Military Review

Castel Sant'Angelo in Rome: refuge, treasury, prison

157
Castel Sant'Angelo in Rome: refuge, treasury, prison

It is difficult to say from what distance the Castel Sant'Angelo in Rome makes the strongest impression. Both near and from afar, its round tower literally hangs over the surrounding buildings.


... because this fortress was inconvenient for a siege ...
Second Book of Maccabees 12: 21


Castles and fortresses. For a long time we had nothing about locks on VO. And this is a very serious omission on my part, because people find it interesting to read about locks. And although it will still not be possible to tell about all the preserved castles, for some of them it is simply necessary. And this is especially true of the Castel Sant'Angelo in Rome, which, in fact, became a model for castle builders in Europe, and initially it was not a castle. This is such an amazing building, and today we will tell you about it.


The bronze archangel Michael crowns the castle. It was in his honor that he got his name.

We should start with its not quite unusual name. After all, initially it was not a castle, but a luxurious mausoleum for the Roman emperors. Then it was turned into a fortified refuge for the popes, a treasury of their wealth, a prison where both political criminals and religious heretics and even the artist Benvenuto Cellini were kept. In addition, many stories and amazing legends are associated with it. And even Dan Brown chose Castel Sant'Angelo as a haven for the evil Illuminati.


We go to the castle over the bridge over the Tiber

It is not difficult to get to it if you find yourself in Rome. It is built on the right bank of the Tiber River at a distance of a kilometer from St. Peter's Basilica and the Vatican.


The Tiber in Rome is a shallow and muddy river ... Especially in summer!

From the left bank, where such iconic structures as the Colosseum, the Roman Forum and the Pantheon are located, there is a pedestrian bridge to the Castel Sant'Angelo, which is decorated with figures of angels. The castle itself is surrounded by the Hadrian Park with a characteristic "star" shape that follows the outer contour of this castle. It is interesting that in wintertime the Romans go ice skating here and admire the castle at the same time. However, in the Roman summer heat, it will take some imagination to imagine this!


The very central tower of the castle is surrounded by four later bastions, on which the cannons were placed

The most interesting thing is that the Castel Sant'Angelo had nothing to do with the angels from the very beginning, and there were no popes when it was built. And it is not surprising: after all, it was built in the II century A.D. as a luxurious tomb of the Emperor Hadrian, as well as members of his family and all his subsequent successors. In the years 139-217. AD the remains of a number of emperors were buried in this mausoleum, the last among whom was the emperor Caracalla.


General plan of the Castel Sant'Angelo and the surrounding area

Emperor Hadrian spent a significant part of his life on campaigns, traveled all over the empire, but he rarely visited Rome itself. Therefore, it was here that he wanted to build something grand, and, of course, associated with his name. This is how the mausoleum of Hadrian was born, decorated with statues of people and animals, with a beautiful garden with a square base, where two colonnades with columns of different heights were erected. At the top of the mausoleum stood a statue of the emperor Hadrian, represented as the sun god Helios, standing on a golden quadriga chariot, that is, a chariot drawn by four horses.


Underground galleries of the castle

The first mausoleum in Rome was built for the Emperor Octavian Augustus. Hadrian's mausoleum was the second, but it became the tallest building in the city at the time of construction. And then dry pragmatism began ...


Marble bust of Emperor Hadrian from Hadrian's mausoleum. Castel Sant'Angelo National Museum, Rome

In 270 A.D. the empire and Rome began to be threatened by the Goths. Emperor Marcus Aurelius, who ruled at that time, ordered Rome to be fortified with a second line of walls, and Hadrian's mausoleum was included in this protective perimeter, the size and strength of the walls of which allowed him to play the role of an important fortification. And it should be noted that only thanks to its protective functionality, this pagan, in general, building has survived to this day, and was not dismantled by righteous Christians into stones, as it happened in the case of other ancient buildings.


Model of the original view of Hadrian's mausoleum. Castel Sant'Angelo National Museum, Rome

True, the mausoleum of Hadrian nevertheless lost its external splendor: it lost both statues and decor, that is, everything that adorned it under the emperors. In the Middle Ages, the mausoleum became a fortress, so it lost all architectural excesses.

And it turned out that today the castle of St. Angel is most like a layer cake! At the base is the foundation of Hadrian's mausoleum, but everything above it is the later additions and additions of various popes who used this structure as their spare residence in case of various disasters.


It's good to hide in the dungeons of the castle from the unbearable Roman heat

Interestingly, the very Christian name of the castle is associated with the plague epidemic in 590. Then in Rome many people died from her, no one knew when this scourge would end. But here the Archangel Michael appeared to Pope Gregory the Great in a dream, and not just anywhere, but in the imperial mausoleum. He sheathed his sword, and it was considered a happy omen - a sign that the epidemic would soon end! It is clear that this is what happened.


The original structure of the Hadrian's mausoleum. Castel Sant'Angelo National Museum, Rome

For the miracle sent down by the archangel, they thanked him: they renamed the castle, and put a wooden statue of it on top of it. Then it was changed several times. Today the figure of the archangel over the castle is bronze.


Corridor leading to the library

In the Middle Ages, circumstances forced the popes to use Castel Sant'Angelo as a refuge. And Pope Nicholas III in 1277 ordered the construction of Passeto - a special passage along the high fortress wall 800 meters long, connecting the Vatican with the castle. Now the dads could use it to quickly go to the castle and escape there, if not for good, then for a while. And this move really came in handy for the dads. So, Pope Alexander VI used it to escape when the troops of King Charles VIII of France attacked Rome in 1494.


Here it is, Passetto, - the entrance to the castle along the wall above the city!

And the most famous case, when this passage and the castle really saved the life of the pope, is connected with the siege of Rome by the troops of Emperor Charles V in 1527, after which the city was taken and brutally plundered. Then Pope Clement VII managed to escape from the Vatican precisely along the Passetto and wait out the "invasion" outside its walls. But almost all of his Swiss guards from the personal guard then died defending St. Peter's Cathedral, and the population of Rome decreased from 55 to 000 people. By the way, along the same wall, prisoners were taken from the castle prison to the Vatican for interrogation and trial.


Passetto approaches the Bastion of San Marco

Gradually, the appearance of the Castle of St. Angela approached what we know today. At the same time, in the course of numerous reconstructions, its foundation was expanded, battlements and artillery bastions were added, a ditch was dug around, and a gate equipped with a drawbridge was built.


Bastion of San Marco, as you can see, was well supplied with artillery and a supply of stone cores!


