Military Review

The defeat of Wrangel's army in the battle on the Dnieper

28
The defeat of Wrangel's army in the battle on the Dnieper

British tank captured by soldiers of the 51st Infantry Division near Kakhovka on October 14, 1920


A hundred years ago, Wrangel's Russian army launched its last offensive operation. During the Zadneprovskaya operation, the white command planned to encircle and destroy the Kakhovskaya group of the Red Army, to enter the expanses of the Right-Bank Ukraine.

On October 13, 1920, fierce oncoming battles unfolded beyond the Dnieper. The losses of the White Guards reached 50%, in the divisions there were less than 1000 people in the ranks. On October 14, Vitkovsky's troops went to storm the Kakhovsky fortified area, but it failed. On October 15, the remnants of the Zadneprovsk white grouping retreated to the left bank of the Dnieper.

General situation. Frunze's actions


In September 1920, Wrangel's troops were able to develop an offensive in the eastern and northeastern sectors of the Tavrian Front ("The last offensive of the Russian army"). The White Guards captured Berdyansk, Pologi, Orekhov, Aleksandrovsk (Zaporozhye), Volnovakha, Mariupol. Stubborn battles began in the Sinelnikov area. White threatened Yekaterinoslav. The 13th Soviet Army suffered a heavy defeat. In early October, Wrangel's Russian army was reinforced by several thousand Cossack insurgents, who were taken to Crimea from the Adler region (Fostikov's detachment).

The Soviet high command formed the Southern Front on September 21, 1920. On September 27 it was headed by Frunze. The Soviet commander studied the situation and realized that now there was no point in breaking through to the northeast for the White Army. They can, at best, occupy some more territory, no more. They will not break through to the Don. It is dangerous to take Yekaterinoslav and go further north, while the Soviet Kakhovsky bridgehead is in the rear, from where the Reds can hit Perekop at any moment and cut off the enemy from the peninsula. It was obvious that White would soon try to hit Kakhovka again. In addition, in this direction, the white command had the hope of joining with the Ukrainian rebels and the Polish army.

As a result, Frunze did not regroup his forces to the east. In Donbass, he decided to limit himself to reinforcements coming from the Caucasus and Kuban. The first to arrive from the Kuban was Kuibyshev's 9th Infantry Division. The remnants of the retreating units were poured into its structure and ordered to "fight to the death." Kuibyshev's division pinned down the enemy in the Volnovakha area. The division suffered heavy losses, but held out. The introduction of fresh forces of the Red Army stopped the enemy offensive, which was already running out of steam. In the northern sector of the front, Frunze formed a group of Fedko from the troops located there (46th and 3rd divisions, cavalry brigade). The White Guards were drained of blood and could not continue to move without reserves. The situation has temporarily stabilized.

Frunze also realized that the Red Army could inflict a decisive defeat on Wrangel's troops even earlier, if it did not undertake one offensive after another. It was necessary not to throw the new divisions and formations that were immediately approaching into battle, but to wait, achieve a decisive advantage in forces and means and crush the enemy with one powerful blow. It turned out that the Wrangelites grinded the connections that were suitable in parts and they lost their striking power. Therefore, Frunze decided to wait, wait for the arrival of the units moving towards him and the expected reinforcements. First of all, they were waiting for the arrival of the 1st Cavalry Army. Frunze had sufficient authority in the government and in the army to implement his plan. The fourth operation to eliminate Wrangel was postponed, Soviet troops concentrated on strengthening the defense. The improvement of the Kakhovsky fortified region continued. New anti-tank ditches were dug, special firing positions were erected so that the guns could hit with direct fire at tanks and armored cars. New strongholds were built so that in the event of an enemy wedging into the line of defense, they could attack him from the flanks. A strike and fire brigade, which had flamethrower companies and 160 machine guns, was transferred to the bridgehead.

