Military Review

An inexhaustible theme. American Civil War and its carbines

43

Breech of the carbine "Cosmopolitan" (type 2) manufactured by Gwyn & Campbell


If you shoot by, don't trash the guns,
Do not growl at him: cross-eyed rag!
After all, even with you, affection is better than cursing,
And a friend will come in handy in the service!
It will come in handy in the service ...
Rudyard Kipling. Queen's service. Translated by I. Gringolts


Military affairs at the turn of the eras. After the release of the three previous articles about the carbines of the American Civil War, I thought that the topic was settled. It was not so! Everything turned out simply according to one of the readers of the site, who wrote: "You might think that in the United States, then, almost under every bush there was an inventor of a carbine!" Well, maybe not under each one, but there were many inventors of carbines. And a lot because a lot of metal was used for rifles and they were cheap, because they were purchased in large quantities. Carbines were purchased in limited quantities, they required little metal, and were expensive, which is why everyone undertook their production. The advantage was also that the hammers were ready, the triggers were also produced, that is, select and use ready-made, and in addition, defective rifle barrels were used for carbines. The defective part, for example, with a cavity, was cut off - and where could such a wonderful "pipe" be attached? In any case, this could well be, since the Americans were very economical producers. That is, many carbines, like AR-15-type rifles today, were already assembled “from cubes”, and on some carbines they did not even have forend under the barrel. What for? An extra tree increases the cost of production, and a rider, shooting from a horse, often does not shoot, so he will not burn his hands, and besides, the cavalrymen have suede gloves, not like the infantry.

So, today we, so to speak, are picking up the remnants of all that carabiner splendor, which is the place in the United States since 1861 (and a little earlier) and until the end of the war in 1865 ...

An inexhaustible theme. American Civil War and its carbines

And this is how "Cosmopolitan" looked when it was charged

Well, we'll start with a carbine with the unusual name "Cosmopolitan".

This carbine was produced in the USA in 1859-1862. by the Cosmopolitan Arms Company. Caliber .54. Sighting range 400 yards.


But in this photo, an extremely rare Cosmopolitan rifle with a firing range of 800 yards (i.e. about 720 m)


Early version (type 1) with a "double loop" trigger guard; weapon it was not very comfortable to hold

In 1859, Henry Gross of Tiffin, Ohio received a patent for a rifle that used a very simple "drop-block" mechanism. A feature of the rifle were two triggers, enclosed in a "double loop" of the trigger guard, and the rear hook released the trigger guard lever, which went down to open and lower the bolt. At the same time, he stood in an upright position and a paper cartridge could be inserted into it with a bullet forward. When the lever returned to its original position, a shock capsule was put on the brand tube, all that remained was to cock the hammer and fire. The first patented rifle was produced by the Cosmopolitan Arms Company in Hamilton, Ohio, an arsenal owned by Edward Gwynne and Ebner K. Campbell. 100 rifles and about 1200 Cosmopolitan carbines were produced, many of which differed in the shape of the bracket, which became more elegant from model to model.


Carbine "Cosmopolitan" contract type with trigger guard type "vine"

In 1862, the Cosmopolitan Arms Company was awarded a contract to produce 1140 carbines for the state of Illinois. Many of these carbines were used by the Illinois 6th Cavalry during the famous Grierson Cavalry raid during the Battle of Vicksburg. The cavalrymen generally spoke of this carbine as an effective weapon, but due to the lack of a wooden forend on the barrel of the carbine, it was difficult to hold in their hands after frequent shots. Of course, the cavalrymen were supposed to have suede gloves, but they were not always there, and in summer they were very hot in them. Although the rifle's scope was increased to 700 yards, it was not as accurate as Sharps, and it was difficult to convert it to metal cartridges, and converting it to Barnside's cartridges would violate his copyrights.


Marston carbine: receiver, bolt bracket and loading window

The Marston carbine was produced in 1850-1858. Had calibers .31, .36, .54. Sighting range of 300 yards (approx. 270 m).