In the thickness of the stone walls of the castle you can see such artillery casemates with cannons of the XNUMXth century.

By the end of the XNUMXth century, the castle began to look more like a palace than a fortress.


The pyramids of stone cores to the tools are also impressive. This is how much stone had to be delivered and how much work did the stonemasons have to hew out so many such kernels ?!

Inside the castle, the coats of arms of the popes are visible everywhere, so it would not be an exaggeration to say that all история papacy is represented on its walls. There are Medici pills, Farnese lilies, Barberini bees, and a red bull of the Borgia family. And every Pope tried to have a hand in not only strengthening this castle, but also adapting it to the existing fashion. But someone, of course, did more than others. Among them was Pope Paul III Farnese, who invited the most talented Italian masters to decorate the interiors of the castle, who painted its premises with exquisite frescoes and decorated them with sculptures, paintings and marble columns.


Another artillery casemate ... Pope Boniface IX (1389-1404) took care of equipping the castle with the latest technology

Such an inaccessible structure in the very center of Rome for secret meetings, and besides, it was also so richly decorated, of course, could not but be used for all sorts of secret meetings and not too advertised "events". In particular, it is believed that the most dissolute Roman Pope Alexander VI Borgia in the Castle of the Holy Angel met with his many mistresses and arranged orgies. But who knows if all this was really so, because human rumor simply loves to exaggerate, especially in relation to those whom she identified as the scapegoats.


By the way, in the courtyard of the castle you can also see a replica of this strange throwing machine.

The Castle of St. Angela became famous for the fact that it served as a prison for persons disliked by the popes. There were chambers and torture rooms. Moreover, very, very remarkable personalities languished in prison here: the famous sculptor, painter and to a large extent adventurer Benvenuto Cellini, the heretic Giordano Bruno and ... Count Cagliostro. Some popes were also able to be prisoners in this castle. It is not without reason that it is said that no one should excuse himself from the bag and from the prison. And even dads ...


Bronze statue of Emperor Hadrian in the park near the castle

The prison in the castle was closed only in 1901: that is how much the society demanded for its gloomy inaccessibility.
Author:
Articles from this series:
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The stone fortresses of ancient Iberians: a chronology of historical drama
Castles and ancient settlements of Lloret
Chinon: castle of one of the wonders of the Orleans virgin
Chinon Graffiti - The Key to the Templar Gold
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  1. Catfish
    Catfish 3 October 2020 05: 30
    16
    Good morning friends! hi Have a nice day and great mood! smile
    Another thanks to Vyacheslav for a beautiful and interesting article.
    1. The leader of the Redskins
      The leader of the Redskins 3 October 2020 07: 00
      +3
      And good morning to you!
      I'm already used to starting on Saturday mornings with Shpakovsky.
      Moreover, I have not been to Italy (maybe I will when)).
      And here is not an article, but a direct advertising booklet - even now, drop everything and take a plane ticket!))
      1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
        Kote Pan Kokhanka 3 October 2020 07: 24
        +5
        I join the guys, for a long time Vyacheslav Olegovich did not please us with "castle excursions"!
        Thank you!
      2. kalibr
        3 October 2020 07: 30
        +7
        About the funniest thing I have not written, Nazariy! My daughter and her son-in-law are trudging around Rome, the heat is unbelievable, it was good for them only in the castle ... and then it was lunchtime and the Italians from their offices ran to dinner. Men in suits, ties ... women in dark skirts, white blouses and tights! And it looks not sweaty !!! And everyone is drinking hot coffee. My daughter almost vomited ...
        1. Liam
          Liam 3 October 2020 11: 25
          +3
          Quote: kalibr
          ! And it looks not sweaty !!!

          ))) so kondey in offices
          1. kalibr
            3 October 2020 15: 21
            +2
            On the streets there are people like that ... Here people trudge sweating in shorts and T-shirts, and they are met by office workers in jackets and tights ...
            1. Liam
              Liam 3 October 2020 15: 48
              +2
              A tourist walks for hours in an unusual climate, while the clerk sits in a cool room and went downstairs for a few minutes to drink coffee. Why should he sweat then)
              Rome is filled with ministries and other state institutions - parliament, presidency, head offices, etc. Therefore, a strict dress code
              1. kalibr
                3 October 2020 15: 52
                +2
                Yes it is, but they thought it was amazing. A very sharp dissonance ...
                1. Liam
                  Liam 3 October 2020 15: 54
                  0
                  In Firenza, the summer is hotter than Rome by the way
        2. Looking for
          Looking for 3 October 2020 16: 56
          0
          and daughter and son-in-law are sweaty and smelly ... !!!!!
          1. kalibr
            3 October 2020 17: 28
            +2
            Sweaty yes, but there are deodorants, bath and shower in the room in the morning and in the evening ... And if you regularly do everything that is necessary, then people, even when they sweat, do not smell. Although if you smoke cheesy tobacco, drink any cheap g ... and change socks on Saturdays, and panties from bath to bath, then, the smell of the "comrade" will still be that of course. You, apparently, are dealing with such more and more, but there are people of a different social environment.
      3. kalibr
        3 October 2020 07: 33
        +3
        Quote: Leader of the Redskins
        even now drop everything and take a plane ticket!

        And you will do the right thing! You only live once. It is impossible to see and touch everything in the world. So why not see at least part of it?
        1. The leader of the Redskins
          The leader of the Redskins 3 October 2020 07: 39
          -1
          I did not ventilate this issue due to the pandemic ... In the spring, a trip with his wife Bratislava - Vienna - Prague was "covered".
          1. kalibr
            3 October 2020 07: 41
            +4
            Quote: Leader of the Redskins
            Bratislava - Vienna - Prague.

            And this is a great route, although the center of Prague is a "herring bank". But Prague is Prague, And I'm not talking about Vienna ... I'm ready to go there again.
        2. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 3 October 2020 08: 11
          +3
          To see something interesting you need to know where to go.
          Thank you, Vyacheslav Olegovich!
          1. Astra wild
            Astra wild 3 October 2020 14: 56
            +1
            Vyacheslav Olegovich has a nose for interesting places.
      4. sivuch
        sivuch 3 October 2020 11: 53
        +1
        And I was, but just passed by. Now you have to drive one more time sad
        1. Astra wild
          Astra wild 4 October 2020 14: 26
          -1
          As they say, there is no rest for a stupid head and legs
          1. sivuch
            sivuch 4 October 2020 15: 48
            0
            Not without it . Only we have not yet had time to visit Lateran, and in Trastevere, not to mention Ostia.
            You see, after all, Rome is a rather large city, and time is always limited.
    2. Bar1
      Bar1 3 October 2020 08: 49
      +2
      knocked down images on the facade and other sides of the castle, what was there?



