Military Review

"The invasion of the Russians is directed at us ..."

76
"The invasion of the Russians is directed at us ..."

Svyatoslav Igorevich. A sculptural image by Eugene Lansere


1050 years ago, the great Russian prince Svyatoslav Igorevich defeated the Byzantine army in the Balkans. Panic broke out in Constantinople: "Rus is striving fully armed against us, the peoples of Scythia have risen to war."

Big game in the Balkans


After the defeat of Khazaria ("Defeat of Khazaria") the Grand Duke Svyatoslav planned to start a war against the Byzantine (Eastern Roman) Empire. To recapture the strategic city of Chersonesos (Korsun) from the Byzantines (Romans, Greeks). The fortress blocked the way for Russian merchants to the Black Sea. And for a long time the Crimea was a part of the “Great Scythia” - a northern civilization, the direct heir of which was Russia. Preparations for war began.

These preparations were not kept secret from the Greeks. Kiev was the center of a huge empire. Greek merchants were regular guests in the lands of the Rus. Among them were agents of Constantinople. Byzantium found a way out of a dangerous situation. "Second Rome" followed the traditions of the policy of the Roman Empire: "Divide and conquer." Emperor Nicephorus II Phocas sent Patrick Kalokir to Kiev. He brought a gift - a huge amount of gold. It is believed that Kalokir was an old friend of Svyatoslav. It should be noted that the Russian princes, including Svyatoslav, not only fought with the Greeks, but were often allies. The Rus squads fought for the Greeks in the wars with the Arabs. Kiev and Constantinople entered into union agreements. However, the policy of the Romans was two-faced, with "double standards" for the "barbarians".

Kalokir was supposed to redirect the Rus of Svyatoslav from the Crimean capital to the Bulgarian kingdom, on the banks of the Danube. The Russian prince was promised a large reward for the campaign in the lands of the Misyan (Bulgarians). The Greeks promised even more gold and more production in the Bulgarian lands. Obviously, Svyatoslav understood the conditions of the game. He was not one of those rulers who fall for other people's tricks. However, this proposal was in line with his plans. Now the prince could come to the Danube without opposition from the Greeks. Svyatoslav was going to include the lands on the Danube into his state. He knew that the "Second Rome" had been trying to swallow Bulgaria for a long time. In this case, the Byzantine Empire captured one of the Slavic lands and became a direct neighbor of Russia.

Relations between Bulgaria and Byzantium were complicated. At one time, the Bulgarians, led by Tsar Simeon the Great (893-927), who had barely escaped from the position of "guest of honor" in Constantinople, launched a powerful offensive against the empire. The Bulgarian kingdom stretched from Budapest, the northern slopes of the Carpathians and the Dnieper in the north to the Adriatic Sea in the west, the Aegean Sea in the south, and the Black Sea in the east. The Bulgarians included Serbia in their state. The Bulgarian army threatened Constantinople with a siege, the Greeks paid tribute to Preslav. But a "miracle" happened, which was prayed for in the "Second Rome": Simeon died unexpectedly. The Bulgarian table was occupied by his son Peter, nicknamed the Meek. A weak and indecisive ruler, unworthy of his father's glory.

Peter was easily manipulated by the Greeks (through his wife Princess Mary) and the clergy. The church was enriched. Large feudal lords did not reckon with Peter. The country was shaken by the uprisings of the brothers of the king, the Serbs. Serbia gained independence. On Bulgaria, taking advantage of its weakening, the Hungarians and Pechenegs began to make raids. The state lost most of its conquests. In Constantinople, they saw all this perfectly and, as far as possible, "helped" the neighbors in the matter of destruction. However, the Greeks knew the strength of Bulgaria well. Diplomacy alone was not enough for complete victory. A strong army was needed, but there were not enough troops. They stood on the southern borders, holding back the Muslims. Byzantium started a war with Bulgaria. The Romans took several fortresses, with the help of pro-Byzantine feudal lords, they captured the most important city of Thrace - Philippopolis (Plovdiv). But they could not cross the Balkan Mountains. Mountain passes and gorges overgrown with forest were considered impregnable. Many Greeks have already died there in the past.

As a result, in Constantinople they decided to kill two birds with one stone with the help of the art of word and gold: to expose Bulgaria to a military defeat with the help of Svyatoslav's forces and at the same time to weaken the troops of Russia in this war. Distract Kiev from Crimea. Solve the Bulgarian question with Russian weapons... Then you can safely swallow the Bulgarian kingdom, make it a Byzantine province. And to distract the Russians with the help of the Pechenegs or other neighbors.


The capital of the Bulgarian Kingdom Preslav the Great

Bulgarian campaign


The Russian prince Svyatoslav had his own plans. He decided to annex another Slavic land to his northern state. The prince even planned to move the capital city from Kiev to the Danube. This was a common thing for Russia. Oleg the Prophet moved from Novgorod to Kiev. Later, Vladimir, Moscow, etc., would become the capital of Russia. In addition, the Bulgarians were not a stranger to the Russians. Until recently, they were part of a single cultural and ethnic family. The Bulgarian language almost did not differ from the Russian, and the Bulgarians still remembered the old Slavic gods. Christianization has just begun.

In Constantinople, it was believed that the war between Russia and Bulgaria would allow solving several strategic tasks at once. First, it will distract the militant "Tavro Scythians" from Korsun, the Crimean granary of the empire. According to the old tradition, the Rus in Byzantium were called Scythians and Tavro-Scythians, and Rus - Scythia, Great Scythia ("Great Scythia and the super ethnos of the Rus", Part 2). Secondly, it will knock together the Russians and Bulgarians, who are dangerous for the empire, and weaken them. The Rus, if taken up, will plunder the Bulgarian cities and leave, leaving a weakened Bulgaria. Byzantium will be able to complete its conquest. If the Bulgarians fight back, they will still come out of the war with the Russians weakened. Thirdly, Svyatoslav in the war will be weakened and it will be possible to incite the Pechenegs on him.