On the Kakhovsky axis, the defense was now held by the 6th Army of Avksentievsky, which was included in the Southern Front (the second formation, the first fought in the North). The 6th Army from the 13th Army was transferred to the Right Bank and Kherson groups of forces, which occupied the right bank of the Dnieper in the regions of Kherson, Kakhovka, Berislav and Chaplinka. The Avksentievsky army included the 1st, 13th, 15th, 51st, 52nd Rifle, Latvian Rifle Divisions (17 thousand soldiers). Berislavskaya (Kakhovskaya) group (51st and Latvian rifle divisions, later 15th rifle division) defended the Kakhovsky fortified area. Mironov's 2nd Cavalry Army was located in the Nikopol area to protect the crossings. It was restored, the number reached 6 thousand fighters. Mironov was popular among soldiers and Cossacks, even deserters from the previously defeated units of Zhloba and Gorodovikov flocked to him.

Frunze was able to come to an agreement with Makhno. On October 2, 1920, Makhno again entered into an alliance with the Bolsheviks. His Insurrectionary Army maintained its autonomy, but was subordinate to the Soviet command in operational subordination. The Makhnovists were to attack the rear of Wrangel. They were promised help weapons, ammunition, equipment, put on rations. Makhno could summon peasants in Tavria and Yekaterinoslavshchina. Obviously, Makhno and his field commanders were attracted by the opportunity to "walk" in the Crimea. Also, dad was afraid of a possible strengthening of the White Army. Frunze strengthened his rear on the eve of the decisive battle for Tavria and Crimea. On October 13, Makhno put 11-12 thousand sabers and bayonets against the White Army with 500 machine guns and 10 cannons. The Makhnovists occupied the section of the front between the Sinelnikovo and Chaplino stations. In response to Makhno's call from Wrangel's units, rebel chieftains, who had previously joined the Russian army, and part of the peasants mobilized by the White (about 3 thousand people in total) ran over to him.


Commander of the 2nd Cavalry Army Philip Kuzmich Mironov

Zadneprovskaya operation


Meanwhile, a strong grouping of the Red Army was concentrated on the eastern flank. New divisions came up from the Kuban. In the east, the Taganrog group was created. Frunze launched a private offensive against the White Cossacks. The left flank of the Don corps was attacked by the 5th cavalry division, the center - groups of the 9th rifle, 7th and 9th cavalry divisions, the right flank - the Marine division. On October 3, the red cavalry breakthrough and the threat of enveloping the flanks forced the enemy to retreat from Yuzovka. On October 4, the Whites left Mariupol, on the 8th - Berdyansk, on the 10th - Gulyai-Pole. Wrangel could not support his right flank with new units. The White Army began the Zadneprovsky operation. We had to take risks and limit ourselves to defense in the east. Moreover, the Don corps had to stretch the defensive formations to the north, as parts of the neighboring 1st corps were moving in the direction of the main attack.

Secretly, at night, the 1st corps (Kornilovskaya, Markovskaya and Drozdovskaya divisions) was concentrated in the Aleksandrovsk area, opposite Nikopol - the 3rd corps. The cavalry of Babiev and Barbovich was also transferred here. The 2nd corps of Vitkovsky remained on the left bank of the Dnieper for the assault on Kakhovka. Having crossed, the 1st Army Corps was supposed to go to the rear of the Kakhovsky bridgehead along the right bank of the Dnieper, and Vitkovsky's troops simultaneously attack head-on, and the white cavalry would break out into the operational space, go to smash the enemy's rear. As a result, the Red Army in the Kakhov area will be defeated and the strategic initiative will remain with the White Guards. Units of the Soviet 1st Cavalry Army will not have time to link up with the 2nd Cavalry Army.

Rafts were knitted, boats were prepared and assembled. On October 8, 1920, the Markov division set up a ferry near the island of Khortitsa. The Markovites threw back Fedko's units that were standing here and seized the bridgehead. The river was crossed by the Kornilov division. The Soviet 3rd Infantry Division, which was holding the defenses here, was defeated. The White Guards took many prisoners. The Markovites moved to the north, the Kornilovites to the west. The Drozdovites remained in the area of ​​the crossings to protect them from the east. Babiev's cavalry is being transported to the captured bridgehead. The main forces of the White Guard Zadneprovskaya grouping moved southwest, towards Nikopol. Mironov's 2nd Cavalry Army moved towards the enemy. But on the night of October 9, another white group, the 3rd Army Corps and Barbovich's cavalry corps (6 thousand bayonets and sabers), crossed the river to the south. White hit the flank and rear with the red. Mironov's army began to slowly withdraw, responding with strong counterattacks. Both Wrangel groupings united and on the 11th occupied Nikopol. Then the White Guards launched an offensive to the west. We have moved 10-25 km from the Dnieper.


