Military Review

"Let's not shame the Russian land"

82
"Let's not shame the Russian land"

"Prince Svyatoslav". Artist Vladimir Kireev


Greek chroniclers lie that Svyatoslav was defeated. That the Romans surrounded and destroyed the army of the Rus, having lost only 55 (!) People, killed thousands of "Scythians". According to the Russian chronicle, Svyatoslav won a victory and continued his attack on Constantinople.

Second trip to Bulgaria


Having defeated the rebellious Pecheneg tribes, Svyatoslav returned to Kiev. He still dreamed of Bulgaria:

I don’t like Kiev, I want to sit in Pereyaslavets on the Danube. There is the middle of my land, where all the benefits flow: from the Greek land - gold, pavolok, wine, various fruits; from the Czech Republic and Hungary - silver and horses, from Russia - furs and wax, honey and people ... "

The Grand Duke could not leave Kiev, he was restrained by his mother Olga: “You see, I am sick, where do you want to leave me? When you bury me, go wherever you want ... ”In July 969, Princess Olga died. After her death, Svyatoslav endowed his sons with princely power: Yaropolk sat in Kiev, Oleg - in the Drevlyansky land, Vladimir - in Novgorod. According to the Russian chronicle, Svyatoslav set out on a new campaign in 971. According to Greek sources, he was in Bulgaria already in 969. With him were again the light armies of the Pechenegs and Hungarians.

Important events took place in Bulgaria and Byzantium at this time. The Bulgarian Tsar Peter abdicated in favor of his son Boris and died in a monastery. In fact, Tsar Boris was a henchman of the Byzantine basileus (emperor) Nikifor Phocas. The Greek party in Preslav prevailed. The Bulgarian princesses were sent to the Byzantine capital to be married off to the sons of the late Emperor Roman. The people were assured that the friendship between Bulgaria and Byzantium would be eternal. It seemed that Constantinople had achieved the desired goal. However, Boris was not popular both among the boyars and among the common people. Many boyars would prefer the power of the Russian prince Svyatoslav, he did not encroach on their freedom. Byzantine dignitaries were used to commanding people as slaves and severely punished for any disobedience. Bulgarian feudal lords refused to obey. In Macedonia, the sons of the local governor, Nikola, rebelled. They proclaimed an independent kingdom of Ohrid, which occupied a vast area. This kingdom took a hostile position in relation to both Preslav and Constantinople. The rest of the Tsar's governors also tended to independence, did not want to gather troops at the call of Tsar Boris.

When Svyatoslav returned to Bulgaria in August 969, he immediately received massive support among the common people and nobility. Bulgarian squads immediately began to replenish the Russian army. The rulers of the Ohrid kingdom announced their readiness to fight against the Second Rome together with Svyatoslav. Meeting practically no resistance, the great Russian prince easily took control of Bulgaria. Tsar Boris's Greek advisers fled. Nobody defended Veliky Preslav. Boris had no choice but to bow his head before the great Rus and become a vassal of Svyatoslav. A garrison was set up in Preslav, led by the governor Sfenkel. After that, Svyatoslav's soldiers took Philippopolis (Plovdiv) by storm. The city that resisted was depopulated. The Russian chronicle reported: "And Svyatoslav went to the capital, fighting and breaking the cities that are still empty." The Greek historian Leo the Deacon wrote that Svyatoslav in Philippopolis impaled 20 thousand people. This was a common exaggeration. Byzantine writers exaggerated the "bloodiness" of the Rus and, describing the battles, wrote about insignificant losses of the Byzantine army, and the "Scythians" were killed in thousands.

In Constantinople itself, a palace coup took place. Nicephorus II Phocas was a real warrior, stern and unsociable, who despised the luxury and pleasures of the royal court. Refusal of luxury and saving money did not like many representatives of high society. Also, Nicephorus planned reforms in favor of the common people, planning to weaken and shorten the appetites of the nobility and the church. This led to the emergence of a conspiracy of representatives of the aristocracy and clergy. It was headed by Nicephorus's nephew, John Tzimiskes, whom the Basileus elevated. The emperor's wife, the famous courtesan Theophano, also became a participant in the conspiracy. She became the mistress of Tzimisce and led the killers to her husband's bedroom. After being mocked, Tzimiskes killed Nicephorus. Svyatoslav was officially an ally of Nicephorus Phocas. Formally, there was no break, despite the reluctance of the Russians to leave Bulgaria. Now everything has changed radically. Svyatoslav's ally was despicably killed. Kalokir fled to the Russian prince and became a contender for the throne of Constantinople.


The Scythians are coming!


At first, the new emperor John Tzimiskes behaved with caution. In the east, the Arabs attacked, the conquests of Nicephorus Phocas were almost lost. Syrian Antioch was in danger of falling. For the third year, famine raged in the empire. Another war - with the warlike Rus, who were in alliance with the Bulgarians, Hungarians and Pechenegs, was an unbearable burden for the Eastern Roman Empire. Therefore, the Greeks decided to cheat and buy the world. The Byzantine embassy went to the prince of the Rus in order to persuade him to peace and return to their lands with gifts and promises of an alliance. But the Byzantine ambassadors offered gold in vain and threatened with war. In response, Svyatoslav promised to put up tents in front of the Constantinople gates and show the emperor that “we are not poor artisans who live by work alone, but brave warriors who conquer enemies weapons! "

The war began. Byzantium put forward its best generals: Master Barda Sklir and the winner of the Arabs, Patrician Peter. The Romans occupied the passages through the Balkan Mountains. However, the Bulgarian guides took the Rus along the mountain paths, which even the locals did not know about. Byzantine outposts and garrisons on the passes were bypassed, they surrendered or perished. The troops of Svyatoslav fell on the enemy like snow on his head and broke into Thrace. Here, in the lands of Byzantium, Svyatoslav did not restrain his soldiers and allies. Thrace was on fire. The heavy cavalry of Varda Sklira could not hold back the enemy. Usually the barbarians could not withstand the blow of the cataphracts and fled. But the prince of the Rus was a skillful commander. Ahead and on the sides of the marching columns, in which the main forces of infantry and cavalry were marching, Svyatoslav sent out light Pechenezh and Hungarian horsemen. Having discovered the enemy, they sent messengers to the governors, while they themselves circled around the armored Byzantine cavalry. They could not be caught up and destroyed. They fired at the enemy and waited for the approach of the prince's mounted squads or his infantry. The united forces of the prince easily crushed the enemy. The "wall" of shields stopped the Greeks, the cavalry crushed the enemy with flank blows.

"We have nowhere to go, whether we want it or not, we must fight."