However, Constantinople miscalculated. Svyatoslav broke the whole other's game with one blow. The chronicles do not provide details of the preparations for the campaign and the war itself. But, without a doubt, the Russian prince, as during the war with the Khazars, had excellent training. The professional squad was increased, gathered from tribes and lands "voi" for rati. A large fleet was built. It is necessary to know that, contrary to the myth that the fleet in Russia was built only under Peter the Great, the Russians-Russians from ancient times built boats (lodges, planes, kochi, etc.), walked along rivers and seas. This tradition has never been interrupted! From the Russes of the Veneti-Wends and the Varangians-Rus, the Novgorod ushkuyniks to the Zaporozhye and Don Cossacks, the fleet Russian Empire.

Svyatoslav's army was mostly on foot. There were few cavalry. But the Russian prince skillfully entered into alliances. So, during the pogrom of Khazaria, our allies were the Pechenegs (another fragment of Scythia) - "the thorn of the Rus and their strength." They were famous for their light cavalry. Pechenezhsk troops joined the Rus in the Black Sea steppes. Now, in the campaign against Bulgaria, the Hungarian leaders also became Kiev's allies. Svyatoslav's army marched on boats and horses, repeating the campaign of Igor the Old. The Russian army on ships went down to sea and entered the mouth of the Danube. It is worth remembering that the Rus already had a base in Tmutarakan and Korchev (Kerch). That is, part of the Russian fleet could have come from there. In addition, the Russian unions of the Ulichi and Tivertsy tribes, inhabiting the territories of the Northern Black Sea region, Transnistria and the Carpathian region from the Dnieper to the Danube, were neighbors of the Bulgarians and also fielded their warriors. The Russian flotilla began to quickly climb up the Danube.

The appearance of Svyatoslav on the Danube was not unexpected for Preslav. Apparently, the Bulgarian spies reported on the Rus in time. Or the Greeks tried to make it more difficult for Svyatoslav and the war dragged on. Tsar Peter gathered a large army from the squads of governors, boyars, militias of the Danube towns. The Byzantine historian Leo the Deacon writes that the Bulgarians put up an army of 30 thousand soldiers. Apparently, Peter and his advisers believed that the Russians would fight according to "science". They will not dare to attack the defeated enemy on the move, taking up convenient positions. They will retreat to find a better landing site, or they will descend to the east coast. Then they will send light detachments, including the Pechenegs, to look for a weak spot in the enemy's defense.

But Svyatoslav was the commander of another school. Russian. Much later, another great Russian commander, Alexander Suvorov, will also fight. "Eye gauge, speed and onslaught." He began disembarking. The rooks rushed to the shore. The Rus ran out into the field and built up into the "wall" of shields, behind it were other soldiers. The Russian "phalanx" quickly became inaccessible to the enemy cavalry. When the Bulgarians who came to their senses tried to attack, they were easily thrown back. Then the Russians themselves went ahead. They cut into the ranks of the enemy army and began to press it. The Bulgarians could not stand the fierce onslaught of the Slavic brothers and fled. As a result, the "Tavra" (Russians) crushed the enemy with the first blow. More Bulgarians did not dare to fight in the field. In a short time, Svyatoslav took possession of all of Eastern Bulgaria.


The approach to the city of Pereyaslavets and its capture by Svyatoslav. Miniature of the Radziwill Chronicle

Svyatoslav, ruler of Eastern Bulgaria


Thus, Svyatoslav's lightning strike in Bulgaria ruined all the plans of Constantinople. The Rus were not bogged down in the war. The army of Tsar Peter was defeated in the first battle. Once upon a time, the Romans built dozens of fortresses in Mizia to secure their eastern borders. All these fortifications were captured by the Rus in 968. A protracted war did not work out. Moreover, the Rus were met by the Slavs-Bulgarians as their own, and not as alien invaders. The Rus did not ravage the Bulgarian villages. Cultural traditions, consciousness, language and ancient beliefs were common. Rus and Bulgarians were like one people. Bulgarians began en masse to join the ranks of Svyatoslav's army - both ordinary members of the community and some feudal lords. The Bulgarian nobility saw in the Russian prince a successful leader, capable of returning greatness to Bulgaria, crushing hostile Byzantium. Having settled in Pereyaslavets (Preslav Maly), he received new vassals, announced that he would leave the internal order of Bulgaria intact and start a joint war with the Greeks. That is, the Russian army not only did not weaken in the war, on the contrary, it got stronger, overgrown with local militias and squads of feudal lords.

This turn of affairs did not suit the Second Rome. Now the Greeks were thinking about how to remove the furious "Scythians" from Bulgaria. Tsar Peter could not help. Many boyars recoiled from him. It was not possible to recruit a new army. Constantinople was worried about their safety. New detachments of stratiots (infantry from free peasants) and horse cataphracts were recruited. Throwing shells were placed on the walls of the capital. A heavy chain was pulled across the Bosphorus. Greek agents went to the steppe to the Pechenezh leaders. They carried gold and precious fabrics, weapons and jewelry. In the spring of 969, part of the Pechenezh horde moved to Kiev. The steppe inhabitants could not take the well-defended city where Princess Olga was sitting with her grandchildren Yaropolk, Oleg and Vladimir, but they camped at its ramparts and walls. Voivode Pretich gathered his army and stood on the other bank of the Dnieper.

According to the Russian chronicle, the city was exhausted from hunger. The elders turned to the people: "Is there anyone who could cross to the other side of the river and say that if you don't start to the city in the morning, we will surrender to the Pechenegs?" Only one youth (youth) volunteered to get through the enemy camp. He came out with a bridle in his hands and went through the camps of the Pechenegs, asking those he met: "Has anyone seen a horse?" The steppe inhabitants took him for their kindred and laughed at the young men, since the loss of a horse is a disgrace for a warrior. It is interesting that in Russia it is customary to depict the Khazars, Pechenegs, Polovtsians and "Mongol-Tatars" ("The myth of the" Mongol-Tatar "invasion"; Part 2; Part 3) as representatives of the Mongoloid race. In fact, the Pechenegs, Polovtsians and "Mongols" were Caucasians, representatives of the white race. Therefore, the brave youth from Kiev were taken for their own. It is possible that the language of the descendants of the Scythians, Russes and Pechenegs was very similar in origin (as is now Russian and Ukrainian). The youth swam across the river and informed Pretich of the Kievites' will. In the morning the warriors of Pretich sat down in their boats and trumpeted loudly and made a noise. Kievans on the walls greeted them with joy. The Pechenezh princes decided that this was Svyatoslav's vanguard and offered peace. The Pechenegs moved away from Kiev.

