Military Review

Classics and war

83
Classics and war

Rereading again



I think I will not be mistaken, noting that many in the "Voennoye Obozreniye" once went through the school of taking notes of the classics of Marxism-Leninism. Among the first - from the collection "On War, Army and Military Science."

This is how at the end of the 50s the textbook Leninist two-volume edition from the Officer's Library was named, which supplemented the Selected Military Works by F. Engels, as well as the volume of the first Marshal Voroshilov, Stalin and the Red Army, which was soon pushed into distant shelves.

And I certainly won't be mistaken if I say that the works of the classics are again in demand not only by the older generation. They again disagree on quotes, no worse than Soviet films. And a lot has become even more relevant now than at the time when it was written.

With the exception of the economist Marx, the classics considered themselves mainly politicians and appreciated Clausewitz, who was the first to call war the continuation of politics by other means. This is what allowed them with good reason to regularly refer to the military topic.

We must not forget Marx's front-line reports and analysts, as well as capacious and vivid articles for the New American Encyclopedia. Most of these works were included in the 14th volume of the second edition of the "Works" by Marx and Engels, loved by everyone who is fond of military history,. The same one with an article about Blucher, which gives almost the best descriptions of the campaigns of 1813 and 1814.


And someone also had the 11th volume of the first edition with biographies of Barclay and Bennigsen, several Napoleonic marshals and whole series of articles in the American New York Daily Tribune and the German Das Volk, published by Karl Marx. And with excellent maps of battles and operations of the Napoleonic era.


I especially remember the lapidary biting "Invasion" written by Marx, which was in no way inferior to Engels's "Aspern" and "Austerlitz" from the encyclopedia. However, the authorship of Engels was later questioned, but it was Engels, not only a colleague of the author of Capital, who was forever included in the list of the best military theorists.

Well, obviously, by right, especially considering the real combat experience of Engels, the son of the owner of a cotton-spinning mill and a successful entrepreneur. Young Friedrich Engels, unlike Marx and Lenin, who did not fight, personally participated in the revolutionary battles in Germany.

When civil war broke out in the west and southwest of the then divided country in May 1849, Engels joined the People's Army of Baden and the Palatinate. Engels wanted to attack from Elberfeld, where the uprising united workers and small shopkeepers.

He offered to join the rebels in other towns, including the nearby Wuppertal, of which Elberfeld now became a part, but they did not understand him. Later, Engels would even be expelled from the town, but during the days of the uprising it was he who led the erection of the barricades and was on them in several violent clashes with the Prussians.


Strange, but this did not prevent both founders from subsequently admiring the Prussian military machine. However, why be surprised? According to the postulates of Marxism, the then unification of Germany must be considered as progress, and, therefore, the Kaiser's army was progressive!

Almost all other armies of the mid-XNUMXth century, even the army of the northerners in the American Civil War, got very hard from the classics. Although, for example, the French soldiers, who would later be called "poilu", and their emperor Napoleon III, seemed to be also progressively fighting for the freedom and unification of Italy.

The founders against the Russian tsars


Both Engels and Marx were especially fond of the tsarist - Russian army, although the classics in their works still had to pay tribute to the great Suvorov and even Peter the Great several times, but he was regularly reminded of the notorious testament.

The very same Russian army of the era when Karl and Friedrich lived, it seems, did not deserve a single kind word from them. And even more so, its supreme leaders - the Russian tsars - did not deserve kind words from the classics.

And it would be understandable if Marx and Engels blamed Nicholas I for all their sins, who considered himself a “guardian of the foundations,” in Marxist terms, a reactionary. The characterization of the Russian infantry, made by Engels many years later, is addressed as if personally to Nicholas I:

“The Russians are most proud of their infantry. It is extremely stable and, being in a line formation, or columns, as well as being behind parapet, causes a lot of trouble to the enemy. But this is what its positive qualities are limited to. It is totally unsuitable for light infantry service; the so-called Jaegers are light infantry in name only, and in fact the only light infantry in the army are eight battalions of riflemen attached to the light corps; Russian infantrymen are usually bad shooters, they walk well, but slowly; their columns are usually so poorly built that they can always be destroyed by artillery fire before they go on the attack. "



What does Emperor Nikolai Pavlovich have to do with it? And despite the fact that in confirmation of his words, Engels leads the battle on the river. Alma, in which the British and French had not only an almost two-fold superiority in forces, but also a much more important advantage. They had more modern weapons: both guns and rifles.

Russian bullets simply did not reach the enemy from that lethal distance that snipers in red and blue uniforms chose to shoot our officers and gun servants. Well, after Nicholas I and the Crimean disaster, the Russian army had to be reformed, but this did not change the attitude of the classics towards it at all.

It was the reformer Alexander II, under whom the Suvorov traditions were revived in the Russian army, that seems to have disappointed Marx and Engels the most. However, the tsar-liberator also clearly did not suit the domestic revolutionaries together with the Polish terrorists. And they still finished him off on the seventh attempt.

But the grandson of Nikolai Pavlovich, Alexander III the Peacemaker, was already getting pretty much from Engels. And not only because he was ready to put pressure on the nihilists, while hiding in Gatchina. The expansion of Russia in Central Asia, which was no less civilizational in nature than the colonial conquests of the British and French, - this is what most resented the classic.

What is the fault of the Russian soldier?


Even the Russian soldier, who was respected by everyone who happened to have an affair with him, on one side of the front, receives only condescension or, at best, sympathy and pity from the founders. You will only occasionally find in the writings of Engels and Marx recognition of his steadfastness, for example, in the following passage from the article "Campaign in Crimea":

“As in Zorndorf, Eylau, Borodin, the Russian infantry, although defeated, lived up to the characterization given to it by General Katkart, who commanded a division against it and declared it“ incapable of panic ”.

