Military Review

The slipped away Kuriles. How the Japanese missed the opportunity of the 1956 declaration

35

The joint declaration signed on October 19, 1956 by representatives of Moscow and Tokyo in the capital of our Motherland is a rather ambiguous international agreement. In any case, the debate about whether it was the correct diplomatic move of the Soviet side or was originally a colossal geopolitical miscalculation, which the Japanese simply did not manage to take advantage of, continue to this day.


Let me remind you that the end of the Second World War for Japan was drawn by the peace treaty it concluded with the victor countries at the San Francisco Conference in 1951. Everything would be fine, but the USSR categorically refused to sign this document. This was done for a number of reasons. Firstly, representatives of the People's Republic of China did not participate in the conference and it did not satisfy a number of territorial claims of the PRC against Tokyo.

The second reason for such a decision was the Americans' attempt to "throw" the Soviet Union as well. They suddenly flatly refused to recognize the belonging of South Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands to our country. This is despite the fact that at the Yalta conference in 1945, Roosevelt did not object to these demands, voiced by Stalin, even in half a word. By the way, agreements existed not only in words, but also in writing, but that was in 45 ... Six years later, the "wind changed", the USSR became an enemy from a forced ally, whose interests the United States was not going to reckon with.

As a result of all this, the main "fighter" of Soviet diplomacy, Andrei Gromyko, who was present in the United States, called the San Francisco agreement "a separate peace" and did not sign an autograph under it. As a result, the USSR and Japan formally remained in a state of war, which, in general, did not please anyone. After Stalin's death, Khrushchev, who came to power, who, for some reason, imagined himself the greatest diplomat of all times and peoples, began to quickly "establish good-neighborly relations" with anyone possible and at almost any cost. Japan is no exception.

The declaration signed on October 19, 1956 in Moscow not only legally fixed the end of the war between the countries and spoke about the restoration of full-fledged diplomatic, and, in the future, trade and economic relations between them. Nikita Sergeevich, in his usual manner, began to make very generous gifts to his opponents, squandering what he had not won. The USSR "in the spirit of friendship and good neighborliness" forgave Japan for reparations, "meeting the wishes of the Japanese side and taking into account its state interests." Moscow agreed to transfer to Tokyo two of the four islands of the Kuril ridge - Habomai and Shikotan.

True, this should have happened only after the conclusion of a full-fledged and comprehensive peace treaty, but the Soviet Union outlined its intentions quite clearly: take it! I must say that this corresponded exactly to Tokyo's “wishes”. There they expected (and still dream about it) to lay their paws on all four islands. Nevertheless, at that time, the heavily beaten samurai decided that two were still better than nothing (there is no doubt that they would not have received a piece of pebbles from Stalin), and pretended to agree.

Khrushchev was beaming with complacency from this "diplomatic success." You see, he dreamed of turning Japan into a completely neutral state like Switzerland or Austria, and believed that for such a thing a couple of islets were not a pity. Moreover, the age-old история Russian-Japanese relations, dazzling with wars and conflicts caused by the fact that the Land of the Rising Sun has been the main geopolitical enemy in the Far Eastern region for centuries, was not taken into account.

All the more a slap in the face for Khrushchev was the conclusion of Tokyo on January 19, 1960 with the United States of the Cooperation and Security Treaty, within the framework of which a full-fledged American military presence in the country was consolidated. In fact, it was then that Japan for the United States, which at that time was not a friendly country to the USSR, but a probable enemy No. 1, from simply the territory they occupied, turned into the main ally and the most important strategic outpost in the region.

In this regard, our country sent two Aide Memoirs to the Japanese government: January 27 and February 24, 1960, which clearly and unequivocally stated that in the newly formed circumstances, the transfer of the islands is categorically impossible. At least until the withdrawal of all foreign troops from Japan and the signing of a full-fledged peace treaty with the USSR. In Tokyo, at first they tried to look surprised: “What have we done ?! You promised! ”, And then began to snap at all, stating that they would“ seek ”the transfer of the entire Kuril ridge. In response, Moscow attached samurai "revenge-seekers" and made it clear that the topic was closed.