This invasion forced the Russian prince to halt the onslaught in the Balkans and return. Svyatoslav's squads made a swift dash across the steppe, part of the army went on ships. He decided to punish the steppe princes who opposed him so that the rear during the war with Byzantium was calm. Svyatoslav's iron squads crushed a number of Pechenezh camps with a powerful stream. Other Pechenezh leaders immediately sent ambassadors to Svyatoslav with assurances of friendship and rich gifts. Peace on the border of Russia was restored.

To be continued ...
Author:
Photos used:
https://ru.wikipedia.org/
76 comments
Information
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must to register.

I have an account? Sign in

  1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
    Kote Pan Kokhanka 22 September 2020 06: 02
    12
    Only one youth (youth) volunteered to make his way through the enemy camp. He came out with a bridle in his hands and walked through the camps of the Pechenegs, asking those he met: "Has anyone seen a horse?"

    The author of the Tale of Bygone Years, including the above episode in the list, was guided by an oral story that was about two centuries old! So my grandmother "divided by three" advised such stories, and grandfather forgot to mention perhaps a hundred knights who ensure the passage of the messenger! laughing
    I was touched by another “technical attraction of the“ Mongols ”to the events in the Tale of Bygone Years! We read in brackets - "they are not Mongols", but purebred Aryans with a Nordic character!
    Aless! All three conditional authors of the Tale turned over in their coffins on their right side !!! They who glorified our History and did not hear in spirit about the "Mongols" !!! However, as the Pechenegs and Ugrians in the 10th century, and the Polovtsians and Guzes in the 11
    Although I would have bent the conspiracy theory that the young man was the last descendant of Attila !!! But the Pechenegs were not banal Mongolians! However, like the Mongols of Genghis Khan - Aryans !!!
    Sincerely, Kitty!
    1. Konstantin Shevchenko
      Konstantin Shevchenko 22 September 2020 07: 04
      +7
      Yes, you historians have completely confused the average reader. One thing is clear that any story about Russia is alternative, including the classic one at school. Some write that the sources have all disappeared and burned down, others write that Christians have added lies to everything that remains, and still others the Romanovs have changed everything. Despite such losses, some historians write as if they were commenting on live football. Now I am waiting for the story that the Tatars attacked Russia from the west, and after all, they are no exception.
    2. Engineer
      Engineer 22 September 2020 09: 08
      +9
      The Pechenegs, like the Polovtsians, had a mixed anthropological type. There were Caucasians, Mongoloids, and a mixture of features
      1. Normal ok
        Normal ok 22 September 2020 11: 29
        +3
        Quote: Engineer
        The Pechenegs, like the Polovtsians, had a mixed anthropological type. There were Caucasians, Mongoloids, and a mixture of features

        The other day I read an article about genetic studies of the remains of the Vikings. The researchers write that the diversity of genotypes is striking. There are types from all over Europe and even Middle Eastern types. They conclude that the concept of "Viking" will have to be revised. Perhaps this is not an ethnic unity, but an organizational one, such as the pirate "republics" of the Caribbean or our Cossacks. So, that "not everything is clear."
        1. Engineer
          Engineer 22 September 2020 11: 36
          +4
          I read it too. Info zero. What was analyzed? mtDNA, Y-DNA, or both. What have you found? What groups exactly? Which burials were analyzed?
          If you believe the sagas, then there are 99% of Scandinavians.
        2. paul3390
          paul3390 22 September 2020 11: 52
          10
          Viking is, apparently, a profession .. Saxon Grammar also has a passage that, they say, Viking gangs ravaged England, and they consisted of Danes and Slavs .. Besides, there are references to the Wendish Vikings, and even! - about the Estonian ones .. Although the Estonian Viking sounds like a joke ...
        3. Engineer
          Engineer 22 September 2020 11: 56
          +6
          https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-020-2688-8
          Here is the original article, not that popular news release. But here for comprehension more than one evening will be needed given my "knowledge" of genetic research
        4. Hantengri
          Hantengri 22 September 2020 12: 26
          +5
          Quote: Normal ok
          They conclude that the concept of "Viking" will have to be revised. Perhaps this is not ethnic unity but organizational,

          And who, I wonder, considers the Vikings to be an ethnic unity? The unity of the Vikings is purely organizational, initially: the "kid" went with his friends for a little boat ride and, at the same time, slightly improve their financial situation - a Viking. I corrected it, returned home, thrust the ax under the bench and ... that's it - we are no longer a frostbitten ghoul, but a peaceful rural toiler. )))
          1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
            Kote Pan Kokhanka 22 September 2020 16: 53
            +4
            Quote: Normal ok
            Quote: Engineer
            The Pechenegs, like the Polovtsians, had a mixed anthropological type. There were Caucasians, Mongoloids, and a mixture of features

            The other day I read an article about genetic studies of the remains of the Vikings. The researchers write that the diversity of genotypes is striking. There are types from all over Europe and even Middle Eastern types. They conclude that the concept of "Viking" will have to be revised. Perhaps this is not an ethnic unity, but an organizational one, such as the pirate "republics" of the Caribbean or our Cossacks. So, that "not everything is clear."

            Quote: Engineer
            I read it too. Info zero. What was analyzed? mtDNA, Y-DNA, or both. What have you found? What groups exactly? Which burials were analyzed?
            If you believe the sagas, then there are 99% of Scandinavians.


            Quote: paul3390
            Viking is, apparently, a profession .. Saxon Grammar also has a passage that, they say, Viking gangs ravaged England, and they consisted of Danes and Slavs .. Besides, there are references to the Wendish Vikings, and even! - about the Estonian ones .. Although the Estonian Viking sounds like a joke ...