In his last detailed article on the Russian army, Engels not only repeated this characterization, but also admitted:

Russian soldiers are among the bravest in Europe. Their tenacity is equal to the tenacity of the British and some Austrian battalions. They are characterized by what John Bull boastfully attributes to himself: they do not feel when they are beaten. "


But even this recognition was made only as a supplement to the description of a purely Russian, in the opinion of the authors, system of command and control of troops:

“The mania to make abstract prescriptions for all sorts of cases leaves so little freedom of action for the commander and so much prevents him from using the advantages of the terrain that one Prussian general, criticizing this system, put it this way:“ Such a system of prescriptions can only be tolerated in the army, most generals which are so stupid that the government cannot safely give them unconditional command or leave them to their own reasoning. "

It is interesting that we did not include this article by Engels in collections, confining ourselves to publication in the "Works". And it was written after Milyutin's big reform and after the brilliant victories of Skobelev, Gurko and Dragomirov during the war with the Turks for the freedom of Bulgaria.

And it is in this article that Engels gives a very good description of the Russian soldier who

"Well built, healthy, excellent walker, extremely undemanding in food and drink, eating something, and more obedient to his officers than any other soldier in the world."

But the classic is relentless, and nullifies it in just a few lines:

“And yet the Russian army doesn't have much to brag about. During the entire existence of Russia, the Russians have not yet won a single battle against the Germans, French, Poles or British, without significantly outnumbering them. Even with the superiority of forces, they were always beaten by other armies, excluding the Prussians and Turks, but under Chetati and Silistria, the Turks beat the Russians, although they were numerically weaker.
Apart from any other shortcomings, Russian soldiers are the most awkward in the whole world. They are not suitable for light infantry or light cavalry. "


The last passage is simply touching, especially given this addition:

“It would be in vain to expect from a Russian soldier that he, in his actions at outposts or in light combat battles, showed the quick wit of the French or just the common sense of the Germans. What he needs is a command, a clear, distinct command, and if he does not receive it, then although, perhaps, he will not flee, he will not go forward, will not be able to act with his own mind.

And this is written about the soldiers who not only crossed the Danube, took Plevna and defended Shipka! ..

instead of an epilogue



That is why a modern reader of the classics may not look to Marx and Engels for the realization of the fact that even then in the XNUMXth century, and earlier, under any commanders, the legendary "Russians do not surrender" and "Russians do not abandon their own." And it is no coincidence that they regarded the Russian army as the main nucleus of the united armed force of European reaction:

“Finally, the Russians, by the very nature of their army, are forced to adhere to a military system very close to the modern one. Their army in its main part consists of large masses of semi-barbaric and therefore heavy infantry on the rise and numerous, semi-barbaric, light irregular cavalry (Cossacks).
In decisive battles, in major battles, the Russians never acted except in large masses. Suvorov understood the need for this already during the storming of Izmail and Ochakov. The lack of mobility in this army is partly compensated for by the irregular cavalry, which maneuvers around it in all directions and thus disguises all its movements.
But it is precisely this massiveness and sluggishness of the Russian army that makes it very suitable for forming the core and main support, the backbone of the coalition army, whose operations are always somewhat slower in comparison with the actions of the national army. The Russians performed this role superbly in 1813 and 1814, and it is difficult to name the disposition of the battle over these years, in which the density of the Russian columns, which significantly surpassed all other troops in their depth and density, would not be striking. "



Concluding my first note, or rather, nothing more than a detailed quotation book, let me remind you that all followers of Marx and Engels wrote about the war and the army. At the same time, Lenin, at the head of the government, actually supervised the construction of the workers 'and peasants' army, and Trotsky and Stalin themselves were the real commanders in chief.

They knew the subject brilliantly. Is this why the works of the classics are now in demand again, at a time when the very essence of war is changing? More precisely, they simply return to those readers who are not ready to fully trust Western theorists and home-grown history rewriters.

The author has the right to hope that the readers will give the go-ahead to continue the topic.
Author:
Photos used:
copyright, e-news.su, googleusercontent.com, cdn1.ozon.ru, hramada.org, violity.com
83 comments
Information
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must to register.

I have an account? Sign in

  1. Konnick
    Konnick 23 October 2020 12: 15
    +7
    Good article. I will wait for the continuation. Military theory in our country began to actively develop after the revolution and Triandafilov, the creator of the theory of deep operations, played an important role in its formation. I hope this will be discussed.
    1. Olgovich
      Olgovich 24 October 2020 08: 48
      -5
      Quote: Konnick
      Good article. I will wait for the continuation.


      How can you agree with this author's statement: about the army all followers of Marx and Engels wrote. At the same time, Lenin, at the head of the government, actually supervised the construction of the workers 'and peasants' army, and Trotsky and Stalin themselves were the real commanders in chief.

      They knew the subject brilliantly. ?

      these "experts" who have never served in the army, respectively, and did not know nothing about her.

      Then, in the process of studying the management of society. laying this army along the path of study, they learned something, yes.

      And the main "expert" about the army said: "Disband the army. Replace it .... general armament of the people" belay fool

      Life, of course, has hammered in the basics, but the price, the price ...
      1. Konnick
        Konnick 24 October 2020 10: 32
        -2
        " never served in the army"
        In your opinion, you need to be able to tie footcloths to write about the army?
        1. Reptiloid
          Reptiloid 25 October 2020 21: 44
          +2
          I will be glad to see a continuation on this topic. He himself repeatedly wrote that, unfortunately, there are fewer and fewer people who have studied the works of the founders.
          1. The comment was deleted.
        2. Olgovich
          Olgovich 26 October 2020 10: 02
          0
          Quote: Konnick
          never served in the army "
          In your opinion, you need to be able to tie footcloths to write about the army?

          Then write to us in detail about, say, gynecology. lol
          1. Konnick
            Konnick 26 October 2020 18: 27
            -1
            Are you a gynecologist? Hello colleague.
        3. yasher
          yasher 29 October 2020 21: 39
          +1
          Footcloths are not tied.
          Burned, shpien)))
  2. Alien From
    Alien From 23 October 2020 12: 15
    -10 qualifying.
    Oh yes, we took notes and taught this beleberd.
    1. Egoza
      Egoza 23 October 2020 12: 40
      10
      Quote: Alien From
      yes, they took notes and taught this beleberd.

