Military Review

"Sikorsky S-29A". From Russian sky to American sky

84

This is what it is, the first American plane of Igor Sikorsky


People stories. Not so long ago, an article was published on "VO" "The wings that we gave America", which told about Russian aviators who found a second home in the United States and became friends there for the benefit of this country. It told about many people. But, of course, the readers of "VO" would be interested to learn about the details of life overseas at least some of them. The most famous of them is, of course, I. I. Sikorsky. Mister Helicopter, as they called him in America. We will start with him.


Sikorsky near his 1910 helicopter

Sikorsky Igor Ivanovich was born into a family of hereditary Polish nobles who lived in Russia, and his father graduated from Kiev University and became a famous psychiatrist. Even when the future inventor was a child, his mother told him about the rotorcraft of Leonardo da Vinci. Then little Igor dreamed in a dream that he was aboard a huge aircraft with luxurious cabins and electric lighting inside. When he told his parents about this, he was told that people had never built such machines and that, most likely, this was impossible. When Igor was three years old, Otto Lilienthal took to the air, followed by the Wright brothers!


Apparatus "Big Baltic", or "Grand"

Then Igor Sikorsky studied at the naval cadet corps, after which he entered the Kiev Polytechnic Institute. After two years of experience, he managed to build the first helicopter in the courtyard of his Kiev house, but the power of its engine was not enough to lift it off the ground. The second helicopter was able to rise above the ground, but it was impossible to fly on it, since there were no controls on the device.

Failure did not discourage the young inventor. He switched to airplanes and two months later created the first, albeit non-flying, model of an airplane. Only his fifth airplane, the C-5, turned out to be successful, on which Igor passed the pilot's exam and set a world speed record! Subsequently, he more than once won competitions with foreign airplanes of prestigious brands, including Farman and Nieuport. The most interesting thing is that Sikorsky received his engineering degree without protection! He was credited with his plane !! Under the then bureaucratic order, the case is quite rare and unusual.


Flight preparation

Disappointed with single-engine cars, Igor Sikorsky created the first four-engine airship "Grand", which made an impressive flight over St. Petersburg in May 1913 and pretty much frightened the population of the Russian capital. Emperor Nicholas II himself then visited the aviator, took a picture with him in the cockpit of his airplane, which had been renamed "Russian Knight" by that time, and presented its creator with a gold watch.


Sikorsky at the helm of the "Russian Knight"

Then Sikorsky, on the basis of this aircraft, created an even more impressive four-engine aircraft "Ilya Muromets", named after the epic Russian hero, who during the Great War showed himself as a heavy bomber, and from more than eighty aircraft of this type, German pilots managed to shoot down only one!

After the Bolshevik revolution, Igor Sikorsky's talents were not needed in Russia. The director of the plant where the designer worked was torn to pieces by drunken soldiers, and the planes were dismantled for firewood ...

"Sikorsky S-29A". From Russian sky to American sky

Aviators Sikorsky, Genner and Kaulbars aboard the "Russian Knight" aircraft, 1913

Commissioner M. Lurie announced aviation industry is unnecessary to the proletariat, as if it were perfumery, and Igor Sikorsky with his little daughter in his arms crossed the border to Finland, and then moved to France. However, no one expected him in Europe. The war was ending, and no one needed combat airplanes, as well as passenger ones. Then Sikorsky went to the States. There he first worked as a teacher of mathematics and drawing.


Sikorsky on the front platform of the first copy of "Ilya Muromets", winter 1913-1914.

The designer's dream of his own company came true in March 1923, when he, together with a small group of the same Russian émigré aircraft builders, like himself, created a workshop. Moreover, it was arranged on the farm of a former Russian pilot - in a barn! The roof was leaking, and scrap metal was often used as materials. But it was in this shed that a twin-engine transport airplane was built, just the kind that America needed, where all sorts of private transportation was normal!

Many business people showed interest in the new firm and began to contact Sikorsky for possible cooperation. New York newspapers published articles about him, which further fueled interest in the Russian aircraft manufacturer, and in time this just coincided with the expected completion of the construction of his airplane. But then the cold came, the money came to an end, so that the workers of Sikorsky now had to work practically for free, only for food. But then the famous composer Rachmaninov read an article about him and, having learned about his difficulties, made a broad gesture: he bought shares for five thousand dollars at once and agreed to become the vice president of the company - solely for advertising purposes!


Training 25-pound bomb. Such could be dropped by "Ilya Muromets"

Sikorsky himself constantly emphasized in all interviews that he was very lucky with people, that people with him are just gold, they will pod any flea on you, like Leskov's Lefty.

His first assistant was Mikhail Evgenievich Glukharev, an aerodynamic scientist, an excellent specialist. Sikorsky's brother, Sergei, was engaged in business work. That is, even though there are still few of us, but every jack of all trades works for ten.


Igor Ivanovich Sikorsky, photograph by Karl Bulla, 1914

In one of his interviews, he said that when he was building Vityaz and Ilya Muromets, he thought about making a flight to the North Pole on one of them, but he had to equip the Muromets with devices for hanging 25-pound bombs. There is no getting away from this ...


S-29A at the airfield. Then people often came to airfields just to just look at the planes

By April, the Sikorsky S-29A was ready. For $ 500, they managed to get two engines decommissioned from military property and install them on an airplane. On May XNUMX, the plane was taken out of the hangar, with the last remaining money it was refueled with gasoline and oil, and Sikorsky himself personally performed several runs across the field on it. The next day, it was decided to take the plane into the air. But his first flight ended in a serious accident. The aircraft manufacturers literally crammed into the cockpit, due to which the power of the engines was not enough, and the pilot, fearing to crash into the wires during the landing approach, was forced to sharply throttle right in front of the power line. The plane immediately jumped from this, but then lost speed, did not sit down, but literally fell onto the golf course. The chassis withstood this blow, but one of the wheels landed in a ditch, and the car skapoted, receiving serious damage, although none of its passengers were injured.