      1. Astra wild
        Astra wild 3 October 2020 15: 06
        +1
        If we remember that it was the mausoleum of Hadrian and other Roman emperors, then these were masterpieces of pre-Christian architecture.
        I am wondering that the statue of Hadrian has survived, perhaps it was installed later? Or maybe some of the dads appreciated the beautiful. After all, not all popes were narrow-minded fanatics?
        1. Senior seaman
          Senior seaman 3 October 2020 20: 53
          0
          Quote: Astra wild
          I am wondering that the statue of Hadrian has survived, perhaps it was installed later?

          Later.
          Hadrian was strongly disliked by the Catholics.
    3. Alexander Sosnitsky
      Alexander Sosnitsky 4 October 2020 11: 58
      0
      And the faces on the sculptures are all ours. Nations came from the north. Northern Italy - the Alps, even farther north - the great rivers flowing from the glaciers, and the glaciers themselves several thousand years ago were in places not so distant - Dnepropetrovsk and so on up to the Azov and Black Seas, and even more so to the Northern Ocean. Now tell me who the Russians and Ukrainians are. if their physias on Roman statues?
  2. tlauicol
    tlauicol 3 October 2020 05: 38
    12
    a beautiful castle, beautiful two thousand year old bridges, a beautiful city! For my taste - one of the best cities in the world!
    and from there Floria Tosca jumped crying
    -do not be afraid. fall and pretend to be dead
    -How is Tosca in the theater?
    -do not laugh and be serious
    -like this?
    -that's so .. go .. why are they delaying? how long time passes. I know that this is just a comedy, but why is the heart beating so? (volley) Oh! How handsome my Mario is! What an artist!
    1. kalibr
      3 October 2020 07: 31
      +2
      The funniest scene from Tosca - see the film "Deja Vu"
  3. Ragnar Lodbrok
    Ragnar Lodbrok 3 October 2020 05: 51
    +9
    I express my deep gratitude to the author for an interesting excursion! Thanks to the guide for a fascinating and beautifully illustrated story about ancient Rome, its historical places and monuments! I hope for the continuation!
    1. kalibr
      3 October 2020 07: 25
      +6
      Thanks! And you served it well. Nicely. For now, I can say that a whole series of articles about its interesting places is planned for Italy. I myself was only in Genoa and Venice, but my daughter was in Rimini, and in Rome, and in Florence, and ... I don't even remember where. Provided me with tons of photos. Plus museums ... So the topic will continue!
  4. Olgovich
    Olgovich 3 October 2020 06: 25
    +5
    Yes, the Mausoleum of the Emperors of the Pope was notably mutilated ...

    And from the ashes of the emperors not a trace remained ...
  5. Korsar4
    Korsar4 3 October 2020 06: 55
    +3
    Multifunctional building.
    1. Catfish
      Catfish 3 October 2020 07: 50
      +4
      Hello, Sergey! smile
      On the question of multifunctionality ... laughing
      1. Korsar4
        Korsar4 3 October 2020 08: 07
        +2
        "Doctor, where did you get such pictures?" (from).

        But, you are right, Constantine, he was ready to speak about the popes in this plane. I resisted. Not for long.
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 3 October 2020 08: 31
          +2
          "There is no need to restrain desires from the depths of the soul." (from)
          And about the doctor, pictures and pornography, I remembered an old anecdote, but ... you understand. laughing
          Better about these:
          1. Korsar4
            Korsar4 3 October 2020 08: 33
            +2
            In any business, craftsmen are appreciated.
            1. Phil77
              Phil77 3 October 2020 15: 59
              +3
              Quote: Korsar4
              In any business, craftsmen are appreciated.

              Here are the entertainers, huh ?! Both - two! wink
  6. Errr
    Errr 3 October 2020 07: 10
    +6
    From the article:
    By the way, in the courtyard of the castle you can also see a replica of this strange throwing machine.
    Yes, in general, there is nothing particularly strange in this throwing machine, except that this instance is somewhat dismantled. smile In the photo below, the exact same weapon is in combat readiness.
    PS It's good to look at everything from above. smile
    Borgo area and Vatican on the map of Rome.
    1. Catfish
      Catfish 3 October 2020 07: 47
      +1
      In my opinion, this is not entirely true, the remains of the throwing machine in the author's photo more resemble Frandibola

      And you have a "normal" catapult. hi
      1. Errr
        Errr 3 October 2020 08: 02
        +4
        hi
        In the author's photo, it is a catapult. I put both options side by side for clarity, the author's and my embossed.

        The author's version lacks only a throwing lever with a cup for the shot, and a gate to bring it (the lever) to a pulled, ready-to-fire position. smile
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 3 October 2020 08: 05
          +3
          Exactly, you are right. The lack of a "spoon" knocked me down, I apologize. drinks
          1. Errr
            Errr 3 October 2020 08: 09
            +3
            It is OK, it happens. smile Have a nice weekend! drinks
            1. Catfish
              Catfish 3 October 2020 08: 16
              +2
              All the best to you too. smile drinks
        2. BAI
          BAI 3 October 2020 23: 51
          +1
          The article contains a photo from the Internet. For example https://commons.m.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Catapult_in_Castel_Sant%27Angelo.jpg
          Original signature:
          Catapult in Castel Sant'Angelo.
          1. Errr
            Errr 4 October 2020 05: 20
            0
            Yes, I know that ... smile
            You are absolutely right. I just didn’t put the word “author's” in quotation marks in order to follow the style of presentation of the respected comrade Morskoy Kot (Konstantin), tk. he such [quotes] in a similar case, also. did not apply (in the original he has a "photo of the author" without quotes).
      2. Sergey Sfiedu
        Sergey Sfiedu 3 October 2020 23: 56
        0
        This is an "abnormal" "non-catapult". There have never been such catapults. These are fantasies on the theme of onager, what it looked like is also not particularly clear. There was definitely no spoon.
  7. Catfish
    Catfish 3 October 2020 07: 40
    +2
    The first mausoleum in Rome was built for the emperor Octavian Augustus

