Military Review

IISS: Russia at the peak of its military power

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IISS: Russia at the peak of its military power

On the last day of September, the International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) published Russia's Military Modernization: An Assessment. Its theme is the development of the Russian armed forces over the past decade, associated with the "new look" and state weapons programs. The main conclusion of the study is simple: Russian plans are largely fulfilled, making the army stronger and more efficient.


General aspects


The IISS recalls that by the end of the existence of the USSR, its armed forces faced serious difficulties, and later a period of constant reductions and losses began. Then there were unsuccessful attempts to reform the army. The situation began to change only in the middle of the 2008s, when the "new look" of the armed forces was formed - this modernization program was launched in XNUMX, and it is with it that modern achievements are associated.

The authors of the report believe that as a result of the reform, the Russian authorities have received well-equipped and trained conventional armed forces, built on professional personnel. At the same time, the strategic nuclear forces remain the main guarantor of national security. The materiel of all branches of the armed forces is being updated, primarily through the development and production of modern models.


Photo: Press service of the Southern Military District

It is noted that Russia often adjusts its plans. Such changes can be aimed at optimizing the course of reforms. In addition, the modernization of the army is directly related to the state of the economy, and this factor also has a great influence on the preparation and refinement of plans.

In general, the Russian armed forces over the past 10 years, in 2010-20, have significantly improved their condition and increased their combat effectiveness. The IISS is not quite sure about the possibility of maintaining such tendencies in the future, however, they note that this potential cannot be ignored, especially given the "aggressive foreign policy of Moscow."

Strategic nuclear development


The report carefully considered the development of Russian strategic nuclear forces, such a study begins with an excursion into history and reminders of the processes of the nineties. At the time, it was clear that Russia remains a nuclear power, despite the limited capacity to maintain such a potential. In addition, the reduction in spending on the maintenance of conventional armed forces increased the responsibility assigned to the strategic nuclear forces.


Photo: bastion-karpenko.ru

In recent decades, the quantitative and qualitative growth of strategic nuclear forces has been noted, carried out in compliance with the terms of international treaties. Ground-based complexes remain the core of nuclear forces, and the ratio of stationary and mobile systems changes in favor of the latter. The development of the naval component of the strategic nuclear forces in the recent past has slowed down due to problems with the Bulava missile. The air component of the forces is called the weakest - due to the presence of Tu-95MS turboprop bombers.

It is especially noted that "traditional" nuclear weapons are planned to be supplemented with fundamentally new ones. A hypersonic complex, a nuclear-powered cruise missile and an unmanned strategic underwater vehicle are being developed and are being prepared for deployment.

Land processes


The IISS recalls that the 2008 "new look" involved the transition of the ground forces to a brigade structure. Just a few years later, the army returned to the previously disbanded divisions. These changes were carried out in order to optimize the structure of the troops for solving specific tasks. The experience of recent conflicts has shown that the brigades do not fully meet the current challenges.

There have been changes in the equipment of the ground forces, but the actual results obtained so far are more modest than expected in the mid-tenths. The unit receives both new samples and modernized equipment. Modernization is underway tank parts, self-propelled artillery, etc. Replacement of Tochka-U OTRK with modern Iskander products is especially noted.


New command and control systems have been developed and implemented at different levels, into which these or those complexes are integrated. Control facilities and new types of weapons have already been tested in real operation.

Improving the fleet


According to old forecasts of US intelligence, by the mid-nineties the Soviet Navy could have up to 60-70 strategic missile submarines, a comparable number of surface ships of the main classes, and at least five aircraft carriers. However, the country collapsed, due to which the construction fleet paused.

In 2020, the Russian Navy has only one aircraft carrier under repair and 11 SSBNs. Also, construction of smaller ships is underway, most of which are designed to operate in coastal and near sea zones. The combat capabilities of the fleet are being increased through the introduction of new weapons, such as the Kalibr missile system.