S-29A. "There is no prosperity without publicity"

In September 1924, the first successful flight of the S-29A aircraft repaired after an accident finally took place. And immediately after it was followed by the first order: an airplane brought two pianos from Rooseveltfield to Washington for $ 500. The American press, greedy for everything new and unusual, immediately reported this, and orders for the transportation of a wide variety of goods fell like a bucket.


Sikorsky at the S-29A aircraft

It was only in 1926 that he sold it to a certain Tourner, who, after operating it for another two years, resold the already well-worn car to Howard Hughes, a famous aircraft manufacturer and film producer. He decided to use this aircraft on the set of the war film "Hell's Angels" as a German bomber "Gotha", which was to be shot down by American aces from Lafayette Squadron.


S-29A, disguised as a Gotha bomber

During the shooting, the car was loaded with fuel, the pilots set it on fire at the required height, secured the steering wheel, and they themselves jumped out of it on parachutes. As a result, the plane began to fall downward in a spiral, and, all engulfed in flames, fell to the ground in a spectacular way, where it exploded in a fountain of fire!

In 1924, Sikorsky was awarded the Sylvanus Albert Reed Prize by the Institute of Aviation Sciences in New York, which also brought him excellent publicity.

In his lectures and a book written in the same years, Sikorsky predicted a brilliant future for aviation:

“Aircraft will fly over vast areas and will be reliable, durable and safe. People will quickly get used to this way of getting around and will buy tickets or book a cabin on an airship as easily as buying a ticket at a train station. These aircrafts will be built like an airplane. Controlled balloons are unlikely to become widespread. "

In his opinion, these should be airplanes with a pressurized cockpit, flying at an altitude of 20-30 versts, where “the rarefaction of the air will allow airplanes of this type to develop enormous speeds, completely unacceptable in other conditions. It can be expected that devices of this type will do 400-500 and even more versts per hour. "


Inside the passenger cabin S-29A

Like many other emigrants, the designer hoped that the "mess" in Russia would not last for decades. No wonder he named his first aircraft built in the USA S-29A, where the letter "A" meant "American". Apparently, he secretly thought that maybe soon he would be able to continue the creation of Russian cars. But Igor Ivanovich was not destined to return to his homeland ...
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  1. Same lech
    Same lech 31 October 2020 05: 50
    +3
    A talented person ... it is a pity that the commissars were not smart enough to attract him to the service of the Land of the Soviets ... our country has lost so many talents.
    1. Lexus
      Lexus 31 October 2020 06: 02
      15
      "You can't be cute by force." (C) It is regrettable that they do not want to understand this now.
      1. The leader of the Redskins
        The leader of the Redskins 31 October 2020 07: 33
        +5
        An interesting historical fact:
        Somewhere in the 70s and 80s, they decided to shoot a documentary about Sikorsky in Kiev, but they could not immediately determine which old house the young inventor lived in. We turned to two old men sitting on a bench. Those who immediately pointed to the building they were looking for and began to praise Dr. Sikorsky. And what a kind, sympathetic, sociable, merciful ...
        - And the son? Did his son also live here?
        - Igor? Yes ... I was not traveling. I built all the models ...
        laughing
        The movie "The Sky Is Measured in Miles" was released recently. I think about Sikorsky, also, it would be possible to shoot a small series.
        In Soviet times, there was a picture about him, but it was forgotten and young people will not be interested in it.
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 31 October 2020 07: 43
          11
          - Igor? Yes ... I was not traveling. I built all the models ...
          One of my acquaintances, who had graduated from the Leningrad Restoration School at one time, said that his master in vocational education said: "Choi? What Choi? ... Ah, this one who did not have chisels all the time ..."
        2. da Vinci
          da Vinci 31 October 2020 09: 56
          +7
          It's called The Poem of Wings. Most recently, it was shown on the Red Line channel.
          1. John22
            John22 1 November 2020 18: 16
            0
            The film Poem about Wings is a Soviet version of Tupolev's genius. Sikorsky and Tupolev never met and did not know each other. When Sikorsky was already building Ilya Muromets, Tupolev was a student and listened to Zhukovsky's lectures. So it goes.
            1. da Vinci
              da Vinci 1 November 2020 18: 57
              0
              And who says that the film is biographical. Almost nothing was said about Sikorsky in the USSR, but in this film he was shown very humanely as a talented engineer who loved his homeland.
    2. Tugarin
      Tugarin 31 October 2020 07: 29
      23
      Quote: The same LYOKHA
      our country has lost so many talents

      And now they are luring away slowly. Grants, practices ...
    3. faiver
      faiver 31 October 2020 09: 16
      11
      it is a pity that the commissars were not smart enough to attract him to the service of the Land of the Soviets
      - a moot point, not the fact that Sikorsky would not have been overtaken by the punishing hand of the hegemon, times were contradictory ...
    4. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
      Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 31 October 2020 13: 19
      +5
      A talented man ... it is a pity that the commissars were not smart enough to attract him to the service of the Land of the Soviets

      He was on the Cheka's death lists as an ideological monarchist. Do you call this 'attraction'?
    5. KERMET
      KERMET 31 October 2020 19: 14
      +8
      From the memoirs of Sikorsky:
      " Since the proclaimed ideals and principles of the Marxist revolution were not acceptable to me, I decided to leave Russia indefinitely. "
    6. Kerensky
      Kerensky 31 October 2020 21: 06
      +6
      it is a pity that the commissars were not smart enough to attract him to the service of the Land of the Soviets ...