    Not everything looks so good, the mausoleum of Octavian Augustus most of all resembles the abandoned Kronstadt fort. request
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 3 October 2020 09: 03
      +3
      abandoned Kronstadt fort
      They are being restored on the sly. However, mainly in Kotlin itself.
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 3 October 2020 09: 08
        +2
        I have never been there and I am very sorry about that. request
        1. Phil77
          Phil77 3 October 2020 15: 35
          +2
          In Koenig there are also similar ones.
        2. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 3 October 2020 19: 24
          +1
          I, too, have never been to the storerooms of "Oruzheika", unlike you.
          I can go and make a photo report especially for you, Uncle Kostya.
      2. Astra wild
        Astra wild 3 October 2020 15: 28
        +2
        Recently I saw on TV: underwater archaeologists at the "Plague Fort"
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 3 October 2020 19: 49
          0
          underwater archaeologists at the "Plague Fort"
          What were you joking about?
          1. Astra wild
            Astra wild 4 October 2020 12: 42
            0
            I didn’t remember, I think he was on an artificial island and looked at the foundation. They showed the finds: a special projectile to destroy the ship's tackle, nuclei
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 4 October 2020 12: 48
              0
              However, expected. What else could they find ....
  8. Trilobite Master
    Trilobite Master 3 October 2020 11: 56
    +4
    The marble bust of Hadrian is irrefutable proof that the ancient Romans were Slavs. Look what a noble, strong-willed face, curly hair, a thick beard, white skin, high forehead and cheekbones ... It is obvious that Adrian is Andrew the First-Called, he is also Andrei Bogolyubsky, he is the emperor of Tartary, that is, of the World. "Peace" is just the word that the barbarians of the West, due to their wretchedness and meagerness, read in reverse order, and this is how "Rome" turned out.
    And the castle itself symbolizes the ancient knowledge of our ancestors about the structure of the world - this is the same turtle on which, as is now proven by modern science (real, unofficial, lying to us about some balls flying around nowhere), our flat earth just keeps ...
    I want to draw your attention to the fact that the front legs of the turtle are depicted noticeably more than the hind legs, which indicates that the real turtle, the original version, has more developed front limbs, which is characteristic of predatory animals, that is, the world turtle is a predator adapted to powerful front to tear the victim with limbs.
    And the last thing. How could our ancestors know what this very turtle looks like in order to portray it so accurately, literally? There was only one way - to fly around the world at a great distance, so they knew how to build aircraft heavier than air on a jet thrust - otherwise the flyover would take too long, and it was necessary to have time to fly around the world, and then also build a castle! That is, given the size of the land, you can estimate the size of the elephants holding it and, accordingly, the size of the turtle on which they stand. By simple mathematical calculations, we get - the diameter of a flat earth is 40 km, which means that the diameter of the turtle's shell is at least 000 km, if you fly around it at a distance of 80 km from the edge, then the diameter of the circle will be 000 km, which means the pilot needs to fly more than 10 000 km for only one flyby, plus the distance to the start point of the flyby from the start point and back to the landing point - not less than 100 km.
    And all this our ancestors did several centuries ago during the time of Adrian-Andrey!
    Checkmate, official history! All the evidence is in front of you! You can't argue against mathematics and logic!
    laughing wassat laughing
    1. kalibr
      3 October 2020 15: 24
      +4
      I always envied people who can think of and write this ...
      1. Trilobite Master
        Trilobite Master 3 October 2020 17: 45
        +2
        Vyacheslav Olegovich, do you envy Fomenko? what
        And, however, what to talk about? I myself envy him ... I would also like to be like him - to write garbage and get money for it ... And the fact that what is written will be ashamed, so shame does not eat the eye ...
        Why can't I do it? request
        1. Liam
          Liam 3 October 2020 18: 32
          0
          Quote: Trilobite Master
          I would also like to like him - to write garbage and get money for it ...

          Quote: Trilobite Master
          Why can't I do it?

          Even shit needs talent
          1. Trilobite Master
            Trilobite Master 3 October 2020 18: 50
            +2
            Are you bored?
            Quote: Liam
            Even shit needs talent

            And besides talent, there is also moral untidiness, as in the case of Fomenko.
            Making money through prostitution, drug dealing, black real estate, cheating pensioners by selling them homeopathy at astronomical prices, or writing books on a new chronology - for me, it's pretty much the same thing. Is that prostitution is still a more highly moral business.
            And about talent - well, not for you, after all, to judge. You have not read my books. So it is at least incorrect to make such remarks on your part, to me.
            1. Liam
              Liam 3 October 2020 19: 01
              +2
              Quote: Trilobite Master
              Making money from prostitution, drug dealing, black real estate, cheating retirees by selling them homeopathy at astronomical prices, or writing books on a new chronology

              Horses mixed in a bunch, people..that reminded me of the unforgettable ..today he takes a taxi, and tomorrow he will sell his homeland.
              A person writes garbage and does not forcibly sell to anyone. If some people voluntarily spend their money on his garbage, it means they write talentedly. It seems obvious. The educated laugh, the uneducated spend their personal ones because they like it, nothing criminal. The main thing is not to envy or accept. too serious and close to my heart.
              Quote: Trilobite Master
              highly moral business.
              And about talent - well, not for you, after all, to judge

              What suspiciousness. I just answered your question with the most logical option. It is not a worldwide conspiracy of Masons to explain your commercial failure. I am a supporter of Occam's razor. The simplest explanation is the most correct
              1. Sergey Sfiedu
                Sergey Sfiedu 4 October 2020 00: 00
                0
                Duc prostitution, drug dealers, homeopaths and dietary supplements dealers, too, do not force their services to anyone.
                1. Liam
                  Liam 4 October 2020 00: 24
                  0
                  Leave alone the drug trade, which is a crime. The rest of the businesses are not prohibited and who wants to spend their money on these matters is within their rights. Alcohol and tobacco do much more harm than Fomenko's writings and nothing, are produced and sold by talented (in their field) people.
                  By the way, who is more immoral, a prostitute who sells herself out of hopelessness, because she is forced to feed her children, etc., or a client who uses her services?
              2. Trilobite Master
                Trilobite Master 4 October 2020 14: 46
                -1
                Quote: Liam
                The main thing is not to envy or take it too seriously and to heart.

                Did you really think that I envy Fomenko? If so, then I am truly sorry. Apparently, especially for you, I will have to express myself very clearly, without leaving any options for a misinterpretation of my words. Regarding envy, it was a common joke, seasoned with a fair amount of disgust, because for me such earnings are really akin to what I listed above. It may be better than trade in dietary supplements, but one hundred percent worse than prostitution.
                Tell me, are you really so superficial that you understood my words in the way they wrote it, or is it such an unpleasant manner for you to pretend that you are more stupid than you really are and try to reduce the interlocutor to the same level?
                Quote: Liam
                Not a worldwide conspiracy of the Masons to explain your commercial failure.