The Russian Navy retains a certain potential for the oceanic zone, but more attention is paid to protecting sea borders, as well as developing submarine forces and ensuring their safe deployment. At the same time, the fleet is one of the leaders in terms of funding under state armaments programs.


Photo: mil.ru

Upgrade in the air


The IISS writes that in terms of numbers, modern Russian Aerospace Forces are noticeably inferior to the Soviet Air Force. Despite serious reductions, they managed to survive the most difficult periods without fatal consequences and then move on to modernization. The latter is now carried out both through the introduction of new samples and by updating the existing ones.

The prospective fighter of the 5th generation Su-57 has not yet entered the troops, which is why the newest and most advanced combat aircraft remains the Su-35S - another machine of the Su-27 family. In the field of long-distance aviation a decision was made to resume the construction of Tu-160 bombers. In parallel, a completely new PAK DA aircraft is being developed. It is unclear whether it will be possible to find the production capacity and money for the simultaneous production of two complex aircraft.

Defense cost


The report examines the specifics of financing the army in recent decades. So, in the nineties, general economic problems negatively affected the defense budget. At the same time, the armed forces often did not receive even the money intended for them. Defense spending fell in the early nineties, and after the 1998 crisis the situation deteriorated further. Changes began only in the XNUMXs, and in the tenths defense budgets reached an acceptable level.


Photo: mil.ru

The economic processes of recent years have made it possible to reform and most of the modernization of the army. The current problems and difficulties suggest that in the future, military spending will decrease. At the same time, they will be maintained at a sufficient level, incl. due to the need to preserve the defense industry. It remains a critical defense and job creation industry.

The IISS points out the specifics of financing defense projects. In contrast to NATO countries, in Russia this kind of expenditure is split between different departments. So, the Ministry of Defense directly maintains the army, and the construction of residential infrastructure, the modernization of industry and the payment of pensions are carried out by relevant departments.

New look


Overall, the new IISS report shows how the Russian armed forces have changed and developed in recent decades. The authors of the report admit that the measures taken for reform and modernization have basically justified themselves and have yielded the desired result. The country's defense capacity has grown significantly - especially against the background of the level of the nineties. At the same time, military potential not only passively ensures security, but is also actively used to solve specific political problems.

The Russian armed forces are now believed to have reached their peak of power. At the same time, the maximum possible modernization was obtained. It is unlikely that Russia will be able and willing to maintain the pace of army renewal at the same level due to economic constraints and due to the completion of the most complex modernization processes. Only time will confirm the correctness of such forecasts.
Author:
Photos used:
IISS, Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation
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  3. Ragnar Lodbrok
    Ragnar Lodbrok 5 October 2020 05: 35 New
    +7
    the Russian armed forces have reached the peak of their power.
    This is good, no one argues ... Here's another social program to the peak of power to raise ...
    1. Ross xnumx
      Ross xnumx 5 October 2020 06: 42 New
      +9
      Quote: Ragnar Lothbrok
      It's good, no one argues ...

      But there are also those who test and doubt ...
      The IISS recalls that by the end of the existence of the USSR, its armed forces faced serious difficulties, and later a period of constant reductions and losses began.

      The Russian Armed Forces faced betrayal on the part of the then leadership of the country, which in political interests neglected all possible requirements for maintaining combat readiness and combat power. These hasty withdrawals of troops, this is an incomprehensible use of the Armed Forces without taking into account the peculiarities of hostilities and the tactics of combined arms combat, when the armies set tasks and "commanded" them all who were lazy ...
      I am not sure that today the command of the Armed Forces fully presents the list of tasks facing the army.
      The only thing I can say in the affirmative is that Russia must have such an Armed Forces so that the word of the Commander-in-Chief or Defense Ministry in any dispute or conflict is decisive, without any agreements with the "partners" and those who surprised Keitel with their presence in 1945.
      1. Stas157
        Stas157 5 October 2020 07: 49 New
        15
        ... The materiel of all branches of the armed forces is being updated, in the first place through the development and production of modern samples

        I can continue this anecdote. Thousands of Armata and Su-57s reliably guard the peace of the Reussians from the hopelessly lagging West, whose outdated samples are no match for the Russian ones!

