Military Review

Russian-Turkish relations in the era "before Erdogan"

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Russian-Turkish relations in the era "before Erdogan"

The rather complicated and confusing stage of relations between Moscow and Ankara, which has lasted more than a decade and a half, is rightly called the era of Putin and Erdogan. Tellingly, domestic media review articles on the Russian-Turkish issue begin with tongue twisters about the times of sultans and empires, and then go directly to contacts between the two current leaders of our countries. However, there was something before Erdogan and Putin.


At the official level, the countdown should start from the moment of signing in Moscow on May 25, 1992 of the Treaty on the Basics of Relations between our countries. But documents are one thing, and life is somewhat different. It should be noted that then (as, indeed, in all centuries) the real situation was very difficult. Taking advantage of the collapse of the USSR, like many other countries, Turkey began to increase its influence in the Central Asian and, above all, in the Caucasus region.

If someone believes that neo-Ottoman manners are the prerogative of Erdogan alone, then it is in vain. The then president of the country, Turgut Orzal, swung to the creation of a "Turkic world", which, in his opinion, was supposed to "dominate the whole of Eurasia: from the Balkans to the Great Wall of China." Therefore, the era "before Erdogan" in this regard was not much different from what Turkey is promoting now. And this was no idle chatter: there was a special ministry in Ankara for relations with the Turkic-speaking republics of the CIS, and its head made very frank statements that did not arouse the slightest understanding in Moscow.

In particular, this high-ranking official announced that since Turkey is the successor to the Ottoman Empire, why shouldn't it, using the opportunity, create a union union, which could include Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan. The fact that such geopolitical demarches would inevitably lead to the most severe confrontation with Russia did not bother him much. Fortunately, nothing happened. However, against the background of such plans, no one would dare to call the friendly relations between Moscow and Ankara.

Yes, contacts were maintained, but they were, to put it mildly, strained. This was greatly facilitated by the outbreak of the first Chechen war. At the end of 1996, the visit to Moscow of the head of the Turkish Foreign Ministry Tansu Ciller and his meeting with his Russian counterpart Yevgeny Primakov and the head of the government Viktor Chernomyrdin almost ended in a grandiose scandal. The host country began to more than transparently hint to the guest from Ankara about his country's involvement in supplies to Chechnya. weapons and mercenaries, and he, in turn, began to pour out similar reproaches regarding the sale of Russian air defense systems to Cyprus.

Were the suspicions about the "Turkish trace" in supporting the militants in the Caucasus justified? Let's be frank: more than ... What is characteristic, at first taking an "objective and positive position" in relation to the conflict that broke out there (according to the Russian Foreign Ministry), Ankara quickly slipped into unconditional support for the Chechen separatists. However, the initial restraint was caused not by any friendly motives, but by the problems that Ankara had and has from the representatives of the Kurdish Workers' Party, possessed by the same desire to chop off a piece from it, as the Chechen extremists who were striving for "independence"

However, for the Islamists who significantly strengthened their positions in Turkey in 1996-1997, this did not matter. Of course, you cannot find exact figures regarding the number of Turks who fought for "free Ichkeria", but we can definitely say that they were talking about thousands of people who fought against our troops with weapons in their hands. Moreover, both in the training of militants and directly in subversive activities on Russian territory, regular officers of the Turkish army and special services took part. There is no doubt about such moments as the material and financial "support" of terrorists from Ankara.

Be that as it may, but in Moscow it was decided that it would be better not to confront with Turkey, but to establish economic cooperation. An important point here at the end of 1997 was the visit of Viktor Chernomyrdin to this country, who managed to agree on many things with his Turkish counterpart Mesut Yilmaz. Nevertheless, then the matter did not go beyond general phrases about "increasing confidence" and "mutual respect for territorial integrity". Two years later, the next Turkish Prime Minister Bulent Ecevit arrived in Moscow as a "turning point". It was then that the documents on the Blue Stream construction project were signed, which connected the two countries with truly strong economic ties.

With this gas pipeline, too, everything turned out far from easy: the United States made every effort to disrupt its construction. Nevertheless, the “ice” in relations between Ankara and Moscow was melting more and more intensively, which was largely facilitated by the arrival in the Kremlin in 2000 of Vladimir Putin, who initially sought to pursue the most flexible policy towards Turkey. Ultimately, at the 56th session of the UN General Assembly in New York, the foreign ministers of the two countries signed an Action Plan for the Development of Cooperation between the Russian Federation and the Republic of Turkey in Eurasia. The main words in this document were the words about "the transition of Russian-Turkish relations from bilateral cooperation to a multifaceted partnership."

