Military Review

Golems. From the Old Testament to computer games

105

Poster for the film "Golem", 1915


All kinds of golems, along with many other characters generated by the folklore of this or that people or created by the imagination of mystically-minded writers, can now be safely considered a phenomenon of modern culture. Today, golems are an indispensable attribute of some works of the fantasy genre and computer games. It is difficult to find a person who would not have heard anything about them, although the ideas of many of our contemporaries are sometimes very far from reality. Many consider them to be a kind of "robots" created with the help of black magic. And even the Strugatskys in the story "Monday begins on Saturday", not at all embarrassed, write: "The golem is one of the first cybernetic robots ..."

As we will see later, this is not entirely true: the representations of the present day have been transferred to the ancient legend.

But where is the original source? How did people even know about golems, their properties, ways of creation?

The word "golem" is one of the oldest in the world, it is mentioned in the Old Testament. There it is used to designate some kind of embryonic or inferior substance. In the XVI verse of the 139th Psalm, the word "golem" is used in the meaning of "embryo", "embryo", or "something formless", "untreated": "Your eyes saw me with a golem."

In the Jewish description of the hourly creation of the world, "golem" refers to the stage of creation of a body without a soul.

This term is also used in the Talmud to describe something unformed.

It is believed that the word comes from gelem, meaning "raw material".

In medieval texts, a "golem" is often understood as an inanimate human body. But in some Jewish texts of that time, this term is already used as one of the synonyms for an undeveloped person. In modern Hebrew, the word "golem" literally means "cocoon" but can also mean "fool", "stupid" or "dumb". In Yiddish, the word "golem" is often used as slang, as an insult to someone clumsy or slow. Moreover, the word derived from it has penetrated into the modern Russian language as a jargon. You've probably heard it - it's an offensive adjective "golimy".

But the basic ideas about golems took shape in the Middle Ages, and not immediately, but gradually, until the canonical legend was formed, existing in several slightly different versions. All stages of the appearance and evolution of this legend can be clearly traced. Currently, historians and researchers have been able to come to a certain consensus.

Czech researcher O. Eliash gives the following definition to the concept of "golem":

"The clay figure of the human image, animated by the power of the Word in accordance with the traditions of Jewish cabalism."

Indeed, in a number of religious Jewish texts, primarily kabbalistic, it is said about the fundamental possibility of creating a Golem. The golem here is a living creature created entirely from inanimate matter, it lacks freedom of choice and decision-making.

The Talmud (Treatise Sanhedrin 38b) tells about the same, where it is stated that even Adam was originally created as a golem when the dust was "kneaded into a shapeless piece." It was believed that the holy rabbis, the wisest, morally pure and untainted, at the end of their lives could receive a part of divine knowledge and power. It was they who could create golems, moreover, the presence of such a servant for a rabbi was considered a sign of his special wisdom and holiness.

Golems. From the Old Testament to computer games

Shot from the film "The Golem, How He Came Into the World", 1920

But at the same time it was always emphasized that everything created by man, no matter how holy he may be, is only a shadow of what was created by God. And therefore, for example, golems were unable to speak and did not have their own mind. To complete the assignment, they needed detailed instructions, which they followed literally. So it was necessary to draw up such instructions very carefully.

Any non-plant matter could be used to create a golem: clay, water, blood. And to revive them, it was necessary to follow a certain magical ritual, which could be performed only with a special arrangement of the stars. In the creation of a golem, 4 elements and 4 temperaments must participate. One element and one temperament was represented by the clay itself, three more - by the rabbi and two of his assistants.

It was believed that golems were not the only animate creatures that ancient sages could create. In the XII century, a collection of commentaries on the Book of Genesis in Hebrew was published in Worms, from which they learned in Europe that there are five groups of such creatures: the animated dead, "hellish chickens" (creatures from eggs), mandrakes, and homunculi. This work only talks about the fundamental possibility of creating homunculi. But the first documented experiments on its creation were carried out in the XIII century by the Spanish physician Arnoldus de Villanove (author of the "Salerno Code of Health", by the way).


Arnold of Villanova

The next famous scientist who conducted experiments in this direction was Paracelsus. This is already the XNUMXth century.


Homunculus of Paracelsus

Work on the creation of homunculi is also attributed to Michel Nostradamus and Count Saint-Germain.

Golems were the fifth and highest class of such creatures. They were created not for scientific purposes, but as servants. Initially, it was believed that golems were "disposable" creatures: after completing their task, they turned to dust. In the 33th century, a legend appeared that the golem created by the rabbi was reborn to a new life every 33 years. Echoes of this legend are also heard in the legends about the Prague Golem, which supposedly comes to life every XNUMX years, and then terrible events take place in the ghetto.

At the next stage, information about sacred words appeared in many stories, which are capable of supporting the existence of golems for quite a long time. Often the secret name of God appears as such an inscription, which is not named anywhere in the holy Books, but which can be learned after long and complex Kabbalistic calculations. We are talking about shem (shem-ha-m-forash - the Name of the Unspoken, or Tetragrammaton. It was believed that a tablet with a shem placed on the forehead or in the mouth of a golem could breathe life into dead matter.

Another example of this kind is the word "Emet" (truth). The golem could be turned back into a piece of clay by erasing the first letter of the word "Emet" - the result was the word "Met" ("dead"). The XNUMXth century Jewish texts state that the first golem created by humans was the prophet Jeremiah, who wrote the following formula on his clay forehead: JHWH ELOHIM EMETH, i.e. "God is truth." However, the Golem snatched the knife from Jeremiah and wiped one of the letters from his forehead. It turned out - JHWH ELOHIM METH, that is, "God is dead." This legend condemns the very idea of ​​creating golems and claims that by creating a Golem, a person creates evil.

According to other legends, the golem was revived by a spell written in the owner's blood on a calfskin parchment that was placed in the golem's mouth. Removing this parchment would immobilize and deactivate the golem.