            Quote: Engineer
            https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-020-2688-8
            Here is the original article, not that popular news release. But here for comprehension more than one evening will be needed given my "knowledge" of genetic research


            Quote: HanTengri
            Quote: Normal ok
            They conclude that the concept of "Viking" will have to be revised. Perhaps this is not ethnic unity but organizational,

            And who, I wonder, considers the Vikings to be an ethnic unity? The unity of the Vikings is purely organizational, initially: the "kid" went with his friends for a little boat ride and, at the same time, slightly improve their financial situation - a Viking. I corrected it, returned home, thrust the ax under the bench and ... that's it - we are no longer a frostbitten ghoul, but a peaceful rural toiler. )))

            And if everything is easier! Viking is the name of "nice people" who came "to visit in the morning." Moreover, its western rekornatsiya, which included understanding, conditionally "tags": pagan robbers, Scandinavians from the north to the Dakkars! More advanced contemporaries divided them into "Northman", "Danes", "Norwegians", etc. If in modern language it is an organized criminal group, even a criminal community, but based on a tribal principle!
            And the variety of genetic types, let me add Khan, before putting an ax under the bench, "panzanchik" drove a new servant into the kitchen to cook homemade mash !!!
            It is not for nothing that the Scandinavians had a rather ramified and fraudulent system of adoption and recognition of paternity, as well as twinning!
            Until the end, it was broken only by five centuries of Christianity! And that is not up to the end, "Swedish family" and all the like from where it has legs !!!
            Yours!
            1. Engineer
              Engineer 22 September 2020 17: 16
              +2
              There is no need to talk about the ethnic unity of the Vikings, if only because by the year 1000 the division into Swedes, Norwegians and Danes took shape.
              The strong predominance of the Scandinavians among the "Vikings" is quite obvious.
              The presence of other peoples has been reliably recorded
              The saga of Olaf, the son of Tryggwi
              As it was written earlier, Sigvaldi Jarl joined Olav the king in the Land of the Wends. The Jarl himself had ten ships, and on the eleventh were the people of Astrid, the king's daughter, the wife of Sigvaldi Jarl.
              But that Vendian ship that Astrid's men were on sailed away and returned to the Land of the Wends.

              Einar Guttreak stood behind at the stern of the Serpent and fired a bow. He was the most accurate marksman in the army. Einar shot an arrow at Eirik Jarl and hit the top of the steering wheel just above the Jarl's head. The arrow plunged deep into the tree. The jarl saw the arrow and asked if the people knew who had shot the arrow. But then another arrow flew so close to the jarl that it passed between his thigh and hand and pierced through the back of the pilot's seat. Then the earl told the man - he was an excellent shooter - about whom some say that his name was Finn and others, that he was Finn:
              1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
                Kote Pan Kokhanka 22 September 2020 17: 41
                +4
                The Vikings were pretty practical guys! One of the custom - "a slave who fucked on an equal footing with the free, became free himself," is worth a lot !!!
                There is no need to talk about mono ethics! In fact, a successful Leader could collect up to a hundred Dakars and more, and eyewitnesses wrote about five hundred ships of the "barbarians" !!!
                The British described with horror the moment when the "Vikings" stopped returning home for the winter !!!
                Paganism had one universal feature, in a priori there was no possibility of accumulating wealth. There were many wives, even more children, plus "the possibility of recognizing children from concubines, brothers-in-arms", plus "the entry into the family of children and wives of brothers", plus "the tradition of raising children of neighbors." And if you are a successful and powerful Leader, then all this was multiplied by your glory and good luck !!!
      2. Operator
        Operator 22 September 2020 11: 42
        +1
        The mixed anthropological type is the mestizo, and not "there were both Caucasians and Mongoloids".
  2. parusnik
    parusnik 22 September 2020 06: 09
    10
    In fact, the Pechenegs, Polovtsians and "Mongols" were Caucasians, representatives of the white race.
    ... Tartarians .. laughing
    1. Anika
      Anika 22 September 2020 07: 04
      0
      Indeed, earlier Kazakhs, as one of many nations, previously had a European appearance, blue eyes, red hair, now no no yes you will meet a red-haired
      1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
        Kote Pan Kokhanka 22 September 2020 09: 30
        +8
        Are Tajiks too? However, contrary to common sense, instead of a detailed answer because of what, we get the question why !!! laughing
        The trouble with the public information flow is that the authors forget to look for answers before giving out a sensation! Although sometimes they are, on the contrary, retouched to give a sensation!
        1. Polymer
          Polymer 26 September 2020 23: 08
          +1
          Quote: Kote pane Kohanka
          Are Tajiks too?

          You should at least open Wikipedia, in fact:
          Anthropologically, the bulk of Tajiks (especially mountainous ones) belong to the Pamir-Fergana race of the large Caucasian race.

          And further:
          Tajiks are carriers of different haplogroups. But the dominant haplogroup among Tajiks is R1a Y-DNA. 45% of Tajik men have R1a (M17), Among Tajiks of Penjikent, 1% are carriers of R68a, and 1% are carriers of haplogroup R64a among Tajiks of Khujand.

          So Tajiks are not only Caucasians, but also carriers of the very "Aryan" haplogroup.
          1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
            Kote Pan Kokhanka 27 September 2020 05: 24
            +2
            Dear Polymer, I know all this! He made fun of the comment about Kazakhs.
            However, how the Finougorsk ethnic groups of the Udmurts and Mari can boast of light blond hair and blue eyes! Unfortunately, most ordinary people think in stereotypes, forgetting that the main thing is not blood, but the society where you were brought up.
            1. Polymer
              Polymer 27 September 2020 06: 04
              +1
              By the way, I've heard a story about red-haired and blue-eyed Kazakhs for a long time, but in reality I haven't met any. Bleached hair in Kazakh women is now quite common, but with blue eyes ... probably just special lenses are much more expensive than hair dye.
              And blood still matters, in my opinion, although much less than society. Some patterns of behavior, oddly enough, can only be explained by the genetic level. On the example of adopted children.
      2. Operator
        Operator 22 September 2020 11: 44
        -2
        Kazakhs are mestizo with a predominance of Mongolian C2, so they have always been Mongoloids. The scanty part of modern Kazakhs with mixed facial features are descendants of modern marriages of Kazakhs and Russians.
      3. Kote Pan Kokhanka
        Kote Pan Kokhanka 22 September 2020 11: 55
        +5
        Quote: Anika
        Indeed, earlier Kazakhs, as one of many nations, previously had a European appearance, blue eyes, red hair, now no no yes you will meet a red-haired