A peace treaty between Japan and Russia (as the successor to the USSR) has not been concluded to this day. The stumbling block is all the same islands that the Japanese covet, clinging to the 1956 declaration. At one time, Sergei Lavrov mentioned that our country does not renounce this document, but exclusively that part of it, which deals with a full-fledged diplomatic settlement of relations. Tokyo, who believed in the omnipotence of the Americans, missed the chance of getting at least half of the Kuriles, most likely forever.
Author:
Photos used:
Wikipedia / Kuril Islands
35 comments
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  1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
    Kote Pan Kokhanka 20 October 2020 05: 20
    13
    Is that all? The wiki says more. request
    Regards, Kote!
    1. Proxima
      Proxima 20 October 2020 08: 03
      10
      In diplomacy, there are also games like a "point", the Japanese did not agree to a small card, they wanted "more", in the end it turned out bust. request
      1. tihonmarine
        tihonmarine 20 October 2020 08: 34
        +7
        Quote: Proxima
        in the end it was overkill.

        Greed never leads to anything good.
    2. Civil
      Civil 20 October 2020 09: 13
      -5
      Kuril Islands speak. The weakness of Russia's position, primarily in economic terms, has led to destabilization around. There is a Chinese hand mouse - the DPRK attacked.
      The hacker group Kimsuky from the DPRK in the spring of this year carried out several attacks on military and industrial organizations in Russia, Kommersant reports, citing cybersecurity experts.

      According to Anastasia Tikhonova, head of the sophisticated threats research department at Group-IB, hackers tried to obtain confidential information from aerospace companies by conducting malicious mailings, including through social networks.

      Kommersant, citing data from the Telegram channel SecAtor, writes that Rostec was among the companies that were attacked.

      Read more at RBC:
      https://www.rbc.ru/technology_and_media/19/10/2020/5f8cfcd19a7947584d443485
      1. thinker
        thinker 20 October 2020 14: 30
        0
        Hacker group Kimsuky
        laughing good
      2. core
        core 24 October 2020 14: 50
        0
        PRIMARY SOURCES KNOWN THAT THE COMMERCE IS WASHING, THAT THE CART.
  2. Uncle lee
    Uncle lee 20 October 2020 05: 24
    +4
    Tokyo, who believed in the omnipotence of the Americans, missed the chance of getting at least half of the Kuriles, most likely forever.
    There were chances under Khrushchev, Gorbachev, Yeltsin ... And why is the Japanese mother now pounded? Apparently there was a reason!
    1. Far B
      Far B 20 October 2020 06: 12
      +7
      In response, Moscow attached samurai "revanchists" and made it clear that the topic is closed
      So they open it up constantly. Involuntarily, the suspicion arises that from time to time the Overton window is ventilated. If you wanted to close it forever, you would close it. Without any peace treaty.
      Japan was drawn to the end of World War II by the peace treaty it concluded with the victor countries at the San Francisco Conference in 1951
      The end of the Second World War for Japan was drawn by the Act of Unconditional Surrender, signed on board the Missouri (from the USSR, signed by General P. Derevyanko). Everything else is from the evil one.
      As a result, the USSR and Japan formally remained in a state of war, which, in general, did not please anyone.
      But not particularly upset. Somehow it didn't matter.
      Khrushchev, who for some unknown reason imagines himself the greatest diplomat of all times and peoples, began to quickly "establish good-neighborly relations" with whoever was possible and at almost any cost. Japan is no exception
      But China has become. Great diplomat Nikita, yes.
    2. bandabas
      bandabas 20 October 2020 07: 36
      0
      The Chinese quietly handed over a piece. Then they will give a piece and japanam. The offspring of Peskov and Zakharova need to exist for something. I'm not talking about Dimona.
      1. Disant
        Disant 20 October 2020 15: 45
        -1
        The Chinese quietly handed over a piece

        what do you mean ?
        1. Simargl
          Simargl 20 October 2020 18: 42
          0
          Quote: Disant
          what do you mean ?
          About Damansky, probably.
          1. bandabas
            bandabas 22 October 2020 20: 19
            0
            You're right. And under EBN there were thoughts of surrendering part of the Murmansk region. I'm not talking about the Kuriles.
    3. tihonmarine
      tihonmarine 20 October 2020 08: 37
      +1
      Quote: Uncle Lee
      And why is the Japanese mother now pounded? Apparently there was a reason!