There are many legends about golems created in different countries and at different times. In the XNUMXth century, the creation of the golem was attributed to the Polish rabbi from Chelm Elaya ben Jude. At the same time, the Polish Hasid Yudel Rosenberg developed and described in detail the technology for creating golems. In Poznan, which is now part of Poland, Yehuda Lev ben Bezalel was born, which will be described later. And already in our time, the Poles decided to consolidate their priority by placing a modernist sculpture of a golem in Poznan. But the scandalous modern Czech sculptor became the author, who managed to defile the beautiful city of Prague with his works in some places and insult the memory of Soviet soldiers-liberators (for which he was even arrested at one time), I will not name his name:


Golem in Poznan

The most famous golem in stories nevertheless, there was and still is Prague, the creation of which is attributed to Yehuda Lev ben Bezalel, nicknamed Maharal (an abbreviation from the Hebrew words "the most revered teacher and rabbi"). Yehuda Lev ben Bezalel is not a legendary figure, but a completely historical one. He was very famous in medieval Europe. On the one hand, he was known as an outstanding Jewish thinker, on the other, as a serious scientist, mathematician, astronomer, philosopher and teacher. If in his first hypostasis he was known in the Jewish communities of Europe and beyond, then in the second his fame went beyond the synagogues. He was born, as we remember, in Poznan in 1512 (according to other sources, in 1515, 1520, or 1525), and in 1573 he moved to Prague, where he soon became the chief rabbi. The date of his death is known for sure: August 22, 1609.

The grave of Ben Bezalel in the old Jewish cemetery in Prague is a center of attraction for pilgrims and curious people from all over the world, regardless of faith or language.


Tombstones of the old Jewish cemetery in Prague

There is a belief that if you make a wish and, according to the ancient Jewish custom, put a pebble on the grave of the famous rabbi, it will come true. But nothing in the world is given for free: in Prague you will be told a lot of stories about the too literal fulfillment of desires, or about the dear price that many had to pay for an undeserved reward. Among other horror stories, the story of our young compatriot is told, who in the 80s of the twentieth century allegedly wished to stay in Prague at any cost. As a result, she was assigned to the Prague editorial office of the journal Problems of Peace and Socialism, but after 3 months she died of cancer. However, let's go back to the XNUMXth century.

Yehuda Lev ben Bezalel arrived in Prague at a golden time for the city. Under the mystic emperor Rudolf II, Prague became the capital of the Great Roman Empire of the German nation and one of the largest European centers of science, art and philosophy.


Hans von Aachen. Portrait of Emperor Rudolf II

At the same time, Prague forever acquired the status of the capital of European mysticism. The emperor openly patronized alchemists, astrologers and seers, but did not admit priests and monks to the court: the fact is that one of the astrologers predicted Rudolph's death at the hands of a monk. Among other things, Rudolph II became famous for becoming the only monarch of Europe who did not execute a single alchemist or astrologer. However, during the reign of Rudolf II, not only charlatans worked in Prague, but also such famous scientists as Giordano Bruno, Tycho Brahe, Johannes Kepler. Many legends and traditions were later composed about this time, one of which was the legend of the Prague Golem. It arose relatively late: not only the contemporaries of Yehuda Lev Ben Bezalel knew nothing about the golem, but even his great-grandson Naftali Cohen, who in 1709 published a book about the many miracles of the famous rabbi, did not know. In the biography of our hero, published in 1718, there is also no information about the golem he created. But the very legend of the Prague Golem had already appeared and began to take shape precisely at this time: Jews told it throughout the Czech Republic and Germany. From these oral stories, she later ended up in one of the collections of fairy tales by the Brothers Grimm.

A close to the canonical text of the history of the Prague Golem appeared in 1847 - in the collection of Jewish stories Galerie der Sippurim, published by the Prague publishing house Wolf Pascheles. This story was further developed in the collection "Prague secrets" (Svatek, 1868), and then in the book by A. Irasek "Old Czech legends" (1894). The most detailed version of the legend is given in the book "Amazing Stories", which was published in 1910-1911. in Lviv. And after that, numerous writers, theater and film directors joined the development of the Golem's image (the first film was shot already in 1915), and then the developers of computer games.


A scene from the film “Emperor's Baker. The Emperor of the Baker ", 1951, Czechoslovakia


Stone Golem from Warcraft III

But we will return to the canon version of the legend of the Golem. According to the earliest sources, the Prague rabbi Yehuda Lev Ben Bezalel created his Golem in 1580. There are three versions of the reasons for the creation of the Prague Golem.

According to the first, the most mundane, it was created to help with the household (as A. Irasek writes). This version gives reason to believe that the Prague Golem was a mentally ill man with great physical strength, Bezalel could take him to his house out of pity or simply to save money and not pay him the usual fee.

The second version, the most "magical", claims that the Golem was created by Bezalel to test his magical knowledge and skills (I. Karasek from Lvovitsa). According to this version, the Golem himself possessed serious supernatural abilities, for example, he could become invisible. Moreover, with the help of his master's cane, he could summon the spirits of the dead. And the spirits were summoned not for some self-indulgence, but to testify in court. Yes, medieval Prague courts allowed dead witnesses to testify.

The third version, "heroic", says that the Golem was created to protect the ghetto from anti-Semitic pogroms (H. Bloch), and even mentions the name of their organizer - a certain Catholic priest Tadeusz. Based on this version and taking into account that in order to observe the magic ritual it was necessary to wait for a certain position of the stars, and then wait 7 days, the Czech researcher Eliash even calculated the exact time of the Golem creation. He believed that the Golem was created in March 1580: at 4 o'clock in the afternoon on the 20th day of the month of Adar 5340 according to the Hebrew calendar. It was at this time and up to 1590-91. the situation in the Jewish quarter of Prague was really troubled, and only after the meeting between Bezalel and Emperor Rudolf II at the Castle in 1592, the Jewish population received protection and patronage from the emperor.


Jewish Quarter (Jzefov Town), Prague

All these sources agree that the Prague Golem Bezalel was created on the banks of the Vltava from clay and looked like an ugly, heavy-bodied man with brown skin, physically very strong, but awkward and clumsy. He looked about 30 years old. At first, its height was about 150 cm, but then the golem began to grow and reached gigantic proportions. The golem was named Josef or Yosile. In the house of the rabbi, he was engaged in household work in the house and helped in the services.

The first two sources report that before nightfall, Yehuda Leo ben Bezalel took out the shem, and the golem froze until morning, waiting for its activation. The third source, setting up a "heroic" version, on the contrary, claims that at night the Golem was a guard, guarding the ghetto gates.

How did the story of the Golem end? There are two versions of the legend.

