 27 October 2020 14: 04
        +4
        The USA itself has long abandoned the idea of ​​the F35 as a multipurpose aircraft. And Europeans understand this! And additional orders for F18 and F15 only confirm this! F35 does not replace F16, F15, F18, but is only an addition to them and performs its specific tasks, but nevertheless very important tasks. As a multipurpose aircraft, the F35 does not live up to the hopes and expectations placed on it. In this regard, this is a failed project and we see confirmation of this. Nobody needs this aircraft in the planned quantities and the program will be significantly reduced! This is what should have been written in the article ... And some kind of center and some kind of tests have nothing to do with it !!!
        1. OgnennyiKotik
          OgnennyiKotik 27 October 2020 14: 23
          -8
          It seems like an adequate person, but you are rewriting the legends of the Russian segment of the Internet.
          F35 was created under the JSF program (Joint Strike Fighter - single shock fighter), to replace the F-16, A-10, F / A-18C / D, Harrier and only them. F15 / 22, F / A-18E / F Super Hornet have nothing to do with this program, instead of them there will be other aircraft.
          Single it is not because it has to replace all aircraft, but because it was created for the Air Force, Navy and ILC. Each of these combat arms had their own strike fighter projects and they were combined into a single one.
          Shock means that he must inflict covert attacks on air, land and sea targets, there are other aircraft for other tasks.
          It did not meet the hopes and expectations of Internet users, the F35 was created for a specific technical specification, for specific tasks.
          F15 and F / A-18E / F are ordered not because the F35 is bad, but because the planes to replace them have not been created. These aircraft of different classes and complement each other, not replace.
          And as one person said: "The fact that we did not meet your expectations is your problem."
          1. VO3A
            VO3A 27 October 2020 14: 28
            -1
            Beliefs cannot be rewritten! Your opuses have nothing to do with the 5th generation aircraft F35! You think in terms of the past, these are not mine - these are your legends ... United, Shock .... this is yesterday ... You have fallen behind for a long time, where are you climbing? .. Kitty ...
            1. OgnennyiKotik
              OgnennyiKotik 27 October 2020 14: 37
              0
              I rely on documents, you on your conclusions, what you want and what the plane was created for, different things.
              Here is a description of the program https://www.gao.gov/assets/600/591608.pdf
              Here is an excerpt:

              Page 3
              The conventional takeoff and landing (CTOL) variant will be an air-to-ground replacement for the Air Force's F-16 Falcon and the A-10 Thunderbolt II aircraft, and will complement the F-22A Raptor. The STOVL variant will be a multi-role strike fighter to replace the Marine Corps' F / A-18C / D Hornet and AV-8B Harrier aircraft. The carrier-suitable variant (CV) will provide the Navy a multi-role, stealthy strike aircraft to complement the F / A-18 E / F Super Hornet.

              Conventional Take-off and Landing (CTOL) will replace the US Air Force F-16 Falcon and the A-10 Thunderbolt II air-to-ground aircraft and complement aircraft F-22A Raptor. The STOVL variant will be a multi-role strike fighter that will replace the F / A-18C / D Hornet and AV-8B Harrier Marine aircraft. The Carrier Option (CV) will provide the Navy with a multi-role, stealthy strike aircraft in addition to the F / A-18 E / F Super Hornet.



              What are your words based on?
              1. VO3A
                VO3A 27 October 2020 15: 04
                -1
                And that documents are at war and carry out combat missions? We wanted one thing, got another! ...
                My conclusions are based on my knowledge, qualifications and experience of many years of service directly in combat aviation units, in scientific and educational institutions ... Read carefully the excerpts from the documents you cited ... F35 does not meet the assigned tasks ... But it has others capabilities...
                1. OgnennyiKotik
                  OgnennyiKotik 27 October 2020 15: 33
                  +3
                  Quote: VO3A
                  My conclusions are based on my knowledge, qualifications and experience of many years of service directly in combat aviation units, in scientific and educational institutions

                  If this is true, then you should know that any inferences, conclusions, decisions should be based on confirmed proven information, not on individual experience, inferences, assumptions. The document I submitted is official, confirmed.
                  Quote: VO3A
                  Read carefully the excerpts from the documents you quoted ... F35 is not up to the task ...