Marston's rifle. General form

Known primarily for his pistols, William W. Marston of New York has created over three hundred beautiful rifles using his patented breech loading system. The shooter loaded the Marston rifle by pulling the trigger guard lever, which pushed the bolt away from the barrel. A special cartridge was inserted through a rectangular slot in the receiver on the right side of the bolt. This patented cartridge looked like a blue cardboard cylinder, with a greased leather disc inserted into the back. After igniting the gunpowder in the cartridge, it served as an elementary gas seal. The next cartridge moved the disc into the barrel, and then was pushed out of it by a bullet when fired. This was believed to help clean the bore and reduce contamination. In his advertising brochure, Marston wrote: "Rifles that use these cartridges never need to be wiped, and their barrel will shine brightly from the inside even after a thousand rounds." Marston's rifles were popular and were produced in different calibers and with beautiful engravings. Most of his rifles were equipped with two triggers, and the trigger itself was the front one, but the rear one blocked the trigger guard. The very rare variant of the .70 caliber smoothbore shotgun was also produced according to the same scheme.


Morse carabiner

In 1858, George Washington Morse, nephew of Samuel F. Morse, received a patent for a very simple bolt device designed to use an experimental centerfire cartridge of his own design. Seeking a way to rework old muzzle-loading rifles into bolt-action rifles, the US government decided to accept its design and began reworking old rifles at the Springfield and Harpers Ferry arsenals. The military promised him a $ 5 fee for each of the 2000 guns they decided to convert to Morse code. But then the air smelled of gunpowder, and most importantly, Morse ended up in the southern states, and the deal fell through. In addition, he ended up on the territory of the southerners, who appointed him ... superintendent of the Armory of the city of Nashville. After Harpers Ferry was captured by the Virginia militia, Morse demanded his equipment and set up parts for a new Morse carbine in Nashville. The federal advance into Tennessee led Morse to Atlanta, where he completed the development of his carbine and demonstrated a prototype. General Sherman's march to Georgia forced him to evacuate a second time and begin production at an arsenal in Greenville, South Carolina. In 1864, Morse was ordered to arm the South Carolina militia with a thousand new carbines and tried to carry it out.


The receiver of the Morse rifle was made entirely of brass. The shutter lever was also brass. The barrel, trigger, springs and bolt were steel!

Like many Confederate armourers, Morse made extensive use of brass, as there was a lot of it, and working with it did not require highly skilled workers. Each Morse rifle, with a brass frame, receiver and hardware, was fitted with a cartridge belt containing twenty-four brass rounds housed in separate tin tubes. The carbine was loaded from above. To do this, the shooter had to raise the lever, which, in turn, pushed the bolt back and opened the chamber. The .50 caliber brass cartridge was inserted into the chamber, the lever was lowered down, and the bolt locked the cartridge in the chamber. When the trigger was pressed, the firing pin, passing through the bolt, hit the cartridge primer and fired.


Morse carbine. The lever that controls the shutter is also the cover of the receiver. The lever could be raised by sliding back the steel bracket at the end of the lever. The trigger was positioned offset to the right so that it did not interfere with the lifting of the lever. But the brass bracket under the butt neck did not play any special role. And why it was attached is not clear. Excessive metal consumption, no more!

Interestingly, his development entered the commercial sale in the form of sets, which, with a single chamber, included three interchangeable barrels at once: a carbine, a rifle and a smooth-bore shot of several calibers! The price of the set was high - $ 125, so they sold poorly, much to the chagrin of the inventor.

After the victory of the northerners, Morse returned to Nashville, where he again became superintendent of the Armory and continued to innovate.


Another carbine was developed and produced by James W. Armstrong and John Taylor of Augusta, Kentucky. They were business partners and co-owners of US Patent No. 37025 dated November 1862

The carbine was manufactured and offered to the army in the same year, but the army refused it. The barrel of the carbine turned on a longitudinal pin, opening the chamber, while the extractor was automatically activated and the breech opened. The barrel turned to the right for loading. Caliber .41. Side fire cartridges. Weapons are rare, therefore highly prized among collectors.