According to the first of them, the Golem rebelled against its creator and began to destroy the Jewish quarter, killing its inhabitants. It is this tragic variant that is present in most of the artistic adaptations of the legend. There are also several versions of the reasons for the Golem riot. Most often it is said that Lev Ben Bezalel one evening simply forgot to pull the shem plate out of the Golem's mouth. According to another version of the same version of the legend, the rabbi forgot to give the Golem a task for the day. In both cases, the Golem began to act according to its own program, which turned out to be fatal for all living things, including for the inhabitants of the ghetto.

There is a romantic version of the legend, according to which the reason for the Golem's riot was an unrequited feeling for the rabbi's daughter. But such an interpretation appeared only in works of art of the early twentieth century and has nothing to do with medieval legends proper.

The heroic version of the legend claims that there was no Golem riot: Yehuda Lev Ben Bezalel stopped using it after Emperor Rudolph II guaranteed the safety of the ghetto and its inhabitants. The rabbi took the shem out of his mouth, after which, with the help of his disciples, he transferred the clay body to the attic of the Old-New synagogue. Here the same rite was performed as during the creation, only in the reverse order, the words of the spells were also read the other way around - and the Golem again turned into a lifeless stone block. Lev ben Bezalel did not destroy it, perhaps, he hoped to use it again. To hide the Golem from strangers, they covered it with old books and liturgical robes.

Since the middle of the XNUMXth century, repeated attempts have been made to find the body of the Golem in the attic of the Old-New Synagogue, but these searches, of course, were unsuccessful.


Old Nova Synagogue in Prague, 1836

But by that time, the stories about the Golem had already become so firmly embedded in the "Prague mythology" that the legend was continued. One of the legends claims that the Golem was found and revived by a certain mason, into whose hands a shem accidentally fell. A simple bricklayer, of course, could not cope with the creation of the scientist Yehuda Lev Ben Bezalel, the Golem got out of control, killed 7 people, but was carried away by a white dove that descended from the sky.

Another legend says that the Golem was revived by a certain Kabbalist Abraham Chaim, after which a plague broke out in the Jewish ghetto of Prague. When the children of Chaim himself fell ill, he realized that he had angered God. He buried Golem in a plague grave on the Hanging Top (now the Prague district of Grldorzeza, east of Жižkov), and the plague receded.

The staircase leading to the attic of the Old-New Synagogue from the outside has long been removed, the attic is closed to the general public, and this circumstance intrigues and excites many tourists visiting the old Jewish quarter of Prague.

Nowadays, golem figurines made of different materials are a popular souvenir and are sold literally on every corner of the Old Town of Prague.


Souvenir figurines of Golem, Prague


Traveling Golem sculpture in Prague

There is also Golem biscuits, which are mostly bought by tourists as a souvenir.
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  1. parusnik
    parusnik 27 September 2020 07: 15 New
    +6
    Even then, humanity was thinking about artificial intelligence, subordinate to man and at the same time, thinking about what would happen if this intelligence gets out of control. And the most interesting, the legend contains the idea of ​​creating a biorobot and a way to control it.
    1. Astra wild
      Astra wild 27 September 2020 16: 27 New
      +1
      "if this intelligence gets out of control", and this may happen in the near future. And then wait to hope that someone will say:
      -A and B sat on the pipe. A fell, B was gone
      What's left on the pipe?
      -Your letter I remained on you
      I hope you remember where?
      1. Brylevsky
        Brylevsky 27 September 2020 16: 52 New
        0
        "Moscow - Cashopeia". The answer of the "executor robot" to the riddle given to him.
        1. Astra wild
          Astra wild 27 September 2020 17: 49 New
          +1
          One of my favorite childhood films
          1. Brylevsky
            Brylevsky 27 September 2020 19: 50 New
            0
            "Through hardships, to the stars", the same in childhood. Music by Alexey Rybnikov made this film unforgettable. And in general, "Soviet actors play better and better every year" ...
          2. Phil77
            Phil77 27 September 2020 20: 18 New
            +1
            You have a mistake! The film is called * Teens in the Universe * 1974. It was there that this riddle sounded! wink
        2. ANB
          ANB 29 September 2020 22: 55 New
          +2
          No, these are already Teens in the Universe, a continuation of Moscow-Cassiopeia
        3. Niel-le-Calais
          Niel-le-Calais 1 October 2020 20: 51 New
          0
          Quote: Brylevsky
          "Moscow - Cashopeia". The answer of the "executor robot" to the riddle given to him.

          to be more precise then
          "Lectures in the Universe" is a Soviet feature film, the second part of a sci-fi dilogy (beginning - "Moscow - Cassiopeia").
  2. Olgovich
    Olgovich 27 September 2020 07: 56 New
    +3
    Golem

    Evil spirits.
    1. bk0010
      bk0010 27 September 2020 13: 42 New
      +5
      Take it higher: the Zionist military!
      1. Phil77
        Phil77 27 September 2020 20: 19 New
        +1
        Quote: bk0010
        Take it higher: the Zionist military!

        NATO intrigues! soldier
    2. Lycan
      Lycan Today, 13: 19 New
      0
      Quote: Olgovich
      Нечисть...

      Протестую. Настаиваю на том, что это - попытка человека создать себе помощника (а как он там будет думать - набором алгоритмов или с пом. искусств. интеллекта - дело десятое). Примером может быть верный раб (не спрашивающий, но делающий, что велено) или манкурт, или зомби (в вудуистском значении этого слова).
      П.С.: Ну а то, что эти приёмы берут себе все, кто ни попадя, включая минобороны - говорит об эффективности таких мер. Другое дело, что после этого человека можно отдавать на "списание"... но кто ж их "за руку поймает"?
  3. Deniska999
    Deniska999 27 September 2020 08: 28 New
    +3
    It is strange that one of the key novels by Gustav Meyrink "Golem", which is based on the legend of the golem, is not mentioned. A fascinating mystical work.
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 27 September 2020 09: 10 New
      +2
      Mary Shelley, again ...
  4. bubalik
    bubalik 27 September 2020 08: 28 New
    +4

    The Church did not approve of such experiments, because only God has the right to give life. They could also be accused of using witchcraft with subsequent punishment repeat belay
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 27 September 2020 09: 10 New
      +2
      Where are the Jews and where is the Church? laughing
      1. bubalik
        bubalik 27 September 2020 11: 19 New
        +3
        Look, it shines! So the way has been found!
        Indeed, there is hope that we can
        We, if we add hundreds of substances,
        We mix them - the whole essence is in confusion,
        Make up all human substance;
        We can transport it into a flask,
        Let's seal it up, sublimate it on fire,
        And so let us accomplish the whole thing in silence!

