Military Review

How many tractors were used in the Reichskommissariat Ukraine?

32

Hungarian soldiers inspect the broken STZ 15/30


We will continue the study of occupational agriculture in the occupied territories of the USSR, which began in previous article... The Germans seized quite a lot of machine and tractor stations, in which there remained some tractor fleet suitable for work. They did not get the entire pre-war tractor fleet, since a significant part of the tractors was mobilized into the Red Army, used by the troops, evacuated, damaged and destroyed during the retreat. But still something remained.

Probably, the occupation administration of the Reichskommissariat Ukraine or the societies that managed large agricultural enterprises had statistics on the available tractor fleet, its use and the size of tractor plowing. However, the Germans were not kind enough to leave these documents to us as a keepsake, and most likely destroyed them during the retreat. Although in a heap of all kinds of documents, both captured in our archives and exported to Germany and settled in German archives, perhaps in some file, where researchers have not yet looked, such a certificate will be preserved. The archives are not looked at evenly, and historians have not looked into many cases for decades.

However, some traces still had to remain. Therefore, I carefully scan the documents in search of various references to certain regions of the occupied territories of the USSR. Any indication, any number, can provide valuable information. Documents generally contain much more information than one might think at first glance; the only question is how to extract it.

Not so long ago, in the case of the distribution of oil products from Romania, which is kept in the RGVA, I managed to find a couple of documents containing interesting figures that allow me to do a statistical trick and calculate how many Germans had tractors on the move in the Reichskommissariat Ukraine in 1943.

Tractor fuel supplies to Ukraine


The main document that provides a clue to this issue is the monthly plan for the shipment of oil products from Romania for July 1943 (RGVA, f. 1458K, op. 14, d. 121, l. 46). The distribution of petroleum products was carried out by the Special Commissioner for Economic Affairs at the German Embassy in Romania, Doctor-Engineer Hermann Neubacher, who was appointed to this position in January 1940. The plan indicated not only the total amount of oil products, but also the distribution by grades of oil products, as well as the distribution by grades and recipients of fuel.

So, in particular, in this plan it is indicated that out of 61 thousand tons of gas oil, which was shipped from the Romanian refineries in July 1943, 4 thousand tons were supplied to Ukraine as tractor fuel. In general, this is decent, since the entire Eastern Front received 6,5 thousand tons of gas oil under this plan.

How many tractors were used in the Reichskommissariat Ukraine?

Why did the Wehrmacht need a captured Soviet tractor? Mainly for off-road fighting

Ukraine in this case is the territory of the Reichskommissariat Ukraine, since no other parts of the occupied territory of the USSR were officially called Ukraine. As far as one can assume, this fuel was intended for tractors used for agricultural work, which remained in the MTS and state farms. Of course, they could be used for different needs, for example, for road works, but it seems that the overwhelming majority of tractors provided by Romanian gas oil worked precisely at agricultural enterprises. Until a possible clarification, we will assume that all this tractor fuel was intended for agricultural tractors. Moreover, it is worth emphasizing that fuel was supplied for tractors that were available, therefore the amount of fuel also expresses the number of machines that needed it.


The tractors could be used for various jobs, in particular to pull trucks out of the mud. STZ 15/30 is dragging a German truck. On board the truck abbreviation: RVM - Reichsverkehrministerium, Reich Ministry of Transport

The researchers did not look into this case, and if they did, they probably would not attach importance to this figure. By itself, she says little. You need to know the context, the structure of mechanized agriculture in the 1930s, in order to understand whether it is a lot or a little, how many tractors can be provided with this amount of fuel and what work they can do.

We have a good reference book “Agriculture of the USSR. Yearbook 1935 ", which contains information on the number of tractors, their work and fuel consumption for 1934 for the regions of the Ukrainian SSR of interest to us: Kiev, Vinnitsa and Dnepropetrovsk, which basically made up the territory of the Reichskommissariat Ukraine. Of course, it would be better to take data that are closer to the war, for 1939 or 1940, since the tractor fleet changed in number, the characteristics of its work also changed. But such detailed data over the years I do not have at hand, and I now set myself another goal - to test the method of comparative calculations and obtain rough, approximate data. Moreover, tractors of the STZ-KhTZ 15/30 type even before the war constituted a considerable part of the tractor fleet in the MTS in Ukraine, as in 1934.

How many tractors did the Germans have?


We only have a small shard stories German occupation agriculture. One figure for July 1943. What can you get from it?

First, why ship tractor fuel in summer? The fact is that the cycle of field work included from spring to autumn: spring plowing, raising fallows, plowing for winter sowing and autumn plowing (plowing in the fall for spring plowing next year's sowing; increases the yield by 15-20%). The minimum required to get a harvest is: spring plowing, fallowing and plowing for winter crops. It’s just the latter that is carried out in the summer, from the end of July to the end of August, since the optimal time for sowing winter wheat in the forest-steppe and steppe Ukraine is from August 20 to September 5. Accordingly, in order to plow under winter grain, it is necessary to ship fuel in July, deliver it and distribute it to recipients.