Source of maps: Civil War in Russia: Defense of Crimea. M., 2003

Defeat of the White Army


On October 12, the White grouping from Zadneprovsk took the important station Apostolovo. However, the resistance of the Reds increased. Frunze pointed out that a retreat from the Dnieper line was unacceptable, ordered Mironov to hold on even "at the cost of self-sacrifice." To reinforce Mironov's Cavalry Army, Fedko's group was transferred to the right bank of the Dnieper from the Yekaterinoslav direction. The first regiments of the 50th division being transferred from Siberia began to arrive. The division was one of the most powerful in the Red Army: the advanced units were disembarked in Pavlograd, others approached Moscow, the rear and artillery were still beyond the Volga. Parts of the Latvian, 15th and 52nd divisions were withdrawn from the Kakhovsky bridgehead in order to stop the enemy's breakthrough. White intelligence discovered this regrouping, but considered that the enemy had begun to withdraw troops from the Kakhovsky fortified area. Vitkovsky's corps was ordered to begin the assault on Kakhovka.

In the meantime, Mironov regrouped his forces, brought reserves into battle, and rifle units arrived in time. They also pulled the red Aviation... The Red Army counterattacked. On October 13, a fierce oncoming battle began. The White Guards suffered heavy losses, up to half of the composition. One of the brilliant cavalry commanders of the White Army, General Nikolai Babiev, was killed. The commander of the Kuban, General Naumenko, was out of action. Mironov's army was able to break through the battle formations of the white cavalry and reached the Dnieper. The White Guards could not stand it and began to retreat. The 3rd Army Corps, made up of various detachments, insurgents, Red Army prisoners, was crushed and fled. Management and communication between the units were broken. Disorder and panic. On narrow forest roads and in flooded areas, all parts were mixed. The retreating cavalry crushed its own infantry. A stampede began near the crossings.

Fedko's group struck from the north, Markovites also wavered. The commander of the 2nd Army, General Dratsenko, ordered the Zadneprovsk group to retreat across the river. Red aviation fired at the crossings, beat the fleeing enemy from the air. The whites were crushed by blows from the front and flanks. Red aviation dominated the air. The Kubans refused to attack. The Kornilovites and Markovites still tried to snap back, but without the support of the cavalry, they were easily bypassed and pressed. The panic was intensified by rumors that Budyonny's cavalry had approached. The soldiers began to throw guns, machine guns, carts with property.

White Headquarters learned about this on the morning of October 14. Unaware of the defeat of the Dnieper troops, General Vitkovsky moved his corps to storm the Kakhovsky bridgehead. In his corps there were 6-7 thousand soldiers, 10 tanks and 14 armored cars. Aviation was also pulled here, leaving Dratsenko's troops without air cover. Heavy fighting went on all day. The Wrangelites were able to capture the enemy's first line of defense, the Reds retreated to the second line, even more powerful. White units were drained of blood and lost 9 tanks. Vitkovsky's corps was unable to develop the offensive. On the 15th, White still attacked, but without success. The Soviet command recalled the units previously removed from here to the fortified area, but this could no longer correct the general situation. With the arrival of units that returned to the bridgehead, the Red Army counterattacked and regained the previously lost positions. On the same day, the remnants of the Zadneprovsk white grouping were evacuated across the Dnieper and destroyed the crossing.

Thus, the last offensive of Wrangel's Russian army ended in a heavy defeat. The Whites suffered heavy losses, and the units were drained of blood and demoralized. The White Guards went on the defensive. The Red Army, on the contrary, only grew stronger. New parts came up. The Makhnovists went over to the side of the Reds. The troops were enthusiastic about the victory. Frunze began preparations for a decisive offensive.