                  What does it not satisfy? The fact that the A-10 did not replace? So 2037 has not yet arrived, the required number of aircraft has not been released.
                  Total US investment is now projected at nearly $ 400 billion to develop and acquire 2,457 aircraft through 2037 and will require a long-term, sustained funding commitment.

                  Quote: VO3A
                  But he has other possibilities ...

                  I agree with this, in general, in the document, the description of Block 3 is now in the plans of Block 4. Naturally, life makes its own adjustments, but to expect that was not planned is, to put it mildly, strange.
                  1. VO3A
                    VO3A 27 October 2020 15: 47
                    -3
                    but expecting something that was not planned is, to put it mildly, strange.

                    You think very primitively ... Here's an example for you: a truck travels from point A to point B. Why not load the cargo into it?
                    In the conduct of hostilities, there has been a revolution associated with information achievements. Everyone talks about it, but most do not understand what the point is. An aircraft of the 5th generation is not just an aircraft better than the 4th in technical terms and in terms of capabilities, it is an aircraft that exists and realizes its capabilities in the information space ... In this space, an aircraft of the 4th generation can also be introduced, but it has not all the capabilities of the 5th generation aircraft ... It is also true that the 5th generation aircraft without this information environment will not be able to fully realize the capabilities that are inherent in it ...
                    1. OgnennyiKotik
                      OgnennyiKotik 27 October 2020 15: 59
                      +2
                      Quote: VO3A
                      In the conduct of hostilities, there has been a revolution associated with information achievements.

                      Absolutely agree. F35 was created for this, as the center of Network-centric systems, this is the main difference from 4ok. Huge computing capabilities, data transmission channels, generated electricity, etc. the capabilities that were originally incorporated into the aircraft, but today they are already outdated in relation to themselves, so Block 4 is planned. Including this, he complements the F15 / 22 and the Super Hornet, in the future it will be the control center for slave drones, etc. But it is not created as a replacement for the F15 / 22 and the Super Hornet, it is not created as a universal air fighter, it is not a magic wunderwolf as expected Internet users.
                      F35 is a single-engine, cheap, strike family of 5th generation fighters. Created for a specific TK, with specific capabilities.
                      1. VO3A
                        VO3A 27 October 2020 16: 17
                        -1
                        Yes, but then why do we need so many of these planes? This time! And why do other countries need these planes? They do not have global information systems, and a UAV would be enough for their local ones! This is the divorce of its allies from the United States!
                      2. OgnennyiKotik
                        OgnennyiKotik 27 October 2020 16: 34
                        +1
                        The concept of complete air domination in the United States has not been canceled.
                        It is necessary to replace F16, F / A-18C / D, Harrier with 5th generation aircraft. The last two are very tired and outdated. F2 is even more or less, but there are enough minuses. They still need to buy planes, maintain and upgrade old ones too expensive. Programs for creating aircraft to replace the F16 / 15 and F / A-22E / F have been launched, the results are by the mid-end of the 18s.
                        And on the whole, the F35 was a success (no matter how they look at it on the Internet). It is cheaper than the extreme modifications F15 / 16/18, unification between family members is 70% and higher, flight characteristics are higher or similar to the aircraft it replaces, avionics are the best in the world, stealth capabilities are at the required level. In general, the capabilities of the F35 exceed those of the F16, F / A-18C / D, Harrier. And the F16 is the most popular aircraft of the 4th generation. There are simply no analogues of the F35B on the market. Therefore, the queue is at least 5 years ahead of him.
                      3. VO3A
                        VO3A 27 October 2020 16: 49
                        +1
                        The fact that you succeeded on the Internet and read it! So that "despite"not appropriate, appropriate"through ". There is also a queue at the pawnshop ...
                        Paradox! The aircraft has the world's best serial engine, advanced radar and complex, the best channel for information exchange ... And the aircraft is mediocre ... Open architecture and a supercomputing unit on board, in the absence of a complete conceptual focus, turns the F35 into a bottomless cost barrel for improving and replacing algorithms work and implementation of AI elements ...
                      4. OgnennyiKotik
                        OgnennyiKotik 27 October 2020 16: 51
                        0
                        Quote: VO3A
                        And the plane is mediocre