      Where to attach it? In Uchdetbrakdrovsnab as the head of the large chips distribution sector? Those were not the times.
      He left whole and well.
  2. 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 31 October 2020 07: 22
    +8
    Howard Hughes, renowned aircraft industrialist and film producer
    X / f "Aviator" (2004)
    Thank you, Vyacheslav Olegovich!
  3. Tugarin
    Tugarin 31 October 2020 07: 31
    21
    Yes, we lost a lot in his face. Thanks for the article hi
    1. Icelord
      Icelord 31 October 2020 09: 41
      11
      Thank you, Vyacheslav Olegovich, but the article should be continued, he has built a lot, and Sikorsky's helicopter is a whole legend, Sikorsky is generally an icon of American aircraft construction.
      PS And during the war, when the interest of the Soviet people in American aircraft was very high, Soviet newspapers even had to publish refutations. "rumors that the famous American designer Sikorsky is a white immigrant are not true. They are just namesakes." smile
      1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
        Kote Pan Kokhanka 1 November 2020 08: 54
        +3
        Join us!
        Regards, Vlad!
  4. Undecim
    Undecim 31 October 2020 10: 07
    15
    Only his fifth airplane, the C-5, turned out to be successful, on which Igor passed the pilot's exam and set a world speed record! Subsequently, he more than once won competitions on it with foreign airplanes of prestigious brands, including "Farman" and "Nieuport"
    The C-5 was a successful aircraft, but the world record and victories in competitions belong not to this model, but to the next one, the C-6.

    1. Icelord
      Icelord 31 October 2020 10: 21
      +5
      Good day, Viktor Nikolaevich hi ... Now again, somebody will say that I am a fake, smile but I'm honestly glad that you are interested in the topic. This means that we will receive details and clarifications. I save some of your posts so that you can use the information later
  5. Icelord
    Icelord 31 October 2020 10: 14
    +3
    In one word, we demand the disclosure of the topic smile Continuation is necessary
  6. Jünger
    Jünger 31 October 2020 10: 31
    +8
    Sikorsky Igor Ivanovich was born into a family of hereditary Polish nobles

    This is not true, Sikorsky did not have a Polish origin. Well, perhaps extremely distant.
    His ancestors were priests, hence the corresponding ending of the surname.
    Sikorsky's father was a member of the Union of the Russian People and carried out an examination in the Beilis case - not in favor of the latter.
    Already in America, Sikorsky insisted on the appropriate English spelling of the end of his surname - so that he would not be confused with the Poles.
    1. Icelord
      Icelord 31 October 2020 10: 44
      +8
      And what does the ending of a surname have to do with the profession of a clergyman, do they, in addition to church names, change their surname? And in general, this is all not true, his father was a famous psychiatrist, a professor at Kiev University, and his mother was from the old noble family of the Temryuk-Cherkasovs
      1. Jünger
        Jünger 31 October 2020 10: 51
        +3
        A huge part of the names is of professional origin. In particular, it is believed that surnames ending in "-ii" are Voznesensky, Bogolyubsky, etc. indicate that the ancestor of the surname was related to the clergy.
        1. Icelord
          Icelord 31 October 2020 10: 55
          +7
          The fact that it has nothing to do with the topic is nothing. There were no priests there, although Sikorsky himself is really Orthodox, which of course is completely natural for RI. But the most interesting thing is, who exactly is such nonsense considered? Prince Bogolyubsky has priests' ancestors, right? fool You would tell him that, I would listen with interest to the answer laughing
          1. Jünger
            Jünger 31 October 2020 11: 49
            +7
            Quote: Icelord
            There were no priests there, although Sikorsky himself is really Orthodox,

            You should at least read what to start with
            Ivan Alekseevich Sikorsky was born into a large family of a priest in the village of Antonovo, Kiev province, in which he was the youngest among his sons. At the age of nine, he was assigned to a theological school in the city of Kiev, and after graduating from a theological school with honors, he entered the seminary

            So there were a lot of priests.
            That's how they were - hereditary Polish nobles wink But in reality - the Black Hundreds and "damned anti-Semites" laughing
            Quote: Icelord
            Prince Bogolyubsky has priests' ancestors, right? You would tell him that, I would listen with interest to the answer

            You seem to be one of those citizens who believe that the name of Prince Alexander Yaroslavich was Nevsky? laughing And Prince Dmitry Ivanovich - Donskoy? I will not dissuade you.
            1. Icelord
              Icelord 31 October 2020 12: 03
              +4
              I was not going to go so deeply into Sikorsky's family tree, but his grandfather was a priest, but a nobleman, from an old family with Polish roots. Many noble families had Polish, Tatar, German and even Scottish roots like Lermontov, or Danish roots like Bering. And all of them are quite Orthodox and quite Russians. Temryuk-Cherkasov's ancestors of his mother also have not Russian roots, so what? Why just talk nonsense about the Nevsky and the Don, these are nicknames, but Bogolyubsky is a surname. And the founder of Odessa, Duke De Ribas, by whose name the famous Deribasovskaya is called, is French. What do you want to prove?
              1. Jünger
                Jünger 31 October 2020 12: 55
                +7
                I see you are not aware that under the king there was such a thing as the estate. You cannot belong to two estates at the same time - either you are a priest, or a nobleman, or a merchant. Children whose parents belonged to the clergy were admitted to the seminary.
                With rare exceptions that followed the reforms of Alexander II.
                A nobleman could become a priest mainly through a monastery, but monks had no children.
                So Sikorsky does not leave the old noble family. It is nonsense.

                Quote: Icelord
                Why just talk nonsense about the Nevsky and Don, these are nicknames, and Bogolyubsky surname

                What is the last name? Prince Andrei Yuryevich, nicknamed Bogolyubsky, did not have a surname laughing Stop breeding nonsense.
                Read more about the origin of surnames - this is not secret information wink
                Quote: Icelord
                What do you want to prove?