Having lost several vanguard units, Varda Sklir recalled the rest of his forces to the main army. The beginning of the war was completely lost. The Rus easily invaded Thrace, smashed the enemy, plundered and burned villages. The Byzantine commander was forced to give a general battle to stop the invasion. This suited the prince of the Rus. He understood that the main thing in a war is not the capture of vast territories and the siege of fortresses, but the destruction of the enemy army. As long as the enemy army is intact, the war is not won, but if the army is defeated, then the fortresses are doomed. The battle took place at the walls of Adrianople, according to another version, at the fortress of Arcadiopolis. There is also a version that there were two battles. At Adrianople, Svyatoslav defeated the enemy in a general battle, and almost simultaneously one of his troops was defeated at Arcadiopol. The Russian chronicle defines the size of the army of Svyatoslav at 10 thousand soldiers, and the Greek - at 100 thousand people. Leo the Deacon reports that there were 30 thousand "barbarians", and 10 thousand Greeks.

Svyatoslav set up his troops traditionally - in three regiments. On the flanks there are cavalry, in the center - Russian and Bulgarian infantry. Varda Sklir also divided the army into three parts: the flanking units were located in the forest ambushes. The vanguard of the Romans, led by Ioann Alakos, started a battle with the advanced forces of Svyatoslav - the light cavalry of the Pechenegs. He lured the Pechenegs into attack from an ambush. The Greeks easily overturned the enemy. The Pechenegs were followed by the cavalry of the Rus and Hungarians. The deadly felling began. The Greeks and Russians threw new forces into battle. The Russian infantry arrived in time. The Greeks also brought in infantry regiments into the battle. Another ambush regiment of the Greek commander entered the battle. The Russian squads began to slowly withdraw. Victory seemed to be near.

Obviously, this moment was described by the Russian chronicle: “We have nowhere to go, whether we want it or not, we must fight. So let us not put the Russian land to shame, but let us lie down here with bones, for the dead have no shame. If we run, we will be a shame. So let us not run, but let us stand firmly, and I will go ahead of you: if my head falls down, then take care of your own. " And the squad answered the prince: "Where your head lies, there we will lay down our heads." And the Rus fought, and there was a great slaughter, and Svyatoslav defeated.

The fighting impulse of the Greeks was running out. Their cavalry could not break the Russian "wall" of many spears, spears and axes. The cataphracts died in fruitless attacks. The Rus stood, covered with large red shields, there were no weak points in their ranks. In every attack, the Greeks lost men and horses. Behind the "wall" Russian squads, Hungarians and Pechenegs were putting themselves in order. The battle was lost. The Greeks had to hastily retreat until the army was completely destroyed.

Greek chroniclers lie that Svyatoslav was defeated. That the Romans surrounded and destroyed the Rus, having lost only 55 (!) People, killed thousands of "Scythians". According to the Russian chronicle, Svyatoslav won a victory and continued his attack on Constantinople-Constantinople, "fighting and breaking cities." There was panic in Constantinople. The poet John Kyriot wrote: “Rus is striving with full armor against us. The peoples of Scythia rose to war ... "Having devastated Thrace, the" barbarians "invaded Macedonia, defeated Master John Curkus, the leader of the Macedonian theme. The Greeks had to ask for peace from Svyatoslav, to offer a tribute. Tzimisce had no choice. His best general, Varda Sklir, was defeated. The road to the capital is open. Other Greek regiments were associated with the war with the Arabs. The rebellion of the commander Barda Phocas - the nephew of the slain emperor began. The troops hastily gathered in the Byzantine capital had to be sent to suppress the dangerous uprising.

Svyatoslav also could not go to Constantinople. The squads after the bloody battles were drained of blood, it was necessary to get reinforcements from the Russian land. The Russian prince demanded not only tribute, but also reimbursement of all military expenses, gold for all soldiers, including those killed: "He will take his kind for the slain!" The prince did not negotiate the fate of the Bulgarian people, he answered briefly and firmly: "You do not care about Bulgaria!" In the fall of 970, the Rus, Bulgarians, Hungarians and Pechenegs ("Great Scythia") left the empire. As a result, Russia and Byzantium concluded an armistice, but both sides were preparing for a new battle.


Steppe campaigns of Svyatoslav. N. Karazin
Author:
Photos used:
https://ru.wikipedia.org/ https://runivers.ru/
Articles from this series:
"The invasion of the Russians is directed at us ..."
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  1. cost
    cost 23 September 2020 06: 16
    +9
    Byzantine authors report the appearance in the fields of Thrace of the troops of the anti-Byzantine coalition, which included Russia, Bulgaria, Hungarians and Pechenegs (Tatishchev adds Poles to this list).
    The Hungarians helped Svyatoslav earlier, during the first campaign on the Danube. Pechenegs during the campaign against Constantinople in 944 were used by the prince's father, Igor Rurikovich, apparently after a collision with them in the summer of 968 Svyatoslav was able to restore relations with the nomads and enlist their support in the war with the Greeks - robbery and prisoners were always a sufficient reward for the participation of the Pechenegs in conflicts between different states. The Bulgarians, seeing that the previous emperor Nicephorus did not keep the promise to provide assistance in 968-969, preferred to unite with the Rus against the Greeks.
    Armed and the appearance of a noble warrior-Pecheneg

    The appearance of a Hungarian horseman of the 10th century

    The external appearance of the Bulgarian soldiers of the X century
    1. cost
      cost 23 September 2020 06: 22
      10
      In turn, John Tzimiskes also began preparations for war: in the winter of 969/970, he gathered a detachment of "immortals"
      , whom he ordered to be with him. The army of the Greeks was divided into two parts, one of which was commanded by the master Barda Sklir, and the other by the patrician Peter. They were ordered to spend the winter of 969-970 on the border of Byzantium and Bulgaria, training soldiers and bypassing the border territories.
      In the occupied Russian regions, the Byzantines sent people dressed in "Scythian" dress, who knew both languages, so that they would learn about the intentions of the enemy
      10th century Byzantine infantry appearance and armament

      Byzantine cavalry X century

      Byzantine archer
      1. cost
        cost 23 September 2020 06: 26
        +6
        Battle of Arcadiopol
        The number of Sfenkel's troops is determined by Leo the Deacon at more than 30 thousand people. (that is, about half of all the forces of the Rus who participated in the war). The number of the Byzantine army Leo the Deacon estimates at almost 10 thousand people, John Skylitsa - at 12 thousand people.
        The Allied army was divided into three parts: the main forces, consisting of Russians and Bulgarians, separately - Pechenegs and Hungarians, located on the flanks.
        The Greeks for some time hid behind the high walls of Arcadiopol, giving the "Scythians" the opportunity to plunder the area. Then, considering that the enemy had lost vigilance, Varda Sklir sent an avant-garde to the side of the enemy under the leadership of Ioann Alakas, who was supposed to come into contact with the enemy and in an organized manner retreat to the location of the main forces. The main army of Varda Sklir divided into three parts along the front, with the flank detachments hiding in the forests for a surprise attack on the enemy. The vanguard of the Byzantines started a battle with the Pechenegs, retreated, after which the Pechenegs upset the ranks during the pursuit of the retreating ones and soon faced the main forces of the Byzantines. The flank detachment ambushed, the nomads were surrounded and defeated.
        The main forces of the allies moved in two lines: in front of the cavalry (including the Hungarians), behind it the infantry. After a long and bloody battle, the result of the battle was determined by the death of one of the leaders of the "Scythians". Leo the Deacon writes that Varda Sklir personally cut him to the waist, after which the "Scythians" fled.

