Military Review

How Ivan the Terrible created the first Russian ground forces

48
How Ivan the Terrible created the first Russian ground forces

Sagittarius. Fragment of S. Ivanov's painting “Tsar. XVI century. " (1902)


470 years ago, on October 1, 1550, Tsar Ivan the Terrible laid the foundations for the Russian regular army. On this day, the Russian sovereign issued a Sentence (Decree) "On the placement in Moscow and surrounding districts of a selected thousand of service people." In the same year, a streltsy army was formed.

As a result, Ivan the Terrible, in fact, laid the foundations of the first permanent army. In honor of this historical event, on October 1, modern Russia celebrates a professional holiday - the Day of Ground Forces.

Ivan IV Vasilyevich actively carried out military reforms, a streltsy army was created, a permanent guard service, artillery ("outfit") was allocated to an independent branch of the army. Also, the system of manning and military service in the local army was streamlined, centralized control of the army and its supply was organized, artillery, mine work and manual firearms were actively developed. weapon.

The heyday of the Russian state


At the end of the XV-XVI centuries. the economic base of Rus was strengthened, during the reign of Ivan Vasilyevich (1533-1584) the creation of a centralized state was completed. The already existing cities were quickly built and grew. Russia was a country of cities in which up to 20% of the population lived. The development of the craft led to the qualitative and quantitative growth of the production of weapons, especially firearms. The service nobility became a solid military and political foundation of the Russian autocracy. Also, the support of the king was the church and the townspeople, interested in strengthening the state, which was personified by the sovereign.

Ivan IV in 1547 took the title of tsar, became an unlimited autocratic ruler. Under him, the remnants of feudal fragmentation were eliminated. To suppress the resistance of the supporters of feudal fragmentation (princes and boyars), the oprichnina institute was created - a special military-economic organization. Landless nobles were selected for the guardsmen. In 1565, “1000 heads” of nobles were selected, who broke all ties with the Zemshchina (owners and estates that were not included in the oprichnina). The lands of the oprichnina belonged to the sovereign and his people personally. The most developed trade and economic centers and lands, which previously belonged to the aristocracy, departed there. Soon, up to half of the state's territory was included in the oprichnina. As a result, the tsar suppressed the political opposition (including economically), eliminated the remnants of appanage squads and created a military support for himself in the person of service people who were completely dependent on the sovereign's mercy. Also Ivan the Terrible supplemented the “vertical” of power with a “horizontal” - a system of zemstvo self-government. Its peak was the Zemsky Sobor, where delegates from different cities and estates decided the most important issues. This policy met with the support of most of the population of the state. This gave Russia great stability and allowed her to survive in the years of the future Troubles.

This could not but affect the military and political successes of the Russian state. Russia expanded significantly to the south and east, including the entire Volga region, the Urals and Western Siberia. At the same time, movement to the south and east continued. The defense of the southern and eastern borders was significantly strengthened, where fortified lines (zaseki) and Cossack troops began to play the main line. The Russian state was able to reflect the next "crusade" of the West - the Commonwealth, Sweden with the support of Rome and the German Empire.

Military reforms


Sovereign Ivan the Terrible actively improved the armed forces of the Russian state. The local system that emerged in the 1550th century was finally formalized by the decrees of Ivan IV. In 1071, 1555 people of the "boyar children", the "best" servants, were "housed" in the area of ​​the capital. The "Chosen Thousand" of Moscow nobles became the basis for the commanding personnel of the army and the highest rank of the service class. In 150, the Code of Service was published, equalizing estates and estates, military service for the highest nobility (princes and boyars) and nobles became mandatory and hereditary. The code determined official duties depending on the size of the estate. For the service was given a land plot ranging from 3 to 4 thousand hectares. Also, the service was entitled to a monetary salary depending on the category (from 1500 rubles to 100 rubles). For every 50 couples (about 15 hectares) of good land, the nobles had to equip one equestrian warrior, ready for a long campaign. Those who fielded more soldiers were awarded, the deviators were punished. The estate (and service) passed from father to son. The service began at about XNUMX years old. For the registration and verification of the nobility, reviews were held, where the service lists ("tithes") were specified.