        Irish !!! laughing
        The answer why there are more dark-haired than fair-haired ones is "walled up" in the biology textbook for the seventh grade !!! Some signs are dominant, others are recessive. So, if a white cat with blue eyes is from memory, then he is necessarily deaf. But this does not mean that he is a group !!!
        People have everything the same, but the main thing is the socio-cultural environment and economic prerequisites! Don't give the cat a sausage, he will go and eat a homemade canary!
        So, you can talk for a long time about the human genome, but he will act on the basis of his mistakes and following his parents !!!!
    2. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 22 September 2020 09: 36
      +7
      Quote: parusnik
      In fact, the Pechenegs, Polovtsians and "Mongols" were Caucasians, representatives of the white race.
      ... Tartarians .. laughing

      Hi Aleksey!
      "Who is sitting here with a furry one, a mustache lapping milk from a bowl"?
      From the "Wahhabite" class !!!
      The teacher - why?
      He does not drink vodka, he has a mustache, in general Hairy is hairy "!
      laughing
      1. parusnik
        parusnik 22 September 2020 18: 01
        +3
        hi My regards! That's right! laughing
    3. Krasnodar
      Krasnodar 22 September 2020 12: 13
      +6
      Don't read Hyperborean newspapers at night laughing
      1. Pane Kohanku
        Pane Kohanku 22 September 2020 12: 26
        +7
        Don't read Hyperborean newspapers at night

        There are almost no others! request
        1. Krasnodar
          Krasnodar 22 September 2020 12: 28
          +5
          It is worth delving into the archives of Atlantis ... recourse
          1. Pane Kohanku
            Pane Kohanku 22 September 2020 12: 42
            +5
            It is worth delving into the archives of Atlantis ...

            maybe make a request to the Anunnaki hotline? what
            1. Krasnodar
              Krasnodar 22 September 2020 15: 58
              +2
              Hebrew, probably, will understand ... the Igigi will definitely understand))))
              1. Pane Kohanku
                Pane Kohanku 22 September 2020 16: 28
                +4
                Hebrew, probably, will understand ... the Igigi will definitely understand))))

                I think yes! wink drinks
                1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
                  Kote Pan Kokhanka 22 September 2020 17: 43
                  +2
                  So we found a British trace in the thousands-long history of the state of Israel! laughing
            2. bubalik
              bubalik 22 September 2020 17: 39
              +6
              ,,, in Lukomorye did not try to call? laughing
              1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
                Kote Pan Kokhanka 27 September 2020 05: 29
                +3
                Sergei Baba Yaga is not advanced, her Cat Bayun complains about her wired mouse and the system engineer is not a game one! And in general, in social networks, it has been sticking lately so that sometimes it forgets to pour milk into a wave - old Konga !!! laughing
  3. Mavrikiy
    Mavrikiy 22 September 2020 06: 25
    +1
    Svyatoslav Igorevich. A sculptural image by Eugene Lansere
    Lanceray is still a great talent, although he went too far with the settler what
  4. Pessimist22
    Pessimist22 22 September 2020 06: 26
    +7
    Well, to paint the events, it was possible to stick the US State Department here.
  5. The comment was deleted.
  6. cost
    cost 22 September 2020 07: 16
    13
    New detachments of stratiots were recruited (infantry from free peasants)

    STRATIOTS (Soviet Historical Encyclopedia)
    (Greek stratiotai) - in Byzantium, the category of peasants who owed military service and received inalienable inheritances from the state (from the middle of the 9th century). land allotments. The reasons and the time of the emergence of the institution of S. are unclear. Mn. Byzantinists connect S.'s appearance with the spread of the cross. militia and the formation of fems in the 7-8 centuries. Reliable data about S. are available only from ser. 9 century, when the state introduced stratiotic allotments. S. were obliged to appear in the army with their horses and weapons. S. were free from all state. duties, except for state. ground. tax (canon). The process of feudalization in Byzantium led in the 10th century. to rapid differentiation of S.: the poorest S. began to lose land. allotments (contrary to the law on their inalienability) and turn into a private owner. wigs, on the other hand, the prosperous elite of S. began to stand out, the edges of which were an army of cataphracts (heavily armed knights). The isolation of this prosperous part of S. was legally formalized by Nikifor II Foka, with which the minimum size of the allotment was increased threefold, allowing its owner to be considered S. Gradually the top of S. merged with the feudal lords; from the 12-13th centuries. the term "S." began to denote Ch. arr. warriors-feudal lords.
    STRATIOTES (French scientist-historian Byzantine P. Lemerl)
    inalienable hereditary. land plots. The holders of the stratiotic allotments were not warriors, but only provided the maintenance of the soldiers recruited from the peasants
    1. cost
      cost 22 September 2020 07: 34
      11
      New detachments of horse cataphracts were recruited

      CATAPHRACTS (Soviet Historical Encyclopedia)
      (from the Greek. kataphraktoi covered with armor protected) Heavy cavalry among the Vzantines and Romans, wearing armor, whose horses were also dressed in armor; such cavalry, borrowed from the Persians, came into use in the Greco-Macedonian army under the Seleucids, and from there to Rome

      A detachment of cataphracts, writes the author of "Strategy", ideally should have consisted of 504 soldiers, although an easier option was also allowed - in case, for example, the army suffered losses in previous battles.
      "The triangular detachment of cataphracts should have its number of 504 husbands, its depth is 12 husbands ... If so much people are not available, such a detachment should be made more moderate, so that 10 husbands will be made the first line ... All together the number of phalanx will be 384 husbands. *

      Another name for the Byzantine cataphracts of the time of Nicephorus Phocas is klibanophores. It comes from the word klibany (κλιβάνιον). This was the name of a long carapace, sewn from several layers of dense fabric and reinforced with metal protection in the form of plaques, plates, etc. That is, the Klibanophores are the warriors "wearing the Klibany".
      "Every husband, a fighter, should wear Klibaniy. Let Klibaniy have sleeves up to the elbows. Wear bracers from the elbows ... And on top of the Klibanis wear capes with coarse cotton and silk ... Their sleeves hang on the back of their shoulders. everywhere fortified to cover their faces with double and triple layers and thick coverings and only their eyes can be seen. Wear them and leggings ... Have them (cataphracts) and shields to repel shells. "