        According to A.N.Sakharov, neither side in the summer of 970 managed to achieve a decisive advantage. The Greeks suffered a serious defeat in Thrace and lost the army of Patrician Peter there (the victory of Svyatoslav described in the annals), but on the near approaches to Constantinople they managed to stop the allies (the defeat of Sfenkela at Arcadiopol, described by Leo the Deacon
        1. cost
          cost 23 September 2020 06: 32
          11
          The initiators of the conclusion of peace in the summer of 970 were the Greeks, who found themselves in a difficult situation, despite the victory at Arcadiopolis. The Rus went to peace, since they did not have confidence in further success after the bloody battles in Thrace and the defeat at Arcadiopol
          After the battle of Arcadiopolis, the corps of Varda Sklira was deployed to Asia Minor to suppress the rebellion led by a relative of the Emperor Nicephorus killed by Tzimiskes - Varda Phoca the Younger. In Adrianople, preparations were under way for the upcoming campaign in Bulgaria against Svyatoslav, whose troops continued to raid Macedonia.
          Sending his diplomats to Svyatoslav with gold and expensive fabrics, Emperor John ordered them to monitor the prince's reaction to the gifts presented. Soon the messengers returned to the governor of Constantinople and reported that the Russian prince, without even looking at the riches, ordered to distribute them to the needy. The prince ordered the emperor to convey the following:
          “I have enough gold, silver and brocade, and I am fighting not for their sake, but for the falsehood of the Greeks. If you want to have peace, I willingly do it, just pay under the contract, which you haven't sent for several years. ”One of the advisers suggested testing Svyatoslav again and sending him a good weapon instead of riches. Such an offering was to the liking of the prince, he highly appreciated the weapon and thanked for the offering.
          "Test of Svyatoslav with weapons" thin. B. Olshansky

          According to the chronicle, Prince Svyatoslav, having accepted the gifts, began to consult with his retinue, saying:
          “If we do not make peace with the Tsar and he finds out how few of us are left, then they will come again, they will surround us in the city. And the Kiev land is far away and the Pechenegs are enemies with us - who will help us? Let us make peace with the Caesar, because he agreed to pay us a tribute - and that may be enough for us. If he stops paying tribute to us, then again, having gathered more soldiers even than we had at first, we will come to Tsesaregrad. "

          John Tzimiskes paid tribute, adding from above for each fallen soldier - this was the condition of Svyatoslav, who shared a part of the spoil with the relatives of the dead. After receiving the tribute, the prince withdrew to Pereyaslavets, while the emperor Tzimiskes focused on the uprising of Varda Phocas and preparations for the next stage of the war - food and equipment were brought to Adrianapolis, the old and the construction of new fire-carrying ships were revised, new troops were quickly hired and trained. The revolt of Varda Phocas was suppressed in November 970, and the emperor continued preparations for the march to Bulgaria throughout the winter of 970-971.
          1. cost
            cost 23 September 2020 06: 40
            +8
            In April 971, John Tzimiskes personally led the campaign to Bulgaria. A fleet of 300 ships was ordered to block the Danube to prevent the enemy from retreating.
            Arriving at Adrianapolis, the emperor learned from the scouts that the impassable, narrow paths leading to Bulgaria were not guarded by the "Scythians". Having gathered his commanders, he addressed them with the following words:
            “I thought, comrades-in-arms, that the Scythians, having long awaited our arrival, did not spare their efforts to fence off the most dangerous, narrow and difficult-to-pass places on the paths with hedges and ramparts, so that it would not be easy for us to move forward. But since they were deceived by the approach of Holy Passover, they did not block the roads, did not block our paths, believing that we would not give up shiny clothes, from solemn processions, feasts and shows, which mark the days of the great holiday, for the sake of the grave hardships of war. It seems to me that we will act in the best possible way if we immediately take advantage of the favorable opportunity, arm ourselves and cross the narrow road as soon as possible, until the Tavro-Scythians learned of our arrival and did not impose a battle in the mountain passes. If we, ahead of [the Scythians], pass dangerous places and unexpectedly attack them, then, I think - God help us! - from the very first attack we will take possession of the city of Preslava, the capital of the Misyan, and then, moving [forward], we will easily curb the madness of the dews ” Lev the Deacon, "History"

            Thus, the Greeks took advantage of the fact of unity of faith with the Bulgarians and, despite the unspoken ban on fighting on Easter, undertook a sudden march through the Balkans, coming close to the capital of Bulgaria on April 12.
            Leo the Deacon names the forces of Tzimiskes in 15 thousand hoplites and 13 thousand horsemen, in addition, a select detachment of "immortals" (cataphracts and a large baggage train with other troops. Skilitsa reports that Tzimiskes captured the passes with a detachment of 5 thousand infantry and 4 thousand soldiers). horsemen, followed by "the rest of the multitude of warriors."
            On April 12, the Byzantine army, lined up in "dense rows", began to approach Preslav. The Rus and Bulgarians managed to line up in battle formation, covering themselves with large shields to their heels, and themselves rushed to the Greeks. The battle was stubborn without a clear advantage of the sides, until the emperor ordered the guard of the "immortals" to attack the left flank of the city's defenders. Unable to withstand the pressure of the armored cavalry, the Rus retreated to the fortress. Leo the Deacon mentions that among the besieged was the patrician Kalokir, who had conspired with Svyatoslav. Seeing the emperor's standards among the flags of the Byzantine army that approached the city, the diplomat fled at night to Dorostol to Svyatoslav.
            The next day, April 13, siege weapons approached the Greeks, and they went to the assault of Preslav. The defense was led by Sfenkel, arrows and stones flew at those trying to put stairs to the walls, the Greeks incessantly fired at the fortress from stone throwers. At a certain moment, the mass of attackers were able to gain a foothold on the wall, and then make their way to the main gate and open it.
            Greeks storming Preslav. From siege guns shown kamnemet. Miniature from the chronicles of John Skilitsa.