      Most likely, the owners did not give the go-ahead because of the river.
    4. Vladimir Mashkov
      Vladimir Mashkov 20 October 2020 13: 08
      0
      The article is a good reminder of what has long been known and discussed many times.
      Only the chances, I think, the Japanese have lost. Forever and ever!
  3. parusnik
    parusnik 20 October 2020 06: 03
    +5
    Everything that is written in the article can be found in the comments to articles on a similar topic on VO.
  4. BARKAS
    BARKAS 20 October 2020 06: 23
    +4
    It was necessary to select Hokkaido, it would be better if there were disputes about it.
    1. Doccor18
      Doccor18 20 October 2020 09: 06
      +4
      It was necessary to select Hokkaido, it would be better if there were disputes about it.

      Stalin was asked such a question, but he refused. Firstly, the Soviet Navy did not have so many forces in the Far East for such an operation, and secondly, it did not want to spoil relations with the United States. The Americans would definitely be shocked by such a turn ...
  5. Mavrikiy
    Mavrikiy 20 October 2020 06: 46
    +6
    The joint declaration signed on October 19, 1956 by representatives of Moscow and Tokyo in the capital of our Motherland is a rather controversial international agreement.
    Why is it, where is Khrushchev, is there a pig for us?
  6. Undecim
    Undecim 20 October 2020 07: 25
    10
    A new kind of agitprop is wikicharacterism. An article is taken from Wikipedia and misinterpreted with the use of characteristic propaganda clichés, while ignorance is encouraged.
    Khrushchev was beaming with complacency from such "diplomatic success." He, you see, dreamed of turning Japan into a completely neutral state like Switzerland or Austria, and believed that for such a thing a couple of islets were not a pity.
    Japan's status as a neutral country, like Austria, is enshrined in the 1947 constitution. Japan has this ninth article.
    At the same time, the age-old history of Russian-Japanese relations, full of wars and conflicts
    There were already one wars between Russia and Japan, 1904-1905. And before that, Russia and Japan had excellent relations, which the incompetent last tsar was unable to take advantage of.
    1. Kot_Kuzya
      Kot_Kuzya 20 October 2020 07: 37
      +8
      Quote: Undecim
      There were already one wars between Russia and Japan, 1904-1905. And before that, Russia and Japan had excellent relations, which the incompetent last tsar was unable to take advantage of.

      Don't write nonsense. There were at least 5 wars: the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-1905, the occupation of Sakhalin and Primorye in 1918-1925, the battles at Khasan in 1938, the battles at Khalkhin Gol in 1939, and the Soviet-Japanese War of 1945. Plus the constant Japanese provocations in 1920-1943 on the border with skirmishes and killed on both sides.
      And there is no need to write about "excellent" relations before 1904, Russia seized Manchuria, and Japan occupied Korea, and both sides were sharpening their teeth at each other. Russia wanted to seize Korea, and Japan - Manchuria. So the war was inevitable, and not as a result of the "talentless policy of the tsar." War could be avoided only by gifting Manchuria to Japan.
      1. Undecim
        Undecim 20 October 2020 09: 58
        -2
        Do not write nonsense.
        Nonsense writing is your part and the author's part. Do not get rid of a sore head.
        the occupation of Sakhalin and Primorye in 1918-1925, the battles of Khasan in 1938, the battles of Khalkhin Gol in 1939, and the Soviet-Japanese war of 1945.
        All these conflicts took place between Japan and the Russian Soviet Republic, and since 1922 - the USSR. The Russian Empire, the Russian Soviet Republic and the USSR are different states.
        1. Kot_Kuzya
          Kot_Kuzya 20 October 2020 10: 19
          +3
          Ah, I got it right. You are from Ukraine, where there is an alternative history.
          Quote: Undecim
          The Russian Empire, the Russian Soviet Republic and the USSR are different states.

