Military Review

Nuclear lottery. Germany decides where to bury its "peaceful atom"

44

In Germany, after many years of preparation, a concrete process has begun to finally get rid of the consequences of the prolonged and intensive use of nuclear energy. Judging by the collisions and debates that accompany it, this country's path to a nuclear-free future will be as thorny as it will be long.


The German Federal Company for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste (BGE) has published a report that indicates potential locations for the construction of a permanent repository for high-level radioactive waste accumulated at the local nuclear power plants for 62 years. Today, we are talking primarily about 1900 huge containers containing 27 cubic meters of spent reactor rods and the like, making up only 000% of all nuclear waste in Germany, but containing 5% of their radioactivity.

Let me remind you that the final decision on the phased complete abandonment of nuclear energy until 2022 was made by the German government 9 years ago, after the nuclear disaster in Fukushima. Now most of the nuclear power plants in the country have already been shut down, and the share of electricity generated by them is only 11,3%. It would seem that the denouement is close, but the question remains open to this day about where the ominous waste of this industry should find its last refuge. According to the plans declared by the government, the site for the country's main nuclear repository should be finally determined by 2031, and its operation should begin in 2050.

I must say that this topic is quite painful for Germany. Everyone has a fresh memory of the example of Gorleben, a small settlement in Lower Saxony of 650 inhabitants, where an attempt was made to house a nuclear waste repository in a nearby former salt mine in 1977. The local residents were not at all imbued with the need for such a neighborhood, and, despite their own small number, they launched such a powerful protest that the place soon turned into the center of the anti-nuclear movement for the whole of Germany. The police got tired of fighting with the activists chained to the railroad tracks, and the authorities, tired of the demonstrations, surrendered.

The decision to locate a nuclear repository in Gorleben was officially recognized as "fraught with administrative deficiencies and non-transparent planning." In order to avoid such excesses in the future, the German government in 2013 introduced a law on the search and selection of a nuclear waste storage facility. After that, according to all the rules, a commission of experts was created, which in 2016 developed a plan for how this very search should be carried out.

One of the main aspects of this plan was the “blank map” principle: every region of Germany is considered as a potentially suitable storage location. Everyone has equal chances in this unpleasant lottery. Well, except that the brawlers from Gorleben were excluded from it a priori out of harm's way, saying that the mine there still "does not meet the criteria."

According to the aforementioned BGE report, possible sites for the construction of a radioactive waste storage facility, which will last at least a million years, are 90 territories, which occupy more than 54% of Germany's territory. The director general of this organization, Stefan Studt, at a press conference, said very optimistically:

Germany is excellently suited for storing highly radioactive waste due to its geological conditions.

However, Herr Studt's enthusiasm is not shared by all of his compatriots in 16 federal states, who will have to participate in the "nuclear lottery".

Thus, representatives of the Bavarian government have already made a statement that "Bavaria is not a suitable place for the last nuclear storage." And they offered to "take a closer look" at the long-suffering Gorleben ... Criticism of the "report written behind closed doors" was also made by the activists of the organization BUND (Friends of the Earth of Germany), who believe that public opinion was "not sufficiently taken into account" in its preparation.

Jochen Stey, a spokesman for the anti-nuclear nongovernmental organization Ausgestrahlt, also spoke very skeptically about the prospects for a future final choice, recalling that "today more than half of all wind farms are out of operation due to citizens' protests," and when it comes to highly radioactive waste, the scale of protests can be completely unpredictable.

Be that as it may, Federal Minister of the Environment Svenja Schulze expressed her belief that "political motives should not be allowed to influence the search for a permanent repository in any way, while deviating from a strictly scientific approach." A similar opinion was expressed by the head of the BGE, who believes that "politicians are obliged to support the law with which they have agreed, and not to make comments that undermine public confidence in the procedure." Sounds right, but how will it turn out in reality?

The procedure, which starts at the current stage of the project (starting from October 2020), is even more ambitious than everything that preceded it. The initial report will be subjected to a thorough analysis of “citizens and stakeholders” at several so-called regional conferences. The BGE results in the next report, followed by ... further study. The federal parliament (Bundestag) and representatives of the states (Bundesrat) will also take an active part in the case, without whose approval no construction will begin. In total, a whole decade is allotted for these procedures, but is even such a period sufficient, given the importance and urgency of the issue?