            The Byzantines broke into the city and captured the Bulgarian Tsar Boris II, while the Rus and the Bulgarians retreated to the imperial palace with a fence. Tzimiskes ordered Boris to be brought to him, received him royally and assured him that he was fighting only with the Russians, but not with the Bulgarians. Then Tzimiskes was informed that those who had taken refuge in the royal palace were desperately defending themselves and had already killed at least one and a half hundred Greeks trying to get inside. The emperor ordered the palace to be set on fire to force the defenders to leave their hideout. They were forced to go to an open place, where the Greeks surrounded them and in a stubborn battle they destroyed almost everyone. Only a small part of the army under the command of the governor Sfenkela managed to leave for Dorostol, where Svyatoslav was with the main forces.
            Preserved fragment of the fortress wall of Preslav

            Reconstruction of the town of Veliki Preslav, Bulgaria
            1. cost
              cost 23 September 2020 07: 05
              +8
              Separately, it is worth mentioning the siege of Dorostol. Her John Skillitsa, ("Review of Histories") shares. in four stages:
              1. On April 23, the first battle took place, which began after an ambush by the Russians on the forward detachment of the Byzantines. They destroyed this detachment, but they themselves died.
              John Skillitsa: -The main forces of the Rus were awaiting the main forces of the Byzantines on the near approaches to Dorostol, closing shields and spears, like a wall. The battle formation of the Byzantine army consisted of two lines: in the first line in the center stood the infantry, and on the flanks there were mounted men at arms, which made up two wings; in the second line, continuously shooting archers and slingers lined up. In a stubborn battle, the Russians repelled 12 attacks of the Byzantines. In the evening, Tsimikhsy, having collected all his cavalry, threw it against the exhausted Rus, which forced them to hide behind the walls of Dorostol.
              On April 24, the Byzantines erected a fortified camp near Dorostol, erected tents on a small hill, dug a deep ditch around and poured an earthen rampart, on which spears were stuck into the ground and shields were hung on them.
              On April 25 or April 28, a Byzantine fleet approached Dorostol from the Danube and blockaded the city. Svyatoslav ordered to pull his boats to the shore so that the enemy would not burn them. On the same day, Tzimiskes approached the city, but the Russians did not go out into the field, but only from the walls and from the towers they threw stones at the enemy and threw arrows. Soon the Byzantines returned to the camp. By evening, Svyatoslav's squad in horse ranks set out from the city, but Tzimiskes did not dare to attack Svyatoslav's squad, and she returned to Dorostol.

              2. On April 26, the second battle took place near Dorostol. Svyatoslav's army went out into the field and lined up on foot in their chain mail armor and helmets, closing long shields up to their feet and putting out their spears. The Byzantines attacked the Rus, after which a stubborn battle ensued, in which the governor Sfenkel died. According to the Byzantine historian Kedrin, the Russians retained the battlefield and remained there all night from April 26 to 27. The battle resumed in the morning. By noon, Tzimiskes sent a detachment to the rear of the Rus. Fearing to be cut off from the city, Svyatoslav's squad retreated behind the fortress walls.
              "Svyatoslav during the defense of Dorostol" Hood. S. Pokotilov

              On the night of April 29, Svyatoslav ordered to dig a deep ditch around Dorostol so that the besiegers could not come close to the fortress wall and install siege engines. On the same night, taking advantage of the darkness and low visibility due to heavy rain, the Russians on boats made their first large sortie for food. Coming back with the booty, they noticed a detachment of Byzantines on the banks of the Danube, watered horses in the Danube and collected firewood on the bank. The Rus attacked the Byzantines and dispersed them. Upon learning of what had happened, the emperor John was indignant and ordered to dig up all the roads to the city with deep ditches, strengthen patrols and promised the chiefs of the fleet to execute them in case of a repetition of this. Over the next three months, the Rus did not leave the city, and the Byzantines, with the help of battering and throwing weapons, destroyed the fortress walls and killed its defenders.
              John Tzimiskes was not interested in a prolonged siege, since in his absence in Constantinople there had already been an unsuccessful coup attempt. To speed things up, he, according to Skilitsa, suggested that Svyatoslav solve the war by a duel between them:
              “He did not accept the challenge and added mocking words that he, they say, understands his benefit better than the enemy, and if the emperor does not want to live anymore, then there are tens of thousands of other ways to death; let him choose what he wants "

              On July 3.20, the Russians left the city and lined up for battle. The Byzantines formed a dense phalanx and launched an offensive. The Rus successfully repelled the attacks of the Byzantines, but during one of them the Russian governor Ikmor was beheaded by Anemas, the bodyguard of Emperor John Tzimiskes, after which the squad threw its shields behind their backs and retreated to the city. Among the bodies of the killed soldiers left on the battlefield, the Byzantines found the bodies of women, probably Bulgarian residents of Dorostol.
              That night, according to Byzantine historians, the Russians celebrated a feast for the dead - a ritual ceremony for escorting soldiers who fell in battle to the afterlife. Bonfires were abundantly burned on the shore, songs were sung and music played.
              4. On the morning of July 22, the Rus left Dorostol and Svyatoslav ordered the city walls to be locked so that no one had any thoughts of retreating. Lev the Deacon tries to explain the courage of the Russians with the following lines:
              They also say about the Tavro Scythians that, up to the present time, they never surrender to their enemies, even the defeated ones - when there is no longer any hope of salvation, they pierce their insides with swords and thus kill themselves. They do this, based on the following conviction: those killed in battle by the enemy, they believe, become after death and the separation of the soul from the body, his slaves in the underworld. Fearing such service, disdaining to serve their killers, they inflict their own death

              "The princely retinue in Dorostol". 2011 Art. V.G. Grafov

              The battle began with the attack of the Byzantine positions by the Rus. In a stubborn battle by noon, the Byzantines began to retreat under the pressure of the enemy. Seeing with what fierce fury Svyatoslav rushed at the Greeks and inspired the ranks of his soldiers to battle, Anemas, who had become famous on the eve of the murder of Ikmor, rushed forward on horseback and dropping the reins, rushed to the prince. Striking the sword fell on the collarbone, threw Svyatoslav to the ground, but did not kill - the chain mail shirt and shield saved him. Anemas was surrounded, a horse was killed under it, and then the Greek himself was struck down by many spears.
              Then Tzimiskes brought a fresh detachment of horsemen into battle, the attack of which he personally led. This allowed the tired Greek soldiers from the front ranks to rest. They went on the attack, but were repulsed by the Rus.
              General scheme of the last battle for Dorostol