      Why rubbish? It was very useful if you really analyze and think. And not so blindly trust the classics, no matter how hard they try to teach us.
    2. tatra
      tatra 23 October 2020 13: 22
      10
      Once, about 10 years ago, I wrote in response to a comment in the same way as you - do not want to study "History of the CPSU" - you will study "
      The law of God. ”And so it all happened. The communist ideology of people like you was replaced by ANTI-communist and religious, because FOR yourself and FOR what you did with Russia and its people, and did under Soviet rule, you have nothing.
    3. Svarog
      Svarog 23 October 2020 13: 53
      10
      Quote: Alien From
      Oh yes, we took notes and taught this beleberd.

      You just misunderstood the subject, so you thought it was a beleberd. I, generally on my own at the age of 18, decided to read "Capital" .. The book is difficult to understand, you have to reread it several times to understand, but it is very interesting and most importantly applicable to life .. Now there is no free time for reading, but the desire will go deep into this topic is .. Compensates for the desire now YouTube and presenters who are well versed in the intricacies of the subject ..
      1. Temples
        Temples 23 October 2020 19: 19
        -13 qualifying.
        Quote: tatra
        The law of God. ”And so it all happened. The communist ideology, like you, was replaced by ANTI-communist and religious


        The Russian people lived by Orthodoxy for a thousand years.

        Your idols, the communists could not come up with anything and only transformed Orthodoxy for their own purposes.

        For example:
        - The family is what you call a religious ideology.
        - The ring on the bride's hand is also a religious ideology.
        - Don't kill.
        - Do not steal.
        - Do not commit adultery
        And It's a religious ideology.
        And we bury our relatives under the cross.
        Russian people live under God!

        But you advanced people live differently.
        The communists refused and lived with common wives (in fact, with prostitutes), but the people did not accept this.
        Your main slogan is freebie! Communism will win and everything will be free!

        Orthodox pederasts are considered scum.
        And this is GOD'S LAW.

        What about you?

        NOTHING. Emptiness.
        Communists can only kill each other and that's all.

        Lenin legalized TERROR!
        He called for the killing of all dissent.
        And he killed, killed, killed ...


        Devils are always full.
        You, madam, are not alone.
        1. t-12
          t-12 23 October 2020 20: 40
          +8
          - The family is what you call a religious ideology.
          - The ring on the bride's hand is also a religious ideology.
          - Don't kill.
          - Do not steal.
          - Do not commit adultery
          And It's a religious ideology.
          And we bury our relatives under the cross.

          Family and all sorts of jewelry (such as rings) have existed since ancient times. "Do not kill and do not steal" is also invented long ago by Christianity. And they began to bury under a cross somewhere in the 19th century (go to an older cemetery, there are no crosses, only gravestones).
        2. yasher
          yasher 29 October 2020 21: 43
          0
          Yeah, educated people)))
  3. Daniil Konovalenko
    Daniil Konovalenko 23 October 2020 12: 27
    +6
    Although, for example, the French soldiers, who would later be called "poilu", and their emperor Napoleon III, seemed to be also progressively fighting for the freedom and unification of Italy.
    ... For its unification, Italy paid France with Savoy ...
    What does Emperor Nikolai Pavlovich have to do with it? And despite the fact that in confirmation of his words, Engels leads the battle on the river. Alma, in which the British and French had not only an almost two-fold superiority in forces, but also a much more important advantage. They had more modern weapons: both guns and rifles.
    .
    ... And what prevented Nikolai Pavlovich from equipping the Russian army with modern weapons?
    1. Jünger
      Jünger 23 October 2020 14: 47
      +2
      Quote: Daniil Konovalenko
      ... And what prevented Nikolai Pavlovich from equipping the Russian army with modern weapons?

      The same thing that now prevents each conscript from giving a Ratnik kit and a personal drone in addition - the lack of financial capabilities.
      The Russian army was larger than all the European armies (maybe combined). And the economy and state structure did not hold out.
      There were a lot of fittings in RIA, and comparable in number with foreign armies, but again, due to the number, it was all smeared.
    2. Alf
      Alf 23 October 2020 15: 07
      +1
      Quote: Daniil Konovalenko
      .... And what prevented Nikolai Pavlovich from equipping the Russian army with modern weapons?

      As Leskov wrote in Levsha-Our grandfathers fought without all this and drove out twelve languages.
    3. Aviator_
      Aviator_ 23 October 2020 21: 27
      +2
      .... And what prevented Nikolai Pavlovich from equipping the Russian army with modern weapons?

      Lack of production facilities and technical specifications for new types of weapons.
  4. lucul
    lucul 23 October 2020 12: 30
    -16 qualifying.
    And what else to expect from Marx, who is from Ha Levi's father and from Ha Kogen, and who is related to the Rothschilds on the maternal side?
    1. apro
      apro 23 October 2020 12: 44
      18
      Quote: lucul
      And what else to expect from Marx, who is from Ha Levi's father and from Ha Kogen, and who is related to the Rothschilds on the maternal side?

      Smells like racism ...
      And what nationality of a person determines his mental abilities? And relatives also applied body parts to this?
      1. Jünger
        Jünger 23 October 2020 14: 42
        -4
        Quote: apro
        And what a person's nationality determines his mental abilities

        Genes determine. And nationality is not just a beautiful word, but the very genes.
        1. apro
          apro 23 October 2020 15: 00
          +5
          Quote: Junger
          Genes determine.

          Yes ... and why the Jews do not own the world ??? Since such wonderful genes ..
          1. Jünger
            Jünger 23 October 2020 15: 15
            -1
            Maybe they do ... Who knows. And where did you get the idea that they are wonderful?
            1. apro
              apro 23 October 2020 15: 19
              +4
              Quote: Junger
              Maybe they do ... Who knows. And where did you get the idea that they are wonderful?