Be that as it may, Germany still has a chance to become the first state to create a permanent and eternal necropolis for a peaceful atom. Today, despite decades of operation of nuclear power plants around the world, officially there is not a single such place on the planet.
Author:
Photos used:
Wikipedia / Grafenreinfeld NPP in Germany
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  1. nnm
    nnm 30 September 2020 18: 11
    +5
    This is not the first year that Ukraine has proudly offered itself as a nuclear burial ground. They want to make an international storage facility in Chernobyl. One problem - Germany understands that if she takes the waste to Chernobyl, in a couple of years bearded men will run along the streets of German cities with "dirty" bombs.
    1. Alex Nevs
      Alex Nevs 30 September 2020 19: 51
      +6
      Pay RF money (a lot), and she will take it. Fortunately, there is already a place for her to "re-react". laughing
      1. businessv
        businessv 30 September 2020 21: 34
        -3
        Quote: Alex Nevs
        Fortunately, there is already a place for her to "re-react".

        And where exactly is this "good"? Please enlighten me, I do not know.
        1. KCA
          KCA 1 October 2020 07: 18
          +4
          Nuclear waste is added to the fuel for a fast neutron reactor and at the output we get plutonium, instead of the waste from which fuel for conventional VVR is made, we make fuel for RBN from the development of VVR, and so on in a circle
      2. Vol4ara
        Vol4ara 4 October 2020 11: 00
        -1
        Quote: Alex Nevs
        Pay RF money (a lot), and she will take it. Fortunately, there is already a place for her to "re-react". laughing

        It is not necessary to send waste to Ukraine for this.
        The legacy of the collapse of the USSR is still found in landfills, the same bgi60 blocks with cesium inside from polyclinics destroyed by perestroika.

        Ps, although this is not accurate, most likely they are used in many places, and not only in medicine.
    2. anzar
      anzar 30 September 2020 22: 25
      +2
      if she takes the waste to Chernobyl, in a couple of years the bearded men will run through the streets of German cities with "dirty" bombs.

      According to you, it turns out that Ukrainian waste is not suitable for "dirty" bombs, only German ...))
      1. Snail N9
        Snail N9 1 October 2020 02: 26
        -3
        To Moscow. This waste should be transported to Moscow and processed in the Kremlin ... or to Borovikha. They are so useful to the state and "safe" ....
        1. aleksejkabanets
          aleksejkabanets 1 October 2020 03: 53
          -1
          Quote: Snail N9
          To Moscow. This waste should be transported to Moscow and processed in the Kremlin ... or to Borovikha. They are so useful to the state and "safe" ....

          Maybe then the "living for the People" will grow two heads, and they will start thinking twice better of us?
  2. Mouse
    Mouse 30 September 2020 18: 16
    +1
    Is that something to break your head? Krajina! Well, pay a little money, they will lick your slippers ...
    1. nnm
      nnm 30 September 2020 18: 25
      +2
      Why pay? Give Ukraine a loan)))) and take out their waste and they will have more money for it)))
      1. Mouse
        Mouse 30 September 2020 18: 33
        +3
        Nice scheme .... yes
        We give the idea away ... wink
      2. dgonni
        dgonni 30 September 2020 20: 22
        0
        Well, from Ukraine, you can play some fun, no question. Only at the moment radioactive waste from Germany goes to Russia!
        And this is one of the points why Germany supports SP-2! For so far no one else is eager to bury Doychev's radioactive waste at home.
        1. nnm
          nnm 30 September 2020 20: 41
          +2
          Are you sure you used the term “waste” correctly? I will hint - tighten the materiel a little better. And start by defining the term "waste" in this context.
        2. businessv
          businessv 30 September 2020 21: 39
          +2
          Quote: dgonni
          Only at the moment radioactive waste from Germany goes to Russia!
          They go according to the contract, where it is stipulated in a separate clause that if TVELs are acquired from Russia, after their operation and their resource depletion, Russia will take them back for subsequent disposal. That is, they bring to us only the waste that was purchased from us as fuel for nuclear power plants. Therefore, there is no need to sow panic and give incomplete information.
          1. dgonni
            dgonni 30 September 2020 23: 12
            +2
            Come on, name the power plants in Germany that would buy TVEL from Russia! And when?
            Well, and the control question, how many of them were delivered to Germany and how many have already come to Russia?
            For a better understanding of what we are being told at a minimum, you just need to know that the reactors built according to the USSR's poects were closed and unloaded in 1990!
            So all that is being carried out in the last 5-7 years is all purely Doychev waste. And then what type is this not otzody but valuable material? You just need to turn on the mind and think about why the Deutsches, with their powerful chemical industry, did not begin to isolate anything of value from waste?
            The answer is simple, the game is not worth the trouble, and in fact they are pushing waste to Russia, paying for this procedure and also lobbying the northern stream.
            1. Nastia makarova
              Nastia makarova 1 October 2020 06: 49
              -2
              Only Russia has processing technologies
      3. Normal ok
        Normal ok 1 October 2020 18: 07
        0
        So Russia has long been accepting nuclear waste from other countries. Incl. from Germany. Why fence a garden.
    2. Starover_Z
      Starover_Z 30 September 2020 18: 42
      0
      Quote: Mouse
      Is that something to break your head? Krajina! Well, pay a little money, they will lick your slippers ...