To be continued ...
Author:
Articles from this series:
Leather carabiner
The "carbine epic" continues
The carbine epic of the northerners and southerners
General Burnside's carbine: the first with a metal cartridge
People and spades
Rondash and rondachiers. From benefits to beauty
Artillery of the conqueror of Europe
Artillery innovations of the civil war between North and South
Mortars "Dictator" in the battles of the North against the South
Shuvalov's "secret howitzer"
North and South: smooth-bore and rifled guns
US Civil War ammunition
The most popular caliber of the North and South
Cannons of Tredegar and the Noble Brothers
Cannons of Brooke and Viard
James and Sawyer cannons: rifled versus smoothbore
"The parrot gun." Man and his instrument
Faceted bore gun
43 comments
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  1. aszzz888
    aszzz888 25 October 2020 05: 36 New
    0
    The article is informative. But not without mistakes.

    The receiver of the carbine Morsee was entirely made of brass. The shutter lever was also brass. The barrel, trigger, springs and bolt were steel!

    Like many Confederate gunsmiths, Morse widely used brass, since there was a lot of it, and working with it did not require highly qualified workers. Each carbine Morse code with brass frame, receiver and fittings was equipped with a bandolier,
    1. Catfish
      Catfish 25 October 2020 07: 51 New
      +5
      And why find fault with a typo that the meaning of the article suffered from it?
      1. aszzz888
        aszzz888 25 October 2020 08: 57 New
        -1

        Sea Cat (Constantine)
        Today, 07: 51

        0
        And why find fault with a typo that the meaning of the article suffered from it? Or from this too a hundred
        Well then let him write "Ivanov" !! Or will the meaning not be lost too? I believe that this is not a typo - Morse or Morse, there is a difference. Moreover, it is read by a great many people, and you can check it before transferring it to the public.
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 25 October 2020 09: 01 New
          +5
          By the way, the minus is not mine, it is, by the way.
        2. kalibr
          25 October 2020 10: 00 New
          +3
          Quote: aszzz888
          you can also check before transferring it to the public.

          Or you can write nothing at all, it is still there on the Internet ...
          1. aszzz888
            aszzz888 25 October 2020 13: 23 New
            0

            kalibr (Vyacheslav)
            Today, 10: 00
            NEW

            +1
            Quote: aszzz888
            you can also check before transferring it to the public.

            Or you can write nothing at all, is still on the Internet ...
            Are you telling yourself this? And if you please submit the material for wide viewing, then all the same I think it is better to check it. PS And yes, than to make excuses in a strange way, it would be better to fix these errors during this time. By the way, sheriff. hi
            1. The comment was deleted.
              1. The comment was deleted.
  2. The leader of the Redskins
    The leader of the Redskins 25 October 2020 07: 24 New
    +2
    Good morning, "Sunday," Vyacheslav Olegovich! Thanks. Now I will start brewing coffee, and the mood is already high)))
    1. Nikolaevich I
      Nikolaevich I 25 October 2020 08: 01 New
      +3
      Good morning, Nazarius! hi You pour some more cognac into coffee! yes The mood of the wabche will be like .... on "yat"! wink
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 25 October 2020 08: 22 New
        +6
        Brandy in the morning ... however! laughing
        1. Nikolaevich I
          Nikolaevich I 25 October 2020 10: 24 New
          +3
          Quote: Sea Cat
          Brandy in the morning ... however

          Duc, for tea and coffee! 1-2 tsp ! A couple of mugs! winked At the moment, I also have no cognac (there is rum ...), but there is always something from balms ("Old Mariinsk", "Bugulma", "Agidel" ...)! With balsams (cognac, rum is also good!) Coffee tastes better and tones up better! good
          1. Catfish
            Catfish 25 October 2020 10: 35 New
            +5
            ... always available!

            A happy man, and no matter how we sit down with the men, we will lick everything. But I prefer rum to any cognac. smile drinks
            1. Nikolaevich I
              Nikolaevich I 25 October 2020 10: 58 New
              +5
              Quote: Sea Cat
              I prefer rum to any cognac.