              Towards nightfall, Tzimiskes divided his army into two parts. One detachment, under the command of Patrick Roman and the clerk Peter, entered the battle and began to retreat, luring the Rus squad to an open plain away from the city. At this time, the second detachment under the command of Varda Sklira attacked the Russians from the rear. The storm that began at this time carried clouds of sand into the eyes of the Russians. Fighting bravely, repulsing the constant attacks of the Byzantines, Svyatoslav was able to break through to Dorostol and hide behind its walls.
              The forces of Dorostol's defenders were melting. Svyatoslav received news of the Bulgarian cities surrendering to the Greeks, there was no hope for the appearance of the Hungarians, and the Pechenegs, since the last unsuccessful battle, declared war on the prince. In such a situation, it was pointless to continue the defense.
              The next day Svyatoslav's ambassadors appeared in the Greek camp. They conveyed Svyatoslav's proposals for "peace and love" to Tzimiskes and met with a positive reaction. Then the Byzantine emperor sent his representatives with gifts to Dorostol. So negotiations began to conclude an agreement.
              The emperor ordered the clerk to write for the charter all the speeches of Svyatoslav, transmitted by his ambassadors. On the pages of the PVL, the text of the treaty between the Grand Duke and the Byzantine imperialist has been preserved, below are the main points of the agreement, supplemented by the data of Leo the Deacon:
              Svyatoslav undertook to no longer fight with Byzantium, Bulgaria or Korsun (Byzantine possessions in the Crimea and the northern Black Sea coast) and not to bring other peoples to war
              In the event of an attack by someone on the empire, the Rus pledged to help her with troops.
              The conditions for the stay of Russian merchants in Constantinople under the treaty of 945 are being restored
              Svyatoslav and his troops are allowed unhindered exit from the besieged fortress, and they also take all the trophies available
              The Emperor gave bread for every warrior on the road
              1. cost
                cost 23 September 2020 07: 07
                +7
                At the end of July 971, after the signing of the treaty by both parties, the Byzantine emperor John I Tzimiskes met with the great Kiev prince Svyatoslav Igorevich. This very fact is in general extremely characteristic of the negotiations of the "barbarian" leaders with the Greeks. And the Bulgarian khans, and the Avar kagans, and the Russians in 860, and Prince Oleg in 907 persistently sought after the end of hostilities, without fail, to personally meet with the Byzantine emperors. It was a matter of prestige.
                The meeting took place on the banks of the Danube after the signing of a peace treaty, as Lev Deacon told in detail:
                “Covered with gilded equipment, the emperor rode up to the bank of the Istra (Danube), leading a large detachment of armed horsemen who shone with gold. Svyatoslav arrived by boat on the river. He sat on the oars and rowed with his soldiers, no different from them. The Grand Duke looked like this: of medium height, neither too tall nor too small, with thick eyebrows, blue eyes, an even nose, a shaved head and a thick long mustache. His head was completely naked and only on one side of it hung a lock of hair, which signified the nobility of the family. He had a strong neck and broad shoulders, and his entire physique was rather slender. He looked gloomy and stern. In one ear he had a gold earring adorned with two pearls with a ruby ​​inserted between them. His clothes were white, and in nothing but cleanliness, they did not differ from the clothes of others. Sitting in a boat on a rowers' bench, the Grand Duke talked a little with the king about the conditions of peace and set sail. Thus ended the war between the Romans and the Scythians "

                Prince Svyatoslav and Emperor Tzimiskes Fig. V.P. Vereshchagin.

                Despite his promises to the Bulgarians only to drive out the Rus, but not to claim the independence of their country, Emperor John Tzimiskes captured the Bulgarian Tsar Boris II and forced him to renounce his royal dignity, and then appointed his military leaders as governors of the main Bulgarian fortresses and cities.
                Leo Deacon: - "The coalition assembled by the prince of the Rus fell apart, the squad lost many fighters.
                Svyatoslav had to abandon all conquests and leave Bulgaria, as well as to undertake further not to fight with Byzantium, Bulgaria and Korsun
                The terms of trade of the Rus in Constantinople under the treaty of 945 regained force.
                Most of Bulgaria became subject to Constantinople, the Bulgarian Tsar Boris II was publicly stripped of his royal regalia and made a Byzantine courtier. "
                1. Astra wild
                  Astra wild 23 September 2020 15: 05
                  +6
                  Dmitry Rich, thanks for your additions. I like it
              2. Catfish
                Catfish 23 September 2020 16: 07
                +8
                Dmitry, hello hi , the author is resting and modestly smokes on the sidelines. smile
                1. Phil77
                  Phil77 23 September 2020 19: 38
                  10
                  Quote: Sea Cat
                  Dmitry, hello

                  Hi Konstantin! Alas and ah! But Dima will not answer. He was banned! Arbitrariness will not pass!
                  Freedom Angela Davis! am am am
                  Bring back a good man !!!!!!
                  1. Phil77
                    Phil77 23 September 2020 19: 52
                    11
                    I would like to understand from the respected moderators. What is happening on the site?
                    Banning one of the best author-commentators without the right to correspond ???? This is beyond comprehension! For what? Answer, pliz! am
                    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
                      Kote Pan Kokhanka 23 September 2020 20: 25
                      11
                      Quote: Phil77
                      I would like to understand from the respected moderators. What is happening on the site?
                      Banning one of the best author-commentators without the right to correspond ???? This is beyond comprehension! For what? Answer, pliz! am

                      They will not answer! The already passed stage !!!
                      About Dmitry's comments, I will add only one thing - THIS IS THE CASE WHEN THE INFORMATION PROVIDED BY THEM EXCEEDS THE AUTHOR'S WORK !!!
                      Apparently for someone it is simply unbearable !!!
                      Dmitry, we are with you!
                      Regards, Vlad!
                      1. voyaka uh
                        voyaka uh 24 September 2020 13: 43
                        +5
                        Right. Rich's extended comments turned out to be much more interesting and objective than the article itself.
                      2. mr.ZinGer
                        mr.ZinGer 24 September 2020 14: 24
                        +2
                        An article on the style and presentation of the material as paragraph N5 from the history textbook for grade 6.
                  2. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 23 September 2020 20: 33
                    +9
                    I would like to understand from the respected moderators.
                    And they don’t care, hamsters, all one will arrive on the "politota" sections
                    1. Lexus
                      Lexus 24 September 2020 01: 18
                      +7
                      Damn it! I hope everything will work out, and Dmitry will return to us soon. I would not like to lose such an interesting commentator and pleasant, absolutely conflict-free interlocutor. It would be wrong.
                    2. Phil77
                      Phil77 24 September 2020 19: 32
                      +1
                      Quote: lexus
                      I would not like to lose such an interesting commentator and pleasant, absolutely conflict-free interlocutor. That would be wrong.