        It is coming true! Here, in mass, everything is clearer
        The form is already running through! Stronger, stronger
        Confidence is deep in me!
        Yes, what was considered a secret of nature
        Great, then samples of reasonable years
        We have been taught to create now!
        Our work has not been wasted
        And what nature has organized
        Then we know how to crystallize! (C) Faust
    2. Maki Avellevich
      Maki Avellevich 28 September 2020 11: 07 New
      +2
      By the way, the verdict and punishment was passed and executed not by the Holy Inquisition, as is commonly believed, but by the secular authorities.
      the inquisition, as a rule, only investigated cases of heresy or malefication.

      interrogation with addiction.


      perhaps not all who fell into the hands of the Inquisition were bulls, weird old women who treated diarrhea with herbs.
    3. Lycan
      Lycan Today, 13: 30 New
      0
      Quote: bubalik
      ведь право давать жизнь есть только у Бога

      1. Изготовление "самоходной двуногой" установки, работающей по алгоритмам или по неким элементам искусств. интеллекта - не есть "давать жизнь". Стало быть по этому Творец не уничтожает всех фигурантов таких лабораторий.
      2. Даже если биотехнологи создали "новую жизнь" из генномодиф. биоматериалов (и Творец никого до сих пор не испепелил) - стало быть, он не против наших попыток.
  5. 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 27 September 2020 09: 08 New
    +4
    Thank you, Valery!
    It is strange that you have not combined this material into a cycle, along with articles about the Zhevodan beast and the Gammeln rat-catcher.
    1. VLR
      27 September 2020 09: 12 New
      +5
      Good morning, Anton.
      Yes, indeed, it was possible to unite smile .
      1. Astra wild
        Astra wild 27 September 2020 20: 45 New
        0
        Valery, you would have got a logical loop, and so it dangles as if not attached. Your last stories were more or less related: Yevgeny Savoisky, Yan Sobessky, Peter and the Prut campaign, Minich.
        I was sure that you will continue the cycle and tell us about Elizabeth or: Listok, Chetardie.
        We all watched: "Midshipmen", and some read the book. Naturally, many would be interested if you add something to this film. For example, how truthfully is shown: Leaf and his career, de la Chtardie?
        1. Phil77
          Phil77 27 September 2020 20: 59 New
          +2
          Quote: Astra wild
          We all watched: "Midshipmen", and some read the book.

          There is a real story, and there is .... * midshipmen *, even a book! belay
          1. Astra wild
            Astra wild 28 September 2020 17: 11 New
            0
            I saw this book, but did not read it, it was expensive, and the "girlfriend" needs fruit. Besides, I'm not sure that the book will be read after the film.
        2. VLR
          27 September 2020 22: 41 New
          +2
          There are two articles ahead, which will be a kind of continuation of the theme of Peter I, Elizabeth and Minich.
          1. Astra wild
            Astra wild 28 September 2020 17: 12 New
            0
            Thanks for the promise. I will wait
  6. Krasnodar
    Krasnodar 27 September 2020 10: 07 New
    +4
    Since the KMB, young people in Israel are called Golems laughing
    - Tse mi a alem, Golem!
    (Get out of the shock, Golem! That is, start doing something)
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 27 September 2020 17: 23 New
      +3
      "Fighter! Fell down, wrung out!" So it sounded in the late SA and early Armed Forces of the Russian Federation
      1. Krasnodar
        Krasnodar 27 September 2020 18: 39 New
        +1
        Paul, golem! Paul Esrim! laughing (fell, a golem, fell 20 - like wrung out 20 times - these are minor offenses). Large - up to a hundred
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 27 September 2020 20: 57 New
          +3
          Well, something like this. Not to say that it didn't work, but by the end of the first half of the year, it was a little tiring.
          1. Krasnodar
            Krasnodar 27 September 2020 21: 03 New
            0
            We didn't have this after the KMB. They drove a little in a slightly similar spirit on the course of military assistant, but - no comparison.
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 27 September 2020 21: 14 New
              +2
              In general, I hardly understand what a KMB is. I didn't have it. Three weeks of quarantine, an oath, two weeks of training in a specialty ... And forward, on alert! Homeland looks at you, fighter!
              1. Krasnodar
                Krasnodar 27 September 2020 21: 33 New
                +1
                First, they scream and chase, destroy the personality. Then there is a lot, a lot of shooting and much less study, with not much sleep)). In the end - a march on the beret and the "slave market". Little people like me and guys with connections went to courses, and not to a unit)). This is very brief. In my call, this lasted about six months (due to the police reinforcement in Ramadan), for others it lasted 4 months.
                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 27 September 2020 21: 42 New
                  +1
                  "Slave Market", is that interesting, tell me? ....
                  1. Krasnodar
                    Krasnodar 27 September 2020 22: 18 New
                    +2
                    The companies of the past KMB are distributed)) The territorial location and conditions of service are different everywhere
                2. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 27 September 2020 21: 47 New
                  +3
                  By the way, with sleep everywhere and always "not very". No matter how much I did not talk with the veterans of the Second World War, the main impression from the war: I really want to eat and really want to sleep.
                  1. Krasnodar
                    Krasnodar 27 September 2020 22: 22 New
                    +1
                    Even arriving at the reservist service, having a hearty lunch after a night with a young girl, barely putting on a uniform immediately felt like eating a woman. And sleep. laughing
        2. Phil77
          Phil77 28 September 2020 12: 27 New
          +2
          * -Here, look! Their professors are ready for war! And ours? *
          * Deja vu *. wink
          Albert, greetings!
          1. Krasnodar
            Krasnodar 28 September 2020 13: 15 New
            0
            Greetings! )))
            In Izrailovka, war is part of the routine laughing
            1. Phil77
              Phil77 28 September 2020 19: 31 New
              +2
              Quote: Krasnodar
              part of the routine