Secondly, the reference book gives us the following information: how much winter grain was plowed in three regions of the Ukrainian SSR. In 1934 - a total of 1260 thousand hectares ("Agriculture of the USSR. Yearbook 1935". M., 1936, p. 690). Average fuel consumption for plowing is 25,3 kg per hectare. In total, 31 878 tons of fuel were required for plowing for winter crops. German consumption: 4 tons - 000% ​​of this comparison level. Accordingly, the Germans could plow 12,5 thousand hectares under winter grain with tractors.

Third, how many tractors do you need for this? The conventional 15-horsepower tractor produced about 360 hectares a year in terms of plowing ("Agriculture of the USSR ...", p. 696). At the same time, actual plowing in kind accounted for about 63% of the total volume of tractor work (from 58,6% in the Dnepropetrovsk region to 68,6% in the Vinnitsa region). In total, the average tractor plowed 226,8 hectares in kind. Normal performance of the tractor type STZ-KhTZ 15/30.

We know the total amount of work in the MTS in terms of plowing - 8835,2 thousand hectares, the share of plowing is known - 63%, we can calculate the total amount of work on plowing - 5566,1 thousand hectares. It is known how much was plowed under winter crops - 1260 thousand hectares. Thus, plowing for winter crops is 29,5% of the total plowing. You can get a conversion factor. On average, a tractor plowed 66,9 hectares for winter crops.


Before plowing. The foreman of the tractor drivers was entitled to a riding horse in the 1930s

Hence the conclusion: the Germans supplied fuel for the work of 2354 tractors for plowing for winter crops. Here we must make a special reservation that we are talking only and exclusively about the supply of gas oil from Romania, which we know. In addition, there could be supplies from other sources, for example, oil products from the fields in Drohobych or tractor fuel from Germany. However, there is reason to believe that fuel from Romania constituted the overwhelming part in the supply of tractors in the Reichskommissariat Ukraine.

In 1934, there were 15,5 thousand tractors in the three listed regions of the Ukrainian SSR. That is, when estimated by eye and adjusted for the growth of the tractor fleet in the pre-war years, the Germans had about 10% of their pre-war number on the move.

There were clearly more tractors that were serviceable and suitable for work. A letter from the Oil Administration of the Reichsministry of Economics dated July 5, 1943, with a request to increase the shipment of tractor fuel to Ukraine from 4 to 000 tons (RGVA, f. 7K, op. 000, d. 1458, l. 14) has survived. If this figure reflects the number of available serviceable and workable tractors, and also reflects the desire of the Reich Ministry of Economics to use them, then in this case there could be about 121 tractors at their disposal.

It follows that the Germans, at least in the territory of the Reichskommissariat Ukraine, could maintain mechanized agriculture at about 10% of the Soviet pre-war level in the same territory. This is not millions of tons of grain, and not so much, but also not so little. 157,5 thousand hectares of winter sowing alone on tractor plowing with normal agricultural technology and a yield of 8 centners per hectare is 126 thousand tons of grain. Winter and spring crops - about 250 thousand tons of grain per year, not counting any other work necessary in agriculture, such as threshing grain, which before the war was about half done by tractor threshers.

Unfortunately, the documents were preserved only for 1943, and only one month before the fuel supplies to Ukraine were indicated. However, 1943 is already a crisis year, a year of defeats and retreats, which could not but have an impact on the German occupation economy and on the distribution of Romanian oil products. On the one hand, the Germans were preparing winter crops, that is, they were going to harvest in 1944, which in reality did not happen. On the other hand, we are probably observing the tractor economy of the Reichskommissariat Ukraine in the stage of decline caused by the Soviet offensive, and it was supplied with less fuel than it needed. We need data for 1942 to get a more accurate and accurate picture of the use of the tractor fleet of MTS and state farms by the Germans.
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Articles from this series:
Harvests and procurement of bread in the occupied territories of the USSR
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  1. Alexander Suvorov
    Alexander Suvorov 6 October 2020 06: 55
    -2
    How many tractors were used in the Reichskommissariat Ukraine?
    Is it really all this muddle that is really interesting to someone, except for a narrow circle of professional historians? And then, why is Ukraine alone being considered? And Belarus, and the Baltics?
    The author, I suggest that you conduct a study and write an article about how milk yields in the village of Gadyukino increased with the arrival of the invaders.
    1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
      Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 6 October 2020 11: 59
      +3
      Quote: Alexander Suvorov
      The author, I suggest that you conduct a study and write an article about how milk yields in the village of Gadyukino increased with the arrival of the invaders.