                        Why?
                      5. VO3A
                        VO3A 27 October 2020 16: 56
                        0
                        Something that does not meet the requirements for which it was created! You can answer with your words!
                        I rely on docs ...
                        Here is a description of the program https://www.gao.gov/assets/600/591608.pdf

                        A10 is being modernized, by the way ...
                        Have you read the tale of Boy-Kibalchish?
                        ".. And I won't tell you anything else ..."
                        You are trying in vain to get my views and suggestions ... We are on different sides ...
                      6. OgnennyiKotik
                        OgnennyiKotik 27 October 2020 16: 58
                        0
                        Fully meets the requirements that they wanted and got it. Give examples of non-compliance.
                      7. eklmn
                        eklmn 27 October 2020 17: 38
                        +2
                        "You are trying in vain to extract my views and suggestions .."
                        Do you write views from textbooks, TV, or instruction manuals? You are not under interrogation at the Security Council, you are on a forum where your views, albeit washed out, are published.
                        "Something that does not meet the requirements for which it was created!"
                        How satisfying! A small detail - if 3-4 years ago the F-35, being in the invisibility zone, could only record enemy radar signals, and recognition / decoding took place on the ground, now the on-board computer does this in real time and the characteristics of the locator are transmitted to the slave with missiles striking the radar. And there are dozens of such “small parts”, and, as Kotik correctly noted, there is a queue for the plane for many years to come.
                      8. VO3A
                        VO3A 27 October 2020 17: 49
                        -2
                        You are not arguing with me, but with the committee of the congress ... And I can sketch out a lot of small details that are still unrealizable ... This is implemented on P_ndo aircraft and the slaves are not F35 ... You can come in line, and they can force you to become ! I write what I think is necessary and what you can write ... Let them correct their mistakes, no one will prompt ... And you have enough of them, and it's good ... And not only in practical terms at the lowest level, but also in theoretical at the highest ... Go for it ... Many billions of successes to you in spending with your penguin ... Pun: pi_ndos on penguins ...
  4. Crabong
    Crabong 29 October 2020 04: 22
    -1
    Is it possible to think a little about how the f-35 can replace the a-10? And understand that there is no way. No way?
    1. Avior
      Avior 29 October 2020 08: 48
      +1
      It is clear how to replace the a-10.
      The range of guided munitions is expanding, the capabilities of surveillance equipment, both radar and optics, and situational awareness have grown dramatically.
      Unlike the A-10, the enemy will not need to approach the cannon shot, so protection against MZA and MANPADS and engine redundancy for the F-35 is far from being as relevant as from the A-10.
      The functions of the A-10 will be performed in other ways.
  • Dodikson
    Dodikson 27 October 2020 14: 37
    +2
    they can create this and wanted to create, but they created what they created
    the fact remains that flight missions for it are uploaded from the American data center. and if you are not friends with the states, then fuck you and not paid data center services, and then your fu-35 is just a flying iron with some fighter capabilities.
  • Volder
    Volder 28 October 2020 09: 40
    0
    Quote: VO3A
    The F-35 is a hidden scout, target designator, a key element of the information system ...
    Don't you notice the contradiction? Stealth is instantly lost as soon as the F-35 turns on its missile guidance radar. It is no coincidence that AWACS aircraft are taking off together with the F-35.
    1. The eye of the crying
      The eye of the crying 28 October 2020 17: 52
      0
      Quote: Volder
      Stealth is instantly lost as soon as the F-35 turns on its missile guidance radar.


      Establishing the position of the aircraft by the radar radiation is, let's say, a difficult task.
      1. Volder
        Volder 31 October 2020 13: 04
        0
        Quote: Eye of the Crying
        Establishing the position of the aircraft by the radar radiation is, let's say, a difficult task.
        No, for Russian radars this is an easy task.
        1. The eye of the crying
          The eye of the crying 31 October 2020 15: 02
          0
          And what are the features of Russian radars that make this task easy?
          1. Volder
            Volder 2 November 2020 20: 58
            0
            Quote: Eye of the Crying
            And what are the features of Russian radars that make this task easy?
            Google to help. Stealth invisibility hasn't been an advantage for a long time.
            1. The eye of the crying
              The eye of the crying 2 November 2020 21: 00
              0
              Quote: Volder
              Google to help


              Are you suggesting that I look for a justification for your own words? No thanks.