                      To everyone who spoke in defense of Dmitry!
                      Dima sends his best regards and wishes! And also a huge gratitude to all who are not indifferent!
                      Will he come back? Dmitry hopes for the discretion of the site administration.
                      Looking forward to a decision? angry
              3. Catfish
                Catfish 23 September 2020 19: 57
                10
                Why was it banned? Interesting comments, illustrative material, found someone to ban! What is going on with the site is ruled by sheer dullness, obsessed with politics. Hyperboreans with jingoistic patriots, and a knowledgeable person who makes the weather in history was banned. negative
                1. Phil77
                  Phil77 23 September 2020 19: 59
                  10
                  Quote: Sea Cat
                  on history makes the weather - banned.

                  And not only that, I'm furious! am am am
                  Dima, I'm with you !!!! angry
                  1. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 23 September 2020 20: 30
                    10
                    For figs not to comment on Samsonov's articles!
                  2. Catfish
                    Catfish 23 September 2020 20: 33
                    +8
                    Yes, you always said that there is nothing to do on Samsonov. As he looked into the water.
                  3. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 23 September 2020 20: 44
                    +8
                    Uncle Kostya, it's not Samsonov's business. The case is about the attitude of the administration of the resource to ordinary users. We are a food base for them, and nothing more! This must be understood. As well as the fact that on similar resources "topwar", in spite of its pride, enjoys the glory of a "reserve of thinking cacti"
                  4. Catfish
                    Catfish 23 September 2020 20: 47
                    +6
                    And what resources do you mean, I don't walk anywhere else.
                  5. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 23 September 2020 20: 53
                    +7
                    "Warhead", partly "Warspot"
                  6. Operator
                    Operator 23 September 2020 22: 23
                    0
                    Don't put an owl on the globe: the Warhead advertising portal only provides a platform for users to write their blogs (in fact, short, meaningless notes at the level of VO members' comments).

                    Continuing your analogy, Warhead is a sanctuary for amoebas. bully
                  7. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 23 September 2020 22: 37
                    +3
                    Andrey, my compliments to your persistent antagonism! hi
                    Undoubtedly, "warhed" is just a platform, but the people who write for it are much smarter than the author of this article.
                  8. Operator
                    Operator 23 September 2020 23: 29
                    -1
                    Quite the opposite - valuable historical materials on Warhead are represented by translations of foreign articles. Naturally, they do not reflect the mind of the translators.

                    Samsonov's articles are his personal position and undoubtedly reflect his mind. At the same time, the disputed in Samsonov's articles is his position, not his mind.

                    For example: the concept of Great Scythia was actively used by Lev Gumilyov (as well as the concept of passionarity, allegedly resulting from cosmic radiation), but you will not assert about the low level of mental development of Gumilyov - otherwise they will suspect you of this.

                    People tend to be delusional laughing
                  9. Operator
                    Operator 25 September 2020 12: 48
                    0
                    There is only one adequate author on Warspot in the "Military History" section - Alexey Kozlenko.

                    I liked the illustration for one of the articles: the image of the city magistrate of Capua from the 4th century BC. with the Aryan solar sign on the chest - Alaverdi from the Etruscans laughing

            2. Phil77
              Phil77 24 September 2020 07: 51
              +3
              Hi Anton! Looked at the two specified portals. Impression? * Varspot * -interesting. The guys would still work on the design of the site, but in general it’s not bad.
              But ... if you remember Ilyich and slightly paraphrase him, then-
              * Work, work and work again. * hi
            3. Lexus
              Lexus 24 September 2020 14: 10
              +5
              Sergey, welcome! hi Two wonderful Authors are published on "Varspot" - Pasholok and Makhov. The first is the guru of armored vehicles, the second is the "historian". Thanks to them, complex topics are "digested" easily and fun. At the same time, these "knights of the pen and keyboard" do not break away from reality and do not plunge into the realm of "unscientific fiction". I often throw links to one well-known "captain" - he will not let you lie. I was very happy when Artyom with AI began to publish on VO. Great Author. It is a great pity that his materials are extremely rare here. It would be possible, in the order of "alaverdi", to simply "send" our individual "storytellers" there. There they would be in the circle of "understanding" and fully appreciated, because in VO the "alternatives" not tied to historical facts and not supported by anything, how to put it mildly, "hurts the ear".
            4. Phil77
              Phil77 24 September 2020 19: 20
              +2
              Hi Alexey! Thanks for the info! Are you also in the bathhouse? Without the right to correspond?
              This is exactly what is indicated in your profile.
              What's going on with the site?!?!?! am
            5. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku 24 September 2020 19: 43
              +2
              Are you in the bathhouse too?

              Yes, Alexei too. hi
              I often throw links to one well-known "captain" - he will not let you lie.

              He will confirm. soldier
  2. Korsar4
    Korsar4 23 September 2020 22: 38
    +7
    Voting with your feet - to cute authors.
    True, this remark itself contradicts itself, and shows insufficient endurance.
  3. Phil77
    Phil77 23 September 2020 20: 34
    12
    And one more thing, I would like to add.
    Citizens are moderators.
    In the history department, Dima declared himself as a great commentator and interlocutor, as a literate and charming person. Do not take the trouble to explain the reason why you rejected this worthy person from the site? And as it was written above, if such authors leave, then with whom will you stay? In my opinion, you should think and make the only correct decision.
  4. Catfish
    Catfish 23 September 2020 20: 46
    +7
    Seryozha, as someone said in some book - "thinking a lot is harmful, it's better to do what they say." Utsy.
  5. Kote Pan Kokhanka
    Kote Pan Kokhanka 23 September 2020 21: 26
    +8
    Since 2014, being the "chief committee" of the site, I became a general three times and lost big stars three times, but this is nothing with the loss of smart, competent and erudite interlocutors whom you consider friends, comrades and like-minded people !!! Stars are nothing, friends are everything. Here, where for many more years, I could have been an "unreasonable kitten" to draw the thoughts of the Authors, whose books I bought in stores, to communicate with people superior to you in all respects, to take information for my work. I am ready to give Everything for the return of Rich (Dmitry).
    Two virtual general's stars, for the amnesty of Dmitry, today one of the leading commentators of the "History" column! Without it, the heading will fade, lose its meaning and information content.
    Who will benefit from this? The answer is obvious. This is sad.
  6. Phil77
    Phil77 23 September 2020 21: 35
    +7
    Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
    Two virtual general's stars, for the amnesty of Dmitry, today one of the leading commentators of the "History" column!