              I do not think so. I do not focus on nationalities. Being determines consciousness.
              1. Jünger
                Jünger 23 October 2020 15: 22
                0
                That is, do you believe that the abilities and other qualities of children do not depend on their parents? Is heredity a bourgeois prejudice?
                1. apro
                  apro 23 October 2020 15: 29
                  +7
                  Quote: Junger
                  That is, do you believe that the abilities and other qualities of children do not depend on their parents? Is heredity a bourgeois prejudice?

                  If brains were transmitted through the penis ... we would remain at the level of monkeys.
                  1. kalibr
                    kalibr 23 October 2020 17: 36
                    0
                    Quote: apro
                    If brains were transmitted through the penis ... we would remain at the level of monkeys.

                    You know, Oleg, from 1995 to 2017 I taught cultural studies at the Higher School. And one of its main tenets, culture ... is not transmitted. But ... how then to explain the mass of facts when it is transmitted? For example, at the age of five, my granddaughter skated for the first time and started skating ... But her father was engaged in figure skating and was a master of sports. She saw him in her entire adult life only three times. But ... even the fork holds like him, the manner of eating is absolutely the same. How can this be? And her knowledge of English? It is not clear when and how she teaches him (young people are now lazy), but at school she went to competitions and Olympiads all the time, but now in college, not like others. But mathematics is bad for all of us. Everyone has! But that can be blamed on ability. And I’m talking about manners, gait ... How did this come across? You can read on the Web examples of such information transfer ... "Tabula rasa" is an impressive thing, of course, but I have not believed in it for a long time.
                    1. Xnumx vis
                      Xnumx vis 24 October 2020 22: 06
                      -1
                      Quote: kalibr
                      You know, Oleg, from 1995 to 2017 I taught cultural studies at the Higher School. And one of its main tenets, culture ... is not transmitted. But ... how then to explain the mass of facts when it is transmitted?

                      Sorry in advance for the above example. hi A puppy of a good thoroughbred dog, as a rule, with fixed genetically traits of character. For example, my Black Russian Terrier, almost effortlessly on my part, went through a general training course. The cynologist explained this by the genetically fixed qualities of the breed. We are people naturally God's creation! But the laws of nature, genetics cannot be refuted. Briefly it sounds like this - "The apple does not fall far from the apple tree"
                      1. your1970
                        your1970 11 November 2020 07: 20
                        0
                        Quote: 30 vis
                        We are people naturally God's creation! But the laws of nature, genetics cannot be refuted.

                        Then where do the Lomonosovs come from? Where did my neighbor come from, a professor of medicine and the smartest man who has three ancestral tribes mental development higher than the movers did not rise? the whole village is 55 years old in shock - where are the oranges on the aspen ...
                    2. Reptiloid
                      Reptiloid 25 October 2020 21: 53
                      +1
                      ...... culture ..... not transmitted ...... How was it transmitted? .....

                      A few years ago I wrote to you about this. That is, of course, he did not talk in detail, but about a person who devoted many years to studying this and how to find out what.
                      There are books and online
    2. IS-80_RVGK2
      IS-80_RVGK2 23 October 2020 14: 12
      +4
      By the way, Newton is a freemason and a small British. Let's throw out all physics textbooks just in case. And then you never know what can be expected from the Naglosax. laughing
  5. Selevc
    Selevc 23 October 2020 12: 36
    0
    Alma, in which the British and French had not only an almost two-fold superiority in forces, but also a much more important advantage. They had more modern weapons: both guns and rifles.
    There is one nuance in this - after all, the middle of the 19th century is a completely different rhythm of life. And the same Europe (England, France, Prussia) - they switched to these most modern rifled guns and guns not immediately, but at least for several years !!! This could not be unknown to the foreign intelligence of the Russian Empire - and the samples of new weapons and their characteristics and their use and the pace of rearmament !!!

    And people in the highest echelons of the tsarist power perfectly imagined how the battle between the old-style infantry armed with smooth-bore muskets and the new-model infantry armed with rifled carbines could end !!! But while they swayed - while this entire grandiose bureaucratic mechanism called the Russian Defense - the war has already begun !!! And by the beginning of the Crimean War, Russia simply did not have time to rearm !!!
    1. maktub
      maktub 23 October 2020 12: 56
      0
      Well, the army equipment system
    2. BAI
      BAI 23 October 2020 14: 31
      +6
      And by the beginning of the Crimean War, Russia simply did not have time to rearm !!!

      Do not make me laugh. After 7 years, in the Civil War in the United States (which in the middle of the 19th century there was no one to call it), battleships and submarines were used in all.



      And this was recorded not by artists, but by photographers!
      When did battleships, submarines and photography appear in large numbers in Russia? In the American Civil War, about 100 battleships participated on both sides.
      By the middle of the 19th century, Russia lagged behind the West for decades.
      1. Selevc
        Selevc 23 October 2020 14: 51
        -4
        Do not make me laugh. After 7 years, in the Civil War in the United States (which in the middle of the 19th century there was no one to call it), battleships and submarines were used in all.
        What are you showing ??? This is handicraft !!! - development of local craftsmen - half-scientists, half-ignorant !!! Such a submarine - swam like an iron to the bottom and that's it !!!
        Primitive submarines were built in the middle of the 19th century in the United States in single copies in order to quietly swim up to enemy ships and blow themselves up to sink an enemy ship. That is, this is the technology of war underwater suicide bombers kamikaze that era !!!

        Until now, in the USA, such boats are found sunken even at shallow depths, since sailing on them without serious knowledge of the physics of the depths turned into Russian roulette !!! And often the crews of such ships drowned without even reaching the enemy !!! These steamers were mainly used for battles on rivers - on the same Mississippi !!! Submarines were used in harbors and in shallow waters.
        Can I stick you a photo of Mozhaisky's steam plane in response ??? Following this logic, Russia in the middle of the 19th century was already the World leader in conquering the skies !!!