        How many really Russian novelties, and not modernizations of Soviet models, are in service in the army? In total, almost nothing. Even those that have been brought to the level of finished samples are released in ridiculous quantities. Exactly in order to show off at parades, and not form the basis of the armed forces of the army.
        But not small 30 years have passed.
        1. codetalker
          codetalker 5 October 2020 10: 07 New
          -9
          How many really Russian novelties, and not modernizations of Soviet models, are in service in the army?

          What's the difference?
          Some kind of childish formulation of the question.
          1. Stas157
            Stas157 5 October 2020 10: 14 New
            +4
            Quote: codetalker
            What's the difference?
            Some kind of childish formulation of the question.

            There is still a difference. If the Soviet Army was the most advanced and modern in the world, then we would not want the Russian army to be among those catching up. Although the modest military budget (relative to the US, China and the EU) inexorably leads to this.
          2. codetalker
            codetalker 7 October 2020 05: 16 New
            0
            The conversation is that if the modernized Soviet models provide defense at the minimum sufficient level, then why should not they be in service, but Russian ones developed from scratch?
        2. Interlocutor
          Interlocutor 5 October 2020 10: 12 New
          -5
          How many really Russian novelties, and not modernizations of Soviet models, are in service in the army? In total, almost nothing


          How much do they cost?
          Data from open sources are surprisingly different from real ... (they are somewhat underestimated understated).
          And very often the numbers are taken from the chatter of an approximate person. And the news is multiplied by analysts in their blogs from the same journalists.
          I know from my part in due time ...
    2. NEXUS
      NEXUS 5 October 2020 09: 51 New
      +9
      Quote: Ragnar Lothbrok
      the Russian armed forces have reached the peak of their power.
      It's good, no one argues ...

      I would argue. The fleet is on its way. And now I'm not talking about SSBNs, but about everything else. And an aircraft without a fleet is an aircraft lame in one leg.
      And you can shout - no, our Armed Forces are doing well, but you can't get away from the truth. Criminally little attention is paid to the fleet.
      So to the peak, we are still oh, how far away.
    3. Muddy Seeing ORACLE
      Muddy Seeing ORACLE 5 October 2020 10: 31 New
      -12 qualifying.
      Quote: Ragnar lodbrok
      the Russian armed forces have reached the peak of their power.
      This is good, no one argues ... Here's another social program to the peak of power to raise ...



      What social sphere can be surrounded by enemies ...
      Here, in time to prepare for war, to preserve the WORLD ...
      1. 9PA
        9PA 5 October 2020 16: 29 New
        +3
        What can be the economy surrounded by thieves? 1937 is a feat of our people
    4. iouris
      iouris 5 October 2020 10: 57 New
      0
      After the "peak" there is a "decline" - dialectics ... And no one promised to feed on the way to "power": "sama-sama".
      1. bessmertniy
        bessmertniy 5 October 2020 15: 56 New
        0
        This is not a peak. This is an intermediate camp. We must take a breath and take a new height.
    5. Nazar
      Nazar 6 October 2020 05: 06 New
      +5
      The Armed Forces of the USSR were many times superior in power to the current Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, and what, this somehow prevented the destruction of the USSR? Even one of those who took the oath - "to defend their homeland, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics not sparing their blood and life itself" - (including the current president) - shed a drop of blood defending the USSR? I’m not even talking about putting our lives for the Motherland.
      No "Armata" and "SU57" will protect the country from the activities of the Grefs, Chubais, Nabiulins, Kudrins and other ghouls, here you need a completely different "weapon", but it just does not exist at all.
  4. Snail N9
    Snail N9 5 October 2020 05: 37 New
    22
    Article from the series: for "lulling". The only thing missing is the diferambs about the main "treasure" of Russia, the "invincible" "multi-way operator ....." Russia-Forward! " wink
    1. Hagen
      Hagen 5 October 2020 07: 24 New
      +1
      Quote: Snail N9
      Article from the series: for "lulling".