              I had a "dilemma" earlier: cognac or whiskey ... what In order not to suffer, I decided: let it be rum! bully
              1. Catfish
                Catfish 25 October 2020 11: 05 New
                +5
                A reasonable decision, and as for whiskey, I hated it from "childhood", I can't imagine how they can savor it there, even with soda, even without it - moonshine, it is moonshine. wink
                1. Lexus
                  Lexus 25 October 2020 18: 19 New
                  +4
                  Looking at your comments, friends, it becomes obvious that Vyacheslav Olegovich chose the epithet "inexhaustible topic" for the wrong article. I'm with you! good drinks

                  Fragment from the movie "Operation" Y "and other adventures of Shurik" (1965)
      2. The leader of the Redskins
        The leader of the Redskins 25 October 2020 08: 52 New
        -2
        Thank you, but ... And the wife will look askance, and I myself am wary of alcohol - they take their years.
        laughing
        1. Nikolaevich I
          Nikolaevich I 25 October 2020 10: 32 New
          +4
          Quote: Leader of the Redskins
          I myself am wary of alcohol - they take their years.

          Duc, just a spoon or two in a cup of coffee and tea! (the number of cups is not regulated!) Medicine recommended me to drink coffee ... but it's hard for me to find coffee to my taste in the modern assortment! So I found a solution ... I added a balsam in coffee (you can also have cognac ...) ... and you can already drink "current" coffee! yes
          1. The leader of the Redskins
            The leader of the Redskins 25 October 2020 10: 40 New
            -1
            Oh, Nikolaevich! If your spouse is not like the majority, then you are in luck)))
            How's mine? Like others: - Why are you in the morning? ... So what, a little bit for taste? ...
            And so on. Yes, and I try to drink less coffee - a kidney with experience ...
            1. Nikolaevich I
              Nikolaevich I 25 October 2020 10: 53 New
              +3
              Quote: Leader of the Redskins
              Well and so on

              Sorry! recourse But to look "from around the corner" ... how many joys do we have left .. in the public domain? Actually, my wife also loves to make critical remarks! But I try to convince her that this is what the "doctor ordered"! yes
              1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
                Kote Pan Kokhanka 25 October 2020 12: 06 New
                +3
                Your discussion friends smiled! It makes sense to develop a topic for what reads better Vyacheslav Olegovich. I suggest the moderators organize a vote !!!
                drinks Regards, Vlad!
                1. Nikolaevich I
                  Nikolaevich I 25 October 2020 12: 35 New
                  +4
                  Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
                  It makes sense to develop a topic for what reads better Vyacheslav Olegovich.

                  Reasonable! Miles sorry! As compensation, "rebus" ...: Sho tse take?
                  1. Icelord
                    Icelord 25 October 2020 17: 20 New
                    +4
                    These are two different barrels, right?
                    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
                      Kote Pan Kokhanka 25 October 2020 18: 33 New
                      +3
                      Quote: Icelord
                      These are two different barrels, right?

                      The trunks are not different, but the puzzle is not solved! Only the meaning is "kapets kutenku - I'll take three shots!" laughing
                      Well Nikolayevich, he paid off the whole company in full !!!
                    2. Nikolaevich I
                      Nikolaevich I 25 October 2020 18: 36 New
                      +4
                      Quote: Icelord
                      These are two different barrels, right?

                      Yes! bully
                      1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
                        Kote Pan Kokhanka 25 October 2020 21: 32 New
                        +1
                        Nikolaevich, in the first picture, is the left barrel deaf?
                      2. Nikolaevich I
                        Nikolaevich I 25 October 2020 22: 16 New
                        +2
                        Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
                        in the first picture, is the left trunk deaf?