        1. BAI
          BAI 23 October 2020 15: 00
          +4
          The submarine was tested in Russia in 1834. There are also many ambiguities about the priority steam engine. It's not for nothing that I wrote - "in large quantities". Whatever they were, but there were 100 battleships! Submarines, in spite of everything, took part in the hostilities. When did the first submarine go into service in Russia?
          Russia in the middle of the 19th century was already the World leader in the conquest of heaven

          Any invention should not function in principle, but in a case.
          Well, when did cameras start to be used in large quantities in Russia?
          Yes, and one shot of a battleship (Civil War) with an 11-inch cannon will smash a three-deck wooden sailing ship of the Russian Black Sea Fleet during the Crimean War.
          1. Jünger
            Jünger 23 October 2020 15: 13
            -1
            Quote: BAI
            When did the first submarine go into service in Russia?

            Yes, almost earlier than in England or France. Now tell us about the backwardness of these two states in comparison with the United States. We have already understood about Russia that it is not worse.
          2. Selevc
            Selevc 23 October 2020 15: 15
            +2
            Quote: BAI
            there were 100 pieces!

            Who told you such nonsense about 100 pieces ??? Why not 500 and not 1000 ??? After all, you can take any number from the ceiling ??? American science fiction writers who run on the moon despite the radiation ???

            What kind of hostilities such submarines could undertake other than undermining themselves ??? Let's leave the fairy tales about drilling holes in the sides of enemy ships to science fiction writers ???

            Yes, steamers used such - but I want to clarify this is not steamers in the full sense of the word. Such ships could operate on large rivers and along the coast only in calm weather and with low waves !!! That is, this vessel is very highly specialized - not even a full-fledged paddle steamer - which by the middle of the 19th century was no longer something new.

            Probably these ships were relevant for the United States in the mid-19th century, in which a huge number of communications are tied to river and sea shipping. And at the same time, they are not so relevant for Russia in which all communications are mainly overland.
        2. Konnick
          Konnick 23 October 2020 20: 57
          0
          The first submariners were not kamikazi fellow , they put mines under an enemy ship on a rope, have not they heard of this method?
  6. Grandfather
    Grandfather 23 October 2020 12: 54
    +5
    our opinion is nothing more than "zilch"; this is understandable, well, just for colleagues; Holidays today
    Advertising Workers Day 431
    Prayer Day 23
    Evlampy Winter Pointer 23
    International Snow Leopard Day 64
    Cathedral of Volyn Saints 26
    Garage Day 572
    Canning Day 68
    Slap a Pesky Colleague Day 185
    Crocodile Skin Day 1425
    Talk Show Host Day 27
    IPod Birthday 36
    Day of dropping the tail 94 ... what they fought for ... with the holiday ... of TV presenters, and tail droppers. Amen. went to the Guys in our cooperative garages, Civilization remained there.
  7. Konnick
    Konnick 23 October 2020 13: 42
    +5
    Quote: Alien From
    Oh yes, we took notes and taught this beleberd.

    Well, judging by your grammar, they didn't teach anything. A disdainful attitude towards the study of classical exercises does not lead to a good knowledge of military theory. And about literacy, two examples.
    The first, the Russo-Japanese War, the 80% illiterate Russian army could not do anything with the Japanese, 90% literate.
    The second, according to the memoirs of B. Shklovsky - in the summer of 1917, before the June offensive, echelons with replenishment came and from the whole replenishment they could not find a soldier who could read the lists of personnel for roll call.
    And if our army had remained like this, and they would not have won at Khalkhin Gol, and there is nothing to say about the Second World War
    1. Alf
      Alf 23 October 2020 15: 13
      +5
      Quote: Konnick
      The second, according to the memoirs of B. Shklovsky - in the summer of 1917, before the June offensive, echelons with replenishment came and from the whole replenishment they could not find a soldier who could read the lists of personnel for roll call.

      1. Konnick
        Konnick 23 October 2020 15: 36
        +8
        Almost all literate conscripts in tsarist Russia were drafted into the navy, so these 31% were the majority in the navy, there was nothing for the illiterate to do. And from myself - my great-grandfather was taken prisoner after Tsushima, in Japan he was forced to help a gardener, well, he acquired knowledge there that when organizing a collective farm in his village he was chosen to be a field cultivator and gardener, and he was also engaged in land reclamation. Captivity "taught". After the Meiji revolution, Japan became almost universally literate, the obligatory seven-year education affected. And in Austria already in the 17th century there was compulsory primary education. So we have everything ahead.
        1. Alf
          Alf 23 October 2020 15: 39
          +9
          Quote: Konnick
          So we have everything ahead.

          Rather, behind. There is no need for a literate population of this government, an educated person asks QUESTIONS and thinks for himself, but the government needs a semi-literate herd of consumers. You know how to read the instructions and the price tag in the store, you believe in what was said in the media, it is good, it is no longer required.
          1. Konnick
            Konnick 23 October 2020 15: 42
            +4
            Sorry, that was sarcasm (
            1. Alf
              Alf 23 October 2020 15: 54
              +4
              Quote: Konnick
              Sorry, that was sarcasm (

              There is nothing to apologize for. hi
    2. your1970
      your1970 11 November 2020 07: 27
      0
      Quote: Konnick
      in summer 1917

      - but nothing that by this time has already raked out ALL the male population - more or less literate for artillery and machine-gun teams (11 people, Maxim's crew !!!) + fleet + aviation + auto = null remnant literate infantry
      1. Konnick
        Konnick 11 November 2020 09: 03
        0
        By the 17th year, the literate Russian soldier was already an officer, and the recruits were mostly illiterate 18-year-olds. And when the time came to create soldiers' councils, Jews had to be elected to the councils, since only they were literate among the soldiers and they were not promoted to officers as Russians.
  8. Konnick
    Konnick 23 October 2020 13: 43
    +4
    Quote: Egoza
    It was very useful if you really analyze and think.