                What are you talking about, excuse me? My commercial successes or failures have nothing to do with historical science or literature, that is, in general, they are not even close. And all my attempts to ascend in this area are limited, at least for now, to this site.
                Quote: Liam
                I am a supporter of Occam's razor.

                I don't know who Occama is.
                Occam's principle, if my memory serves me, consists in the recommendation to try when constructing any hypotheses to be limited to the minimum sufficient set of facts, that's all. The key word is "sufficient", not "minimal". Ockham did not write anything about the sheer fidelity of hasty conclusions based on superficial observations. Your "most logical option" is a consequence of your complete ignorance of the situation and can be explained either by your superficiality and stupidity, or by your irrepressible desire to hurt your interlocutor in any way possible.
                If the first circumstance takes place, I am ready to consider this situation a misunderstanding, if the second, then our truce should apparently be considered over. In this case, I will be forced to resign from all obligations assumed in relation to you.
                So what should I think?
                1. Liam
                  Liam 4 October 2020 15: 27
                  +1
                  Quote: Trilobite Master

                  Did you really think that I envy Fomenko? If so, then I am truly sorry

                  I can only repeat what I said to you before ... the first and main sign smart person - clearly, simply and as briefly as possible express their thoughts
                  Quote: Trilobite Master
                  all my attempts to ascend in this area are limited, at least for now, to this site.

                  Do not worry...Down and Out trouble started
                  I am worried about Fomenko, to be honest. If you break free from the narrow framework of this site, it will not be good for him
                  Quote: Trilobite Master
                  I don't know who Occama is

                  Am I wrong or did you use my idea and hired a colleague of the Sea Cat as a spotter / editor? If so, Fomenko is definitely a corpse. In the literary sense, it is natural.

                  Quote: Trilobite Master
                  our truce, apparently, should be considered over. In this case, I will be forced to resign from all obligations assumed in relation to you.

                  I'm flattered, of course, and almost touched, to be honest ... which rarely happens to me. Only I am a little at a loss to understand ... I do not recall any place, time or conditions when the High Contracting Parties concluded this Sukharev Convention. Or have you already joined the fight against Fomenko and are creating an alternative chronology of the site history?

                  Quote: Trilobite Master
                  So what should I think?

                  Well, out of respect for you, I will refrain from thinking for you, so as a true liberal and a champion of freedom of speech, I can only advise, think what you want.
                  For my part, I can only share what I think about your war with Fomenko. For some reason it reminds me of the uncompromising competition between Ellochka the Cannibal and Vanderbildiha
                  1. Trilobite Master
                    Trilobite Master 4 October 2020 16: 55
                    0
                    Quote: Liam
                    I can only repeat what I said to you before .... the first and main sign of an intelligent person is to clearly, simply and as briefly as possible express your thoughts

                    There is a subtlety: not everyone understands briefly and clearly. Here, you see, a lot depends on the interlocutor. Here you are posing as a feeble-minded person, like, you don't understand anything, and I treat you accordingly.
                    Quote: Liam
                    Am I wrong or did you use my idea and hired a colleague of the Sea Cat as a spotter / editor?

                    Take the trouble to explain your maxim. This is the question of brevity and clarity.
                    Quote: Liam
                    I do not remember the place, the time or the conditions when the High Contracting Parties concluded this Sukharev Convention.

                    I proposed a truce, and you and I have observed it until now. You can continue to pose as a girl as long as you like, they say, "nothing happened", I don't care. In this case, I look at actions, not words.
                    Quote: Liam
                    what do I think about your war with Fomenko

                    Personally, Fomenko is indifferent to me, I am not at war with him. But I consider his theories harmful and to some extent even dangerous, not to mention the fact that their heralds annoy me with their stupidity, illiteracy and assertiveness. To cleanse a piece of virtual space from this abomination, making it suitable for normal communication, seems to me the right thing to do. In addition, it entertains me and brings certain fruits - in any case, there are much fewer of them on this resource.
                    I fully appreciated your ability to avoid direct, and indeed any answers to the questions posed, further demonstration of this skill on your part will be superfluous. Now it would be interesting for me to familiarize myself with your ability to answer questions, if you possess such ability to some extent. Maybe not now, then later.
              3. Kwas
                Kwas 4 October 2020 21: 34
                0
                Quote: Liam
                I am a supporter of Occam's razor. The simplest explanation is the most correct

                Digressing from the essence of your dispute, I will make a remark. In our infinitely complex world, the simplest explanation tends to be wrong. Considering that on any issue, the crowd was fed another lie, as a rule, you will not be mistaken. At least it's very useful to test it.
            2. Kwas
              Kwas 4 October 2020 11: 37
              0
              They set up, admitted that they were jealous, and that's what they got. So do not be offended, otherwise they will think that they are really drying out with envy.
              1. Trilobite Master
                Trilobite Master 4 October 2020 14: 12
                0
                The phrase about Fomenko's envy was originally a joke. I'm sorry to have to explain this.
        2. The comment was deleted.
        3. Astra wild
          Astra wild 4 October 2020 12: 58
          0
          Mikhail, I would venture to suggest that you are a well-mannered person, unlike Fomenko
          1. Trilobite Master
            Trilobite Master 4 October 2020 14: 11
            +1
            There are moral principles that I am not ready to overstep, no matter what benefit it promises. Writing that stuff that Fomenko writes, that is, deliberately misleading a large number of people, taking advantage of their lack of specialized education and the ability to think critically, contradicts these very principles no less than cheating pensioners or drug dealing.
            1. Astra wild
              Astra wild 4 October 2020 14: 22
              -1
              Agree with you. What Fomenko and Co. do are akin to counterfeiters, but how were counterfeiters punished in the Middle Ages?
    2. Astra wild
      Astra wild 3 October 2020 15: 25
      +3
      Mikhail, Fomenko & Co. will be happy if you join their camp. You who mercilessly tormented alternatives and there too.
      By the way, I have personal scores with alternatives: I had, in the old days, cupid, and at the last moment he saw Fomenko's book (?), Something super-sensational from an alternative history, and I was left with my own dreams
      1. Phil77
        Phil77 3 October 2020 15: 39
        +4
        Quote: Astra wild
        Fomenko and Co