              Quote: Volder
              Stealth invisibility hasn't been an advantage for a long time.


              If you understood even a little what you are talking about, you would not add stealth.
              1. Volder
                Volder 2 November 2020 22: 33
                0
                Quote: Eye of the Crying
                Are you suggesting that I look for a justification for your own words? No thanks.
                The radiation of the onboard radar gives out even the most invisible aircraft, just as the beam of a flashlight gives out a robber creeping in the dark. And stealth technologies are ineffective against locators at ultrashort waves (30 MHz - 3 GHz). You have a choice: either take my word for it, or overcome your laziness and find information on your own. Although there is a third option :)
                1. The eye of the crying
                  The eye of the crying 2 November 2020 22: 36
                  0
                  Quote: Volder
                  The radiation of the onboard radar gives out even the most invisible aircraft, just as the beam of a flashlight gives out a robber creeping in the dark.


                  Establishing the position of the aircraft by the radar radiation is, let's say, a difficult task.

                  Quote: Volder
                  And stealth technologies are ineffective against locators at ultrashort waves (30 MHz - 3 GHz).


                  Yeah. True, it is not clear how you pulled this into a conversation about what features of Russian radars make it easy to determine the position of an aircraft by the radiation of its radar.
                  1. Volder
                    Volder 3 November 2020 15: 45
                    0
                    Quote: Eye of the Crying
                    Establishing the position of the aircraft by the radar radiation is, let's say, a difficult task.
                    Not difficult. You yourself do not argue your strange opinion in any way.
                    it is not clear how you brought this into conversation
                    To the heap.
                  2. The eye of the crying
                    The eye of the crying 3 November 2020 19: 44
                    0
                    Can you imagine how the radar works? It emits an impulse and at a certain time listens to the air, expecting to receive the reflected signal (the range is determined by the time of reception). But he cannot listen to the broadcast all the time. In addition, even if he listens to the broadcast constantly, receives a pulse from someone else's radar and recognizes it, he will not be able to determine the range of the pulse source, only the bearing (and rather inaccurate). So it is at least difficult to detect someone else's radar with a radar (in my opinion, it is generally impossible, but I do not insist). That is why I ask what features of Russian radars make this task easy.
                  3. Volder
                    Volder 5 November 2020 11: 58
                    0
                    Quote: Eye of the Crying
                    That is why I ask what features of Russian radars make this task easy.
                    I do not consider it necessary to hammer this forum with a long educational program. Therefore, I will just give a link, which I suggest you read carefully:
                    https://for-ua.info/viewtopic.php?f=7&t=15684
                  4. The eye of the crying
                    The eye of the crying 5 November 2020 12: 28
                    0
                    Quote: Volder
                    I suggest you carefully read:
                    https://for-ua.info/viewtopic.php?f=7&t=15684


                    After linking to Perelman, he stopped reading. And just for the educational program for you: the F-22 is not invisible. Moreover, only the Russian press and forums call him that.
                  5. Volder
                    Volder 6 November 2020 08: 50
                    0
                    Quote: Eye of the Crying
                    After linking to Perelman, he stopped reading.
                    There are other materials on the Internet on the topic, but you stupidly do not want to understand the topic, so you are too lazy to search. This is deep ignorance and understanding of a lost dispute. Think well next time before you say nonsense.
                  6. The eye of the crying
                    The eye of the crying 6 November 2020 09: 49
                    0
                    Quote: Volder
                    understanding of a lost dispute