      One could agree with you if the report was published in Russian. But it came out in English. This means that its main target audience is English. Hence the conclusion: the main purpose of the report is to present Russia as a strong adversary, demanding the same from the rival. This is the rationale for the requirement for additional funding for the defense programs of NATO member countries. Primarily.
      1. Stas157
        Stas157 5 October 2020 08: 01 New
        +7
        Quote: Hagen
        One could agree with you if the report was published in Russian.

        And that the West can no longer lull us or, for example, frighten itself with Russian military might? Never before? I remember the West for the whole world was afraid of Iraqi chemical weapons, which later did not appear!
        1. Hagen
          Hagen 5 October 2020 08: 28 New
          +1
          Quote: Stas157
          And that the West can no longer lull us to sleep .....?

          The West is not trying to lull us to sleep. Do not indulge yourself with illusions. One article will not outweigh all that the consolidated West is actually doing on our borders. Where do you see this lulling? On B-52 flights over Ukraine near our borders? Or in the exercises conducted according to specific scenarios of "repelling Russian aggression in the Baltic states"?
          Quote: Stas157
          or for example to intimidate yourself with Russian military power

          Also a very controversial assumption. The West is not homogeneous. There is an elite that receives all sorts of "buns" from an order for the military-industrial complex, and there is a simple voting electorate who does not want to reduce the level of social programs and does not seek to pay for excess weapons. To smooth out the conflict between these parts, all sorts of "near-justifiable" studies and "political" events with dubious (in our opinion) reasons are being created. As practice shows, Western media are working hard for the military-industrial complex and are making progress in creating a certain public opinion within their countries. This article is one of the elements of this work. I think so winked
        2. The comment was deleted.
      2. iouris
        iouris 5 October 2020 23: 42 New
        +3
        Quote: Hagen
        the purpose of the report is to present Russia as a strong adversary

        The GDP of a "weak" enemy is 40 times greater, the population is more than 7 times, the territory of the Russian Federation is surrounded by bases on all sides, the fleet is practically incommensurable ... Also, the "strong adversary" beats, but cannot achieve import substitution, independence from raw catching up with Portugal in terms of living standards ... And this is at the "peak of power".
        1. Hagen
          Hagen 6 October 2020 06: 12 New
          -3
          Quote: iouris
          The GDP of a "weak" enemy is 40 times larger, the population is 7 times larger

          The magazine is actually English. Whom do you mean? The article and other horror stories are not at all about Portugal. And in terms of the complex power of the RF Armed Forces, only our country can break through the US and NATO missile defense and inflict unacceptable damage to the enemy countries. Do you have any reasoned doubts about this? GDP, population is almost irrelevant here. It is more appropriate to direct your comment to the author of the article.
        2. Nastia makarova
          Nastia makarova 6 October 2020 10: 22 New
          -5
          be afraid of Russia
  5. Asad
    Asad 5 October 2020 05: 38 New
    +4
    Of course, it is necessary to improve the army and navy, yesterday's video about the shelling of Stepanokert with cluster munitions left an indelible impression! Something reluctant to live with unexploded ordnance on the balcony!
  6. rotmistr60
    rotmistr60 5 October 2020 06: 02 New
    +1
    The air component of the forces is called the weakest - due to the presence of Tu-95MS turboprop bombers.
    Well, guys, open your eyes and look at your B-52s that have been in service since 1955. Does Russia not have a Tu-160 or does it count. In their report, on the one hand, they say that the Russian army
    became stronger and more efficient
    , so it is necessary to strengthen your own (money, money come on), and on the other hand, they reassure themselves - they (Russia) and in strategic aviation are old, and if you dig deeper, then we (the USA) are stronger and more terrible. The fact that they nevertheless admit that today's Russian army is not the army of the 90s gives reason to think that they will not go into direct conflict, although local ones cannot be ruled out.
    1. Bez 310
      Bez 310 5 October 2020 07: 11 New
      +4
      Quote: rotmistr60
      Doesn't Russia have a Tu-160 or it doesn't count.