Author:
Photos used:
https://ru.wikipedia.org/, http://militera.lib.ru/
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Baku “Blitzkrieg” of the Red Army
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The first victories of the Wrangel army
The defeat of the 13th Soviet Army in Northern Tavria
Our Kiev!
The battle for Rivne. How Budyonnovtsy smashed the Polish defense
Minsk is ours! The defeat of the Polish army in Belarus
Battle for Lviv. The failure of the Red Army in Galicia
The death of the cavalry group Rednecks
The fierce battle for the Kakhovsky bridgehead
The defeat of the landing group Ulagaya
"Miracle on the Vistula"
How Tukhachevsky destroyed his armies on the Vistula
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Battle on the Lower Dnieper
The last offensive of the Russian army
Battle of the Neman
Defeat of Tukhachevsky on the Neman
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The defeat of the Red Army on the Shara
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  1. Alexander Suvorov
    Alexander Suvorov 14 October 2020 06: 49
    +9
    Thus, the last offensive of the Russian army of Wrangel ended in a heavy defeat. The Whites suffered heavy losses, and the units were drained of blood and demoralized.
    Even if the whites had won this battle, they would have lost the war anyway. White had no chance of winning the Civil War from the word at all.
    Yes, and the commander from Wrangel, like candy from a ram, not for nothing Slashchev criticized him and reviled him.
  2. parusnik
    parusnik 14 October 2020 07: 17
    +7
    Frunze was able to come to an agreement with Makhno. On October 2, 1920, Makhno again entered into an alliance with the Bolsheviks.
    and in the end
    The Makhnovists went over to the side of the Reds
    It is immediately clear that this article is cobbled together from several articles.
    1. Pomeranian
      Pomeranian 20 October 2020 23: 27
      0
      Readable and okay.
  3. Olgovich
    Olgovich 14 October 2020 07: 30
    -18 qualifying.
    Therefore, Frunze decided to wait, wait for the arrival of the units moving towards him and the expected reinforcements.

    Frunze was waiting armistice between the Bolsheviks and the Poles: Russophobes from both sides agreed on it so that the Bolsheviks would send mercenaries of Latvians, Estonians, etc. from the Polish front against the Russian army.
    1. Sugar Honeyovich
      Sugar Honeyovich 14 October 2020 14: 25
      +9
      At the same time, Russophiles from all sides found it right "for everyone to forget about the tricolor banner and unite under the red" good
    2. ecolog
      ecolog 15 October 2020 05: 55
      +2
      I don't understand one thing. the whites, judging by the article, have only 3 combat-ready divisions - the Markovites, the Drozdovites and the Kornilovites, they constantly suffer losses, which means that they have less and less old, highly motivated composition.
      The question is - what was Wrangel counting on trying to break out into the operational space? Who to fight with? After all, it is obvious that the influx of volunteers is not and will not be, and the forcibly mobilized scatter at the first nix. It is definitely impossible to hope for the Entente contingents, WWI is over and they do not care at all.
      Even three superpuper divisions cannot win a war and Moscow-Peter cannot be taken by any means.
      Are there any strategic plans of Mr. Wrangel, about how he planned to defeat the bosheviks?
    3. gsev
      gsev 15 October 2020 13: 55
      +3
      Quote: Olgovich
      Frunze was waiting for a truce between the Bolsheviks and the Poles: Russophobes from both sides agreed on it

      There is an interesting book by B. Berge "Disappeared countries 1840-1970." It describes the formation of the South of Russia as a separatist formation. The Poles smiled with happiness in the revelations of the 20th century to restore statehood. Denikin and Wrangel were unable to maintain their separatist or puppet formation when the Germans, French and British reduced support for their adventure. Tales about the Russian patriotism of white politicians are anti-historical and are intended solely for consumption within Russia and to stir up contradictions among its citizens as projects of Cossackia, Great Circassia, Pomorie, original Siberia, Ingerlandia.
      1. Olgovich
        Olgovich 15 October 2020 15: 03
        -3
        Quote: gsev
        There is an interesting book by B. Berge "Disappeared countries 1840-1970." It describes the formation of the South of Russia as a separatist formation. The Poles smiled with happiness in the revelations of the 20th century to restore statehood. Denikin and Wrangel could not save its separatist or puppet education when Germans, French and British reduced support their adventures... Tales about the Russian patriotism of white politicians are anti-historical and are intended solely for consumption within Russia and to stir up contradictions among its citizens as projects of Cossackia, Great Circassia, Pomorie, original Siberia, Ingerland.

        Tired of this empty, illiterate, stupid chatter: today Russia has the borders of the 17th century: the results are lost titanic work of the Russian people for 200 years-minus 5 million km2

        And they were installed from 1917 to 1940 year NOT Russian officers, veteran front-line comfrey of all wars for Russia, cavaliers of St. George from the Russian state.