              Be ready!
              * Uvsehda hots! Ha-ha-ha ... fellow
              1. Krasnodar
                Krasnodar 28 September 2020 19: 34 New
                0
                Taki yes - tea, people do not live among solid Swiss and Luxembourgers laughing
                1. Phil77
                  Phil77 28 September 2020 19: 38 New
                  +2
                  Interesting. But in Switzerland and in Luxembourg, with Liechtenstein now people in masks walk? request
                  1. Krasnodar
                    Krasnodar 28 September 2020 19: 50 New
                    0
                    Of course they do - there is such a density of population, especially in the last two, that mum don't worry. And a bunch of active people over 75.
                    1. Phil77
                      Phil77 28 September 2020 19: 55 New
                      +2
                      Albert, you know, do you believe that these rags can really save you from the virus? Unless, of course, all this is not a kind of test for controllability, and not someone's clever business project?
                      winked
                      1. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar 28 September 2020 20: 53 New
                        -1
                        Yes, no ... if the person is already sick, then the mask can prevent infection of others. A gas mask is better for your own protection))
  7. A. Privalov
    A. Privalov 27 September 2020 10: 12 New
    +2
    There are many legends about golems created in different countries and at different times. In the 16th century the creation of the golem was attributed to the Polish rabbi from Chelm, Eliya ben Judah. At the same time Polish Hasid Yudel Rosenberg developed and described in detail the technology for creating golems.

    I will leave aside "Traditions of deep antiquity, deeds of bygone days ...", legends, golem production technology and other folklore. I will refer only to the factual material.
    There is a great distance between the 16th and 20th centuries. Rabbi Yehuda (Yudel) Rosenberg (1859 - 1935) did not develop anything, but only published in 1909 in the form of a book a manuscript belonging to the pen of Rabbi Yitzhak Katz, son-in-law of the famous Prague rabbi Maharal - NiflaOt MaharAl ("The Miraculous Deeds of Maharal"). The manuscript narrated about the struggle of Maharal with blood libel, about his public dispute with a Christian priest, contained a description of the creation of a golem, as well as a number of stories about how Maharal, with the help of a golem, miraculously saved Jews from oppression.
    The book ends with the fact that Maaral achieved a ban on the consideration of blood libel in court and, as unnecessary, destroyed the golem.
    The golem book proved to be incredibly popular. Soon after its publication by the publisher Chaim Bloch, it was translated into German (1920) and English (1925) and has since traveled the world in various, more or less intelligible variations.

    Moreover, the word derived from it has penetrated into the modern Russian language as a jargon. You've probably heard it - it's an offensive adjective "golimy".

    It would be very tempting to look for the etymological connection of the cowards with the Etruscans, and the footcloths with Portugal, according to the same principle. hi
    1. VLR
      27 September 2020 11: 10 New
      +5
      Concerning the "golimy":
      Don't you know that a lot of slang words come from Yiddish? For example, "freebies", according to the most reliable fidelity, comes from "freebies" - krynki with milk and challah, which were distributed to indigent Jews on Saturdays.
      Or, "shmon" - from "eight" - at this time the warders searched the cells.
      Raspberries, Caudle, Loch, turn over - also from there.
      1. A. Privalov
        A. Privalov 27 September 2020 11: 21 New
        +2
        Quote: VlR
        Concerning the "golimy":
        Don't you know that a lot of slang words come from Yiddish? For example, "freebies", according to the most reliable fidelity, comes from "freebies" - krynki with milk and challah, which were distributed to indigent Jews on Saturdays.
        Or, "shmon" - from "eight" - at this time the warders searched the cells.
        Raspberries, Caudle, Loch, turn over - also from there.

        I know, but that's not the case with the golim. hi
        1. VLR
          27 September 2020 11: 42 New
          +3
          There are other versions of the origin of the word "golimy", but this one, at least, is not worse than others.
          1. A. Privalov
            A. Privalov 27 September 2020 12: 47 New
            +3
            Quote: VlR
            There are other versions of the origin of the word "golimy", but this one, at least, is not worse than others.

            Then, consider the Russian version, which no worse than others regarding the name of the capital of Israel:
            "Jerusalem" - and e rus alim ((this) and e (st) rus (sky) alim): Arab. عالم (alim) - a connoisseur, scientist, teacher, professor, "guru", a noble literate respected person - that is, "giving or putting knowledge into life" (al '(al (s)) - sacred, supreme, divine).

            Another variant confirming the "Russianness" of this name is Urusalim. A person, without any doubt and hesitation, writes the following text:
            Even in Israel itself, Jerusalem is often called Urus-Alim (in ancient manuscripts it appears as Urusalim).


            And how do you like this etymology of the toponym Moscow:
            Mos-kva - moss (English) moss, and "kva" are the sounds made by frogs. Like, this kind of connects the name with the existence of swamps and amphibians living there, widespread in some part of the land.
            But you understand that it is impossible to pass off any nonsense that seems to the ear familiar to the Russian language something similar to reality and truth.
            1. VLR
              27 September 2020 12: 58 New
              +5
              Wait, we are talking about a version of the borrowing of the slang adjective "golim" from Yiddish meaning "awkward", "slow". And not a noun and a proper name "Golem". If you admit that the slang words "freebie" and "shmon", "raspberries" and "goof" are of Jewish origin, why shouldn't the word "golim" be borrowed from Yiddish - and that is,
              how offensive? Of course, the "thieves" knew nothing about golems, but the word "golimy" could have been heard from "colleagues" of Jewish origin. Quite a possible version.
              1. A. Privalov
                A. Privalov 27 September 2020 13: 13 New
                +4
                Fenya is a fairly rich language. There are about a dozen borrowings from Hebrew and Yiddish. True, neither the golimy, nor the Caudle, nor the sucker, nor the cant in relation to Hebraism have. In a word, as the old man Occam used to say: "You should not multiply things unnecessarily" hi
                To "tilt" is generally related to Immanuel Kant, who is from Kaliningrad. lol
                1. Phil77
                  Phil77 27 September 2020 20: 27 New
                  +2
                  Quote: A. Privalov
                  it is generally related to Immanuel Kant, who is from Kaliningrad.