      The number of Tu-160s in the DA does not count.
      They think in other categories, and a half dozen
      Tu-160 does not frighten them.
      1. Cowbra
        Cowbra 5 October 2020 07: 19 New
        -12 qualifying.
        Gee-gee ... One and a half dozen Tu-160s are 180 destroyed American cities. For there is no air defense. By the way, their missiles with nuclear weapons are capable of carrying ONLY B-52 52 years of release, to which there are no engines stupidly. Categories from them - to take and cut, and a half dozen Tu - this is fucking what a power.
        1. Bez 310
          Bez 310 5 October 2020 07: 28 New
          +1
          And your opinion has a right to exist.
  7. Mikhail m
    Mikhail m 5 October 2020 06: 04 New
    +3
    Reaching a peak presupposes a subsequent decline, which is quite likely in modern realities.
  8. Cowbra
    Cowbra 5 October 2020 06: 09 New
    -14 qualifying.
    Fine. Point QUALITY amplification. We do what we can, asymmetrically negating all attempts by the United States to dominate. Some Daggers with Poseidons were immediately sent to a landfill and missile defense with deployment in Europe and the meaning of domination at sea - even Poseidon can be launched from the port, but at a kilometer depth there is nothing to beat it with
  9. Vladimir61
    Vladimir61 5 October 2020 06: 25 New
    -1
    It is unlikely that Russia will be able and willing to maintain the pace of army renewal at the same level due to economic constraints and due to the completion of the most complex modernization processes.
    And he can and will! After all the "reforms and accelerations", hiccups will come for a long time, when for "import substitution" of a part or a unit, the modernization of the whole industry is required.
    1. Ross xnumx
      Ross xnumx 5 October 2020 06: 45 New
      +1
      Quote: Vladimir61
      And he can and will!

      yes good
      If those who have swum in fat do not want this, it does not mean that the Russian people will want to feed someone else's army.
  10. Tagan
    Tagan 5 October 2020 06: 32 New
    -11 qualifying.
    Quote: Snail N9
    Article from the series: for "lulling". The only thing missing is the diferambs about the main "treasure" of Russia, the "invincible" "multi-way operator ....." Russia-Forward! " wink

    Well, you will add, even if not on the topic, right?))) It is surprising that they did not remember the retirement age.
    1. Ross xnumx
      Ross xnumx 5 October 2020 06: 52 New
      +7
      Quote: Tagan
      Well, you add, even if off topic, right?

      Do you deny the interconnection of such events in the country? Or you don't know the expression:
      "Politics is a concentrated expression of economics"?
      Or do you think that only thanks to entom and in spite of entim, our Armed Forces received such a "crushing" pace of recovery and development?
      Stop praising and we will not poke you into ... "breakthroughs, innovations, digitalization and breakthroughs" ...
  11. Doccor18
    Doccor18 5 October 2020 06: 36 New
    +7
    ... by the end of the existence of the USSR, its armed forces faced serious difficulties, and later a period of constant reductions and losses began. Then there were unsuccessful attempts to reform the army. The situation began to change only in the middle of the two thousandth ...

    And that's for sure
    The International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) has published a report ...?
    more like the Russian propaganda campaign from the Zvezda TV channel ...
  12. Cowbra
    Cowbra 5 October 2020 06: 55 New
    -10 qualifying.
    The Ministry of Truth went on alert and was amazed - how is it? And in our manuals it is written differently! It is analytics to know what is really going on. And in your manuals - propaganda from the Ministry of Truth. They never wrote the truth in them
  13. Tagan
    Tagan 5 October 2020 08: 24 New
    -2
    Quote: ROSS 42
    Quote: Tagan
    Well, you add, even if off topic, right?