According to Western authors, Muscovy ("Tartaria") could exhibit from 80 to 150 thousand horsemen. However, these are clearly overstated figures. Russian military historians cite a figure of about 20 thousand boyars and nobles, who were listed in the category lists. For example, in the rich and large Novgorod land there were more than 2 thousand noblemen, in Pereyaslavl-Zalessky a little more than a hundred, in Kolomna - 283, etc. That is, the local cavalry could number 30 - 35 thousand fighters. But at the same time, part of them remained in reserve, covering other areas, that is, not all went on the campaign. It is clear that the army had a large number of service and support personnel (non-combatants), so the Russian army seemed huge to foreigners. The tsarist regiment, which, according to sources, numbered 15-20 thousand people (this figure is clearly greatly overestimated), was considered the select part of the local cavalry.

Also part of the local army was the Tatar cavalry (about 10 thousand horsemen), warriors of the Tatar (former Horde) nobility, which became part of the all-Russian elite. Part of the cavalry troops were "city" Cossacks, Don, Dnieper, Volga, Yaik (Ural), Terek, Cherkassk and Siberian Cossacks. Most often, the Cossacks carried the border service. The Cossack troops were powerful offensive and defensive bridgeheads of the Russian land, advanced to the most dangerous directions. If necessary, in the peasants' and posadskie yards, they recruited equestrian people for donations.

Russian infantry and artillery


The second part of the Russian army was the infantry. At the beginning of the 11th century, a new type of infantry appeared - squeakers. They were armed with firearms (pishchal). The caliber of hand-held arms ranged from 15 to 3 mm on average. There were also squeaky tools. Squealers were exhibited by Moscow, Novgorod, Pskov and other cities. So Novgorodians equipped one squeaker from 5-XNUMX yards.

In 1550, a detachment of 3 thousand "elected archers from archers" was formed, consisting of six "articles", 500 soldiers in each "article". Each "article" was divided into hundreds. Their heads (commanders) were nobles. The rifle army was kept not only during the war, but also in peacetime. The archers were equally armed and uniform. This was the beginning of a standing (regular army). In the annals, the archers are mentioned earlier in 1550, but this type of troops was finally formed at that time. Streltsy were recruited from free people, received a salary for service, plots of land in the city area, had the right to engage in trade and craft activities in their free time. For this they carried out lifelong service, which could be inherited. They lived in their own special settlements. In peacetime, they carried out a guard service. Of the best archers, a special equestrian detachment (stirrups) was created. The warriors were armed with a pishchal, a berdysh (a long-tree battle ax with a very wide blade) and a saber. The berdysh was used not only as a cold weapon, but also a stand for the squeak (it was impossible to shoot from the squeak without a stand because of its large weight).

According to foreigners, there were 10-12 thousand archers in the Moscow kingdom, including 2 thousand stirrups, 5 Moscow and 5 thousand policemen (in other cities. In the last quarter of the XNUMXth century, the garrisons of the north-western cities of Russia consisted mainly of archers, gunners, Cossacks, collars (guarding gates and towers with cannons), etc. Streltsy became one of the main branches of the army.

The third most important part of the Russian army was artillery ("outfit"). The fortresses and arsenals were armed with hundreds of guns. They had qualified personnel for their production and service. These were gunners - Moscow and policemen. Their position was similar to the archers. Received a salary: under Ivan Vasilievich 2 rubles. with a hryvnia a year in money and half an eight of flour a month; the Moscow gunners, in addition, also received a year of cloth for good, 2 rubles each. cloth. They received plots of land in cities, conducted economic activities, lived in their own settlements, sued in a special Pushkar order. Free people entered the gunners. The service passed from father to son. Obviously, the gunners had some training. The "outfit" also included collars, blacksmiths and carpenters.