                Nothing. I say simple things that everyone knows.
                1. Icelord
                  Icelord 31 October 2020 13: 08
                  +1
                  Don't talk nonsense, about the estates, I really understand them and google for you. Any son of a nobleman could become a priest, not the first usually, moreover, in all countries, the highest priestly ranks were occupied exclusively by nobles, the father of the first tsar from the Romanov family, Metropolitan Philaret, and Cardinal Richelieu in the course of the duke, that's a simple priest, to become a nobleman, you need to accomplish a feat ... Good disgrace, read first, and then write
                  1. Jünger
                    Jünger 31 October 2020 13: 34
                    +4
                    Quote: Icelord
                    Any son of a noble could become a priest

                    Well, since you understand, let's give examples of Russian nobles who became Orthodox priests (white clergy) - I will be very grateful. I don’t know those.
                    Quote: Icelord
                    father of the first tsar from the Romanov family, Metropolitan Philaret,

                    I wrote in Russian, in black and white - a nobleman could go to the priestly estate through the monastery... Do you understand what this means? Filaret (Romanov) is a monk.
                    Quote: Icelord
                    Cardinal Richelieu along the Duke

                    You will also remember Akhmad Kadyrov and Pope Francis laughing Are we talking about pre-revolutionary Russia or are you one devil - the main thing is that the priests?
                    And I will repeat again -
                    Sikorsky did not consider himself a Pole and was against being considered such. Therefore, it is probably correct to respect his opinion, and not to indulge someone's wishes.
                    1. Icelord
                      Icelord 31 October 2020 13: 44
                      +2
                      Well, since Philaret turns out to be not Mikhail Romanov's father, I think as you wish, and Sikorsky considered himself a Russian, and this is quite justified, so is Lermontov Russian, but neither one nor the other denied their national roots. And after that I bow out, teach ignoramuses, who, moreover, know nothing and do not want to hire
          2. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
            Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 31 October 2020 13: 12
            +3
            ... There were no priests there

            There were. Archpriest Alexy Sikorsky, his grandfather, served in the village of Antonovka, near the town of Skvira, Kiev province, where his son Ivan was born. Subsequently, Father Alexy was the rector of one of the Kiev churches.
            By the way, my father also studied at the seminary)
            1. Icelord
              Icelord 31 October 2020 13: 17
              0
              You all don’t read me, I’m writing for the last time. Grandfather is a priest, and at the same time, a nobleman from an old noble family with Polish roots. I will not repeat the same thing more, do not parrot. And the presence of a priest in the family does not mean in any way that he comes from the clergy. That's right, the class system and he is a nobleman, not a commoner
          3. Undecim
            Undecim 31 October 2020 14: 16
            10
            Sikorsky Igor Ivanovich was born into a family of hereditary Polish nobles who lived in Russia, and his father graduated from Kiev University and became a famous psychiatrist.
            There were no priests there, although Sikorsky himself is really Orthodox, which of course is completely natural for RI.
            Both statements are not valid.
            In order to be convinced of this, it is enough to read the biography of Igor Sikorsky's father, the famous psychiatrist Ivan Alekseevich Sikorsky, who was the sixth child in the family of a priest in the village of Antonovo, Skvirsky district, Kiev province.
            In addition, there is a letter from Sikorsky to the historian Vasily Galich, written on August 30, 1933. This letter really exists, it is kept in the Galich Foundation in the archives of the University of Minnesota (Wasyl Halich papers. Box 2. Folder 13).
            "My family is of purely Ukrainian origin, from a village in the Kiev region, where my great-grandfather and great-great-grandfather were priests" ("My family is of purely Ukrainian origin, having come from a village in the State of Kiev where my grandfather and great-grandfather were priests" ).
            The Saitov Black Hundreds may not fuss over their "Ukrainian origin", since Igor Sikorsky Sikorsky himself was an ardent monarchist and a Russian nationalist, dreamed of the revival of the Russian Empire, collaborated in the newspapers "Sovereign Rus' and" Resurrection of Russia ", was a member of the Russian Political Committee, Pushkin society and the Tolstoy Foundation, a sponsor of many Russian émigré organizations - both cultural and political, and he considered Ukraine an integral part of Russia.
            1. Icelord
              Icelord 31 October 2020 14: 22
              0
              There is such a letter, but it just brought it down on ethnic grounds strongly. In the table of ranks RI and he and his father are nobles, this is also preserved. About his, one might say, radical monarchist nationalism, I wrote a little lower
            2. Jünger
              Jünger 31 October 2020 14: 36
              +2
              Quote: Undecim
              Site Black Hundreds may not fuss about "Ukrainian origin"

              There is nothing to fuss about, since Ukraine has never existed as something separate from Russia, nor a corresponding origin. And Sikorsky, as an intelligent person, understood this perfectly.
              1. Icelord
                Icelord 31 October 2020 22: 26
                -1
                If anything, ask the Ukrainians, a part of Russia, oga, oga, under Catherine the current became a part, and the Bulgarians are part of Russia and Belarusians and Serbs, all Slavs are shorter. And nothing that the Russian emperor had a separate title for the Russians, a separate one for the Ukrainians, and for the Belarusians and the Poles, the identity was separate. Against the idea of ​​building an empire, I will fight to the end, that's enough, no one wants to go back
                1. Jünger
                  Jünger 31 October 2020 22: 51
                  +3
                  Quote: Icelord
                  If anything, ask the Ukrainians,

                  You can't ask those who don't exist - isn't that obvious?
                  1. Icelord
                    Icelord 1 November 2020 01: 40
                    +3
                    This is only for you, does not exist, because many people like you, in isolation from reality, live. This Great Russian Nazism, it will be worse than German, and ideas are more delusional and goals more terrible
                    1. Jünger
                      Jünger 1 November 2020 18: 25
                      -1
                      Quote: Icelord
                      This Great Russian Nazism, it will be worse than German, and ideas are more delusional and goals more terrible