          AND? Are you saying that in these states the majority of the population was not Russian and most of the territories were not part of these three states? Probably for you Bourbon France, France of Napoleon I, France of Napoleon III and all five republican France are different states with different populations and radically different borders?
          1. Undecim
            Undecim 20 October 2020 10: 26
            +1
            AND? Are you saying that in these states the majority of the population was not Russian and most of the territories were not part of these three states?
            No I do not want to. Most of the population was Russian and most of the territories were part of these three states. But these were three different states.
            As for the alternative Ukrainian history, it nervously smokes on the sidelines compared to the writings of some Russian historians, including here on the website.
            We will talk about France next time. All the best.
            1. Kot_Kuzya
              Kot_Kuzya 20 October 2020 11: 04
              -8
              That is, you think that Fomenko is wrong? I think he's partly right. Between 476 and the middle of the 7th century, that is, almost two centuries, there was an absolute void in European history. And suddenly, starting with Pepin II, a lot of information appears, including in Byzantium. As evidence, we can cite the fact that Ivan the Terrible considered himself a descendant of the Roman emperors, because Rurik was descended from them, as Grozny believed. And if 862 g is actually 662 g, then it could well be that Rurik is a descendant of Roman emperors, not so many years passed between the fall of Rome and 662 g, only 186 years, and a legend could well have passed from father to son before Rurik about the imperial origin of their family.
    2. Kronos
      Kronos 20 October 2020 16: 53
      +2
      Khrushchev wanted the withdrawal of American bases from there, which the Japanese could not fulfill. Well, how can a country be neutral, where there is a base of another state. Neutral Japanese in every possible way helped the Americans in wars.
  7. tihonmarine
    tihonmarine 20 October 2020 08: 33
    +3
    Nikita Sergeevich, in his usual manner, began to make very generous gifts to his opponents, squandering what he had not won.
    This Trotskyist would give everything to please the West.
  8. ee2100
    ee2100 20 October 2020 09: 32
    +4
    Previously, the site had contact information about the owners of this resource, about the people who were responsible for various sections of the site, but now some kind of poor e-mail, as a feedback, and that's it.
    From what I draw a conclusion, I felt ashamed for the information that is published here.
    1. Misha Smirnov_2
      Misha Smirnov_2 7 November 2020 20: 08
      0
      Yes, something's not right.
      Or maybe many famous people died.
      1. ee2100
        ee2100 7 November 2020 20: 31
        0
        For coronavirus diarrhea
  9. Goldmitro
    Goldmitro 20 October 2020 15: 13
    +2
    Nikita Sergeevich, in his usual manner, began to make very generous gifts to his opponents, squandering what he had not won.

    The deeds of this semi-literate tyrant they will hiccup for a long time! Joseph needed this ... even after the boiler near Kharkov in 1942 put in place!
    1. Misha Smirnov_2
      Misha Smirnov_2 7 November 2020 20: 06
      -1
      Stalin was held hostage by cops, my grandfather told me.
      As well as the artist VVP ... Whoever grabs him, he says.

      Khrushchev showed for centuries that the rocket would not reach the United States.
      Therefore, the rocket was delivered to them in 2003 .. Since then, and only since then, we began to live relatively normally.
  10. BAI
    BAI 20 October 2020 19: 14
    +3
    The Japanese missed their chance to wrestle the Kuril Islands.

    "Crocodile" 1992.
    But for the coming years. Further - it is unknown.
  11. cat Rusich
    cat Rusich 20 October 2020 20: 22
    +1
    About N. S. Khrushchev ...
    n. from. Khrushchev
    When Nikita Sergeich put on his "embroidered shirt" WE (USSR) lost it ... About Japan - Today it is easy to say, but the Ainu Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic had to be revived and included in the USSR at the beginning of 1945 ... and Tsushima about -you include in the USSR.
  12. vvp2412
    vvp2412 30 October 2020 15: 23
    0
    The peace treaty between Japan and Russia (as the successor to the USSR) has not been concluded to this day

    And what do we get from this contract? Neither warm nor cold! We lived without him for 75 years. And we will live a hundred times more!
  13. Misha Smirnov_2
    Misha Smirnov_2 7 November 2020 20: 04
    -1
    For everyone to understand ...
    When the pigs trough, or the West in Moscow, feel threatened, they shout on TV about the Kuril Islands. To send the soldiers there to shoot them in the back.
    This has been the case since the 90s.