                  A great joke! Honestly, I liked it! Glorious city of Kaliningrad and Emmanuel Kant! laughing This I mean that he lived and thought of course in this city, but the current name ..... Somehow, well, not in tune, perhaps not? laughing
              2. Operator
                Operator 27 September 2020 14: 15 New
                +2
                The meaning of "golimy" in Russian is pure, undisguised, derived from the word "naked". Yiddish has nothing to do with it.
              3. Trilobite Master
                Trilobite Master 27 September 2020 15: 06 New
                +4
                Valery, from the previous message of the user Privalov it should have become quite clear to you that you are dealing with a homebrew linguist who interprets any phonetic coincidences completely arbitrarily, without having the slightest idea about such concepts as "borrowings" or "phonetic transitions". his hypotheses are not based on anything, they are not confirmed by anything, and therefore they are irrefutable.
                In turn, I can offer two more versions of the origin of the word "golimy" or "galimy".
                If we take for the truth that this word is called a person who is physically or intellectually weak and in general it expresses a contemptuous attitude towards the object of its application, then, based on this, the following constructions can be created.
                First. "Golimiy" comes from the word "naked", that is, it is a person whom anyone can undress with impunity, more broadly - rob, take away property. In short, the "eternal endurance", whom everyone "golits", bare. smile This understanding of the word I invented myself when I first felt the delights of amateur linguistics and made discoveries like this almost every day.
                The second hypothesis stems from the fact that the word under study is correctly spelled “galim” and comes from the Old Russian “to scurry”, “to scoff”, to banish ”in the meaning of“ to mock. ”That is,“ galim ”means“ the one who is being bullied ”, “They scold” and he is “creepy.” I came up with this version later, about 18-19 years old, when we, the students, were racing to practice wit, using various puns, play on words and concepts. smile
                1. Undecim
                  Undecim 27 September 2020 20: 37 New
                  0
                  And most of all I like the version of the non-Russian linguist Kireev in the journal "Russian language in scientific coverage", 2018, No. 2. The article "On the history of the word golimy".
            2. Astra wild
              Astra wild 27 September 2020 17: 43 New
              0
              There are options: "mask" - viscous (Slavic origin) or Baltic "mask" - wet, viscous or knot.
      2. Astra wild
        Astra wild 27 September 2020 16: 32 New
        -1
        Also add: "Raspberry"
      3. Romka47
        Romka47 28 September 2020 15: 40 New
        +3
        For example, I heard a different version about freebies and it seems to me more real. (Although I can’t guarantee it at all)
        So: Freebie is the old designation for bootlegs. Usually the lower part of the boot was worn out first and much faster than the freebie bootleg. The shoemakers got used to fitting another new head to the bootleg and the boots became much cheaper than the new ones. Hence the freebie. Took it for free, that is, much cheaper.
  8. Tochilka
    Tochilka 27 September 2020 11: 09 New
    +4
    I liked the golem activation fragment. Practically entering the launch command. At least executed on calf skin with letters made of blood.
    1. Krasnodar
      Krasnodar 27 September 2020 11: 25 New
      +4
      Activation by DNA code))
  9. Andobor
    Andobor 27 September 2020 11: 19 New
    +1
    Kazakh version, and the song is normal:
  10. Operator
    Operator 27 September 2020 11: 58 New
    0
    The promoted legend about the Golem and its creator, the rabbi, vividly testifies to the pagan nature of modern Judaism, which is absolutely not surprising, since the monotheistic foundations of this religion went to pieces as early as the 4th century BC, when the Macedonians, who conquered Palestine, converted the Jerusalem temple into the sanctuary of Zeus and all houses of prayer (synagogues) under the pagan temples of other gods of the Greek pantheon. After that, the Jews automatically became pagans, because they began to pray to idols, which was strictly forbidden by the Mosaic teaching.

    Plus, before the arrival of the Macedonians, the state of Israel itself was split into two states - Judea and Samaria, in the first of them the state religion was Judaism (derived from the name of the state), in the second - paganism (Samaritan is a synonym for a pagan in the New Testament).

    In the 160s BC. In Judea, after the Maccabean uprising, the Jewish religion was restored among part of the population, but the remaining Jews continued to profess Greek paganism. As a result, King Herod the First, a hundred years later, overthrew the Maccabean / Hasmonean dynasty and, with the support of the Romans, began to plant a syncretic religion - essentially pagan with the placement of the idols of emperors (having the status of gods according to Roman law) in the Jerusalem temple and synagogues, to which the rabbis gave divine honors with burning incense, etc.

    It was this - the complete collapse of the monotheistic teaching of Moses - that caused the emergence of the teaching of Christ, which almost instantly made the discredited Judaism marginalized. By the time the Jewish Wars began in the 1st century AD, the vast majority of the Palestinian population were either pagans or Christians. At the beginning of the first Jewish war in Palestinian cities, massacres of Jews and representatives of other religions took place among the Jews, depending on the majority in the urban population. After that, it became possible for the Roman troops to concentrate on a small number of cities and fortified points, where a purely Jewish population remained.

    After the defeat in the Judean Wars, the few Jewish Jewish survivors were deported to North Africa and Mesopotamia, and the Palestinian population was made up exclusively of Gentile Jews and Christian Jews. After giving Christianity the status of the state religion of the Roman Empire, all Palestinian pagan Jews were baptized.

    The Jewish Jews who came to Europe in the train of Arabs began to decompose into three streams: to convert to Christianity, to remain within the framework of the Jewish religion, or to indulge in paganism (Kabbalah with magic, golems and other idolatry).

    Judging by the hype around Golem, the latter is a Jewish trend. laughing
    1. A. Privalov
      A. Privalov 27 September 2020 12: 55 New
      +2
      Quote: Operator
      The promoted legend about the Golem and its creator, the rabbi, vividly testifies to the pagan nature of modern Judaism, which is absolutely not surprising, since the monotheistic foundations of this religion went to pieces as early as the 4th century BC, when the Macedonians, who conquered Palestine, converted the Jerusalem temple into the sanctuary of Zeus and all houses of prayer (synagogues) under the pagan temples of other gods of the Greek pantheon. After that, the Jews automatically became pagans, because they began to pray to idols, which was strictly forbidden by the Mosaic teaching.

      Plus, before the arrival of the Macedonians, the state of Israel itself was split into two states - Judea and Samaria, in the first of them the state religion was Judaism (derived from the name of the state), in the second - paganism (Samaritan is a synonym for a pagan in the New Testament).

      In the 160s BC. In Judea, after the Maccabean uprising, the Jewish religion was restored among part of the population, but the remaining Jews continued to profess Greek paganism. As a result, King Herod the First, a hundred years later, overthrew the Maccabean / Hasmonean dynasty and, with the support of the Romans, began to plant a syncretic religion - essentially pagan with the placement of the idols of emperors (having the status of gods according to Roman law) in the Jerusalem temple and synagogues, to which the rabbis gave divine honors with burning incense, etc.