                      I immediately realized that you are a victim of Russian fascism. lol
                      1. Icelord
                        Icelord 1 November 2020 18: 36
                        +1
                        Oh yes, you tired me ignorant, blinkered, go fight for the power of the Soviets, and the world turmoil, if no one decree for you, then I will not be able to convince. Arividerchi, russoary, you can't get me anymore, I'm not a minus, I'll send wassat
                  2. Icelord
                    Icelord 1 November 2020 03: 09
                    0
                    So the stupid Russian autocrats themselves did not know what they were ruling. The title, if you google it yourself. Happiness to you in the fictional world of the great turtury
                  3. Kushka
                    Kushka 1 November 2020 18: 06
                    0
                    It would be interesting to know your opinion on the participation of Zaporozhye
                    Cossacks in the 30 Years War:
                    ".... the conditions of service of the Cossacks were always stipulated by agreements (contracts). An ordinary Zaporozhets received up to 6 thalers a month, and Colonel Pavel Noskovsky, who was the regiment commander - 200 thalers, which at that time was just an astronomical amount."
                    ".... the Austrian command created light cavalry regiments and squadrons from the Cossacks, which made penetrating raids into northern and northeastern France. So, in February 1636, the two thousandth cavalry regiment of the Cossacks broke into the province of Champagne across the Meuse River near Verdun, defeated the stationed there, part of the French and with rich booty returned to the place where the Austrian troops were quartered - to Luxembourg. "
                    ".... finally, in October 1645, after long negotiations, a regiment of Zaporozhye Cossacks (up to 2400 people) went by sea through the Polish port of Gdansk to Calais."
                    ", ... we can unequivocally say that the Cossacks participated in the hostilities in Flanders in October 1645 and the seizure of the fortress of Dunkirk by storm (the capitulation of the Spanish garrison was accepted on October 11, 1646). But again, as in the Empire, the local authorities deceived the mercenaries (quite in the spirit of that time) and some of them returned to Ukraine, and some went over to the side of the Spaniards. "
                    "..... with the end of the Thirty Years' War in 1648 and the signing of a peace treaty in Münster and Osnabrück, the fighting between France and Spain did not end. Flanders ".
                    Do you think they were Ukrainian "soldiers of fortune" or were they
                    Russian PMCs (in this case, the "Wagnerites" should in the hall of fame of their museum
                    post this information in a prominent place as part of your story)

                    Or they can start from even more ancient times:
                    ".... the Cossacks actually for the first time act as condottieri (mercenaries)
                    A separate topic is the participation of the Zaporozhye Cossacks in the campaigns of False Dmitry I and False Dmitry II in 1607-1612 in Muscovy.
                    "..... 1604, Hetman Semyon Skalozub with a detachment of 4 thousand people set out on a campaign on the Black Sea coast of Turkey; in many respects it was this event that thwarted the planned invasion of Austria by the Ottomans. The campaigns of Hetman Pyotr Konashevich-Sagaidachny, the decisive role of the Cossacks in the victory over the Turks and Tatars in 10-30 near Khotin is well known "
                    .
                    1. Jünger
                      Jünger 1 November 2020 18: 21
                      0
                      Quote: Kushka
                      It would be interesting to know your opinion on the participation of Zaporozhye
                      Cossacks in the 30 Years War:

                      The opinion is purely positive. I heard that they participated.
                      Quote: Kushka
                      Do you think they were Ukrainian "soldiers of fortune" or were they
                      Russian PMCs

                      Yes, ordinary Russian scumbags, of which there were many at all times. Nothing better and no worse than the Novgorod ushkuiniks who plundered Sarai, and at the same time Kostroma and Yaroslavl. Only the ushkuyniks ravaged much earlier than the Cossacks.
                      Why is it necessary to focus on the "Cossacks"? Because they are like "Ukrainian"? Some are Ukrainian, some Vyatka, some Novgorod - it makes no difference. The main thing is that everyone is Russian.
                      1. Kushka
                        Kushka 1 November 2020 18: 34
                        +1
                        So I'm right - PMC "Wagner" has a glorious history -
                        a joke - 400 years ago - by sea from Gdansk to Calais
                        and Dunkirk was taken from the Spaniards!
                        But there is only doubt:
                        "1604 hetman Semyon Skalozub with a detachment of 4 thousand people"
                        did you know that they were Russians? (why not Polish then?)
                      2. Jünger
                        Jünger 1 November 2020 18: 57
                        +1
                        Quote: Kushka
                        "1604 hetman Semyon Skalozub with a detachment of 4 thousand people"
                        did you know that they were Russians?

                        I have no idea who Semyon Skalozub is and what his ethnic origin is, but if the same Bogdan Khmelnitsky called the "Ukrainian" people Russian (Russian, Rus), then what prevented this most notorious Skalozub and his comrades from calling themselves that way 40 years before?
                        Quote: Kushka
                        So I'm right - PMC "Wagner" has a glorious history

                        Still - the Russian prince Bravlin took Surozh back in the 8th century. Without any Wagners and Skalozubov. And they went to the Caspian at the same time.
                      3. Kushka
                        Kushka 1 November 2020 19: 07
                        +2
                        You were still correctly advised to google
                        full title of the Russian autocrat. Is he,
                        by the way (title) lasted almost until the thief.
                        Well, at the same time, google the "founders" of the USSR
                        in December 1922.
                  4. Icelord
                    Icelord 1 November 2020 18: 42
                    +2
                    And finally, I will say that they are not Russians, and they have never been, and you, an unwise person, it's time to tie up with Nazism, hang people like history has shown
  • A. Privalov
    A. Privalov 31 October 2020 11: 29
    +8
    Tales about drunken sailors tore the director to pieces do not bother me. In the bike, they could even eat it.

    The planes did not cut firewood. Local residents plundered the warehouse of the manufacturer's carpentry shop. In the cold winter of the 18th, precious balsa, cedar and cork sheets went into the stove.

    Sikorsky's aircraft since 1919 (in 1918 there was no one to fly) served as transport workers and postal workers until 1922 (maybe until 1923). Then, the resource ended, and there were no spare parts yet. Although the aircraft industry was nationalized at the end of 1918, they did not produce anything of their own, but they tried to collect from the remaining materials from models of foreign production. In 1920, design organizations began to work slowly, but already.

    By the way, Vyacheslav Olegovich, who was this "Commissar M. Lurie"?
    At VO, someone already wrote that Trotsky almost personally ordered the planes to be chopped down, and that even Tukhachevsky had a hand in this. Although, in February 18th, Trotsky was clearly not up to airplanes, and Blucher was still nothing at all.
    1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
      Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 31 October 2020 12: 26
      +2
      ... At VO, someone already wrote that Trotsky almost personally ordered the planes to be chopped down, and that even Tukhachevsky had a hand in this.