The construction of fortresses and siege work in Russia was supervised by the "rozmysy" (engineers). They became the beginnings of the engineering troops. Also in the Russian army were detachments of professional mercenaries - this was the tradition of Western Europe. There were few of them (several hundred) and they did not have a significant impact on the development of the Russian army.

In the same period, a higher military administration was formed: Local, Razryadny, Streletsky and Pushkarsky orders. The army was well organized, consisted of 3-7 regiments. The shelves were divided into hundreds, hundreds into tens. Sagittarius in peacetime consisted of orders (500 people), they were divided into hundreds, fifty and tens. The battalion (army) was commanded by a large voivode, regiments - by regimental voivods, there were also chiefs of intelligence, artillery and gulyai-gorod (mobile field fortification). Under Ivan the Terrible, Russia actively revived ancient defensive lines and built new traits (notches). They were defended by a notch guard, which had its own reconnaissance guard. This is how the border service was born.

Thus, under Ivan Vasilievich in Russia, the foundations of a regular Russian army were created. This allowed the Russian kingdom to successfully defeat the wreckage of the Horde on the Volga - Kazan and Astrakhan, annex the Volga trade route, the Urals and Siberia. At the first stage of the Livonian War, crush Livonia to smithereens, and then withstand the combined might of the then "world community". In the south, oppose the Crimean Khanate and the Ottoman Empire.


The capture of Narva by Ivan the Terrible. B. A. Chorikov, 1836
Author:
Photos used:
https://ru.wikipedia.org/
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  1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
    Kote Pan Kokhanka 1 October 2020 05: 22 New
    0
    Prior to that, the knights of Oleg, Igor, Svyatoslav, Vladimir Krasnoe Solnyshko, Vladimir Monomakh parked like birds over the battlefield!
    Yernichayu, the title of the article encouraged!
    Good day to all !!!
    1. Bar1
      Bar1 1 October 2020 08: 53 New
      0
      a strange formulation of the question, but let's say the same Rurik or Oleg, that they did not have a permanent army or, as they said in those days, the squads? Novgorod ushkuyniks, so they had both an army and fleets and, by modern analogy, sea infantry.
      There should be a standing army from the very beginning of the emergence of any state, the squad at that time had both the functions of defense from an external enemy and the functions of protecting law and order.
      1. raif
        raif 2 October 2020 09: 17 New
        +1
        Well then, the Caribbean pirates also had a well-trained fleet, well-trained first-class marines and even the beginnings of crap - the election of captains on the ship! laughing
        1. Bar1
          Bar1 2 October 2020 09: 36 New
          0
          Quote: raif
          Well then, the Caribbean pirates also had a well-trained fleet, well-trained first-class marines and even the beginnings of crap - the election of captains on the ship! laughing

          pirates did not have their own land and held on only because in those days there was a lot of undeveloped land, there was no state, there was no succession and inheritance of power.
          1. raif
            raif 2 October 2020 10: 33 New
            0
            citizen, you are delusional - what kind of "continuity and inheritance of power" could the ushkuyniks have? and during the pirate republics, the material seemed to be published even here - "search and find"
            1. Bar1
              Bar1 2 October 2020 10: 37 New
              0
              Quote: raif
              citizen, you are delusional - what kind of "continuity and inheritance of power" could the ushkuyniks have? and during the pirate republics, the material seemed to be published even here - "search and find"