      Well, yes, well thought out ... In the underbelly of the European part of Russia ... Here the States will be happy with such a luminous landmark and goal for the X-hour!
      1. Mouse
        Mouse 30 September 2020 18: 59
        -2
        Well, yes, well thought out ... In the underbelly of the European part of Russia ... Here the States will be happy with such a luminous landmark and goal for the X-hour!

        Oh .... but we have a few graves? The Krasnoyarsk Territory is an example ... and this is not the underbelly ... the very center of the country ...
        1. businessv
          businessv 30 September 2020 21: 44
          +1
          Quote: Mouse
          Oh .... but we have a few graves? Krasnoyarsk region example ..
          Is this a burial place, or a waste storage facility? The purpose is the same, but the conditions of storage and further processing are completely different.
    3. Alex Nevs
      Alex Nevs 30 September 2020 19: 52
      +1
      in the outskirts only to bury waste. Here is all its potential.
  3. ccsr
    ccsr 30 September 2020 18: 23
    +1
    The director general of this organization, Stefan Studt, told a very optimistic news conference:
    Germany is excellently suited for storing highly radioactive waste due to its geological conditions.

    I don't know how all 16 federal states are suitable for this, but as far as I remember, uranium ore was mined in Saxon Switzerland south of Dresden even under Hitler, and during the GDR it was supplied to the USSR. So there is a large number of uranium mines, and they are not far from the borders with the Czech Republic, and therefore it will not be problematic to create a waste storage there. However, let the Germans have a headache - maybe they will steam their radioactive waste for a lot of money, for example, the same Ukraine.
  4. zontov79
    zontov79 30 September 2020 18: 34
    +1
    Come on, what a lottery, everyone knows that they will be buried near Krasnoyarsk.
    1. Starover_Z
      Starover_Z 30 September 2020 18: 44
      -9
      Quote: zontov79
      Come on, what a lottery, everyone knows that they will be buried near Krasnoyarsk.