    Some say integrals with logarithms are not needed. And the latest brain research has confirmed the words of Lomonosov - mathematician gymnastics of the mind. Thanks to the study of the exact sciences, neural connections in the brain develop more intensively, and hence the logic and the tendency to analyze.
    1. Grandfather
      Grandfather 23 October 2020 18: 56
      0
      Quote: Konnick
      Some people say that integrals with logarithms are not needed.

      Well, not all pilots can be ... but the question is certainly very serious.
  9. Konnick
    Konnick 23 October 2020 13: 51
    +1
    Quote: Daniil Konovalenko
    .And what prevented Nikolai Pavlovich from equipping the Russian army with modern weapons?

    Forgot what Lefty had asked him to do - don't clean guns with bricks, the British don't clean like that.
    1. Daniil Konovalenko
      Daniil Konovalenko 23 October 2020 14: 17
      +4
      I appreciated the humor, but let's go without myths. But about reality. The Russian military department was aware of the latest developments, but alas, the backwardness of the Russian economy predetermined the fate of the Crimean War.
      1. Konnick
        Konnick 23 October 2020 14: 34
        +5
        No myths? The usual hat-covering. How did you go to Alma, with what thoughts? Yes, we defeated Napoleon ... but now we will show them ... Officers at the parade, on horseback ... the ladies in the carriages went to watch their cavaliers show their mother to Kuz'kin ...
        Those thoughts were also among those on whom the state of the army depended. And the result? The officers were quickly landed with rifles ...
        Now is a good example, while the Armenian army was proud of the victory in Karabakh for 30 years, Azerbaijan was quietly rearming its army. This is the result of the theory, yes we, yes we have ...
        1. Daniil Konovalenko
          Daniil Konovalenko 23 October 2020 14: 48
          +5
          No myths?
          .. Had in mind without Lefty. About caps. In the battle at Alma under the command of Menshikov was Lieutenant General Vasily Kiryakov, who commanded the 17th Infantry Division.
          Having received the order from Menshikov about the disposition, accompanied by the requirement to meet the attacking enemy on the ascent up the mountain with frontal fire, he replied: "Do not worry, Your Excellency. We will cover the enemy with caps."
          1. Konnick
            Konnick 23 October 2020 15: 01
            +3
            As the saying goes "The bullet is a fool, the bayonet is great," to this phrase, as well as "We throw our hats," I include the phrase "Nobody but us." Unfortunately, this phrase has a detrimental effect on the mind and ingenuity, and only positively on thoughtless courage (
            It seems to me that we have run out of military theorists, only "sofa experts" remain.
      2. Alf
        Alf 23 October 2020 15: 15
        +2
        Quote: Daniil Konovalenko
        but alas, the backwardness of the Russian economy predetermined the fate of the Crimean War.

        This, of course, is a very important factor, no fools, but here is the inertia of the TOP leadership .. I don’t remember who spoke about the machine gun — I’m against its appearance in the army, since there is not enough cartridge for it.
        1. Konnick
          Konnick 23 October 2020 15: 41
          0
          It seems that Marshal Kulik was against submachine guns.
          1. Alf
            Alf 23 October 2020 15: 52
            +3
            Quote: Konnick
            It seems that Marshal Kulik was against submachine guns.

            Under the chief of armaments of the Red Army, Tukhachevsky, 300 (three hundred) submachine guns were ordered for the army.
            About Kulik.


            These documents testify to the opposite, it was Kulik who pushed submachine guns into the armament of the Red Army.
            And one more fact. The fact is that before the war it was planned to make self-loading and automatic rifles as the main infantry weapon.
            1. Konnick
              Konnick 23 October 2020 16: 22
              0
              But Hitler was definitely against the automatic weapons of the infantry, only machine guns and rifles, no assault gun, but this was rather an economic outlook, a new cartridge was needed, and there were a lot of rifles ...
              1. Alf
                Alf 23 October 2020 16: 32
                +1
                Quote: Konnick
                But Hitler was definitely against the automatic weapons of the infantry, only machine guns and rifles,

                And with whom was the MP-38 adopted?
                1. Konnick
                  Konnick 23 October 2020 16: 36
                  +1
                  This was not the main weapon of the infantry, they armed tankers, paratroopers, some panzergrenadier units and sometimes squad leaders.
                  1. Alf
                    Alf 23 October 2020 16: 39
                    +1
                    Quote: Konnick
                    This was not the main weapon of the infantry, they armed tankers, paratroopers, some panzergrenadier units and sometimes squad leaders.

                    It is truth too. All modifications of the MP-38 for WW2 were produced 957 units against 000 MILLION PCA and PPD in the USSR.
        2. Aviator_
          Aviator_ 23 October 2020 21: 33
          +1
          I am against his appearance in the army, since there is not enough cartridge for him.

          It seems that Dragomirov said
    2. Grandfather
      Grandfather 23 October 2020 19: 03
      -1
      Quote: Konnick
      Forgot what Lefty had asked him to do - don't clean guns with bricks, the British don't clean like that.

      there is no need to repeat any heresy, there was no such thing. The meaning was distorted and mocked at the Russians.
      1. Alf
        Alf 23 October 2020 22: 04
        0
        Quote: Dead Day
        Quote: Konnick
        Forgot what Lefty had asked him to do - don't clean guns with bricks, the British don't clean like that.

        there is no need to repeat any heresy, there was no such thing. The meaning was distorted and mocked at the Russians.