        They FIRED against it.

        What's not clear?!
        1. Alexander Suvorov
          Alexander Suvorov 16 October 2020 06: 40
          -1
          Olgovich (Andrey)
          What's not clear?!
          It is not clear from which freak show you are fool fool fool just take ?!
          1. Olgovich
            Olgovich 16 October 2020 07: 56
            -2
            Quote: Alexander Suvorov
            It is unclear from what freak show you are just taken ?!

            From Russia.

            But where do the "Napoleons", Macedonian "and "A. Suvorovs"- absolutely known yes lol
            1. Alexander Suvorov
              Alexander Suvorov 16 October 2020 08: 36
              0
              Olgovich (Andrey)
              From Russia.
              Don't lie Moldovans ...! negative
              But where do the "Napoleons", the Macedonian "
              Well, here you know better, they are your neighbors in the ward ... laughing
              1. Olgovich
                Olgovich 16 October 2020 09: 25
                -3
                Quote: Alexander Suvorov
                Don't lie Moldovans ...!

                belay lol
                This is YOU "Moldavia, Ukraine", etc. painted on the body of RUSSIA.

                And BEFORE the traitors, it was Russia, namely its Novorssiya.

                Got it, no?
                Quote: Alexander Suvorov
                But where do the "Napoleons", the Macedonian "
                Well, here you know better, they are your neighbors in the ward ..

                What are you, my dear, not a single acquaintance of "Aleskandr Suvorov", Napoleon ", etc. I have, but you have already become First I. yes lol
  4. Aviator_
    Aviator_ 14 October 2020 08: 05
    +8
    The Soviet command recalled the units previously removed from here to the fortified area, but this could no longer correct the general situation. With the arrival of units that returned to the bridgehead, the Red Army counterattacked and regained the previously lost positions.

    Chukchi is not a reader, Chukchi is a writer.
    1. ee2100
      ee2100 14 October 2020 09: 55
      +3
      Samsonov-Chukchi? There is no need to offend the Chukchi.
  5. Sergey Oreshin
    Sergey Oreshin 14 October 2020 10: 10
    +2
    Quote: parusnik
    It is immediately clear that this article is cobbled together from several articles.

    I can even say - where it was made from. Wikipedia + Shambarov's book (he, however, drowns for the whites, and the author changes accents for the red) + took something from Savchenko.
    Pure graphomancy!
    1. parusnik
      parusnik 14 October 2020 11: 15
      +1
      Too lazy, the article was completely disassembled, and it's not worth it, she chose the simplest thing ..
  6. Sergey Oreshin
    Sergey Oreshin 14 October 2020 10: 15
    14
    Quote: Olgovich
    Russophobes from both sides agreed on it

    The question is who in the fall of 1920 was the big Russophobe. Before the start of the Zadneprovsk operation, Wrangel said in an order for the troops that they were going to join up with their "allies - the Poles and the Ukrainians" (meaning the Petliurites).
    Is that what Wrangel was doing in the summer and autumn of 1920 at the height of the Soviet-Polish war? In fact, he hit the rear of the Reds, pulled back the troops from the Polish front, as a result, the Reds suffered heavy defeats near Warsaw and Lvov, the Poles captured a significant part of the Volyn, Grodno, Vilna and Minsk provinces on the sly - and then banally threw Wrangel.
    Quote: Olgovich
    mercenaries of Latvians, Estonians, etc.

    They were actually Russian citizens. As Great Russians, Little Russians, Belarusians, Tatars, Bashkirs, Karelians, Chuvashs and other peoples
    1. Olgovich
      Olgovich 15 October 2020 07: 45
      -3
      Quote: Sergey Oreshin
      Is that what Wrangel was doing in the summer and autumn of 1920 at the height of the Soviet-Polish war? In fact, he hit the rear of the Reds, pulled back the troops from the Polish front, as a result, the Reds suffered heavy defeats near Warsaw and Lvov, the Poles captured a significant part of the Volyn, Grodno, Vilna and Minsk provinces on the sly - and then banally threw Wrangel.

      1.In essence, the Bolsheviks went conquer Europe in violation of all their false, stupid decrees on peace, throwing tens of thousands of Russian soldiers to death and these madmen had to be stopped.