      You, as a native viper, should know this without an article.
    2. Undecim
      Undecim 6 October 2020 13: 24
      +4
      And then, why is Ukraine alone being considered? And Belarus, and the Baltics? What about Russia?
      Because Ukraine is in a corresponding trend.
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 6 October 2020 19: 53
        +4
        Bravo, Viktor Nikolaevich!
  2. parusnik
    parusnik 6 October 2020 07: 13
    +3
    On the other hand, we are probably observing the tractor economy of the Reichskommissariat Ukraine in the stage of decline caused by the Soviet offensive, and it was supplied with less fuel than it needed.
    ... And what was the heyday? smile
  3. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
    Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 6 October 2020 08: 19
    +6
    however, it is believed that the overwhelming majority of the tractors supplied by the Romanian gas oil worked precisely at agricultural enterprises.

    Moreover, tractors of the STZ-KhTZ 15/30 type even before the war constituted a considerable part of the tractor fleet in the MTS in Ukraine, as in 1934.


    STZ 15/30 was kerosene. Why does he need Romanian gas oil?
    1. Undecim
      Undecim 6 October 2020 09: 56
      +8
      Absolutely correct observation. Both the SKHTZ 15/30 tractor and the SKHTZ-NATI tractor, which replaced it on the assembly line in 1937, had a carburetor engine running on kerosene. Such an engine will not run on gas oil under any conditions. Therefore, all the author's calculations are a blank shot.
      Before the Great Patriotic War, only one diesel tractor, the S-65, was produced in the USSR, but it would not have worked on gas oil for a long time.
      1. wehr
        6 October 2020 10: 15
        -2
        The document used the clear term Traktorentreibstoff, that is, fuel for tractors.
        So you have a blank shot. laughing
        1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
          Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 6 October 2020 10: 39
          +5
          Quote: wehr
          The document used the clear term Traktorentreibstoff, that is, fuel for tractors

          The "clear term" probably means naphtha (aka Traktorenbenzin). Not gas oil.
        2. Undecim
          Undecim 6 October 2020 10: 39
          10
          If the document uses clear term Traktorentreibstoff , why do you use the term "gas oil" in your article? You did not present the document.
          1. wehr
            6 October 2020 12: 52
            -3
            Because the Germans attributed this type of fuel to the category of gas oil.
            1. Undecim
              Undecim 6 October 2020 13: 22
              +6
              Many types of petroleum products can be attributed to the "gas oil category", all of which are unsuitable for Soviet pre-war tractors.
              1. wehr
                6 October 2020 14: 14
                -5
                Will you argue with the document? Is the document incorrect? Are you still tearing your vest on your chest?
                1. Undecim
                  Undecim 6 October 2020 15: 13
                  +4
                  Nobody argues with the document. But if you wrote an article for the readers, then it was possible to show the "document" and indicate the initial conditions. And then "we write gas oil, but we mean tractor fuel."
                  1. Fizik M
                    Fizik M 6 October 2020 16: 38
                    -7
                    Quote: Undecim
                    But if you wrote an article for readers

                    ooh how is YOU blazing lol
                    YOU don't need gas oil, but a FIRE EXTINGUISHER - for "fillet" laughing
                    1. Vladimir Rostovsky
                      Vladimir Rostovsky 6 October 2020 17: 43
                      +3
                      There are people who are meticulous and love accuracy, personally, it is difficult for me to communicate with such people - because you need to control what you say, otherwise you will be poked into your words in an argument, well, it's just that they are arranged this way and you shouldn't take it personally.
                      Undecim - Your posts are informative, I like to read them, etc., thank you for them, including for the fact that you are trying to control yourself and not become personal.
                      Fizik M - what has been said above also applies to you, with the exception of "keeping yourself in control and not getting personal."
                      I think many of you reading it would be more pleasant to see your posts where you tear your opponents apart with facts and argumentation, and not where you are rude and rude. From the last posts, I feel like a teenager is writing.
                      Please, do not bomb and burn like that, in general, take care of yourself, there are not many interesting authors and commentators here.
                      Sorry for getting in - I'm going into the forest hi
        3. Tamer
          Tamer 6 October 2020 14: 35
          +4
          What is the difference in performance between Traktorentreibstoff and Traktorenbenzin? And what are the characteristics of kerosene for the STZ 15/30 engine?
          Quote: Undecim
          If the document uses clear term Traktorentreibstoff , why do you use the term "gas oil" in your article? You did not present the document.

          Gas oil is a loose concept, so the question is:
          Quote: wehr
          Because the Germans attributed this type of fuel to the category of gas oil.