        Why are you so not indifferent to Fomenko? Well, you don't like him, pass by, right. Moreover, for the sake of a joke, you can read, eh? For the development of horizons, no? wink
        1. Astra wild
          Astra wild 3 October 2020 19: 49
          -1
          I remember how, due to alternative stupidity, I remained with my dreams and interest disappears.
          I feel sorry for the time for alternatives, I read with great pleasure: Small, Kartline, and maybe Vyacheslav Olegovich. Who, if not the site developer, will support. Perhaps I will find Valery, but Lit Res loves money, but I feel sorry for the money. Women will always find where to attach them, and I have a girlfriend and support her
          1. Phil77
            Phil77 3 October 2020 19: 55
            0
            Quote: Astra wild
            stupidity remained with my dreams and

            Eh, you !!!!!!
            Quote: Astra wild
            Lit Res

            Veronica, I gave you a great site address, where everything is FREE!
            Quote: Astra wild
            Women will always find where to attach them, and I have a girlfriend and support her

            This, yes, it cannot be taken away from you!
            1. Astra wild
              Astra wild 3 October 2020 21: 30
              -1
              I forgot the password from there. Probably, I will register again
      2. Phil77
        Phil77 3 October 2020 15: 42
        +3
        Quote: Astra wild
        own dreams

        Vera! Do not be offended! I had a hangover / a hard week, I allowed myself! drinks /. wink
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 3 October 2020 17: 42
          +3
          Gorynych, go, it's harder ... drinks
          1. Phil77
            Phil77 3 October 2020 17: 47
            +2
            To him, yes, to me already, no! A sacred cause. drinks
      3. Phil77
        Phil77 3 October 2020 15: 43
        +3
        Quote: Astra wild
        Amur

        And if in more detail? About la moore? wink
      4. Trilobite Master
        Trilobite Master 3 October 2020 18: 04
        +3
        And in order to go to their camp you need to write a statement and take an oath? "There is no history, except for the New Chronology and Fomenko is the herald of it" ... Do you know anything like that?
        And about the rest - all sorts of cupids and other things ... There is a saying among men, translated into censorship it sounds like this: "making love with stupid women is like deliberately reducing the severity of the genital organ." Probably, women should have an analogue of that too ...
        In general, consider yourself lucky. Discovered in time. smile
        1. Phil77
          Phil77 3 October 2020 18: 30
          +2
          Quote: Trilobite Master
          the sharpness of the genital organ ".

          Greetings Mikhail!
          I will suggest a different version.
          Decrease! Decrease the length of it! laughing
        2. Astra wild
          Astra wild 3 October 2020 20: 30
          -1
          "in time they exposed" themselves and consoled themselves.
          And about the oath of the alternatives, I thought you knew.
          About the oath we can be enlightened: Bar, Operator and who else is there from the fans of Fomenko and Co.
        3. Kwas
          Kwas 4 October 2020 11: 45
          0
          Quote: Trilobite Master
          There is a saying among men, translated into censorship, it sounds like this: "making love with stupid women is the same as deliberately reducing the severity of the genital organ."

          Quite a decent option for Margaret Mitchell - "better a bullet in the forehead than a fool in the wife."
          1. Astra wild
            Astra wild 4 October 2020 13: 32
            -1
            "Better a bullet in the forehead than a fool at a wife" in the then society, divorce, to put it mildly, was not welcomed. I was specially interested: divorce was almost impossible for Catholics, almost the same for Protestants, but you don't need to contact the cardinal or the Pope, they don't have them. So this proverb appeared
      5. Phil77
        Phil77 3 October 2020 18: 27
        +1
        Quote: Astra wild
        at the last moment I saw a book by Fomenko (?), something super-sensational from an alternative history, and I was left with my own dreams

        Veronica! The last and tricky question!
        Is that all, what is he? Having seen the book? Fomenko?
        This is already a classic
        * -high.high relations! *
        *The Pokrovsky Gate*. laughing
    3. Korsar4
      Korsar4 3 October 2020 15: 28
      +3
      A summary of Pratchett's "Discworld".
      1. Phil77
        Phil77 3 October 2020 15: 45
        +3
        Quote: Korsar4
        Discworld Summary

        Hi! Well, about Vera's la moore, it will be more interesting, eh? love
        1. Korsar4
          Korsar4 3 October 2020 16: 04
          +4
          Someone "Handbook of Hymen", and someone came across on the road a volume of alternative history.
          1. Phil77
            Phil77 3 October 2020 16: 06
            +2
            Quote: Korsar4
            Someone "Handbook of Hymen", and someone came across on the road a volume of alternative history.

            Who in the morning? wink
            1. Korsar4
              Korsar4 3 October 2020 16: 26
              +2
              It's a young business.

              Alexander Sergeevich noticed this:

              “Know you don't need vodka,
              And we need a pullet. "
              1. Phil77
                Phil77 3 October 2020 17: 41
                +2
                Quote: Korsar4

                “Know you don't need vodka,
                And we need a pullet. "

                Both! wink
                1. Korsar4
                  Korsar4 3 October 2020 18: 04
                  +1
                  "Now I am the Pope and the Sultan" (c).
                  1. Phil77
                    Phil77 3 October 2020 18: 18
                    +2
                    Quote: Korsar4
                    "Now I am the Pope and the Sultan" (c).

                    Only the stars are higher! wink
          2. Catfish
            Catfish 3 October 2020 16: 49
            +4
            "Some watermelon and some pig cartilage." (from) request
            1. Phil77
              Phil77 3 October 2020 20: 02
              +2
              Quote: Sea Cat
              "Some watermelon and some pig cartilage." (from)

              Someone-pop, and some get it!
              I think the ass is better! In all positions, huh? laughing
              1. Korsar4
                Korsar4 3 October 2020 20: 40
                +2
                I forgot about the priest's daughter.
              2. Catfish
                Catfish 3 October 2020 20: 49
                +2
                I won't say anything about the hit, but the nuns ... love
                1. Astra wild
                  Astra wild 3 October 2020 21: 26
                  0
                  She is a chaste nun like Herodotus from Fomenko.
                  Where did you find this mummer stump?
                  1. Catfish
                    Catfish 3 October 2020 21: 42
                    +1
                    Why the stump is really nothing and quite attractive to itself. Well, about chastity, there was such an old anecdote, I will not give all here, very long.
                    "The secretary of the regional committee in continuation of the dispute:
                    - And I will not give you Komsomol members for a religious procession!
                    Local father:
                    - And I will not give you nuns to the bathhouse!
                    Secretary:
                    - But for this, father, you can put your party card on the table! "
                    Time passes and nothing changes. smile request
                  2. Phil77
                    Phil77 4 October 2020 06: 17
                    +1
                    Quote: Astra wild
                    Where did you find this mummer stump?