    Bravo Vlad! Look! I'm next to you! angry
  7. Cartalon
    Cartalon 23 September 2020 21: 06
    +3
    And here the moderators really have a habit of explaining their actions?
  8. Phil77
    Phil77 23 September 2020 21: 10
    +5
    No, of course. This is me ... from hopelessness, and from powerlessness, and from the desire to understand. It's easy to understand. Why?
    I read his last comments, everything is fine, everything is correct. And what is the result? Ban.
  9. mr.ZinGer
    mr.ZinGer 24 September 2020 14: 28
    +2
    To the responsibility of the creators of arbitrariness!
    Volunteerism WILL NOT PASS.
  10. mr.ZinGer
    mr.ZinGer 24 September 2020 14: 26
    +2
    Freedom to Yuri Detochkin!
  • The leader of the Redskins
    The leader of the Redskins 23 September 2020 06: 49
    0
    Do you have a picture of the courtesan Feofano?)
    laughing
    And, in general, it was interesting to read.
    1. cost
      cost 23 September 2020 07: 24
      +7
      Good morning hi
      You have no image of the courtesan Feofano?)

      Why, we'll find it. True, contrary to popular belief Theophano (Greek Θεοφανώ; X century), - the Byzantine empress, wife of two emperors Roman II the Young (959-963) and Nicephorus II Phocas (963-969), mother of Emperor Basil II the Bulgarians (976-1025), his brother Constantine VIII (1025-1028) and Anna, married to the Grand Duke of Kiev Vladimir Svyatoslavich, was not a courtesan. It came from Leo the Deacon:
      ... "Theophano, the most beautiful, seductive and sophisticated woman of her time, equally distinguished by her beauty, abilities, ambition and depravity", was the daughter of a Constantinople shinkar, in whose institution she worked as a prostitute

      In fact, as her contemporary Lev the Deacon writes in his "Histories": - she is from circus
      Theophano - mosaic panel
      1. The leader of the Redskins
        The leader of the Redskins 23 September 2020 09: 17
        0
        Thank you.
        Hmm ... Either the canons of beauty changed, or I fell behind, or in those days there were Zurab Tsariteli!
        laughing
        1. BAI
          BAI 23 September 2020 10: 01
          +5
          There are, so to speak, "reconstructions"
          1. Astra wild
            Astra wild 23 September 2020 15: 12
            +3
            The woman on the right has a good face
            1. Astra wild
              Astra wild 23 September 2020 20: 34
              +5
              Perhaps the miner is right: "there are no comrades for the taste and color," for example, I don't like the mosaic, and even on the "reconstruction" Feofano has a repulsive expression on his face. It seems to me a lively and pretty face from the right, but someone likes Feofano.
              For me, Tsereteli's "creation" is good enough to frighten drunks, but for Luzhkov Tsereteli - Michelangelo of the 21st century.
              1. Phil77
                Phil77 23 September 2020 21: 42
                +2
                Quote: Astra wild
                and for Luzhkov Tsereteli - Michelangelo of the 21st century.

                Vera! Yuri Mikhailovich had other merits.
                Unfortunately, yes, in terms of art, there are some questions to him. hi
  • Astra wild
    Astra wild 23 September 2020 15: 02
    +3
    The Pechenezh rider has feathers sticking out like horns on his helmet
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 23 September 2020 21: 30
      +2
      Quote: Astra wild
      The Pechenezh rider has feathers sticking out like horns on his helmet

      I wonder who raised a hand to put this comment minus? And the lady and without a single argument, which is akin to rudeness, at least !!!
      1. Astra wild
        Astra wild 23 September 2020 21: 55
        +3
        Nikolay, unfortunately there are many ambitious fools and boors among us
        1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
          Kote Pan Kokhanka 24 September 2020 04: 37
          +2
          A beautiful stranger, I am not Pan, I am his cat from the cellar - the owner of the pots, the enemy of mice! laughing love

          Sincerely!
  • Boris ⁣ Shaver
    Boris ⁣ Shaver 24 September 2020 07: 10
    +1
    Quote: Rich
    the appearance of a noble warrior-Pecheneg

    So that's who tormented Russia before the coranovirus!

    <...> Having defeated the recalcitrant Pecheneg tribes, Svyatoslav returned to Kiev <...>

    I can see that our then elites fought more seriously with the tormentors.
  • andrew42
    andrew42 4 November 2020 14: 28
    0
    The drawings of the warriors are good, but ... Where did Pecheneg get such high-tech sabers in the 10th century? On the blade - a clean saber, on the handle - a heavy Caucasian saber (not a Persian and not a light Caucasian).
  • Cartalon
    Cartalon 23 September 2020 07: 24
    +3
    The Greek chroniclers lie to the phrase, there can be only one answer, it's you lying.
    1. cost
      cost 23 September 2020 07: 55
      +6
      Michael hi
      The Greek chroniclers lie to the phrase, there can be only one answer, it's you lying.

      Are you talking to me? I did not write such a phrase
      1. Cartalon
        Cartalon 23 September 2020 08: 09
        +2
        And here you are, the article begins this way
      2. Keyser soze
        Keyser soze 23 September 2020 08: 18
        +6
        Thanks for the interesting article, colleague. I read your posts with pleasure!
        1. Bagatur
          Bagatur 23 September 2020 09: 41
          0
          Interesting ... but ... a complete stranger!
    2. Astra wild
      Astra wild 23 September 2020 15: 48
      +2
      Actually poking isn't very polite. Don't you think so?
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 23 September 2020 16: 05
        +1
        It does not seem to him, due to the complete lack of education.
    3. Boris ⁣ Shaver
      Boris ⁣ Shaver 24 September 2020 07: 19
      +2
      Quote: Cartalon
      The Greek chroniclers are lying, there can be only one answer, you are lying