Good-neighborly and fruitful contacts between the countries, according to many experts, with the coming to power of Recep Erdogan (first as Prime Minister and then as President of Turkey) received a new impetus and rose to a much higher level. Just one must admit that lately this leader, clearly suffering from ambitions somewhat disproportionate to reality, is increasingly giving out such "impulses" that can end very badly. Well, it was not Erdogan that started Russian-Turkish relations, and it is not Erdogan that will end ...
Author:
Photos used:
Gazprom website
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  1. Lexus
    Lexus 26 October 2020 15: 02
    11
    "There are no friends - and such are not necessary." (FROM)
    1. Overlock
      Overlock 26 October 2020 20: 49
      14
      Quote: lexus
      No friends - and such are not necessary. "

      And if a "friend" "and not an enemy (yet), is it?"
      To whom is he a friend? It was someone who turned the valve on our camera and talked about friendship and love.
      Love has passed - the tomatoes disappeared and the gas ran out in the pipes yesterday
      1. Lexus
        Lexus 26 October 2020 21: 21
        +1
        Sergey, welcome! hi
        Well, "someone" turned on the valve from the inside in the bunker and decided that he was "in the house."
        And at this time adherents emit excess "gases" in the open spaces of "cheburnet".
      2. Vladimir61
        Vladimir61 27 October 2020 19: 18
        0
        Quote: Overlock
        And if a "friend" "and not an enemy (yet), is it?"

        Under Erdogan's veil is an enemy of Russia, and this is so. But, while we have, "peaceful coexistence". In my opinion, the Turkish stream and the nuclear power plant we are building were planned not only as a commercial product, but also as a kind of "ribbons or reins" that are designed to keep this veil on Erdogan's face.
        Fussy Erdogan managed to "reveal his face", stating

        According to Erdogan, the Crimean peninsula was illegally taken by Russia from the Ottoman Empire and now Turkey intends to return "its territory." That is why the head of Turkey does not consider Crimea to be Russian, but he also does not agree with the fact that the peninsula belongs to Ukraine. Erdogan does not see Crimea as Russian.
  2. Asad
    Asad 26 October 2020 15: 10
    -2
    The easiest way to get mad, you can quarrel with everyone, and then what? Of course, partners are not sugar, but who is better? You must trade, you should not return to the Iron Curtain!
    1. Fitter65
      Fitter65 26 October 2020 17: 24
      +2
      Quote: ASAD
      You have to trade, you shouldn't go back to the Iron Curtain!

      If my memory serves me, then the Iron Curtain against Soviet Russia began to be erected 101 years ago.
      The expression gained direct anti-Soviet meaning in 1919, when French Prime Minister Georges Clemenceau uttered the phrase at the Paris Peace Conference: "We want to put an iron curtain around Bolshevism that will prevent it from destroying civilized Europe."
    2. Civil
      Civil 26 October 2020 19: 22
      +5
      What suddenly remembered about trading? And there it is:
      "The Chinese authorities are refusing key export goods from Russia," writes Capital Strana.
      According to the newspaper, on the eve of the presidential elections in the United States and due to the devaluation of the ruble, China has postponed the signing of new contracts with the Russian Federation until the end of the year.
      In 2020, China has cut Russian gas supplies by 50%, explaining this by new requirements for its quality. At the same time, China accounts for 17% of Russia's coal exports. It is reported by Rambler. Further: https://finance.rambler.ru/economics/45066190/?utm_content=finance_media&utm_medium=read_more&utm_source=copylink "

      He it Che Mikhalych, but okay why are you sweating in Moscow? The rest of Mother Russia will endure everything and take everything out.
      \ PS. So the PRC has decided on which side to play and drown the Russian Federation in Cold War 2, well, like last time. And they are Turks in NATO.
  3. Daniil Konovalenko
    Daniil Konovalenko 26 October 2020 15: 29
    +6
    Turkey, even those partners, can stick a corkscrew in the back and stick it ... But as they say, Turkey is a partner, and what to do? Themselves brought themselves to such a state ..
    1. Svarog
      Svarog 26 October 2020 16: 38
      +7
      Quote: Daniil Konovalenko
      Turkey, even those partners, can stick a corkscrew in the back and stick it ... But as they say, Turkey is a partner, and what to do? Themselves brought themselves to such a state ..

      What to do? Not to pander to the interests of Erdogan .. even that .. Why build them a nuclear power plant, and even on credit? Why sell the C 400? Why pull the pipe when there is every reason that blackmail from Turkey will be the same as from Ukraine?
      1. Doccor18
        Doccor18 26 October 2020 17: 03
        +9
        Why build a nuclear power plant for them, and even on credit? Why sell the C 400? Why pull the pipe ...