        Do you understand the term "allegory"? The meaning of this phrase of Lefty is different: There is a new one, it is necessary to change.
  10. Konnick
    Konnick 23 October 2020 14: 08
    +2
    Quote: Svarog
    I, generally on my own at the age of 18, decided to read "Capital" .. The book is difficult to understand, you have to reread it several times to understand, but it is very interesting and most importantly applicable to life

    I agree completely and, as usual, I will give an example. Everyone remembers the Leningrad-Boston teleconference because of the phrase "We have no cupcake," but there was a phrase from an American student, he said the following: "You need to question everything and seek your truth." He took this phrase from "Capital" and said that they study "Capital" in American universities. And we have ... stupid decommunization (... and a cupcake appeared that did not disappear anywhere. Sorry for the cupcake, automatic moderation
    1. Svarog
      Svarog 23 October 2020 14: 41
      +8
      He took this phrase from "Capital" and said that they study "Capital" in American universities. And we have ... stupid decommunization (... and a cupcake appeared that did not disappear anywhere. Sorry for the cupcake, automatic moderation

      Moreover, American corporations adopted elements of the planned economy for their enterprises, the Soviet school began to be introduced into the educational process .. You absolutely correctly noticed and it is very important to question everything and seek the truth .. as well as adopt the best ..
    2. Grandfather
      Grandfather 23 October 2020 19: 04
      +2
      Quote: Konnick
      We have no cupcake "

      is ... and will be today, after the bath. yes
  11. Engineer
    Engineer 23 October 2020 15: 30
    +1
    Concluding my first note, or rather, nothing more than a detailed quotation book, let me remind you that all followers of Marx and Engels wrote about the war and the army. At the same time, Lenin, at the head of the government, actually supervised the construction of the workers 'and peasants' army, and Trotsky and Stalin themselves were the real commanders in chief.

    They knew the subject brilliantly. Is this why the works of the classics are now in demand again, at a time when the very essence of war is changing? More precisely, they simply return to those readers who are not ready to fully trust Western theorists and home-grown history rewriters.

    The author has the right to hope that the readers will give the go-ahead to continue the topic.

    The author, better not. With such "knowledge", you shouldn't multiply the number of bad articles by VO

    For the editorial board of VO. Here Warhead closed. "Frozen". What are we waiting for? Why aren't their authors here yet? Are we going to eat about Ukraine, Belarus and other ideological nonsense?
    1. Konnick
      Konnick 23 October 2020 16: 03
      0
      Do you think that Trotsky was not the Commander-in-Chief, and Stalin was illiterate? And where is there, in the comments to this article, the word about Ukraine, Belarus and other ideological nonsense?
      1. Engineer
        Engineer 23 October 2020 16: 37
        0
        I believe that Lenin did not direct the actual construction of the Red Army, and Stalin was not the real commander-in-chief in the Civil War. At the time of WWII, he was a nominal commander. Just like Trotsky was not a real commander in chief. And he held a very specific post
        I will tactfully keep silent about their "brilliant knowledge" of the subject
        Any political nonsense is where the list of the resource has been noted at the present time. There are fewer and fewer articles on military and historical topics. The same news is chewed 3-4 times. And a person with the results of creativity like that of Mr. Podymov should not also approach history. It will only get worse
        The resource needs fresh blood, creative impulses, and not a simple expansion of the topic from mediocre authors.
        I wrote about this
        1. Konnick
          Konnick 23 October 2020 16: 43
          +1
          Well, about the "illiterate military" Stalin is a separate topic. The Volga Rockada alone is worth something, the decision to build it in January 1942, on a wave of "euphoria from success".
        2. Jünger
          Jünger 23 October 2020 20: 15
          -3
          Quote: Engineer
          I believe that Lenin did not direct the actual construction of the Red Army, and Stalin was not the real commander-in-chief in the Civil War. At the time of WWII, he was a nominal commander. Just like Trotsky was not a real commander in chief.

          Truly so. These comrades were, at best, organizers and suppliers. Well, they interfered with the real military experts with political chatter.
    2. Grandfather
      Grandfather 23 October 2020 19: 05
      -1
      Quote: Engineer

      For the editorial board of VO. Here Warhead closed. "Frozen". What are we waiting for? Why aren't their authors here yet? Are we going to eat about Ukraine, Belarus and other ideological nonsense?

      good this is nonsense ... but I want the Truth! drinks
  12. The comment was deleted.
  13. pleschakovai
    pleschakovai 23 October 2020 16: 32
    +2
    All these works of great people are needed by today's generations! All this is necessary for the life of ordinary Russians and villagers, and not only !!! Read, analyze, study, there will be more benefit to your mind-mind! Than the stupid, worthless entertainment and empty political shows of liberals and shitcrats today!
    1. kalibr
      kalibr 23 October 2020 17: 45
      -1
      Quote: pleschakovai
      All this is necessary for the life of ordinary Russians and villagers, and not only !!!

      Are you laughing? Go and ask: do they need it? You will be sent far, far away ...
  14. pleschakovai
    pleschakovai 23 October 2020 16: 38
    +5
    Very good article! Children are not taught this now, but on the contrary, they slandered everything that was good and eternal.
    in those not so distant times! Today's children are corrupted by capitalism, consumer society, permissiveness, stupidity of the exam, stupidity of the SHOW, the use of drugs, energy drinks and the debauchery of the Internet! Trouble, big trouble has come to Russia!
    They don't read books, heroes in the classics of writers are banned at school, gadgets don't teach good things, instead of direct communication, they already communicate with their parents only on a smartphone! Ancestor, give it, take it out and put it out, buy it, I want to ride a Bentley, I need to change the gender, whom did you give birth to your parents, I'm a girl, not a boy! I want a ring in my nose and navel, like Masha's! I want to change my hair color like Petka's! I want a trendy hairstyle with a bunch of stripes on the top of my head, I want new, trendy, ripped jeans! I want tattoos on my intimate places, I'm a girl and should be sexy and attractive! Righteous God, forgive God, forgive, but all that good that was in the Soviet Union was killed in us!
    In Russia, a society of indifferent, adventurous and enterprising people has been raised, namely, swindlers and thieves! Perestroika, be damned forever and ever!
    1. your1970
      your1970 12 November 2020 10: 12
      0
      Write first
      Quote: pleschakovai
      I want a ring in the nose and navel, like Masha! I want to change my hair color like Petka's! I want a trendy hairstyle with a bunch of stripes on the top of my head, I want new, trendy, ripped jeans! I want tattoos on my intimate places, I'm a girl and should be sexy and attractive!