                        You could say that! yes
                      3. Icelord
                        Icelord 26 October 2020 08: 53 New
                        0
                        So, I rummaged through all the books that I have not found, I personally give up. I hope you will reveal the secret to us
                      4. Nikolaevich I
                        Nikolaevich I 26 October 2020 22: 29 New
                        +1
                        Quote: Icelord
                        I hope you will reveal the secret to us

                        Duc, what secrets! A banal "weapon" story! I will not "chew" ... (do not look for an easy way to communism ...), but I will give links to the video ...
                      5. Icelord
                        Icelord 26 October 2020 22: 35 New
                        0
                        Gorgeous thing! So this is a store, thanks! And the second device?
                      6. Nikolaevich I
                        Nikolaevich I 26 October 2020 22: 36 New
                        +1
                        PS Second barrel ...
                      7. Icelord
                        Icelord 26 October 2020 23: 05 New
                        +2
                        The second barrel is even cooler laughing ... It is also a capsule, and it is difficult to load, but the usual Colt drum rifle is even better, but here it is clear that this coffin with color music was invented to bypass the patent
  • Catfish
    Catfish 25 October 2020 07: 57 New
    +6
    Excellent Olegych! good
    He laughed when he read about the ups and downs of mass carbine construction in American. wink Here it is, the animal grin of capitalism - they riveted the trunks in every shed, so that the "tugriks" would drip. Comrade Morse, who gave a fuck was someone to work for, feds, confederates - money doesn't smell. laughing
    Thank you, Vyacheslav, I've never seen a single freak before. smile
    1. kalibr
      25 October 2020 08: 10 New
      +7
      Glad you liked it! But that's not all!
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 25 October 2020 08: 20 New
        +6
        I have no doubts and I wait. drinks
      2. Kote Pan Kokhanka
        Kote Pan Kokhanka 25 October 2020 12: 07 New
        +4
        Quote: kalibr
        Glad you liked it! But that's not all!

        Quote: Sea Cat
        I have no doubts and I wait. drinks

        I'm going to stock up on beer and fish !!! drinks
        Although it will probably be aesthetically pleasing on the topic of the Civil War in the United States, savoring whiskey, reading about samurai - sake, pirates - rum, broadswords - scotch, etc.
        Vyacheslav Olegovich's mention of his cat Basya to drink with a mug of milk from the refrigerator !!! good
        A must try next weekend!
        A burning fireplace, a blanket and ... !!! Or jeans, a cowboy hat and coffee in a Turk? hi
      3. Icelord
        Icelord 25 October 2020 17: 21 New
        +3
        I also really liked it, it's good that not everything. Thank you, Vyacheslav Olegovich
        1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
          Kote Pan Kokhanka 25 October 2020 18: 36 New
          +3
          And I finally earned "three times unctuous" on the next branch! Three days he huddled Vrazhin, well, he lied a little for two, recourse
          You cannot take away unholyness in the same way as loyalty to sycophants from history. Looks like over the years in the soul was conducted. Look, maybe someone will leave 30 rubles for you.
          "Nice" when in the morning you were the first to crow toast to Shpakovsky and look for him.
          Success in your personal life!
          laughing that's all about me !!!
          1. Icelord
            Icelord 26 October 2020 05: 06 New
            +1
            Famously, you were sealed laughing
          2. Icelord
            Icelord 26 October 2020 05: 59 New
            +2
            Vladislav, and in which branch, it is very interesting to read all the comments
            1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
              Kote Pan Kokhanka 26 October 2020 17: 59 New
              +1
              History! Sunday's article on the Punic Wars.
              1. Icelord
                Icelord 26 October 2020 19: 50 New
                +1
                Thank you, I found, read, these two gentlemen are very aggressive, her and Liam
  • Undecim
    Undecim 25 October 2020 17: 38 New
    +5
    But the brass bracket under the butt neck did not play any special role. And why it was attached is not clear. Excessive metal consumption, no more!
    There are no unnecessary details on weapons for war.
    1. Icelord
      Icelord 26 October 2020 06: 00 New
      +2
      Well, what are you, how are they
  • Saxahorse
    Saxahorse 25 October 2020 21: 08 New
    +1
    It seems that the fantasy of inventors is completely inexhaustible! Many designs seem ridiculous and even insane, but still, how does it work! Thanks to the author for the continuation of this series. :)