      2. Didn't you get it the first time? RUSOPHOBES agreed among themselves, for the defeat of RUSSIA, which they succeeded: see. today's Russia of the 17th century.
      Quote: Sergey Oreshin
      They were actually Russian citizens. As Great Russians, Little Russians, Belarusians, Tatars, Bashkirs, Karelians, Chuvashs and other peoples

      You are illiterate: INDEPENDENCE (find out what it is) owls. Latvia, Estonia was recognized by the SNK almost two years before the events described
  7. Sergey Oreshin
    Sergey Oreshin 14 October 2020 10: 17
    +5
    Quote: Alexander Suvorov
    And the commander from Wrangel, like candy from a ram

    Here I would argue that Wrangel had a lot of successful operations in 1918-1920.
    Of course, it is impossible to excuse him as commander-in-chief for the failure of the operations, but we note that the direct leadership of the Zadneprovsk operations was carried out by General Dratsenko, and Kakhovskoy by General Vitkovsky.
    Slashchev, by the way, suffered a complete failure at Kakhovka back in August
  8. Florian geyer
    Florian geyer 14 October 2020 12: 08
    +1
    Excellent book on the topic
    Civil War. 1918-1921 / N. E. Kakurin, I. I. Vatsetis
  9. Sergey Oreshin
    Sergey Oreshin 15 October 2020 09: 26
    +3
    Quote: Olgovich
    the Bolsheviks went to conquer Europe

    In fact, it was the Poles who went to conquer Belarus and Little Russia (Ukraine) back in 1919. On April 25, 1920, Polish troops launched an offensive in the South and took Kiev. The Polish ruling circles began to talk about a campaign against Smolensk and the Left Bank.
    In this situation, a number of generals of the former RIA, led by Brusilov, appealed to Russian officers with an appeal to defend the Fatherland from the advancing Poles. And tens of thousands of Russian officers, incl. former White Guards, enlisted in the Red Army and went to the Polish front. As a result, the Polish offensive was halted on the Dnieper and Berezina, and soon the Red Army began a counteroffensive.
    And what about Wrangel? And Wrangel hits the rear of the Red Army and all summer has been pulling off the Red forces from the Polish front. As a result, Grodno, Vilenskaya, half of the Minsk and Volyn provinces were annexed by Poland.

    Quote: Olgovich
    RUSOPHOBS agreed among themselves

    Yes, the Poles and Wrangel coordinated their activities against the RSFSR. Wrangel had a Polish military mission in Crimea headed by Lieutenant Michalski to coordinate their efforts. It is well known how the Poles "thanked" Wrangel in the end.
    And if you look in retrospect, then in 1918 it was the Red Guard and the Red Army who fought the Germans advancing on Russia, and the whites either allied with them or adhered to neutrality.
    In 1918-1920. it was the Red Army and the Red Partisans who fought with the Entente interventionists in the North, South, Far East, and the Whites allied with them.
    So, I repeat - there is still the question of who was the big Russophobe IN ACTUALITY at that time.
    Quote: Olgovich
    You are illiterate:

    You are illiterate: Latvians, Estonians and others joined the ranks of the Red Guard and the Red Army back in 1917-1918, when the Baltic States were legally part of Russia. On June 1, 1919, the All-Russian Central Executive Committee issued a decree “On the unification of the Soviet republics: Russia, Ukraine, Latvia, Lithuania and Belarus for the fight against world imperialism”. According to it, the armed forces, railways, finance and labor commissariats of all republics were united. Thus, the Latvian riflemen fought on quite legal grounds with Wrangel on the territory of the Ukrainian SSR, and the Great Russians - with the Poles on the territory of the BSSR.
    Moreover, I will tell you a secret: all foreigners who joined the Red Army (Germans, Austrians, Hungarians, Romanians and other internationalists) were required to take Soviet citizenship. Rather, it was given to them automatically - enrolled in the Red Army - get a passport of the RSFSR
    1. RUSS
      RUSS 15 October 2020 19: 53
      +2
      Quote: Sergey Oreshin
      Yes, the Poles and Wrangel coordinated their activities against the RSFSR.