      Oh yes, I remember this delusional comment on the article, the sequel of which is Shpakovsky's article. laughing Now the S29 has somehow flown from the Russian sky to the American sky.
    2. Kushka
      Kushka 2 November 2020 00: 24
      +1
      Good evening to you! Glad to spread a word.
      My own grandfather from a clogged village near Zheltye Vody
      one of the 9 children, thanks to the village teacher, was
      arranged in a gymnasium. But lucky in one, unlucky in another-
      because of an underground circle of Marxists organized by an older
      graders, the gymnasium was closed, and those who have a draft
      age, encouraged. I was lucky again - I got to serve in Levadia,
      to the location of the Tsar's regiment. As a literate, he was
      put by officers to teach soldiers to read and write, received the first
      rank. And then PMA. On the march to Warsaw, on the attack, the shell
      exploded under the horse. Grandfather got George, but became
      disabled. I came to my native village. Every day sailors
      threatened to shoot the "White Guard" - to explain to them that
      he was an ordinary Russian soldier who performed
      your duty is useless. And when it came down to it, I got out in
      some underpants in the window on the stove and left the field. Gone already
      to Donbass. He met the Germans in 1941 in Mariupol - old
      lung sick (PMV), lame soldier.
      His brother, Mikhail, in 1961, I sleep on this stove
      laid, a first grader brought from the city. And at 6-00
      woke up and led to the well, tied it properly and said that
      we will get the bucket. Said as if we were with him every day
      so they did. I still remember how I drifted, but refuse
      or I couldn't cry, I don't know why. Maybe sleepy?
  • Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
    Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 31 October 2020 12: 19
    +1
    About the title:
    Explain what does S29 have to do with the 'Russian sky'?
    1. Icelord
      Icelord 31 October 2020 13: 59
      -2
      Elementary, where the designer began to design the aircraft, and he always considered himself a Russian. He headed the Tolstoy and Pushkin societies, was a prominent member of the Russian monarchist movement. He even was a member of Kirill Vladimirovich Romanov's "state meeting". Member of the Russian National Union
      1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
        Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 31 October 2020 14: 08
        0
        I am aware that Sikorsky's 'Russianness' is being put in place and out of place. But the metaphor about 'Russian sky' next to S29 is nonsense.
        1. Icelord
          Icelord 31 October 2020 14: 18
          0
          Your right to count as you like, and the author wrote an interesting article, and when, in fact, there is not enough knowledge, then this is how it begins, the search for something to find fault with. And it’s not even on the case, Sikorsky flew in Russia, flew in America, everything is correct
          1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
            Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 31 October 2020 14: 28
            +1
            Dear, let's less foam about 'knowledge', not for you, you know. The headline would be fair if it did not contain a mention of the machine, which has NO relation to the Russian sky. I asked the author to explain this fact. And your sentiments about 'but he's Russian!' me, frankly, on the side.
            1. Icelord
              Icelord 31 October 2020 20: 44
              -2
              That is, I am an ignoramus, and you are D. Artagnan laughing ... And what have you achieved in life? For me, you are just a self-confident critic, worthless yourself
        2. Icelord
          Icelord 31 October 2020 14: 28
          -1
          I wonder if you minus me so zealously in all the posts, or is the junger offended? smile
          1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
            Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 31 October 2020 14: 31
            0
            What kind of posts? Have you posted something? Or call comments 'posts'?
            1. Icelord
              Icelord 31 October 2020 14: 33
              0
              Yes, I call it that, but I have no publications here, it's difficult for VO, you have to be a full-time author. But is it you?
              1. Undecim
                Undecim 31 October 2020 20: 23
                +3
                it's hard on VO, you have to be a full-time author.
                Do not. When I wanted to, I published, although I was never a full-time author.
                1. Icelord
                  Icelord 31 October 2020 20: 25
                  0
                  Maybe I heard what is needed now from the authors of the untimely perished varhed, but I haven't tried it myself. So I will definitely not argue smile
              2. The leader of the Redskins
                The leader of the Redskins 31 October 2020 21: 01
                +1
                I have 14 publications. I'm not on the VO state. Many people consider me to be Bandera.
                Write! Write in an interesting and competent manner (there may be complaints about literacy). But the road will be overcome by the one walking. Try it. Just don't copy-paste, but write what you know, what you see, what you think.
                And readers will remember and appreciate you.
                1. Icelord
                  Icelord 31 October 2020 21: 04
                  0
                  It's interesting, maybe I'll try, it's strange, why did the Varkhedovites go to Yandex Zen, they talk about VO, but they say it's difficult there, there is a lot of formalism
        3. Icelord
          Icelord 31 October 2020 20: 42
          0
          And who shoves that? He popped himself. And if you opened a grammar dictionary, you would know what the point means, the end of a sentence. Thus, the name of the aircraft is written there, and then about the sky separately. Learn languages, come in handy. smile And such nagging is just ridiculous
  • Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
    Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 31 October 2020 13: 23
    -2
    ... and Igor Sikorsky, with his little daughter in his arms, moved across the border to Finland, and then moved to France.

    According to another version - by train to Murmansk, where the British were, from there to France.
    1. Icelord
      Icelord 31 October 2020 20: 46
      -1
      And this is important, right? What's the difference other than finding fault?
  • Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
    Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 31 October 2020 13: 26
    +2
    From the American sky to the Soviet one.
    His amphibian in the Volga-Volga)
  • Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
    Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 31 October 2020 13: 31
    +1
    ... Then little Igor dreamed in a dream that he was on board a huge aircraft with luxurious cabins and electric lighting inside

    Legend has it that he was 11 years old. Yes, he remembered his dream when he saw the salon of the amphibious S42
  • Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
    Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 31 October 2020 13: 37
    0
    It is strange that Comrade Shpakovsky, who has a weakness for literaryism, did not mention the famous 'Fedora')
    A mascot hat would greatly enrich the article with a kind of metaphysical charm)
  • Region-25.rus
    Region-25.rus 31 October 2020 14: 16
    -2
    After the Bolshevik revolution, Igor Sikorsky's talents were not needed in Russia.
    author ... Dudya had seen enough or Kiseleva with Pozdner?
    The Bolshevik revolution needed any talents and as much as possible! Another thing is that not everyone accepted the new government, and preferred work for a long dollar to work for their country. But this is their choice. And I am not judging.
    1. Icelord
      Icelord 31 October 2020 15: 40
      -6
      The Bolshevik revolution, a big blood was needed. Which they proved perfectly. Another question is that the tsarist regime is also rotten, if it had been combed a hundred years earlier, it would have been like in Great Britain. But I wanted autocracy, for which the whole country paid in full
    2. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
      Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 31 October 2020 17: 22
      +7
      ... And I am not judging.