              You don't know the history well, the ushkuyniki were not bandits and pirates, but were special forces (conditionally) of Veliky Novgorod. First they were Novgorodians, then they founded their own city-Vyatka.
              1. raif
                raif 2 October 2020 11: 09 New
                0
                they were the forerunners of the conquistadors and the Cossacks - the most passionate class of the population, which "does not sit still". and robbery is the main way of doing them, no matter how you try to prove them. the ushkuiniks did this even in relatively peaceful times, which is why there were constant mutual claims between the Horde, Moscow, Novgorod and other victims. a direct analogue of this is Spain's claims to the English kings for piracy in the waters of the New World.
                1. Bar1
                  Bar1 2 October 2020 13: 43 New
                  0
                  About ushkuynikov. I can suggest a study by Dmitry Belousov, he tells what we are not told.
    2. Florian geyer
      Florian geyer 1 October 2020 21: 21 New
      -1
      By the way, I guessed why it was with Ivan 4 that they decided to start the countdown of the ground forces of Russia. It's just that there were always ground troops, but before Ivan the Terrible there was no Russia, but there was a VKM
  2. Ragnar Lodbrok
    Ragnar Lodbrok 1 October 2020 05: 31 New
    13
    As a result, Ivan the Terrible, in fact, laid the foundations of the first permanent army. In honor of this historical event, on October 1, modern Russia celebrates a professional holiday - the Day of Ground Forces.

    Happy Holidays, Queen of the Fields!
    1. Catfish
      Catfish 1 October 2020 13: 36 New
      +5
      Happy Holidays! But "Ground Forces" is not only infantry, but also artillery, tanks, sappers and many other units that provide and support the infantry - "Queen of the Fields". Happy Holidays everyone! soldier drinks
  3. parusnik
    parusnik 1 October 2020 06: 03 New
    14
    According to Western authors, Muscovy ("Tartaria")
    .... How could it be without it .. laughing
    1. Boris55
      Boris55 1 October 2020 08: 22 New
      -1
      Quote: parusnik
      .. How can we do without it ..

      And what about this: Peter I issued a personal decree No. 1735 on the transition to the Julian calendar.

      "1735. - December 19. Nominal. - About the writing henceforth of Genvar from the 1st of 1700, in all papers years from the birth of Christ, and not from the creation of the world.

      In the Rozryad and in All orders, in notes, notes, in letters and in all our Great Sovereign decrees about all matters and in clerks and in squares in all fortresses and in cities Voevods in lists and in notes and in estimated and marked lists and in any orderly and worldly affairs of the summer to write and count the years of Genvar from the 1st 7208 year and count this from the Nativity of our Lord God and Savior Jesus Christ in 1700, and a year later in January from the 1st from the future 7209 year to write from the Nativity of Christ to Genvare from the 1st of 1701 and to repair the following in the future, and from that new year of Genvare to the month and other months and dates to write on a row before Genvare, without fail and in other summers, counting the years from the Nativity of Christ, therefore. Otherwise, We have ordered the Great Sovereign to do so, in order that in many Christian neighboring nations, which hold the Orthodox Christian Eastern faith with us in accordance with us, they write summers with a number from the Nativity of Christ. And if anyone wants to write from the creation of the world: and to them to write both those years from the creation of the world and free from the Nativity of Christ".

      If anyone does not know, then we have 7528th summer in our yard.
      1. Boris55
        Boris55 1 October 2020 08: 53 New
        0
        I wonder if it's a minus to me or to Peter I? laughing
      2. Icelord
        Icelord 10 October 2020 14: 29 New
        -1
        And this is what? What was it, perhaps Turturia?
  4. Free wind
    Free wind 1 October 2020 07: 37 New
    0
    The first picture is interesting. The bugler is trying to tear the bugle from his mouth, his eyes are already bulging, probably frozen. Next to him is the commander, pulled out his saber. well, everything, you tryndets. In the background sits a grandfather, half-naked, sorting through rice. What's with these guns, why their breech is all in shit. And from what cabbage army Siberia took. There, Ermak and his gang began to fight in Siberia, Grozny actually ordered them to be punished by shooting them in the balls with slingshots. The place where history is being rewritten is with us.
    1. Lynx2000
      Lynx2000 1 October 2020 08: 48 New
      +5
      Apparently the author wanted to convey the idea that Ivan IV (the Great / Terrible) laid the foundations - a regular army (rifle regiments).
      Regarding the development of Siberia by Yermak Timofeevich according to the new style in 1581-1585. (Siberian campaign), it is known that in 1586 the future city of Tyumen was founded, while as a prison, the tsarist governor Vasily Sukin, sent with the Cossacks and archers to help ...