    Do you deny the interconnection of such events in the country? Or you don't know the expression:
    "Politics is a concentrated expression of economics"?
    Or do you think that only thanks to entom and in spite of entim, our Armed Forces received such a "crushing" pace of recovery and development?
    Stop praising and we will not poke you into ... "breakthroughs, innovations, digitalization and breakthroughs" ...

    How interesting ... And where did I praise someone here? Eka you developed. Do you answer me exactly?)))
    Here I am just about what the purpose of your brothers to throw on the fan, regardless of the topic.
    At the expense of "you stop". I'll figure it out somehow without you. Poking someone in ... you will be at home to reduce the chances of plunging yourself;)
  14. cniza
    cniza 5 October 2020 12: 07 New
    +2
    IISS: Russia at the peak of its military power


    I don't like it, so at least burst when enemies praise us ...
  15. ZEMCH
    ZEMCH 5 October 2020 12: 45 New
    +2
    For English-speaking readers who need to see a serious enemy. Another horror story. There is only one conclusion, more money should be invested in the development of the armed forces of the NATO countries.
  16. nikvic46
    nikvic46 5 October 2020 16: 14 New
    +1
    Nobody argues with the power of the Army and Air Force. And the power of strategic weapons is beyond doubt, but the weakness of the USSR in armament gives rise to such a feeling, as if iron were struck on glass. Many were simply sold out, and the rest was improved, but many did not even reach what it was in the USSR. These are primarily aircraft carriers. And also airplanes with short takeoffs. People have to trust their military forces. And if there is confidence that the Army can protect us, then we can stop talking incessantly about the military power of Russia.
  17. Imperial Technocrat
    Imperial Technocrat 5 October 2020 21: 43 New
    -6
    Yes, the modernization came out great, but it is still ongoing, and the RF Armed Forces are getting even stronger every year. If now we are powerfully sharing the 1st place in the world with the United States, then after the Civil War and the collapse of America, we will be alone in 1st place
    1. Gloomy skeptic
      Gloomy skeptic 6 October 2020 07: 59 New
      +1
      And if also China, India and Brazil will greatly thin out people from the coronavirus, then in general we will go to place number 0.
  18. Gloomy skeptic
    Gloomy skeptic 6 October 2020 07: 57 New
    0
    Prospective fighter of the 5th generation Su-57 has not yet entered the troops
    But in the United States they are already talking about the sixth generation aircraft! And why should they: don't tryndet bags to carry - the back does not hurt!
    Such "analytics" hangs on the fences in our village in the form of advertisements, if someone does not know what, he can go up to the fence and read with his own eyes, well, if he can read. As one cinematic character said: "So I can do it myself! Give me a murk!"
  19. Muddy Seeing ORACLE
    Muddy Seeing ORACLE 7 October 2020 11: 09 New
    +1
    Quote: 9PA
    What can be the economy surrounded by thieves? 1937 is a feat of our people


    The thief was at all times and it is not exterminated, this is the mentality of the peoples ...
    But what are temporarily difficult for us is not far off ...
  20. stas
    stas 11 October 2020 12: 11 New
    0
    Quote: Ragnar lodbrok
    the Russian armed forces have reached the peak of their power.
    This is good, no one argues ... Here's another social program to the peak of power to raise ...


    What is the need for power, if the number of all ground forces of Russia is less than the number of troops of the Russian Guard. It turns out that the authorities are more afraid of their people than an external enemy.

    And why should the enemies fight, if they have already bought the entire Russian elite with giblets and are buying up the Russian industry, as Deripaska gave the aluminum industry to the United States.
    If the enemy praises, it means that one should actually cry, and not admire what is not.