      Of course. And who are you, excuse me, to condemn?
      ... and chose to work for a long dollar over work for their country.

      Nice little passage. Which one? On the one that put it on the list?
      About the 'long dollar' is absolutely nonsense. First there was short dollar, franc, mark, etc., want and poverty. Not everyone was able to crawl out. A long dollar had to be fought for.
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 31 October 2020 17: 43
        +4
        Hmm. The Nabokovs were lucky, the overwhelming majority were not.
        1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
          Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 31 October 2020 18: 38
          +3
          Quite right. And I do not understand the judicial posture and arrogant reasoning, who is right and who is not in this tragic outcome. 'I don't blame' ... Tfu.
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 31 October 2020 18: 59
            +4
            There are very few people at the forum who have experience of "refugee". There are no people ready to share their impressions at all. But "do not condemn" or "stigmatize" is the main leitmotif of most users.
            1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
              Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 31 October 2020 19: 17
              +2
              And again I agree. hi
              1. Icelord
                Icelord 31 October 2020 20: 32
                -2
                Exactly, you, the minusator, and how did you prove anything with this, or how? So I don’t minus you, why? I am your aplomb and so I can make fun
              2. Icelord
                Icelord 31 October 2020 21: 01
                0
                Are we minus everything? And say something weak? Well, of course, then everything will come out and climb, oh, you shouldn't have bothered me, now I won't give you life, I've put a lot of such people in their place, just in real life more often. But it's not scary, and I can virtually handle it
          2. Icelord
            Icelord 31 October 2020 20: 48
            -1
            And it is in this position that you stand monumental, so who spit it into?
  • Old electrician
    Old electrician 1 November 2020 07: 36
    +3
    “Commissar M. Lurie declared the aviation industry unnecessary for the proletariat” - and who is Lurie? One of the sons of Lieutenant Schmidt, who huddled the outskirts of Arbatov? Who was interested in his opinion on aviation? If we talk about the attitude of the Bolsheviks to aviation, then on December 1, 1918, the Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute (TsAGI) began work, and in 1919 the Moscow Aviation Technical School, the future Air Force Engineering Academy named after prof. NOT. Zhukovsky ("Zhukovka").
    On September 26, 1920 the Revolutionary Military Council of the Republic issued Order No. 1946, in which it decided to reorganize the Moscow Aviation Technical School into the Institute of Engineers of the Red Air Fleet named after N.Ye. Zhukovsky. The regulations on the institute were approved by the Revolutionary Military Council on November 23, 1920.
    On September 9, 1922, an order of the Revolutionary Military Council was issued on the introduction of a new staff of the institute with the assignment of the name of the Academy of the Air Fleet named after N.E. Zhukovsky. In the summer of 1923 the academy moved to the Petrovsky Palace and the former Skalkin restaurant near the Khodynsky airfield, which significantly improved the educational process.
    In tsarist Russia, only boards and canvas were produced for aviation, everything else was imported. Until 1917, spark plugs, magneto, high-voltage wires and valves for internal combustion engines (ICE) were not produced. The internal combustion engines themselves were not produced (only the assembly of outdated internal combustion engines from imported components), ball bearings, dope, aluminum and duralumin, aviation devices, etc. etc. There is wild backwardness in everything! Therefore, for the Romanovs, everything ended so badly.
    The Soviet aviation industry began with the release in the summer of 1919 of the M-2 aircraft engine - a copy of the French Ron 9J engine, the license for which was acquired back in the Russian Empire. Produced until 1927, about 2000 units were produced, which is many times higher than the total screwdriver assembly of aircraft motors in tsarist Russia. At the beginning of the 30s, after the start-up of the Volkhov hydroelectric power station, the production of aluminum and duralumin began in the USSR. This marked the end of the era of import substitution, and Soviet industry mastered the full cycle of production of aircraft, aircraft engines and avionics.
    In the XNUMXst century, the cries of "Stalin, Beria, GULAG" are exactly the opposite. Through the efforts of the Serdyukovs @ "Zhukovka" Co. and all Soviet military engineering schools were destroyed. The aviation industry is degrading.


    The photo shows the next stage of the fight against Stalinism: "White Swan" Tu-160 is being cut for firewood.


    The barracks building of the Irkutsk Higher Military Aviation Engineering School. During the Great Patriotic War IVVAIU was called IVSHAM and produced 40 thousand aircraft mechanics. 14 graduates of the school were awarded the title of Hero of the Soviet Union and one graduate was awarded the title of Hero of the Russian Federation. Let the ruins all around, but we are not 37 years old!