      The helmet, judging by the illustrations from the chronicle of John Skilitsa, had a conical shape. The lower part of the face was probably covered with a chain mail aventail. Only the eyes remained unprotected in the cataphract. As for the shield, then, according to the assumption of modern military historians, it was small in size and had a round shape.
      1. cost
        cost 22 September 2020 07: 38
        10
        The cataphracts are sometimes called "Byzantine knights". There are indeed similarities, at least if we talk about the number and weight of the armor. However, the main weapon of the Byzantine armored cavalry was not a spear, like the European paladins, but a multifaceted club. She was perfect for close combat.
        "The way the cataphracts have such weapons: iron clubs with all-iron heads (and let their heads have sharp corners to be triangular, or quadrangular, or hexagonal, or even other iron clubs, and in some paramyria (single-edged curved swords - Auth Nevertheless, let them also have swords among them. Let them squeeze both iron clubs and paramyria in their hands, let them have other iron clubs either on their belts or on their saddles. And the first line of the detachment, and the second, and the third, and the fourth let them have similar equipment, and from the fifth line the cataphracts should stand in such a way: one pike-man and one palitsen-bearer or even from those wearing paramyria, and so let them be up to the rear ones. "

        As we can see from this fragment of the "Strategy", the weapons of cataphracts were not limited to maces alone. There were swords, and some of the cataphracts, those that occupied the flanks of the battle formation, had long pikes. Another part of the cataphracts was armed with bows. Horse archers were in the depths of the formation and fired at the enemy from behind the wall of the front lines of the militiamen.
        "You should be in the middle with the cataphracts and archers, so that the archers are protected by them. And they have the leading, and the second, and the third, and the fourth should not be the archers, but - from the fifth line to the trailing ones. And if there is 504 the number of the detachment cataphracts, they have 150 archers, and if there are 384, they have 80 archers. "

        1. cost
          cost 22 September 2020 07: 41
          11
          It was the cataphracts, their slow but inexorable onslaught, that decided the outcome of the stubborn battles of the Byzantines with the Rus at Preslav and Dorostol. By the way, after the death of Nicephorus, Tzimiskes formed his own "personal" detachment of cataphracts and named it "Immortals", by analogy, probably, with the "Immortals" of the Persian king Darius. This elite detachment fought with the warriors of the Kiev prince Svyatoslav in Bulgaria.
          1. cost
            cost 22 September 2020 07: 42
            10
            And yet, during the XNUMXth century, the role of the main striking force in the Byzantine army gradually passed to heavy infantry, primarily to the Varangs - Russian, Scandinavian, and later Anglo-Saxon mercenaries. However, the heavy cavalry did not go anywhere, only instead of cataphracts, Latins began to appear on the battlefields more and more often - mainly Norman knights who were hired to serve the Byzantine emperors.
            1. Sergey Oreshin
              Sergey Oreshin 22 September 2020 16: 18
              +4
              Once again I am convinced that your comments are much more informative and interesting than the graphomaniac notes of Samosnova
            2. Kote Pan Kokhanka
              Kote Pan Kokhanka 22 September 2020 16: 56
              +6
              Thank you Dmitry, I have traditionally read a lot of new things from your comment, even for myself! Thank you so much!!!
              1. Pane Kohanku
                Pane Kohanku 22 September 2020 16: 58
                +8
                Thank you Dmitry, I have traditionally read a lot of new things from your comment, even for myself! Thank you so much!!!

                I will join you and Sergey. Dmitry's comments have already become a good tradition. good
                1. Phil77
                  Phil77 24 September 2020 14: 15
                  +2
                  Quote: Pane Kohanku
                  Dmitry's comments have already become a good tradition.

                  More correctly, in the light of what happened, there were.
                  It was a good tradition!
                  1. Pane Kohanku
                    Pane Kohanku 24 September 2020 14: 18
                    +1
                    More correctly, in the light of what happened, there were.
                    It was a good tradition!

                    I sincerely hope that we will all see him again! drinks In any case, my personal account is open to information.
  7. Bagatur
    Bagatur 22 September 2020 09: 56
    +9
    Not worth reading! Samsonov again presented his fantasies as history. Svetoslav came to Bulgaria as a Byzantium mercenary and an enemy! It was the devastation of the country after his invasion that made it possible for Byzantium to capture
    Eastern Bulgaria. As a Bulgarian contemporary wrote, “The days of war and Russian captivity!” He wanted Samsonov to “join another Slavic land”, thank you very much! We need a monument to put this thug ..
    1. Operator
      Operator 22 September 2020 12: 02
      0
      At the time of the campaign of the Russian (R1a) prince Svyatoslav to Bulgaria, the population of this country consisted of 1/3 of the descendants of the Thracians (E1), 1/3 of the descendants of the Antes (R1a) and 1/3 of the descendants of the Bulgars (a mixture of R1b and C2). Moreover, the latter in the 10th century had not yet fully assimilated with the local agricultural population and were a Turkic-speaking, largely Mongoloid horde.

      Resistance to Svyatoslav was rendered only by the Bulgar horde, the descendants of the Thracians and Antes rendered every assistance to the Russians. After the defeat of Svyatoslav, the scraps of the Bulgar horde were forced to assimilate with the descendants of the Thracians and Antes, forget their Turkic language and forever move from a nomadic way of life to agriculture.
      1. Bagatur
        Bagatur 22 September 2020 16: 57
        +2
        Is ... Thanks for the notice)))
  8. Undecim
    Undecim 22 September 2020 10: 00
    16
    Another pathetic delirium from Samsonov. And from the first paragraph.
    Svyatoslav planned to start a war against the Byzantine (Eastern Roman) Empire. To recapture the strategic city of Chersonesos (Korsun) from the Byzantines (Romans, Greeks). The fortress blocked the way for Russian merchants to the Black Sea.