          What are the characteristics of this type of fuel and what categories of gas oil did the Germans have?
  4. Ryazan87
    Ryazan87 6 October 2020 09: 23
    -3
    Thank you, Dmitry. An interesting, high-quality article. A maximum of archival information, a minimum of emotions and "screams". In general, it is very curious to assess how much the management in the occupied territories helped Germany - I do not mean direct robbery and requisition. I met a variety of assessments. In addition, the assessment of the effectiveness of the naval blockade on the part of the Allies becomes clearer.
    1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
      Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 6 October 2020 10: 48
      +2
      Quote: Ryazanets87
      In addition, the assessment of the effectiveness of the naval blockade on the part of the allies becomes clearer.

      and what does it have to do with it?
      1. Ryazan87
        Ryazan87 6 October 2020 11: 50
        -3
        Think it's not very difficult.
        1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
          Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 6 October 2020 11: 56
          +4
          Why is this coquetry? What is the connection between the "Allied naval blockade" and the author's virtual tractor park in the Reichskommissariat Ukraine?
  5. Victor Red
    Victor Red 6 October 2020 12: 13
    +4
    Interesting case. The tractor driver, with the arrival of the Germans, disassembled and buried his "Zaporozhets" (the very first purely domestic tractor, produced in small series in the 20s), and after his release, he reassembled and worked on it until the 60s.
    1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
      Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 6 October 2020 12: 20
      +2
      Quote: Victor Red
      Interesting case. The tractor driver, with the arrival of the Germans, disassembled and buried his "Zaporozhets"

      yes, I know this case. When I dug it out and assembled it, it turned out for some reason a tank.
      1. hohol95
        hohol95 6 October 2020 15: 53
        +4
        By the way, in terms of working longevity "Zaporozhets" will not be inferior, perhaps, to German Lanz'am - on the tractor "Zaporozhets" No. 107, for example, a wonderful tractor driver and mechanic MI Roskot from the Chernigov region worked continuously from 1924 to 1958. During the years of the Nazi occupation, he disassembled the tractor, and hid the components and parts securely. After liberation - he dug, cleaned, collected - and plowed the land on it for another 14 years, filling the fuel tank with anything and making spare parts in the village smithy ..

        Maybe a bike, or maybe a reality ...
        1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
          Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 6 October 2020 16: 39
          +1
          Yeah why not. It may well be.
        2. Victor Red
          Victor Red 7 October 2020 13: 11
          +1
          Maybe a bike, or maybe a reality ...

          Well, why the bike, the case with the tractor driver, as I understand it, was documented, and the reliability of the Zaporozhets was such that if something broke there, then any rural blacksmith could make the part.
  6. Undecim
    Undecim 6 October 2020 12: 47
    +9
    In 1934, there were 15,5 thousand tractors in the three listed regions of the Ukrainian SSR.
    In 1937, there were 9 thousand tractors in the Dnepropetrovsk region alone. In 1941 - naturally more. In total, there were 23 tractors in 1940 regions of the Ukrainian SSR in 112. At the same time, 500 regions formed during the annexation of Western Ukraine in 6 and 1939 during the annexation of Bessarabia in 2 can be ignored.
    On the other hand, an estimate of 10% by eye looks really ephemeral.
    For example, the figures for the Kursk region, data collected by the occupation authorities in the winter of 1941-1942. Of the 2932 tractors available in the occupied territory of the Kursk region, 1080 were in good order. It was noted that spare parts were not available to repair a significant part of agricultural machinery. After repair and restoration work, there were 1260 tractors in working order, that is, less than 1/10 of the pre-war number. Thus, in 1941, there were at least 13 thousand tractors in the Kursk region, and 23% fell to the Germans.
    based on these numbers. all the author's arithmetic is a spherical horse in a vacuum.
  7. 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 6 October 2020 21: 10
    0
    To give credit to the author, Dmitry has moved away from personal assessments in his materials to rough "figures". In this place, bravo! However, the given historical and economic equation has many variables and no less many unknowns, with two reduced constants. Maybe the author should not limit himself to the RGVA, but look for information in the Bundesarchive?
  8. The comment was deleted.
    1. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 7 October 2020 11: 05
      +2
      Quote: WeAreNumerOne

      Beautiful emblem

      This is how it looks much better:
    2. Victorio
      Victorio 7 October 2020 11: 27
      -1
      Quote: WeAreNumerOne
      Beautiful emblem

      ===
      so what's the matter, wear it, put it on the flag. "worthy" successors / imitators / hangers-on
  9. The comment was deleted.
  10. The comment was deleted.
  11. Kostadinov
    Kostadinov 7 October 2020 17: 03
    +2
    In addition, there could be supplies from other sources, for example, oil products from the fields in Drohobych or tractor fuel from Germany.

    Gas generators for wood or straw were also used.
    1. hohol95
      hohol95 7 October 2020 23: 24
      0
      Even training tanks in Germany were on gas generators.