      It was this - the complete collapse of the monotheistic teaching of Moses - that caused the emergence of the teaching of Christ, which almost instantly made the discredited Judaism marginalized. By the time the Jewish Wars began in the 1st century AD, the vast majority of the Palestinian population were either pagans or Christians. At the beginning of the first Jewish war in Palestinian cities, massacres of Jews and representatives of other religions took place among the Jews, depending on the majority in the urban population. After that, it became possible for the Roman troops to concentrate on a small number of cities and fortified points, where a purely Jewish population remained.

      After the defeat in the Jewish Wars, the few Jewish Jewish survivors were deported to North Africa and Mesopotamia, and the population of Palestine consisted only of Gentile Jews and Christian Jews. After giving Christianity the status of the state religion of the Roman Empire, all Palestinian pagan Jews were baptized.

      The Jewish Jews who came to Europe in the train of Arabs began to decompose into three streams: to convert to Christianity, to remain within the framework of the Jewish religion, or to indulge in paganism (Kabbalah with magic, golems and other idolatry).

      Judging by the hype around Golem, the latter is a Jewish trend.

      Well, the Operator is a well-known VO "expert in Judaism" Hence the result ... laughing
      1. Operator
        Operator 27 September 2020 14: 02 New
        +3
        Here is the result from the Jewish Pedovikia - the state division of Palestine as of 830 BC.


        The map shows that even 400 years before the Macedonian conquest, the territory inhabited by Jewish Jews was reduced to a piece of land cut off from the Mediterranean by the Philistine city-states (which existed until the Roman conquest and in part of which the Roman province of Palestine was named) and bordering on pagan Egypt (for some reason on the map called "Arab tribes"), pagan Edom, Nabatean, Jovite, Amon and Damascus Arab kingdoms, as well as the pagan Jewish Kingdom of Israel (later called Samaria in the Roman province of Palestine).

        Those. Israel itself turned into a purely pagan state already 2800 years ago, and the insignificant "founding fathers" of today's Israel went to great lengths in 1948, refusing to use the ideologically correct name "Judea".

        Or did they do it deliberately, being adherents of pagan Kabbalah? bully
        1. Krasnodar
          Krasnodar 27 September 2020 18: 50 New
          +5
          The pagan Kabbalah is the cult of eating kosher pork by 50 thousand SS saboteurs sent to Palestine, led by the Black Sea Arians from the Coens, Levites and Kaganovichs who prayed to Zeus to the music of Wagner fellow
          1. Operator
            Operator 27 September 2020 18: 53 New
            +1
            As a distinguished Kabbalist, you know better laughing
            1. Krasnodar
              Krasnodar 27 September 2020 18: 58 New
              +4
              This is inspired by your scientific research on the topic, based on authoritative sources in the world of alternative history, genetics and theology. hi
              1. Operator
                Operator 27 September 2020 19: 00 New
                -6
                This is inspired by the level of your comments on VO.
                1. Krasnodar
                  Krasnodar 27 September 2020 19: 12 New
                  +1
                  I am ignorant what
                  1. Operator
                    Operator 27 September 2020 19: 16 New
                    -4
                    Sho-sho - read the hardware and you will be happy laughing
                    1. Krasnodar
                      Krasnodar 27 September 2020 19: 29 New
                      +2
                      According to Klösrv and the same internationally recognized geniuses in history and theology? lol
                      I will definitely follow your advice. : When Comedy Club, stand-up artists and comedy films stop laughing - be sure hi
                      1. Operator
                        Operator 27 September 2020 19: 30 New
                        -3
                        Then continue to play the role of the local Comedy Club.
                      2. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar 27 September 2020 19: 47 New
                        +2
                        No no! The Jewish question on Comedy is your niche! hi
                      3. Operator
                        Operator 27 September 2020 19: 53 New
                        -2
                        Do not be shy - please, please laughing
                      4. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar 27 September 2020 19: 57 New
                        +2
                        Come on - the very phrase pagan Kaballa is worth something fellow It's even funnier than the Jewish SS and the Black Sea Aryan Levites laughingDo you have anything else like that? ))
                      5. Operator
                        Operator 27 September 2020 20: 13 New
                        -2
                        Since you are a spontaneous atheist, I explain that the Old and New Testaments strictly prohibit fortune telling or any other way to find out your / someone else's fate (as well as non-canonical rituals and a host of other actions from Kabbalah), since everything is in the hands of God, and a person cannot interfere with His craft is to avoid his fate (of course, outside the scope of magical rites is possible).

                        Therefore, Kabbalah, like any magical practice, is recognized by Christianity and orthodox Judaism as paganism.
                      6. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar 27 September 2020 20: 22 New
                        0
                        Who told you that I am an atheist? lol
                        What is divination in Kabbalah?
                        What does this have to do with monotheism and paganism (that is, the recognition of an element, a person, an animal, or a character as a deity), and which of the Orthodox Jews consider Kabbalah to be paganism? ))
                      7. Operator
                        Operator 27 September 2020 20: 30 New
                        0
                        And you are definitely a Jew / Christian / Muslim - then why don't you know the elementary canons of these monotheistic religions? laughing

                        But if you are a pagan Kabbalist, then all questions are removed.
                      8. Krasnodar
                        Krasnodar 27 September 2020 20: 47 New
                        +1
                        laughing Once again - where is fortune-telling in Kaballah, what does fortune-telling have to do with paganism, which of the Jews considers Kaballah to be not a monotheistic teaching? ))
                        Elementary questions, the answers to which you leave.
                        Canons - I think critically wink
                        My humble persona is a monotheist, the closest religion to me is Judaism, as a religion of ancestors and not only hi
                  2. Maki Avellevich
                    Maki Avellevich 29 September 2020 06: 37 New
                    0
                    Quote: Operator
                    Therefore, Kabbalah, like any magical practice, is recognized by Christianity and orthodox Judaism as paganism.