      Everyone lies. And whoever says that he is not lying is lying.
  • Undecim
    Undecim 23 September 2020 09: 20
    12
    Blessed Augustine defined a lie as any attempt to create a false idea of ​​reality, misinformation, unfounded judgment, to present speculation or reasoning as an indisputable fact, attempts to hide what was known, but which was not directly asked about.
    This definition is ideally suited to Samsonov's "creativity". The finale of his "work" clearly illustrates this.
    Svyatoslav also could not go to Constantinople. The squads after the bloody battles were drained of blood, it was necessary to get reinforcements from the Russian land. The Russian prince demanded not only tribute, but also reimbursement of all military expenses, gold for all soldiers, including those killed: "He will take his kind for the slain!" The prince did not negotiate the fate of the Bulgarian people, he answered briefly and firmly: "You do not care about Bulgaria!" In the fall of 970, the Rus, Bulgarians, Hungarians and Pechenegs ("Great Scythia") left the empire. As a result, Russia and Byzantium concluded an armistice, but both sides were preparing for a new battle.
    The fact that the author distorts events, facts of the date in the text is already familiar. For the sake of brevity, let's focus on the finale.
    The author did not accidentally interrupt the "narration" at this point. As I wrote yesterday, the ending of this "victorious" epic is not at all solemn.
    In the next year, 971, John Tzimiskes dealt with the rebels and personally led the campaign to Bulgaria.
    In April 971, the Greeks took Preslav and moved to Dorostol. At the same time, the Bulgarians, who, as the author assured, were happy to welcome Svyatoslav, in droves went over to the side of the Greeks.
    The siege of Dorostol lasted almost three months. Dorostol was a strong fortress and this forced the pragmatic Byzantines to seek a political way out of the strategic impasse in which the opposing sides fell.
    As a result of the negotiations, a treaty of peace and friendship was concluded, in modern terms, which obliged the Kiev prince "never to bring foreign troops to Greece, the Kherson region and Bulgaria", as well as to fulfill an allied duty in the event of an attack on the empire of enemies. The army of Svyatoslav freely went home and received food for the journey. The terms of the agreement were sealed with a solemn oath.
    The Pechenegs, warned according to one version by the Bulgarians, according to the second by the Byzantines, about the return of a small squad headed by Svyatoslav, blocked the crossing at the Dnieper rapids. The squad went to winter at the mouth of the Dnieper, where hunger forced the soldiers to cook the hooves of fallen horses and leather belts from shields. When the ice melted in the spring, miserable crumbs remained of the former valiant army. It can be assumed that Svyatoslav was expecting reinforcements from Kiev, but his hopes were in vain. And the Pechenegs were still blocking the way.
    The finale is succinctly described in the "Tale of Bygone Years": "And smoking attacked him, Prince of Pechenezh, and killed Svyatoslav, and took his head, and made a cup from a skull, shackling him, and drank from it."
    Following the results of such glorious victories of Svyatoslav, the Greeks successfully annexed northeastern Bulgaria to Byzantium; only the Bulgarian lands in the west retained nominal independence. Tsar Boris II was stripped of his royal title.
    The ancient Russian state was shaken by a bloody civil war, which cost the life of Svyatoslav's younger brother Gleb and both legitimate sons. As a result of fratricide, the usurper Vladimir found himself on the grand princely throne, who at the beginning of the reign was nicknamed Robochich (the son of a slave), and only much later - the Red Sun and the Baptist of Russia.
    1. Astra wild
      Astra wild 23 September 2020 20: 03
      +3
      Of course, "not by chance" further events do not correspond to the plans of the author and he "forgot" them
    2. Boris ⁣ Shaver
      Boris ⁣ Shaver 24 September 2020 07: 23
      +1
      Quote: Undecim
      Bulgarians, who, as the author assured, gladly greeted Svyatoslav, in droves went over to the side of the Greeks

      It turns out that they still suffered from this in those days?
      1. Undecim
        Undecim 24 September 2020 09: 31
        +2
        They were not the ones who suffered in those days. Some suffer in these.
        1. Boris ⁣ Shaver
          Boris ⁣ Shaver 24 September 2020 12: 31
          +1
          Quote: Undecim
          Some suffer in these.

          I agree
  • Bagatur
    Bagatur 23 September 2020 09: 28
    0
    Samsonov, stop talking! Svetoslav invader with a loaf and salt was not met. Sinovya Komit Nikola raised the struggle against Byzantium for the liberation of the Bulgarian lands. Their loyalty to the dynasty was never questioned. Svetoslav's aggression hit the Bulgarian state on the Byzantium crawl. After 971, Samuel as king (978-1014) fought to protect the Fatherland!
    1. Bagatur
      Bagatur 23 September 2020 14: 49
      0
      Amendment! When Boris and Roman escaped from captivity, misfortune arose. sBoris, and the Bulgarian frontier guards, who were blowing in front, shot them with bows by mistake. The novel was taken to Samuel as the first person in the state. Yahya of Antioch wrote about the eunuch king and his "gulyam" military leader. After an unsuccessful battle in 991, Roman was captured by the Romans and only after his death Samuel took the royal crown in 997.
    2. Boris ⁣ Shaver
      Boris ⁣ Shaver 24 September 2020 07: 28
      0
      Quote: bagatura
      devotion

      betrayal
      we are about Bulgaria
      1. Bagatur
        Bagatur 24 September 2020 09: 15
        0
        Svetoslav was not invited to Bulgaria! He came as an invader, geabeller, murderer and mercenary of Byzantium. All!
        1. Boris ⁣ Shaver
          Boris ⁣ Shaver 24 September 2020 12: 30
          0
          Quote: bagatura
          Bulgaria Svetoslav was not invited

          You work in vain, trying to show which side you have changed specifically today - everything is already in the know.
          1. Bagatur
            Bagatur 24 September 2020 12: 47
            0
            Where we want! Your communism is 1945-89, and nobody needs autocracy today!
            1. Boris ⁣ Shaver
              Boris ⁣ Shaver 24 September 2020 13: 45
              +1
              Quote: bagatura
              Where we want!

              Where the one who at the moment raised his hand above you will indicate.
            2. Boris ⁣ Shaver
              Boris ⁣ Shaver 24 September 2020 14: 06
              0
              Quote: bagatura
              Your commune 1945-89, and nobody needs autocracy today

              We are in the know. Then you preferred fascism.
              Did you seriously think we could forget this?
              1. Bagatur
                Bagatur 24 September 2020 15: 24
                -3
                Fascism? With all my respect for your knowledge of Bulgaria 1919-1944 Stalin's tribute could only dream of living like ours. The USSR, together with the "democrat" Uncle Adi, divided Poland and swallowed the Baltic states, right? Little showed and Finland wanted to 16 republika.
  • parusnik
    parusnik 23 September 2020 14: 25
    +2
    Everything is there, but something is missing. laughing
  • Astra wild
    Astra wild 23 September 2020 14: 46
    +4
    "it was a common exaggeration", somewhere I met such an aphorism: "nowhere do they lie so much as in war and in love." Remember your childhood: you exaggerated as well as beat
    In our yard, the boys only talked about how they beat the boys from the 8th house.
    In the 8th, my classmate lived and said that they also had conversations about how they beat ours
    1. Magus
      Magus 22 November 2020 22: 16
      +7
      "Golden childhood, fun time" ...
      We weren't really exaggerating, we were just trying to show ourselves strong laughing
  • The comment was deleted.
  • Astra wild
    Astra wild 23 September 2020 15: 10
    +2
    Quote: Leader of the Redskins
    Thank you.
    Hmm ... Either the canons of beauty changed, or I fell behind, or in those days there were Zurab Tsariteli!
    laughing

    Both
  • horror
    horror 23 September 2020 19: 13
    -3
    Thank you for the article!
  • Magus
    Magus 22 November 2020 22: 15
    11
    It was interesting to read the article. But that's all.