      wink
      Some of my relatives in Siberia bear the surname Ermakovs, they consider themselves descendants of Ermak, we joke that our surname, unlike theirs, is the most peaceful and family ...
      1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
        Kote Pan Kokhanka 1 October 2020 09: 38 New
        +1
        A little more complicated. In the second year of the "capture of Siberia" to help Ermak, the first to come was Bolokhov's detachment (archers, city Cossacks and boyar children). But according to Skrytnikov, few survived the winter, including the "voivode".
        1. Lynx2000
          Lynx2000 1 October 2020 10: 26 New
          +3
          This means that "the sovereign's people" came to support the Cossacks, otherwise the archers and the boyar children would not dare to move to the East without the Tsar's decree ...

          I do not know how it was with Cortes or Pisaro, but I think that in Western Siberia the local peoples were more militant.
          1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
            Kote Pan Kokhanka 1 October 2020 11: 12 New
            +2
            When Yermak "took Siberia", Tsarevich "Siberian", with the "Pelymsky and Kondsky" princes besieged Oryol (Kama region).
            1. Lynx2000
              Lynx2000 1 October 2020 11: 37 New
              +2
              Quote: Kote Pan Kokhanka
              When Yermak "took Siberia", Tsarevich "Siberian", with the "Pelymsky and Kondsky" princes besieged Oryol (Kama region).

              Is the Siberian Tsarevich Khan Kuchum? He is not from the local, from Central Asia, it seems ...
              Honestly, I don't know who the Pelymsky and Kondsky princes are. Prikamsk Eagle, too, I don't know where I was ... what
              1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
                Kote Pan Kokhanka 1 October 2020 18: 48 New
                0
                The Tsarevich of Siberia is the son of Khan Kuchuk.
                Oryol Fortress - the unspoken capital of Perm in the 16th century!
                1. Lynx2000
                  Lynx2000 1 October 2020 22: 16 New
                  +1
                  Did not know. Thank!
      2. Florian geyer
        Florian geyer 1 October 2020 20: 47 New
        0
        Peter I considered 1647 to be the beginning of the formation of the Russian regular army, as he was directly told in the Manifesto on the introduction of the Military Regulations of March 30, 1716: “Everyone knows how our father ... in 1647 began to use the regular army military was published ... ". (Source of information - portal History.RF, https://histrf.ru/biblioteka/b/russkaia-rieghuliarnaia-armiia-pieried-pietrom-draghuny-i-soldaty-iz-kriestian)
    2. Freeman
      Freeman 1 October 2020 18: 59 New
      +1
      Free wind (ALEXANDER) Today, 07: 37
      What's with these guns, why their breech is all in shit.


      If you look closely, it is very similar to the covers with which the ignition holes were closed.
      From this we can conclude that the guns are loaded.
      - Possibly a blank charge for a salute.
      - Or maybe buckshot to shoot the street along.
      IMHO