        So this is billions ...
        Mastering billions is the most favorite action of effective managers. They will master the money, and what will be there later is the problem of the future ...
        1. Svarog
          Svarog 26 October 2020 17: 17
          +4
          Quote: Doccor18
          Mastering billions is the favorite action of effective managers

          That is the answer to all the questions .. our main beneficiaries are contractors ... And all the policy is geared towards the personal enrichment of some characters, and not on the state interests.
          1. Lexus
            Lexus 26 October 2020 22: 17
            +2
            Vladimir hi , there is a substitution of the State by "contracted temporary workers".
            1. Svarog
              Svarog 26 October 2020 22: 20
              +2
              Quote: lexus
              Vladimir hi , there is a substitution of the State by "contracted temporary workers".

              Alexey, I would call them Gauleiter, and whether they are temporary or not will depend on the consciousness of the people and their activity / passivity hi
              1. Lexus
                Lexus 26 October 2020 22: 28
                +2
                No Siberia will be enough for their "eternal buzz". That pulls "galley" to the warm edges of the Mediterranean and the sunny Caribbean. Give them heaven now.
              2. Civil
                Civil 27 October 2020 13: 52
                +1
                Quote: Svarog
                Quote: lexus
                Vladimir hi , there is a substitution of the State by "contracted temporary workers".

                Alexey, I would call them Gauleiter, and whether they are temporary or not will depend on the consciousness of the people and their activity / passivity hi

                But who will criticize the actions of the commandant's office, those will soon begin to be calculated. And yes, ours will not come, the Red Army is destroyed.
        2. Overlock
          Overlock 26 October 2020 20: 54
          14
          Quote: Doccor18
          Money will master, and what will be there later

          They just know what will happen ... They will sit in an airplane, wave a handkerchief and say - you are lost. And they will add: Moscow is bad without a sucker
          1. Lexus
            Lexus 26 October 2020 22: 00
            +5
            As if the tunnel had not been gnawed into the "hated West" for six months of self-discipline ... self-isolation. "News", like a New Year's concert in "Prostokvashino", is on the record, the "believers" are raging joyfully, the flock is sheared, and they are warming up the Mosles somewhere in the non-Russian south and are chipped in with a new "beauty".
      2. Overlock
        Overlock 26 October 2020 20: 58
        14
        Quote: Svarog
        Why build a nuclear power plant for them, and even on credit? Why sell the C 400? Why pull the pipe when there is every reason that blackmail from Turkey will be the same as from Ukraine?

        It can be seen that you are not a businessman! And kickbacks!
        It is not the result that is important, but the process! That's
        MS-21, the budget has grown from 100 to 450 milliards, but there is no serial production. They say it will be in the 25th, and what prices will be then?
        1. Lexus
          Lexus 26 October 2020 22: 04
          +3
          The main thing is to have the opportunity to "saw off" and "wash". Then you can "bury".
      3. Igor Semenov
        Igor Semenov 30 October 2020 12: 37
        0
        S-400, by the way, also on credit am
    2. Overlock
      Overlock 26 October 2020 20: 51
      17
      Quote: Daniil Konovalenko
      But as they say in the bezrybe

      So maybe a bad fisherman, if under his nose Ukraine was taken away, Moldova, Kazakhstan, the Caucasus?
      1. Lexus
        Lexus 26 October 2020 22: 13
        +3
        "Bad dancer ..." (C)
        "The queen gave birth in the night ..." (C)
  4. flicker
    flicker 26 October 2020 15: 45
    +2
    Well, it was not Erdogan that began Russian-Turkish relations, and it is not Erdogan that will end ...
    This is yes.
    Of course, Neo-Ottomanism or Great Turan doze in the soul of every Turk.
    And they diemlyat not because they don't really want to, but because they can't really do it.
    It's one thing to want, another thing to be able.
    Ataturk quickly realized that they could not and that the continuation of the previous course was disastrous for Turkey.
    At the cost of serious efforts, I was able to turn the country towards a secular state, because I saw salvation only in it.
    Salvation through development - and therefore the path is not
    1. Kronos
      Kronos 26 October 2020 16: 04
      +5
      The problem is that Turkey's influence may grow in different countries and regions. Here, either Turkey will become a new threat like the 3rd Reich or before it will overwhelm.
      1. Svarog
        Svarog 26 October 2020 16: 32
        +3
        Quote: Kronos
        The problem is that Turkey's influence may grow in different countries and regions. Here, either Turkey will become a new threat like the 3rd Reich or before it will overwhelm.