                    About a woman, with a woman? No, there will be no talk! laughing
                    1. Astra wild
                      Astra wild 4 October 2020 13: 41
                      -1
                      You don't know us well, we are jealous, envious, but we appreciate female beauty and intelligence. Another thing is that we are more picky and do not shout about it very much.
      2. Phil77
        Phil77 3 October 2020 19: 02
        0
        Hey, hey, hey! TODAY, only NOW !!! I root for * Spartak *!
        Friends of Petrograd, don't be offended, really! good
    4. Catfish
      Catfish 3 October 2020 17: 52
      +4
      Hi Michael! fellow drinks
      I called everyone to the monitor, the rzhach was indiscriminate, thanks! good

      The stream of the "Great Hyperborea".
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 3 October 2020 19: 35
        +3

        I like this better.
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 3 October 2020 19: 39
          +2
          And who stole the jumpsuit from the girl, really selenites? laughing
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 3 October 2020 19: 43
            +2
            This is one of the temporary exhibitions in Erarta, it was today, however, the photo is not mine (mine would be of better quality)
        2. Phil77
          Phil77 3 October 2020 19: 48
          +2
          Quote: 3x3zsave
          I like this better.

          Again, girls, naked, almost.
          Damn, serious people! Aged! wink
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 3 October 2020 19: 53
            +1
            Between us, serious, aged people, speaking, the author of this picture is a woman.
            1. Phil77
              Phil77 3 October 2020 19: 59
              +2
              It is a shame! wink And my self-flowing friend there too! wink laughing laughing laughing
              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 3 October 2020 20: 09
                +3
                Why is she ashamed? The fact that I am carried away by the beauty of space and the female body? What, and then, and another threaten with dangers on the path of knowledge? Well, so that's what I and a man, to overcome, to win.
                1. Phil77
                  Phil77 3 October 2020 20: 17
                  +2
                  Here! In this case. Specifically! I won't say anything!
                  1. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 3 October 2020 20: 27
                    +4
                    Why???
                    I brought a photograph of the painting that I saw in vividly today. What's so shameful?
                    1. Phil77
                      Phil77 4 October 2020 06: 00
                      +1
                      Good morning Anton! I was joking! I was joking! wink
          2. Kwas
            Kwas 4 October 2020 11: 51
            +1
            I will tell you a secret - all serious people like naked girls of high enough quality.
            1. Astra wild
              Astra wild 4 October 2020 14: 56
              -1
              Colleague kwas, check out my answer to Phil about women today. I agree and confirm +
    5. Kwas
      Kwas 4 October 2020 11: 30
      +1
      You are there, be careful, write at the end that it’s a joke, otherwise they might believe it. Our people are so ... trusting.
  9. Astra wild
    Astra wild 3 October 2020 14: 48
    +1
    First of all, moderators, thank you for not putting Valery and Vyacheslav Olegovich together. I hope that you will do so in the future.
  10. Astra wild
    Astra wild 3 October 2020 15: 12
    +1
    To my shame, I do not know who Tosca is and Benvenuto Celini, I know little. We'll have to "dive" into Vika. True, Viktor Nikolaevich scolds about Vicki, but for me it's a lifesaver
    1. kalibr
      3 October 2020 15: 29
      +2
      Aster! Take A. Dumas' novel "ASCANIO" - you will learn everything from Benvenuto ... "Tosca" is an opera by Giacomo Puccini. There is a short description of it and a libretto on the Internet. During the Soviet era, it was popular in theaters and concert halls. "Tosca's aria from the opera Tosca". I remember it was very amusing and I changed the stress ... I don't really like this opera, but the scene of the execution is shown there well.
      1. Phil77
        Phil77 3 October 2020 16: 02
        +3
        Quote: kalibr
        the scene of the shooting is shown there well.

        Bang! And he fell! Everything! Tosca. Impact anywhere. laughing
      2. Catfish
        Catfish 3 October 2020 17: 24
        +3
        ... the shooting scene is shown well there.


        "Well, what is being done, eh ?! They shoot again ..."
        1. Phil77
          Phil77 3 October 2020 17: 42
          +2
          So after all, the civil war!
        2. The comment was deleted.
        3. Astra wild
          Astra wild 3 October 2020 20: 04
          +1
          Konstantin, something familiar, but from which movie is the shot? ... I don't remember. It looks like this movie appeared before me
          1. Phil77
            Phil77 3 October 2020 20: 15
            +1
            Are you seriously??????? laughing
          2. Catfish
            Catfish 3 October 2020 20: 39
            +2
            Feature film "Two comrades served", yeah ... 1968. smile
            Great picture! Shot with Vysotsky from the same place.
            1. Astra wild
              Astra wild 3 October 2020 21: 15
              0
              I say, that even before me.
              1. Phil77
                Phil77 4 October 2020 06: 39
                +1
                Quote: Astra wild
                I say, that even before me.

                That's how they * scorch *! What a young girl you are with us!
                wink laughing wink
              2. Catfish
                Catfish 4 October 2020 15: 11
                +1
                Good afternoon, Vera. love
                Our friend Sergey (Phil77) asked for a link about this film, he has no opportunity.
                Here it is: https://youtu.be/eXzp-fqvrvQ
                1. Astra wild
                  Astra wild 4 October 2020 20: 25
                  0
                  Good evening. Mikhail, thank you and Sergey for your concern. But I don't understand the links.
                  When necessary, I stupidly hammer into the search engine "Treasure Island" or "The Mystery of Beck Island How" to watch on YouTube and do not worry
      3. Liam
        Liam 3 October 2020 18: 24
        +2
        Quote: kalibr
        Aria Tosca

        E lucevan le stelle from that opera performed by Pavarotti - a strong thing

        https://youtu.be/SK27yI0tIkA
    2. Phil77
      Phil77 3 October 2020 16: 16
      +3
      Quote: Astra wild
      who is Tosca

      In a nutshell: Babenka, Patriot of Italy, Love, Everything! laughing
      1. tlauicol
        tlauicol 3 October 2020 18: 30
        +3
        Quote: Phil77
        Quote: Astra wild
        who is Tosca

        In a nutshell: Babenka, Patriot of Italy, Love, Everything! laughing

        No, she was an apolitical figure. It's just that her beloved "was swept into the police, they sew the case," so she tried to get him out
        1. Phil77
          Phil77 3 October 2020 18: 40
          +4
          Quote: Tlauicol
          swept the police, they sew the case, "so she tried to pull him out

          Greetings!
          * - Shameful wolves!
          And on the black bench
          in the dock ..... * laughing
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 3 October 2020 21: 11
            +2
            "This is not an easy matter,
            Prisoner to love "(C)
            1. Catfish
              Catfish 3 October 2020 21: 51
              +2
              One guy to another:
              - I heard that Brezhnev was jailed!
              - Come on, where did you get it?
              - I just heard on the radio: "In conclusion, I want to say ...
        2. Phil77
          Phil77 4 October 2020 11: 38
          0
          Quote: Tlauicol

          No, she was an apolitical figure.