      1. Florian geyer
        Florian geyer 1 October 2020 21: 03 New
        0
        Where can they shoot? They are not fixed - they will fly away. Apparently the artist depicted that the ignition holes from the snow are covered with rags.
        Artist Ivanov, born in 1864, and muzzle-loading guns in the Russian army were used until 1880, so he could personally see this himself
  5. ee2100
    ee2100 1 October 2020 07: 56 New
    +6
    Interestingly, and when was "the next" crusade "of the West - the Commonwealth, Sweden with the support of Rome and the German Empire."?
    Maybe the author will indicate the dates.
    1. Cartalon
      Cartalon 1 October 2020 08: 44 New
      +6
      It is eternal, comes from the Bronze Age
      1. ee2100
        ee2100 1 October 2020 10: 44 New
        +6
        Then from the Neolithic
        1. Cartalon
          Cartalon 1 October 2020 11: 20 New
          +5
          Super Ethnos immediately invented Bronze without any Neolithic
          1. AllBiBek
            AllBiBek 1 October 2020 13: 43 New
            +1
            Uh-huh, and the copper fishing hooks made from local copper in the Kama region are someone else, probably ...
            1. Hantengri
              Hantengri 1 October 2020 17: 47 New
              +1
              Quote: AllBiBek
              Uh-huh, and the copper fishing hooks made from local copper in the Kama region are someone else, probably ...

              These are Anglo-Saxon poachers who came to shit.
  6. Sergey79
    Sergey79 1 October 2020 12: 16 New
    0
    The era of Ivan the Terrible is served to us in pieces. The official history categorically does not want to unite even the events .... Stubbornly calls the war "Livonian" ... Although this order fell apart in 1563 (if memory serves). And they fought with the Poles, Swedes, Danes, and with the Turks for complete pleasure .... The peace treaty was signed only in 1583 (perhaps memory fails). Dear historians, why don't you WISH to unite these events ?! Why don't you have a DESIRE to call the battle of Molodi a war against the Ottomans ?! After all, 20 thousand janissaries should mean something ... So the war turns out to be completely different ... Obviously not "Livonian" ...
    1. ee2100
      ee2100 1 October 2020 14: 10 New
      +1
      The whole story is presented in fragments - it's easier to confuse!
    2. Cartalon
      Cartalon 1 October 2020 14: 44 New
      0
      Do you really think that 20 thousand janissaries marched from the Crimea to the Moscow region?
    3. Hantengri
      Hantengri 1 October 2020 18: 40 New
      0
      Quote: Sergey79
      The official history categorically does not want to unite even the events .... Stubbornly calls the war "Livonian" ... Although this order fell apart in 1563 (if memory serves).

      In 1561.
      The title: "Wars for the Livonian inheritance in 1558-1583" will suit you, as more appropriate to the essence? If so, stop raping your brain and try to assume that "The Livonian War" is an accepted abbreviation.
      Quote: Sergey79
      Do you WISH to call the Battle of Molodi a war with the Ottomans ?!

      Because it was a war with the Krymchaks.
      Quote: Sergey79
      After all, 20 thousand janissaries must mean something ...

      Why not 200 Turkish Janissaries? Or not 000 million? lol
      1. Sergey79
        Sergey79 1 October 2020 20: 18 New
        +1
        You "asked google", and decided to laugh? So the question is .... On what basis was it accepted?
        1. Hantengri
          Hantengri 1 October 2020 20: 38 New
          0
          Quote: Sergey79
          So the question is .... On what basis was it accepted?

          Here I am about the same! On what basis are there 20 janissaries, and Turkish ones (half of the entire corps, for a minute!)?
      2. Sergey79
        Sergey79 1 October 2020 20: 20 New
        +1
        And ..... Dear. I'm not raping my brain, but trying to get to the bottom of it ...
        1. Hantengri
          Hantengri 1 October 2020 20: 40 New
          0
          Quote: Sergey79
          And ..... Dear. I'm not raping my brain, but trying to get to the bottom of it ...