        Exactly, but I think that the United States will take advantage of Erdogan's desire and ambitions and turn Turkey into a second fascist Germany .. The situation is very similar .. The West is excellent at taking advantage of the unhealthy ambitions of state leaders.
        1. Doccor18
          Doccor18 26 October 2020 17: 51
          +3
          Exactly, but I think that the United States will take advantage of Erdogan's desire and ambitions and turn Turkey into a second fascist Germany .. The situation is very similar .. The West is excellent at taking advantage of the unhealthy ambitions of state leaders.



          Where will these ambitions be realized? In Greece? So there is nothing to take from the Greeks. In Syria? Everything was bombed there, there are too many participants, and even some ... In Libya? Perhaps, but the scope is not the same. And what remains? Caucasus, Transcaucasia and Central Asia. Here is the field for future ambitions. So, for Russia, all these Turkish ambitions will definitely not bring anything good ...
      2. flicker
        flicker 26 October 2020 16: 34
        +1
        Here, either Turkey will become a new threat as the 3rd Reich or sooner will break.
        That's right, I just didn't finish writing the text.
        3 will not become a Reich, namely, what will overstrain.
        But before it breaks, he has time to break the wood.
        After the Turks shot down our plane, the issue of Turkey could be closed.
        But for Erdogan, this did not become a lesson, he continues to jump and generate more and more conflicts.
        1. Kronos
          Kronos 26 October 2020 16: 55
          +4
          Quote: flicker
          After the Turks shot down our plane, the issue of Turkey could be closed.

          How is it closed? Militarily, the Turks have a good army and navy.
          1. flicker
            flicker 26 October 2020 20: 10
            +1
            Militarily, the Turks have a good army and navy.

            I mean, a lot of iron?
            Over there in Karabakh, the Armenians also had a lot of iron ... and did it help them a lot?
            Turkey's planes are American or French, there are no air defense and missile defense at all, tanks are either American or German, if half of their components are imported - in short, nothing really.

            In the same Bayraktars, the main components are imported, the drones themselves navigate through the GPS, turn it off and the army will become blind and deaf.
            ---
            Modern war, in the implementation of the United States and Russia, is a war without a front line, when weapons (primarily cruise missiles, and conventional ballistic missiles) today are capable of destroying all command posts, command posts and communications, airfields, carabay bays, vital enterprises and structures: power plants, weapons depots, fuel and lubricants bases, etc., etc.
            And after all this, what can the army and the navy do?
            ---
            In addition, as soon as Turkey loses its army, there will immediately be an opportunity for the Kurds to resolve the issue of their statehood.
            For me, this is how it will end.
  5. samarin1969
    samarin1969 26 October 2020 17: 02
    +7
    [quote The visit of Turkish Foreign Minister Tansu Chiller to Moscow in late 1996 and his meeting with his Russian counterpart Yevgeny Primakov and Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin almost ended in a grandiose scandal. ] [/ quote]

    My memory and eyes assure that Tansu Chiller was a woman in 1996.
    1. Bagatur
      Bagatur 26 October 2020 17: 20
      +4
      She is still a woman)))
  6. parusnik
    parusnik 26 October 2020 17: 57
    +5
    Yes, normal relationship smile They raised the tourism industry, the gas pipeline, the nuclear power plant, the S-400, and how much they built, though not free, but settlements in lira and rubles .. smile or already in dollars? .. They put buttons and put them in the Caucasus, Syria ... Normal family life ... smile
    1. Niel-le-Calais
      Niel-le-Calais 26 October 2020 20: 41
      -1
      Quote: parusnik
      Normal family life ..

      even love is war .. And the family is several fronts, and a constant grinder of interests.
  7. Overlock
    Overlock 26 October 2020 20: 45
    15
    received new impetus and rose to a much higher level.

    Of course, the high-scuffle will begin soon. Erdogan believes that the Crimea should belong to Turkey. And some 30 years ago, our hammers and irons were taken to Turkey request
  8. tech3030
    tech3030 26 October 2020 23: 34
    +3
    I do not understand our policy, that is, not ours, Putin's. To please an old enemy? Take gas, at -400, at a nuclear power plant on credit, shot down a plane ... well, what happens, who doesn't happen to ?! The ambassador was killed ... well ... we have ambassadors. When we are ruled by such people ... these are not people - THIS IS TRAITORS! Is there an explanation?
  9. Igor Semenov
    Igor Semenov 30 October 2020 12: 28
    -1
    What "friends", what kind of childish thinking? There can be no friends at the interstate level. There are always contradictions and only sometimes temporarily coinciding interests. As for Russia and Turkey - we NEVER had coinciding interests
  10. for
    for 30 October 2020 22: 13
    0
    era Putin - Erdogan.

    Two PUPA lands!