                    you read something before throwing manifestos.
                  3. Operator
                    Operator 29 September 2020 11: 18 New
                    -2
                    Your comment is a prime example of your paganism laughing
                  4. Maki Avellevich
                    Maki Avellevich 29 September 2020 12: 32 New
                    0
                    Quote: Operator
                    Your comment is a prime example of your paganism

                    your comment, unfortunately, is an example of a vivid example of your ignorance.
  • Astra wild
    Astra wild 27 September 2020 20: 20 New
    +3
    Albert, and you viper
    1. Krasnodar
      Krasnodar 27 September 2020 20: 30 New
      +1
      So this is a warm-up))
  • Maki Avellevich
    Maki Avellevich 29 September 2020 06: 33 New
    0
    Quote: Operator
    The promoted legend about the Golem and its creator, the rabbi, vividly testifies to the pagan nature of modern Judaism, which is absolutely not surprising, since the monotheistic foundations of this religion went to dust as early as the 4th century BC, when the Macedonians, who conquered Palestine, converted the Jerusalem temple into the sanctuary of Zeus and all houses of prayer (synagogues) under the pagan temples of other gods of the Greek pantheon.

    let's stop here. in those days when the Temple stood there were no synagogues. there were also no prayers among the Jews.
    three times a year, on the holidays of Passover, Shavuot and Sukot, Jews came to the temple.
    it was called "seeing god"
    synagogues appeared only after the destruction of the second temple. as a replacement for him.
    tales about how "the monotheistic foundations of this religion went to dust in the 4th century BC" you can tell in the Vienna Woods. don't get carried away by the experts on youtube.
    1. Operator
      Operator 29 September 2020 11: 26 New
      0
      I have already said that as early as the 9th century BC. (400 years before the Macedonian conquest of Canaan - the future Roman Palestine), the Jewish state of Israel was divided into two - the northern (Israel itself) and the southern (Judea). The state religion of the north became paganism, of the south - monotheism, which received the name Judaism by the name of the state. Jerusalem and the only monotheistic temple remained on the territory of Judea. In this regard, prayer houses (synagogues) appeared in the monotheistic minority in the northern state of Israel.
  • Catfish
    Catfish 27 September 2020 15: 52 New
    +4
    Valery, good afternoon and thank you. smile
    A scene from the film “Emperor's Baker. The Emperor of the Baker ", 1951, Czechoslovakia

    The film "Emperor's Baker" is one of the worst childhood memories. The entire female and children's half of the family was dying of fear, looking at the monster blazing with fire, sitting in front of the then KVN with a lens. As I remember how his eyes suddenly lit up, horror rolls over again ... laughing
    1. hohol95
      hohol95 27 September 2020 17: 12 New
      +2
      "Krabat the sorcerer's apprentice"
      The cartoon is based on the tale of Otfried Preusler in 1977, Germany and Czechoslovakia.
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 27 September 2020 17: 25 New
        +2
        Hi Aleksey. hi
        I have not seen or even heard, if I find it - I will look. Both DEFA and Barandov sometimes made very good films, although no one staged a fairy tale better than ours.
        1. hohol95
          hohol95 27 September 2020 21: 58 New
          +2
          There is also a 2008 German movie.
          And everything happens during the Thirty Years War.
          the truth of the fairy tale better than ours, no one put.

          "Three Nuts for Cinderella" filmed at a good level.
          And even my daughter liked the children's series "Adventures in Vacation" (Slovak. Spadla z oblakov, literally - Fallen from the Clouds).
          But I watched it as a child. And the special effects are pretty simple.
        2. Astra wild
          Astra wild 28 September 2020 16: 56 New
          +1
          Konstantin, I like German cinema: they knew how to make films.
          I once rummaged around on YouTube: the Germans, the Western ones, too, had their "face", and now BYAKA. In my opinion, that the Germans, that the Americans, had good films, TV series until the mid-90s, and then .... Overloaded with special effects and the plot is somehow primitive.
          From the countries of the Eastern Bloc, I do not like: Bulgarians, Hungarians, although they had a successful one: "Major Kapelka", Romanians. True, my husband liked some Romanian dedectives, but the ancient ones, as far back as the 60s. I liked: Czechs and Poles. Their films were meaningful and dynamic. And now I don't know, but most likely they also deteriorated
    2. Astra wild
      Astra wild 27 September 2020 20: 22 New
      +2
      I have not heard of this, what is this movie?
      1. The comment was deleted.
      2. Catfish
        Catfish 27 September 2020 23: 36 New
        +1
        Congratulations on the upcoming holiday - "Faith, Hope, Love and their mother Sophia"! love smile
        1. Astra wild
          Astra wild 28 September 2020 16: 23 New
          +1
          Konstantin, thanks for the congratulations
  • Aviator_
    Aviator_ 27 September 2020 16: 21 New
    +3
    Interesting article. I, except the Strugatskys, have never read about the Golem anywhere. Respect to the author.
    1. Phil77
      Phil77 27 September 2020 17: 28 New
      +1
      Quote: Aviator_
      I, besides the Strugatskys,

      Good evening! Alexander Bushkov has a story * A.S. Secret mission *. There this * person made of clay * is mentioned and even acts. Fascinating reading, right. hi
      1. Aviator_
        Aviator_ 27 September 2020 17: 52 New
        +1
        Okay, I'll take a look on occasion.
  • Astra wild
    Astra wild 27 September 2020 17: 58 New
    +2
    "predicted Rudolph's death at the hands of a monk" in fact, he predicted: Raveniac and Clement ..
    Valery, and Rudolph himself died or did the prediction work?
    1. VLR
      27 September 2020 18: 29 New
      +2
      He was overthrown by his brother Matthias and died at the age of 59.
      1. Astra wild
        Astra wild 27 September 2020 20: 16 New
        0
        Thanks . Curious, he believed astrology to the end?
        Probably reread it 3 times: "Quentin Dorward", and how many times I looked!
        Louis the "saint" had an astrologer named Galeotti. I remember how he twisted when the king wanted to hang him
  • Operator
    Operator 27 September 2020 20: 48 New
    -3
    Quote: Krasnodar
    Canons - I think critically

    Please accept my condolences - you burn in Hell with a blue flame laughing
  • pmkemcity
    pmkemcity 28 September 2020 08: 57 New
    0
    This term is also used in the Talmud to describe something unformed.

    I always suspected that all evil spirits come from the Talmud.
    1. Maki Avellevich
      Maki Avellevich 29 September 2020 06: 41 New
      0
      Quote: pmkemcity
      I always suspected that all evil spirits come from the Talmud.

      and don't say. read the Old and New Testaments, in general, your head will go round.
  • Kerensky
    Kerensky 30 September 2020 00: 04 New
    0
    The prototype of ceramic armor and Warrior? If you walk around medieval Prague in "heavy" at night with night vision devices ...