                    I don't play chess with pigeons.
  • Garm
    Garm 27 October 2020 13: 16
    +7
    All the same, the Yankees have a lot to learn. The plane has not yet passed the tests, but it is already being sold all over the world, and most importantly, they are buying ...
    1. Pete mitchell
      Pete mitchell 27 October 2020 14: 06
      +3
      Devils know how, we talk about it regularly. And by the way
      Quote: flightglobal.com
      the US Department of Defense (DoD) believes the Lockheed Martin F-35 Lightning II will be ready for a full-rate production decision by March 2021 ....
    2. zwlad
      zwlad 27 October 2020 14: 25
      +7
      Try not to buy. And a small maidan in the country is provided.
    3. Avior
      Avior 29 October 2020 08: 50
      0
      Such tests, as they want from him, so far not a single plane in the world has passed.
  • OgnennyiKotik
    OgnennyiKotik 27 October 2020 13: 18
    +5
    At the same time, as noted, the launch of full-scale production itself is, to some extent, a symbolic decision, since the Pentagon buys F-35 in an amount that allows us to talk about mass production.

    More than 550 produced F35. Is this not a serial production? Then what is batch production?
    1. OgnennyiKotik
      OgnennyiKotik 27 October 2020 13: 29
      +2
      Over the next couple years, Lockheed will ramp up production to about 14 F-35s per month, or upward of 160 jets delivered per year, Darren Sekiguchi, Lockheed's vice president of F-35 production, told Defense News on Oct. five.


      In 2021, they plan to produce 160 pieces, about 14 pieces per month.
    2. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
      Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 27 October 2020 13: 33
      -3
      Quote: OgnennyiKotik
      More than 550 produced F35. Is this not a serial production? Then what is batch production?

      well, so in the quote you cited, it says so:
      Quote: OgnennyiKotik
      The Pentagon buys the F-35 in an amount that allows us to talk about mass production.


      there is no "not" particle
      ))
    3. Alf
      Alf 27 October 2020 17: 38
      +1
      Quote: OgnennyiKotik
      More than 550 produced F35. Is this not a serial production? Then what is batch production?

      On an American scale, half a thousand is not a series, a series is 10 Lightning, like Lockheed P-000 of the same office.
  • tralflot1832
    tralflot1832 27 October 2020 13: 24
    0
    So they do not fall, except for two. In Israel, they perform combat missions, what is wrong? Or the dollar is above all, or the Americans know something?
  • AVA77
    AVA77 27 October 2020 13: 27
    +1
    The main thing is green tugriks. They adopted and put into service an aircraft that did not pass all the tests.
    apparently the phrase women are still giving birth does not lose its relevance.
  • Maks1995
    Maks1995 27 October 2020 13: 57
    +1
    Yes. It seems that someone else's article was somehow not blown away.
    550 released - not production yet?
  • yfast
    yfast 27 October 2020 14: 02
    -5
    Quote: AVA77
    The main thing is green tugriks. They adopted and put into service an aircraft that did not pass all the tests. apparently the phrase women are still giving birth does not lose its relevance.

    We need to keep quiet in a rag, our first serial generally crashed right away. And their failed tests are lit all over the world.
    1. AVA77
      AVA77 27 October 2020 14: 19
      +1
      Why should we keep quiet? F-35 killer. Breathing through the mask is dangerous, acceleration is dangerous, flying is dangerous.
      This is not my idea, it is the Western media screaming. On the contrary, I will yell at every branch that the F-35 is trash!
      And the Americans are crooked, they cannot bring one plane to mind. 20 years old Karl 20 years old! fellow
  • Machete
    Machete 27 October 2020 14: 06
    +5
    Their own do not approve of the launch due to the insufficient number of tests, but hundreds of them drive them to the left.
    This is nonsense, but this is today's reality.
  • Ratmir_Ryazan
    Ratmir_Ryazan 27 October 2020 14: 19
    +3
    The United States and its allies have already riveted more than 500 F-35s, so that these decisions on mass production are essentially a formality.

    When will the first batch of our Su-57s get into the troops already ?! Straight waiting.

    As well as drone UAVs in our army.
  • jaroff
    jaroff 27 October 2020 15: 57
    0
    A test is a test. The test test is the same as the oil
  • TermNachTer
    TermNachTer 27 October 2020 18: 34
    0
    Considering how much they were going to make and serve them, we can consider that small-scale.