      And what, the residents of Krasnoyarsk, in contrast to the federal Germans, eat radiation emitted from storage facilities? Or do the Germans promise them a million euros each ?!
      1. zontov79
        zontov79 30 September 2020 18: 50
        -4
        Do you understand the meaning of what I wrote ?? I can't understand what you wrote to me and why did you write this to me ???
        1. Starover_Z
          Starover_Z 30 September 2020 19: 01
          -5
          I understood, but you don't. The residents of Krasnoyarsk, unlike the Germans, do not care what is happening around them?
      2. Egor53
        Egor53 1 October 2020 17: 22
        0
        "And what, the inhabitants of Krasnoyarsk, in contrast to the federal Germans, eat the radiation emitted from the storage facilities?"
        Yuri, who told you that radiation is emitted from the storage facilities? Have you ever met data that the radiation background in Krasnoyarsk is increased? In no way he (background) in Krasnoyarsk is not promoted - there is nothing for him to be promoted there.
        If you didn't teach physics at school, then don't write about radiation - otherwise it looks funny. Better write about Chinese literature ... not knowing the Chinese language.
    2. businessv
      businessv 30 September 2020 21: 47
      -1
      Quote: zontov79
      Come on, what a lottery, everyone knows that they will be buried near Krasnoyarsk.
      I don’t understand your unreasonable panic! I don't know why you think so! If we sold TVELs to Germany, we will accept them back, if not, then "come on, goodbye"!
      1. zontov79
        zontov79 1 October 2020 04: 28
        0
        Where did you see that panic, so blurted out for a catchphrase?
        1. businessv
          businessv 2 October 2020 21: 06
          0
          Quote: zontov79
          Where did you see that panic, so blurted out for a catchphrase?
          I saw panic in your proposal, which I highlighted.
  5. Egor53
    Egor53 30 September 2020 18: 39
    10
    Disposal of nuclear waste, from a technical and environmental point of view, is not a problem for any country. Anyone who says otherwise is either a brazen liar or an illiterate.
    Nuclear fuel reprocessing is a difficult task, today only Russia and France can handle it. And this work is not only difficult, but also VERY profitable. I think that Russia will process the German nuclear waste, and it will make good money on this.
    1. businessv
      businessv 30 September 2020 21: 48
      +4
      Quote: Egor53
      Disposal of nuclear waste, from a technical and environmental point of view, is not a problem for any country. Anyone who says otherwise is either a brazen liar or an illiterate.
      At the moment, the only adequate comment. good drinks
  6. Egor53
    Egor53 30 September 2020 18: 40
    0
    If Germany closes all of its nuclear power plants, then it will need more than 30 billion cubic meters of additional gas per year. That will only be a plus for Russia.
  7. Free wind
    Free wind 30 September 2020 18: 45
    -4
    a year ago all our ears were buzzing that German waste would be processed here, and what a happiness it is.
  8. demo
    demo 30 September 2020 19: 33
    +1
    Those interested can see
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5-n6WVFKf4o
    The impatient can immediately start watching from 17 minutes.
    But better from the beginning. A nuclear power engineer gives a lot of exciting information.
  9. Alien From
    Alien From 30 September 2020 19: 41
    +1
    Let them turn to Mask, he will take them out of the earth)))) not for free of course ...
  10. BAI
    BAI 30 September 2020 20: 57
    -1
    According to the plans declared by the government, the site for the country's main nuclear repository should be finally determined by 2031

    Yes, everyone is very clear - burial in Ukraine. It will come out much cheaper. You can just take it out there and throw it. You just have to pay whoever you should.
  11. 7,62h54
    7,62h54 30 September 2020 21: 06
    -2
    Nuclear waste is already being imported to Russia from Germany, ostensibly for enrichment. 80 percent of this waste remains in Russia. There is nothing you can do with them, just store. And plans to import more and more.
    And what can you expect from Kiriyenko, who once brought the country to the handle through default. The economy in his head simply works, they give money - dance as they say.
    1. lucul
      lucul 30 September 2020 21: 12
      +3
      Nuclear waste is already being delivered to Russia from Germany, allegedly for enrichment

      So it is - the spent fuel of a nuclear reactor is a semi-finished product in the production of weapons-grade Plutonium.
      1. 7,62h54
        7,62h54 30 September 2020 21: 31
        0
        The trouble is that the lion's share of waste remains in Russia forever. There's nowhere to put your waste
        1. alean245
          alean245 30 September 2020 22: 24
          +2
          Nuclear waste is already being imported to Russia from Germany, ostensibly for enrichment.

          Are you talking about the story with the uranium dumps left after enrichment? If yes, then I will tell you a terrible secret: this waste is not from a nuclear reactor. In fact, this is the same uranium from which most of the isotope uranium 235 was extracted. Phonite is even slightly smaller than "natural" uranium with a natural ratio of isotope concentrations.
          There is nothing you can do with them, just store.

          As fast breeder reactors are put into operation and the transition to a closed nuclear fuel cycle, this "do nothing, just store" eventually becomes fuel (plutonium). And the transition will happen sooner or later, because the reserves of uranium 235 are not so great.
    2. zontov79
      zontov79 1 October 2020 04: 31
      +2
      Indeed, there are a bunch of idiots who do not know that they brought waste from all over the world to Krasnoyarsk. All the dew of God is in their eyes.
  12. Sancho_SP
    Sancho_SP 1 October 2020 00: 21
    +1
    Dragging, this is not exactly waste. The high-tech nuclear industry makes it possible to extract fuel from them. In 10 years, this waste will be completely supplied to itself.
  13. Mikhail3
    Mikhail3 1 October 2020 09: 25
    +1
    We must take it while they give it. As far as is known, projects of reactors that can use the "waste" already exist. It's just that it's not profitable to use them yet, gas is more convenient and cheaper. But when cured, thousands of tons of fuel will be of lasting value. Of course, you can't explain all this to eco-shize ...