          Essence - Wars of the Livonian Succession. And you fuck your brain.
        2. AllBiBek
          AllBiBek 1 October 2020 22: 55 New
          0
          You raped him, repeating like a mantra "the official history is lying to us!"
          By the way, the era of Ivan the Terrible today is not at all in the same volume and not in the same way as in your (and mine, almost the same age) school years, where a slightly modified Soviet program took place. It was so emasculated in the days of Khrushchev.
          And the answer is simple, under Stalin the times of Ivan the Terrible were studied thoughtfully and in detail. Skrynnikov alone is worth something.
          The modern school course of history - including the Fatherland - is a dietary loaf, which tastes and what calories. And what to dip it into before feeding it to schoolchildren - there are a lot of options.
          In universities, too, everything is complicated, but in general - according to Skrynnikov, Klyuchevsky, and sensitive to Valishevsky.
  7. BIABIA
    BIABIA 1 October 2020 12: 47 New
    +3
    Quote: Lynx2000
    Apparently the author wanted to convey the idea that Ivan IV (the Great / Terrible) laid the foundations - a regular army (rifle regiments).


    He laid the foundation of the modern FSB - the guardsmen)
    1. AllBiBek
      AllBiBek 1 October 2020 13: 46 New
      +3
      Then BB.
    2. Lynx2000
      Lynx2000 1 October 2020 14: 54 New
      0
      Quote: BIABIA


      He laid the foundation of the modern FSB - the guardsmen)

      The FSB was founded by reformers from the 90s.
      Secret order or secret office 17-18 centuries there are methods of interrogation ...
  8. Lynx2000
    Lynx2000 1 October 2020 14: 55 New
    0
    Quote: AllBiBek
    Then BB.

    sad
    It's even a shame to hear ?!
    Firstly, when the explosives were from '92, the zones were not guarded and the people were not driven.
    Secondly, operational formations (ODONs, DONs, OPONs), purely combat units, and, starting from Nagorno-Karabakh in the late 80s, did not climb out of hot spots.
    Itself went from '99 to '00.
  9. Freeman
    Freeman 1 October 2020 19: 07 New
    +2
    Sagittarius. Fragment of S. Ivanov's painting “Tsar. XVI century. " (1902)


    Amendment.
    Illustration and caption do not match.
    Here is a picture of S.V. Ivanov "Tsar. XVI century." 1902 year



    And in the illustration in the article, a painting by the same artist "Sagittarius" 1907.
  10. Freeman
    Freeman 1 October 2020 19: 20 New
    0
    Obviously, the gunners had some training.


    The Italian author Francesco Tiepolo, who in 1560 compiled a historical and geographical description of the Russian state on the basis of the writings of travelers and the stories of Europeans who served in the army of Ivan the Terrible, reported that under the guidance of foreign soldiers, “Muscovites on holidays are trained in arquebus according to German rules and, having become very experienced, from day to day they are improving in great numbers. "

    An English diplomat, traveler and merchant Anthony Jenkinson, who observed an artillery and rifle review during his stay in Moscow in 1557, left a detailed description of one of the teachings.

    The show was held on December 12 ("in the darkest winter season") outside the city. For the artillery test, two log cabins were made in advance, 10 m thick, completely covered with earth. White targets were set up in front of the log cabins to make it easier for the gunners to aim their guns. A platform was set up to the side, from where the tsar and his retinue watched the shooting. All the guns in Moscow were brought to the inspection, and they squeaked and fired at the log cabins, starting with small guns and ending with large guns. The log cabins were completely destroyed in three stages. The rifle review, in which, apparently, the entire Moscow rifle garrison participated, was held in front of the artillery. The target was a wall made of blocks of ice. Its thickness was more than half a meter, its length was about 400 m, and its height was about 1,8 m. The firing line was arranged at a distance of 50-55 m from the target. Archers, at the command of the king, opened fire. fired on the ice wall until it was completely destroyed.
  11. Icelord
    Icelord 10 October 2020 14: 25 New
    0
    The archers were not a regular army, they corresponded to the Cossacks. Aleksey Mikhailovich started a regular army about which all historians have been writing for three hundred years, and the dates are invented by politicians and Alexander Samsonov happily picks up, because the regiments of a foreign system from the damned west, with Western commanders, and soldiers for the most part, how is that)) )