      Then plump the bells
      Quote: pleschakovai
      but in us they killed all that good that was in the Soviet Union!

      And then recall(!!!!!) - that in the USSR there were dudes, hippies, Beatles, metalheads and even mountains of all sorts of quirks (including t-shirts in the 80s) ...
      And this was all - for a long time BEFORE perestroika, starting with the death of Stalin. ...
      So who is to blame for the patlahs, which were cut under Khrushchev ??
      Well, it's not only the fashion for rags, it's an idea that captured the masses of young people
  15. Konnick
    Konnick 23 October 2020 20: 52
    +4
    Quote: Temples
    Russian people live under God

    you are ours
    1. Konnick
      Konnick 23 October 2020 21: 03
      +2
      And Temples turns out to be a troll
  16. Saxahorse
    Saxahorse 24 October 2020 00: 03
    +1
    The author both intrigued and surprised at the same time. On the one hand, the message is correct, the five classics on the tribunes of the PRC clearly suggest that there is a lot of truth in their works. On the other hand, the author's review forces us to think how carefully the author read these classics and military history in general. :(

    Strange, but this did not prevent both founders from subsequently admiring the Prussian military machine. However, why be surprised? According to the postulates of Marxism, the then unification of Germany must be considered as progress, and, therefore, the Kaiser's army was progressive!

    If you look closely, you will notice that the classic "admires" not the Prussian car as such, but the Prussian "landwehr", a truly unique formation for that time. The people's army during monarchies !? This is really unusual. By the way, all the "colleagues" on the throne strongly advised the "Fredericks" to get rid of this perversion as soon as possible. "Give weapons to the people? You're out of your mind!" However, it is not difficult to guess that it was the long-term traditions and experience of the Landwehr that turned Germany into such a powerful military state, literally passing on the outstanding military abilities of its people by inheritance.

    It was the reformer Alexander II, under whom the Suvorov traditions were revived in the Russian army, that seems to have disappointed Marx and Engels the most. However, the tsar-liberator also clearly did not suit the domestic revolutionaries together with the Polish terrorists. And they still finished him off on the seventh attempt.

    That is why I don’t share the author’s surprise .. This tsar-liberator drove all these supposedly liberated peasants into hereditary land mortgages, not with the right and with the DUTY to buy out their piece of land at a frenzied price in installments for 50 years or more. You can't leave the community without paying! And children are not allowed either! And the price was such that even the interest for the deferred payment could not be covered! Perhaps the author should have remembered that only the Decree on Land of 1917 finally gave the peasants the land promised by the "Tsar-Liberator" sixty years ago.

    And this is written about the soldiers who not only crossed the Danube, took Plevna and defended Shipka! ..

    It's not about soldiers, but about the Russian imperial army! Not only Marx wrote, at the same time the Germans said: "A Russian soldier with a lion's head! A Russian officer with a donkey's head! A Russian general is a headless horseman." Can you guess how it was necessary to goofed up so that the whole of Europe wrote this? In the Russian-Turkish war of 1878, the RI army showed itself extremely badly! Six months sitting near Plevna .. Do you think you took a super fortress? Plevna is a village around which Osman Pasha in two weeks hastily dug several earthen redoubts. It was near these redoubts that the army of the Republic of Ingushetia was sitting, led by the Grand Duke Nik.Nik and with the participation of the Tsar Emperor himself as advisers .. 140 thousand against 36 thousand at Osman Pasha, not to mention the 20-fold superiority in cannons. After three, failed miserably, they even wanted to surrender! Barely Milyukov dissuaded the Tsar-Emperor .. After five months of the siege, they finally figured out to surround Plevna from all four sides. Before that, only from three sides they stormed, and they looked indifferently at the Turkish convoys with food and reinforcements. Only here, Osman Pasha suddenly ran out of food and had to break through. And it almost broke through! But a Cossack bullet (finally!) Wounded him, and his troops retreated. So, if not for this bullet, RI would have merged the war of 1878 in the same way as it merged every single war over the last 100 years of the empire .. And this one, according to the results of the Berlin Congress, was merged anyway ..

    In general, you need to know the classics. They wrote a lot of non-stupid things. True, the author forgot to mention the last, fifth classic - Mao! Although it is not easy to read Mao in our country, of course. But since the author has taken on such a complex series of articles, I would like to hope that he will be able to please us with quotes and this, the fifth but not the last classic of communism.
  17. Olgovich
    Olgovich 24 October 2020 07: 07
    -2
    “And yet the Russian army doesn't have much to brag about. During the entire existence of Russia Russians have not won a single battle yet against the Germans, French, Poles or British, without significantly outnumbering them. Even with the superiority of forces, they were always beaten by other armies, excluding the Prussians and Turks, but under Chetati and Silistria, the Turks beat the Russians, although they were numerically weaker.
    Apart from any other shortcomings, Russian soldiers are the most awkward in the whole world. They are not suitable for light infantry or light cavalry. "


    This stupid "classic" was not just an ardent Russophobe, but also absolute ignoramus : Russians beat the Franks alone in OV 1812, and even the state did not leave the Poles

    A funny, ridiculous graphomaniac and a clown: HOW can you write about the qualities of the Russian infantry in battle without seeing the battle, without having knowledge and facts?

    In the trash heap is the place for his "works"
  18. Knell wardenheart
    Knell wardenheart 24 October 2020 22: 07
    +1
    All that could be written about the theory of war was written long ago by Sun Tzu and Clausewitz. Generalized, chewed, etc. Seeking sparks of greater genius from theoretical economists is a dubious undertaking.