    “Only his fifth airplane, C-5, was successful, on which Igor passed the pilot's exam and set a world speed record! Subsequently, he more than once won competitions on it with foreign airplanes of prestigious brands, including Farman and Nieuport "- how is that ?! Is Russia the birthplace of elephants?
    For the flight on the C-5 on August 18, 1911, the Russian Imperial Aero Club, on behalf of the International Aviation Federation, issued Sikorsky a pilot's certificate No. 64. This flight, which lasted 36 minutes 38 seconds, was recorded by the sports commissioners "in view of the fact that it is the first Russian record the duration of the flight of a Russian aviator on an airplane of his own design. "
    On August 30, 1911, four all-Russian records were set in flight on the C-5 Sikorsky: an altitude of 500 m was reached, a range of 85 km, a flight duration of 52 minutes and a ground speed of 125 km / h (with a favorable wind). This flight was performed on military maneuvers in which, in addition to Sikorsky, six more military pilots took part in the Farman. Farman has never been a speed record holder; by 1911 it was a low-speed trainer with a maximum speed of 65 km / h. The C-5 has never competed with the Nieuport. On June 21, 1911, the absolute world speed record of 133.11 km / h belonged to Edouard Nieuport (France) and his Nieuport biplane. In September 1911, the C-5 was defeated and no longer flew. And where is at least one of his world records?
    Sikorsky is an adventurer and a hardened financial businessman, but by no means an aircraft designer. True son of America. He achieved success in Russia to a greater extent only because his Black Hundred father was close to Nick 2.
    The Ilya Muromets (IM) aircraft that made Sikorsky famous in Russia was the worst bomber in the First World War. Otherwise, the glory of IM is nothing more than a desire to prove that Russia is the homeland of elephants. Not a single Sikorsky plane took part in World War II. Sikorsky's helicopters are a commercially successful project based on other people's inventions. Sikorsky is as much an aircraft designer as Bill Gates is a programmer.
    A few words about THEM. This is the only aircraft in the world with a rear center. I will not go into the jungle of flight dynamics. In aviation, the term "rear centering" is an obscene swear word. To make it clear to the uninitiated, what is the back centering I will explain on the fingers. Rear alignment is as if the plane was flying with a parachute permanently attached to its tail. No speed, no load capacity, no range. IM is the world's only four-engined short-range bomber. Wunderwafl as well as the German tank "Mouse".
    As early as November 1914, three British Avro 504s were used to bomb positions of German airships. At the same time in France, the world's first bomber unit from Voisins was formed. In 1914-1915, 1150 of them were built. Voisin was of the same class with the MI in flight range, speed and bomb load.
    23.12.1914/1915/27.02.1915 in Russia from four IMs was created by the Squadron of air ships, EVK. Of these, in January - February XNUMX, only one was combat-ready. IM completed its first combat mission on XNUMX/XNUMX/XNUMX. Four IM engines did not make it a long-range bomber. Therefore, the EVK was not the world's first unit of front-line or close-range bombers. Moreover, it was not a division of long-range bombers.
    29.06.1915/1916/4 the first flight of the German twin-engine bomber Gotha GI took place. Gotha was not a long-range bomber, but from the moment of its appearance, IM finally became an outsider. In 4, the MI in flight range, speed and bomb load was already significantly inferior to the British single-engine DH.6 short-range bomber. The British twin-engined long-range bomber Handley Page was not even a match for the IM. It is simply ridiculous to compare them with XNUMX and XNUMX motor German Riesen.
    For the sake of advertising Sikorsky made a 415 kg bomb, which, to the delight of journalists, was lifted into the air and transported around the airfield. Until the end of the war, this bomb stood at the firm of Sikorsky under the promise that he would shower the Germans with such bombs. A 656 kg bomb was also made for advertising, but they did not dare to take off with it. It is extremely rare that IM used a 250 kg bomb, somewhat more often 82 kg (5 pounds). The most popular are 16 kg bombs. On average, the bomb load per flight of the MI was 10 pounds, the maximum - 12 pounds (197 kg).
    The maximum caliber of actually used British bombs is 907 kg, Gotha - 700 kg. There is a known case when Riesen dropped a 1 ton bomb on London.
    During World War I, the Germans built 542 Gotha and 63 Riesen, England built 554 Handley Page, Russia built about 80 IM. Adventurer and financial businessman Sikorsky is one of those who really brought the end of the Russian Empire closer. America can be proud of him.
    1. pilot69
      pilot69 1 November 2020 15: 49
      0
      The very case when a comment is better and more informative than an article. A rarity on this site in its current state hi
    2. John22
      John22 1 November 2020 18: 32
      +2
      Larin, one of the leaders of the Supreme Council of the National Economy, answered Sikorsky's request for a job in his specialty: the Soviet state does not need aircraft factories, like perfume and lipstick factories.
      1. Old electrician
        Old electrician 2 November 2020 13: 30
        +1
        Sikorsky hated Soviet power. Therefore, Sikorsky's mythical appeal to Larin belongs to the area of ​​violent liberal fantasy. The Soviet government was extremely careful about the military equipment that it inherited. Therefore, in 1918-1919 the Bolsheviks completed several IMs from the reserves they had inherited. The MI and other aircraft that the Bolsheviks inherited actually took part in repelling the intervention due to a misunderstanding called the civil war. If Sikorsky offered his help, no one would have refused him.
        In the 35th volume of TSB, published in 1937, the following information is given on Larin:
        LARIN Y. (Lurie Mikhail Alexandrovich) (1882-1932), communist, economist and writer. In the revolutionary movement since 1901. In 1901-1902 he founded the Simferopol Committee of the RSDLP and the Crimean Union. In 1902 he was exiled for 8 years to the Yakutsk region, from where he fled in 1904, emigrating abroad. He joined the Mensheviks. Was a delegate to the IV and V congresses of the RSDLP from the Mensheviks. An active liquidator, and in 1912 he took part in the "August meeting". During the first imperialist war (1914-18) he was an internationalist Menshevik. Returning after the February bourgeois-dem. revolution in Russia, L. was on the left wing of the Menshevik internationalists, and after the July days of 1917 he joined the Bolshevik Party. He also took part in the nationalization of industry, the organization of the monopoly of foreign trade, the organization of the State Planning Commission, OZET, the development of issues of labor legislation. He wrote on economic issues.
        As you can see, Larin had nothing to do with the Supreme Council of the National Economy. On my own I would add that this comrade-in-arms of Trotsky with such a Menshevik list would hardly have survived 1937.
  • strelokmira
    strelokmira 4 November 2020 07: 58
    -1
    What did the guarantor's lovers whine about the lost Sikorsky and the bloody Soviet power?)
  • Yellow bubble
    Yellow bubble 20 November 2020 17: 15
    0
    Watch the American film where Sikorsky speaks Russian and was born in Russia in Kiev.