    This is a map of Crimea. The question is - how could Chersonesos, located on the site of today's Sevastopol, close the way to the Black Sea for "Russian" merchants?
    With Crimea, the author, by his habit, stuck the hunchback to the wall, sucking the facts out of his finger and adjusting them to the "current moment."
    On a campaign in Bulgaria, the Greeks knocked out Svyatoslav in order to punish the Bulgarians, who, together with the Magyars, plundered Thrace. There was no talk of any Crimea.
  9. Undecim
    Undecim 22 September 2020 10: 14
    15
    Moreover, the Rus were met by the Slavs-Bulgarians as their own, and not as foreign invaders.
    Either the Bulgarians would be surprised to read the works of Samsonov.

    This is an illustration from the Manasian Chronicle. Signed at the top "Nashestvieto on Rusite in Bulgaria".
    The arrival of "friends" is usually not called an invasion.
  10. The comment was deleted.
    1. The comment was deleted.
      1. hohol95
        hohol95 22 September 2020 12: 01
        +6
        Serba Andrey Ivanovich "Treason"
        Within a few minutes after the completion of the Rada, the Slavs were ready to fight against the new enemy. In the middle of the road, two in a row, were several carts, loaded to the top with stones and barrels of tar and tar. Behind the wagons, ranks of Russian warriors hidden behind shields were visible. In the first, the four oldest thousand men held the ends of the spears on their shoulders, on which the body of the governor Svyatopolk lay. Hundreds of eyes looked at Vladimir, who stood in front of the ranks with a drawn sword. The voivode turned to the vigilantes. - Rusichi and Bulgarians! Brothers! - his voice resounded far away in silence. - I promised you revenge for the death of the commander Svyatopolk! I said that I myself will lead you and this battle! I keep my word! - Vladimir raised his sword, pointed in the direction opposite to the pass. There - the Romans, behind them - the place of the funeral pyre of Voivode Svyatopolk! The path to it lies on the enemy's corpses! There, on the sacred fire, the souls of the voivode Svyatopolk and hundreds of other Russians, our brothers, who fell with him, will ascend to Perun! Friends follow me! Death to the Romans! “Death!” Flashed over the ranks of the Russians and Bulgarians.
      2. Pane Kohanku
        Pane Kohanku 22 September 2020 12: 58
        +8
        I subscribe to every letter of Michael's Commentary! If you will "ban" him, then "ban" me with him !!!

        You understand, Mayne Freund ...what It is somehow pretentiously written, or something .. Without even going into details. For example:
        But Svyatoslav was a commander of another school. Russian. Much later, another great Russian commander, Alexander Suvorov, will also fight. "Eye gauge, speed and onslaught."

        Reception is simple and working. There will be those who will instruct the pluses. There will be clicks.
    2. Undecim
      Undecim 22 September 2020 12: 13
      16
      1050 years ago, the great Russian prince Svyatoslav Igorevich defeated the Byzantine army in the Balkans
      Moreover, only a very narrow-minded person could "start" with such megapathetic stupidity.
      What consequences did this "historical victory" have?
      Byzantium completely achieved its task, that is, with the hands of Svyatoslav, it weakened Bulgaria. After that, the Greeks successfully "forced" Svyatoslav to peace, and they themselves annexed the whole of northeastern Bulgaria to Byzantium, Tsar Boris was deprived of the "kingdom", turning, in fact, Bulgaria into their province.
      As for the winner, Svyatoslav, on the way home the Pechenegs Svyatoslav, warned by the Bulgarians (who greeted the author with Russian flowers in the delirium), cut off his head. This is the result of a glorious victory won 1050 years ago.
      The article is intended for the very poor mind. One of these clients carefully minuses my comments on all threads. While writing this comment, I nominated almost 1000. As they say, in impotent anger.
      1. Pane Kohanku
        Pane Kohanku 22 September 2020 13: 32
        +9
        The article is intended for the very poor mind. One of these clients carefully minuses my comments on all threads. While writing this comment, I nominated almost 1000. As they say, in impotent anger.

        "Be patient, Barclay, be patient ...." (K / f "Kutuzov", 1943). drinks For the first time, perhaps, Viktor Nikolaevich? wink
        1. Undecim
          Undecim 22 September 2020 13: 40
          12
          Not for the first time. The degradation of the site's audience just saddens. So it goes, the articles will consist of one heading. For turbopatriots for ecstasy, that's enough. Nothing has changed especially, only there are more ways. Previously, for ecstasy among turbopatriots, it was necessary to climb the podium, mustache, bangs to the left. And today there is the Internet. Mustache and bangs are no longer needed. And the tribune too.
          1. Pane Kohanku
            Pane Kohanku 22 September 2020 14: 40
            +8
            Previously, for ecstasy among turbopatriots, it was necessary to climb the podium, mustache, bangs to the left. And today there is the Internet. Mustache and bangs are no longer needed. And the tribune too.

            I'll tell you more - no clever material will collect as many clicks as someone's naked ass on social networks. hi
            1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
              Kote Pan Kokhanka 22 September 2020 17: 12
              +4
              Quote: Pan Kohanku
              Previously, for ecstasy among turbopatriots, it was necessary to climb the podium, mustache, bangs to the left. And today there is the Internet. Mustache and bangs are no longer needed. And the tribune too.

              I'll tell you more - no clever material will collect as many clicks as someone's naked ass on social networks. hi

              Nikolay hello!
              The other day I saw a neighbor's cat hunting a pigeon. Clearly verified movements, swiftness, onslaught, production !!! If without a moral aspect, humanity has already lost it all !!!
              1. Undecim
                Undecim 22 September 2020 19: 18
                +6
                In the bulk - yes. But some representatives of humanity walk alone with a spear on a lion. And not once. HAccurate verified movements, swiftness, onslaught, prey !!!
                I asked. They were not allowed.
      2. Bagatur
        Bagatur 22 September 2020 19: 00
        +2
        Such "umotvoriya" Samsonov insult for everyone thinks, people are familiar with the history! And for us, Bulgarians, such an interpretation of our story is a story for people with deviations in their heads!
  11. Operator
    Operator 22 September 2020 11: 39
    0
    The author continues to confuse the Slavic-speaking Rus and Antes, the Iranian-speaking Scythians and the Turkic-speaking Pechenegs, the Khazars and the Bulgars - thanks at least for not including the Finno-speaking Ugrians in his "Great Scythia" laughing