      Jozef Pilsudski helped Lenin defeat the Whites and thereby save Bolshevik Russia. In 1919, he stopped the advance of Polish troops in the east, which at that moment eased the position of the Red Army. The behind-the-scenes intrigues of the Polish leader Józef Piłsudski caused the failure of the Entente's policy to destroy Bolshevism in Russia, as well as the verdict of the White Guard movement. Following the negotiations with the Bolsheviks, it was concluded a secret agreement, under which the Bolsheviks pledged to suspend hostilities on the northern sector of the Polish-Soviet front (Dvinsk - Polotsk), and the Poles - not to undertake an offensive to assist General Denikin on the Kiev - Chernigov front. Moreover, to hide the fact of a double game, the Polish mission at the White Guard headquarters continued to "work" as if nothing had happened, and at the headquarters of the Entente, Polish officers reported that "everything is going according to plan." The fact that Pilsudski's plans did not include support for the White Guards is also evidenced by a verbal message that, before the conclusion of secret agreements, was transmitted by a Polish officer to the representative of the Bolsheviks, Yu. It, in particular, said: “Assistance to Denikin in his struggle against the Bolsheviks does not correspond to the Polish state interests. An attack on the Bolsheviks in the direction of Mozyr would undoubtedly help Denikin and could even become the decisive moment of his victory. Poland on the Polesie front had and still has enough strength to carry out this blow. Have we realized it? Shouldn't this circumstance have opened the eyes of the Bolsheviks? "
      1. gsev
        gsev 17 October 2020 19: 49
        0
        Quote: RUSS
        Jozef Pilsudski helped Lenin defeat the whites

        Can you tell us when and against what enemy the White Poles and the Red Army fought together? Can you estimate the losses of Pilsudski's troops in battles against the Red Army and for Soviet Russia? As far as I know, the Russian and Polish Socialist-Revolutionaries were discussing in the spring of 1914 which lands from the Russian Empire were to be withdrawn to independent Poland after a future war. See the memoirs of V. Chernov, the leader of the Socialist-Revolutionaries.
  10. Sergey Oreshin
    Sergey Oreshin 15 October 2020 11: 28
    +1
    Quote: ecolog
    Are there any strategic plans of Mr. Wrangel, about how he planned to defeat the bosheviks?

    First of all, Wrangel & Co. considered the Reds to be an infernal evil, almost like the devil, with which no compromises are possible in principle and one must fight to the last drop of blood, despite the unfavorable conditions (read his memoirs and the memoirs of his associates).
    What was he counting on? Yes, in principle, on the same thing as Kolchak, Miller, Yudenich, Denikin - after the first heavy defeats of the Red Army, the soldiers will begin to scatter, in the rear of the Reds uprisings of Cossacks and peasants will break out, as the Whites advance, they will acquire ever greater scope in the end, the RSFSR will not survive and will collapse. Therefore, Wrangel actively tried to ignite the insurrectionary movement in the rear of the Reds, transferred money and funds to the Don, Kuban and Terek Cossacks, the highlanders of the North Caucasus, tried to establish contacts with Makhno and other rebel atamans of Novorossia, as well as with the "self-styled" on the Right Bank.
    An important place in his strategy was occupied by the calculations for joint actions with the Finns, Balts and Poles. Well, they counted on French help a lot.
    In the fall of 1920, it became clear that this strategy had failed. The peasants of Novorossiya were in no hurry to join the ranks of the Russian Army and in every possible way avoided mobilization, the Cossacks for the most part also did not take up arms, and the landing of the Whites on the Don and Kuban suffered a collapse; the insurgency in the North Caucasus was generally localized. Makhno and most of the rebel "fathers" opposed Wrangel or took a neutral position.
    The most important thing is that the Red Army did not collapse, on the contrary, its resistance grew every month (see the same Kakhovka, which the Whites could not take), the safety margin of the RSFSR turned out to be much higher than Wrangel thought.
    Then in early October, he decided to break through to the Right Bank and there to unite with the Poles and Petlyura. Actually, this was the main goal of the Zadneprovsky operation.
    But ... the Poles simply "threw" him and signed an armistice with the RSFSR in Riga. At the same time in Tartu (Yuryev) the Finns signed peace with the RSFSR, and in the summer Latvia and Lithuania withdrew from the war.
    And it was then that Wrangel realized that a "furry animal" was approaching him and all his hope remained only for the help of France (which, as we know, did not come) and that the whites would be able to hold the Crimea, how they could hold him at the beginning of 1920
    1. gsev
      gsev 17 October 2020 19: 58
      -1
      Quote: Sergey Oreshin
      First of all, Wrangel & Co. considered the Reds to be an infernal evil, almost like the devil, with whom no compromises are possible in principle.