          * -Have you recruited? Oh! He is so gullible ... *.
          One of the best Soviet films. wink
    3. Phil77
      Phil77 3 October 2020 17: 49
      +2
      Quote: Astra wild
      Benvenuto Celini

      But you can't tell about this man in a nutshell! Read Vera! She won't regret it! A powerful man! A skilled worker !!!!
      1. Icelord
        Icelord 10 October 2020 15: 26
        0
        But a scoundrel, and in general an extremely immoral type. But the artist and jeweler is the brightest
    4. Kwas
      Kwas 4 October 2020 12: 23
      0
      - It is not given to anyone to know everything. Should you be sad?
  11. Astra wild
    Astra wild 3 October 2020 19: 33
    -1
    "a very serious omission on my part" Vyacheslav Olegovich, you will correct your omission
    1. kalibr
      3 October 2020 20: 59
      +1
      Quote: Astra wild
      , You will correct your omission

      My? What have I missed?
      1. Astra wild
        Astra wild 3 October 2020 21: 19
        -1
        And who said that for a long time there was no "VO" about locks and: "this is a serious omission", aren't you? No? So I have glitches?
        1. kalibr
          4 October 2020 07: 01
          +1
          I just do not understand you. I thought there was something wrong in the text ...
  12. Astra wild
    Astra wild 3 October 2020 19: 56
    -1
    Quote: Phil77
    Quote: Astra wild
    Amur

    And if in more detail? About la moore? wink

    Didn't you have? Don't say that you are a monk. I will not believe: monks do not play hockey.
    However, history knows: Peresvet and Oslyabya. When I was little I didn’t think, and then I noticed that they didn’t have Christian names.
    1. Phil77
      Phil77 3 October 2020 20: 07
      0
      Quote: Astra wild
      Didn't you have?

      Where????
      Quote: Astra wild
      say you are a monk

      No, not a monk! Oh, far from a monk!
      Quote: Astra wild
      knows: Peresvet and Oslyabya. When I was little I didn’t think, and then I noticed that they didn’t have Christian names.

      It was a long time ago, I remember her.
      1. Astra wild
        Astra wild 3 October 2020 21: 34
        -1
        "Oh, far from a monk" for some reason I did not doubt it.
        There are probably no monks on the site. Something doesn't manifest
        1. Kwas
          Kwas 4 October 2020 12: 27
          0
          Well, a monk, if real, must be humble.
  13. kalibr
    3 October 2020 21: 05
    +3
    Quote: Trilobite Master
    And, however, what to talk about?

    Not Fomenko, to you - to how cleverly you get such parody ... texts.
  14. Astra wild
    Astra wild 3 October 2020 21: 31
    -1
    Quote: Phil77
    Quote: Astra wild
    own dreams

    Vera! Do not be offended! I had a hangover / a hard week, I allowed myself! drinks /. wink

    I'm not offended by the sun
  15. depressant
    depressant 3 October 2020 21: 54
    +3
    How simple and easy it was before!
    As soon as it was announced that the archangel Michael had appeared and put the sword into its sheath, it means the end of the plague, and everyone immediately believed it. And the more significant the person was, the stronger the faith. And Pope Gregory the Great himself ... Even the plague believed and stopped.
    And now? A little something - "Show the photo!" From a mobile phone, then. And, imagine how many observation videos I have watched in Zen, when at night there is no one in the room, and objects fly. And pale shadows wander about.
    1. Phil77
      Phil77 4 October 2020 06: 31
      +1
      Quote: depressant
      Even the plague believed and stopped.

      Lyudmila Yakovlevna! Dearie! Well, don't you believe in this * virus * -by? A commercial project! No more! Look at what * loot * is mastered on this?
      Quote: depressant
      when at night in the room - no one, and objects fly. And pale shadows wander about.

      This is more difficult! laughing laughing laughing
      Don't be offended, just kidding!
      1. Astra wild
        Astra wild 4 October 2020 15: 05
        0
        "no more commercial project" in our clinic 15 are sick with this "commercial project", the best surgeon has been in intensive care for 35 days!
        The chief ordered to tell everyone that it was tuberculosis. So that there is no panic.
        Sheer stupidity
  16. The comment was deleted.
  17. Moore
    Moore 4 October 2020 06: 54
    +2
    I reviewed this design in due time, found it in a rather miserable and incomplete state:


    And in addition, a view from the wall to the nearby bridge:
  18. Gunter prereen
    Gunter prereen 4 October 2020 14: 11
    +2
    The place is of course significant in terms of history. But as a museum, it sucks. The photographs may seem like there is something to see. Live, there is nothing to watch. Well, if you take a walk, check in. And in general, the museum in Rome, for the most part, from the category, people are eating! And the city is beautiful!
    1. kalibr
      5 October 2020 07: 07
      0
      Quote: Gunter Preen
      The photographs may seem like there is something to see.

      Watch the castle!
  19. Kwas
    Kwas 4 October 2020 16: 26
    +1
    Looking at the dirty waters of the Tiber, one recalls the legendary story of where the word "stibrit" came from. By the way, as they say, a similar story happened in the city of Pisa. wink
  20. Stirbjorn
    Stirbjorn 4 October 2020 20: 12
    +1
    And the most famous case, when this passage and the castle really saved the life of the pope, is associated with the siege of Rome by the troops of Emperor Charles V in 1527, after which the city was taken and brutally plundered. Then Pope Clement VII managed to escape from the Vatican precisely along the Passetto and wait out the "invasion" outside its walls. But almost all of his Swiss guards from the personal guard then died defending St. Peter's Cathedral, and the population of Rome decreased from 55 to 000 people.

    A song dedicated to those events good
  21. Mihaylov
    Mihaylov 5 October 2020 12: 21
    0
    In 270 A.D. the empire and Rome began to be threatened by the Goths. Emperor Marcus Aurelius, who ruled at that time, ordered to fortify Rome with a second line of walls

    Apparently, a typo: Marcus Aurelius died in 180. I understand it is about Lucius Domitius Aurelian.