    PS In addition to the language and the corresponding culture, these groups of "languages" also differ in their genomes: the Slavs have the dominant haplogroup R1a, the Scythians have J2 with the R1a share, the Turks have J2 with the C2 share, and the Ugrians have R1b with the C2 share.
    Accordingly, only the Slavs have a Europoid appearance, the Scythians had the appearance of the Persians, the Turks and Ugrians - the appearance of the Turkmens (a transitional type from Europoids to Mongoloids). Among the border tribes of the Slavs, there were different phenotypes, incl. with the appearance of the Turks, which could well be used as scouts and messengers.
  12. Daniil Konovalenko
    Daniil Konovalenko 22 September 2020 12: 47
    +5
    1050 years ago, the great Russian prince Svyatoslav Igorevich defeated the Byzantine army in the Balkans.
    .... It's time, it's time to make this event a red number on the calendar and what a weekend! As well as parades, TV screenings of all kinds of films on this topic: Wolfhound from the Wolfhound tribe, Viking, etc. laughing
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 22 September 2020 17: 15
      +5
      To be honest, a good film about Svyatoslav Igorevich, I would love to watch it! For the director of the battlefield - an unplowed field !!!
      1. parusnik
        parusnik 22 September 2020 18: 20
        +4
        Vlad, who will make such a film? I have the impression that "Samsonov" writes scripts for many historical films. laughing Why is "Samsonov" in quotation marks, as several Samsonovs wrote here more than once ... In 2017, the Kuban writer Boris Tumasov, a historian, died, maybe you know him from such books as Russia Zalesskaya about the rule of I. Kalita, The unknown land about the prince strife after the death of Prince Vladimir Krasno Solnyshko .. ready-made scripts and will look fascinating. Features, the author strictly adheres to the chronicles and events of the described years, with real heroes, there are also fictional, but do not spoil the work at all. But it is unlikely that now in the Russian Federation there is such a director , which will be able to film his works, and close to the text.
        1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
          Kote Pan Kokhanka 22 September 2020 19: 14
          +5
          Alexey agree!
          In light of the latest trends for political correctness and conjuncture, it is necessary to introduce a third of African Americans, a third of women and a third of representatives of sexual minorities into the personal squad !!! And where of the above categories to go to the poor Slavs ??????? laughing
          B. Tomasov is a good AUTHOR of the old historical school !!!
          Good evening!!!
        2. Undecim
          Undecim 22 September 2020 19: 53
          +4
          Who is in the lead role? Okhlobystin?
          1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
            Kote Pan Kokhanka 22 September 2020 20: 10
            +5
            No, although if you cover with wax, tie a blue ribbon on your right hand, and a pink ribbon on a charsala, an earring in your ear, a blue wig with an omelet, then voila Svyatoslav Igorevich !!! Academics of the Film Academy will stand in line for the Oscars, five at a time !!!!
      2. Bagatur
        Bagatur 22 September 2020 19: 05
        +2
        Why not? But only with an eye on the reality. Consulting professional historians. Without phantasmagoria and political correctness ... It will be interesting ...
        1. parusnik
          parusnik 22 September 2020 19: 53
          +4
          But only with an eye on the reality. Consulting professional historians.
          .... If possible, read the Unknown Earth ... there and consultants are needed only for weapons, costumes, architecture ... When you read this book like turning pages of PVL ... But no, we have such directors ... There is such film, Soviet Yaroslav the Wise, but not very successful ..
      3. hohol95
        hohol95 22 September 2020 21: 56
        +3
        Doesn't it seem to you, Vladislav, that Svyatoslav and Richard the Lionheart are "one field of berries." Maximum attention to campaigns and battles. And the further the hike is from your own country, the better. And minimal attention to its own state and its development! Perhaps they were bored with the simple bureaucratic routine of running their own country!
        But on horseback and in the field opposite org enemies - that's us with joy!
  13. Diviz
    Diviz 22 September 2020 18: 51
    +1
    one thing you can notice is that the Khazar Kaganate has existed for 300 years. the Caucasus mountains and the Volga river delta were inaccessible. the state grew and strengthened there. on the other side of the Caucasian mountains, the western Karakhanid kaganate was formed, the connection between them is obvious.
    therefore, as a result, the baptism of Russia in order to prevent the emergence of a new forgotten old prince Svetoslav Igorevich.
  14. nnz226
    nnz226 22 September 2020 22: 43
    0
    It is not clear how Chersonesos prevented Russian merchants from trading with Constantinople? The route "from the Varangians to the Greeks" went along the Dnieper (in the south), and then the ships went by cabotage along the western coast of the Black Sea (the mouth of the Danube, Bulgaria, as Svyatoslav went according to the article), and Chersonesos remained "out of business" far away.
  15. swyatoslav
    swyatoslav 23 September 2020 20: 00
    +1
    I'm surprised how many Russophobic comments there are. Erroneousness, inappropriate irony and outright rudeness from some "regulars-spirits" ...
    How flatters them when someone expresses an opinion different from their own! And with what pleasure they are ready to "crap" even on well-known historical or scientific facts, if they assert the strength of the Slavs ... It is sad.
    1. Icelord
      Icelord 24 September 2020 10: 44
      0
      Duc then this and it, that the facts about Svyatoslav claim the opposite
  16. Diviz
    Diviz 24 September 2020 22: 01
    0
    And if this is how Svyatoslav and Svetoslav is after baptism, maybe he became Svyatoslav.
    And such things cannot be solved in one day. If we take into account that the potential of the southern part of the land from Kiev from the east was called the Khazar Kaganate, and from the west, allegedly Byzantium, which grew on the remnants of civilization that built Ilion, was huge, then From this the question arises - where did this potential come from. So let's just from Babylon Ilion Itil Saksin and start the next topic.
    1. Icelord
      Icelord 28 September 2020 03: 23
      0
      And Svyatoslav was never baptized. As a pagan was born and died)))
      1. Diviz
        Diviz 28 September 2020 09: 27
        0
        This is what we are talking about About contract murder.
  17. tanyurg56
    tanyurg56 2 October 2020 11: 34
    0