      As you understand, almost all the peasantry, half of the officers and intellectuals, the majority of the workers sympathized with the Reds. Lenin and Trotsky were able to maintain an army of 5 million despite heavy losses during the years of the civil war. Kolchak, Wrangel, Semenov, Dutov Denikin needed to kill 20-30 million fellow citizens to win. They could not do this without the help of a full-scale intervention.
      1. Sergey Oreshin
        Sergey Oreshin 17 October 2020 20: 06
        0
        I understand, but Wrangel did not understand this))
        They were all convinced that the power of the communists was held only by "Jewish brains and Latvian bayonets" and that it was worth a little push at the front, and the RSFSR would collapse.
        As a result, white generals and admirals collapsed
  11. Sergey Oreshin
    Sergey Oreshin 15 October 2020 16: 27
    +3
    Quote: Olgovich
    They Fought against it.

    Well, let's get the facts.
    Future whites screamed very loudly in 1917 and early 1918. about the need for "war to victory", criticized the Bolsheviks for their anti-war stance, called to die, but to defeat the Germans.
    On February 18, 1918, the Germans launched an offensive along the entire front. Units of the Red Guard and the young Red Army put up resistance to them.
    Some of the officers and generals of the RIA go to the service of the Lenin government to protect the country from the Germans.
    And what are the whites doing at this time? Mikhail Drozdovsky, who shouted loudest of all about the need to fight the Germans and was forming volunteer units now that the German offensive has begun, is taking them away ... not to beat the Germans to the front, but takes them deep into Russia to kill the same Russians, and during his campaign Iasi -Don will situationally alliance with the Germans.
    Ataman Popov operates in the Sal steppes, Dutov in the Turgai steppes, diverting the forces of the Reds. Kornilov hits the rear of the Reds in the Kuban.
    Finally, in May 1918, the Germans came to the Don. The Red Army holds the defenses against them on the Azov and Batay front. And what about Denikin - the leader of the "volunteers", who in 1917 crucified about the need to "defend the Fatherland" and "war to victory"? Maybe he starts fighting the Germans? Not at all! He goes to the Kuban to kill Russians! The Dobroarmiya did not fight a single full-fledged battle with the Germans (apart from random skirmishes)!
    General Dzerozhinsky in Pskov and Dvinsk occupied by the Germans begins to create the Northern Corps to fight the Bolsheviks. In occupied Pskov, white officers flaunt in uniform and do not even think to fight the Germans.
    Former RIA generals Skoropadsky and Krasnov go into the service of the Germans. Krasnov receives a bunch of weapons from the Germans and uses them to kill the Russians, fighting for the "independent" Don.
    Duke George of Leuchtenberg (an inveterate monarchist!) In Kiev, with the help of the Germans and Skoropadsky, begins to create an army to fight the Bolsheviks. Those. The "gallant monarchists" are using the money of the German occupiers and the Ukrainian "samostiyniks" to create an army to kill the Russians!
    General Ivanov (the one whom Nikolai sent to "pacify" Petrograd) with the help of Krasnov and the same Germans eventually begins to lead the Southern Army to fight the Bolsheviks, i.e. begins to kill Russians.

    Few examples?
  12. Sergey Oreshin
    Sergey Oreshin 15 October 2020 20: 43
    +1
    Quote: RUSS
    Jozef Pilsudski helped Lenin defeat the Whites and thereby save Bolshevik Russia.

    That's what it is about!
    Was it not clear to Wrangel that Pilsudski, who had thrown Denikin, would throw him too? It was just that in the summer of 1920 the position of the Poles was difficult and they had to somehow pull off more Red forces from the Polish front.
    That is why they sent a military mission to Crimea and showed every interest in an alliance with Wrangel. Although it was clear that as soon as the need for him disappeared, the Poles would just as easily toss Wrangel as Denikin had before him.
    But for some reason the Baron was sure that the Poles would not abandon him and would fight together with him until the complete victory over the Bolsheviks. The height of naivety, of course!