Military Review

Transport ships EC2 Liberty: technologies for success

120

Liberty ship at sea. Photo US Office of War


In the spring of 1941, the United States began construction of the first transport ships of the EC2-S-C1 type, which later received the common name Liberty. These steamers remained in series until 1945 and eventually became the most massive ships of their era. In just a few years, 18 US shipyards managed to build 2710 ships of several modifications. On average, two new vessels were handed over to the factories every three days. Obtaining such rates of production would have been impossible without a number of important technical and organizational solutions.

On the way to "Freedom"


In 1939-40. before the belligerent Great Britain and the neutral United States, the question arose of organizing massive sea transportations across the Atlantic in the face of active opposition from German submarines. To solve such problems, it was required to be simple to manufacture and operate, as well as inexpensive and massive transport ships.

Already in 1940, the two countries agreed to build Ocean-type transports. The project was developed by British engineers, and the construction of 60 ships was entrusted to American shipyards. Soon after, the US Maritime Commission launched work on its own design for a similar vessel, even simpler and cheaper.


Ship layout EC2. Drawing by Wikimedia Commons

Based on our own and foreign experience and ready-made samples, a new project was developed in a few months. It received the official designation EC2-S-C1 - it indicated the purpose of the vessel (Emergency Cargo), dimensions (waterline length from 120 to 140 m) and the presence of a steam engine. Letters "C1" were the project's own number. The name "Liberty" appeared later, when the first ships of the series were launched.

Technical methods


According to the project, the EC2-S-C1 type vessel had a length of 132,6 m, a width of 17,3 m and a normal draft of 8,5 m. Displacement - less than 14,5 thousand tons, deadweight - 10850 tons. could reach speeds of up to 11 knots; cruising range - 20 thousand nautical miles.

The project initially provided for engineering and technological measures aimed at simplifying the design, accelerating and reducing the cost of construction, etc. All this influenced the appearance of the hull and superstructure, power plant, onboard equipment, etc. Since it was about wartime ships, weapons for self-defense were envisaged.


Steam engine for Liberty. Photo US Maritime Comission

The hull design for Liberty was based on the British Ocean project. At the same time, the manufacturing technologies were revised. Most of the riveted joints have been discarded and replaced by welding. The installation of rivets, according to estimates, took about a third of all labor costs, and in addition, this process seriously increased the duration of construction and negatively affected the total mass of the structure. We also applied the modular architecture of the vessel. Separate sections were assembled on small slipways, which were connected as construction proceeded.

By the early XNUMXs, steam engines were outdated and did not meet all modern requirements. Nevertheless, such engines were notable for their simplicity and low cost both in production and in operation. The last factor was decisive in the development of the most simple steamer.


Preparing to lay down another transport at Bethlehem-Fairfield Shipyards Inc., March 1943. Photo by US Office of War

The EC2-S-C1 project used a power plant based on the Ocean's machines. It had two liquid fuel boilers that supplied steam to a triple expansion compound machine. The shaft power reached 2500 hp. and was issued for one propeller. The units of the installation did not differ in high complexity and could be produced by various enterprises.

Five holds, separated by sealed bulkheads, were intended to accommodate the cargo. It was also allowed to place cargo on deck. Bays of large volumes could be used for different purposes. Liberty could transport various equipment assembled or in the form of machine kits; various cargoes in standard containers, etc. A tanker (pr. Z-ET1-S-C3) was developed on the basis of a dry cargo ship - in this case, the holds were designed as containers for liquid cargo. There is information on the development of a modification of the ship for transporting soldiers.

Transport ships EC2 Liberty: technologies for success

The same construction site 24 days after laying. Photo US Office of War

Organization of construction


The construction of the new EC2-S-C1 transports was launched in the spring of 1941. The first order for 14 vessels was received by several factories on the West Coast at once. Construction on the slipways took several months, and the descent of all ships of the series took place on the same day - September 27, 1941. At the same time, in his speech, President F.D. Roosevelt first called the newest steamers "ships of freedom."

Subsequently, new enterprises were attracted to the construction of Liberty. By 1942-43. 18 shipyards and several hundred component suppliers participated in the program. Each shipyard was able to allocate several slipways, due to which it was possible to ensure a constant and continuous process of construction, launching and commissioning.

Mastering production turned out to be not the easiest process. So, a number of shipyards had to master a new welding technology and train specialists. It took some effort to deploy the modular build. Accelerating the construction process was also not the easiest thing to do. Nevertheless, all the main tasks were successfully solved, which affected the pace and quality of construction.


The same ship is being completed afloat next to the sistership. Photo US Office of War

As the roll-out and construction accelerated, staffing issues had to be addressed. New jobs were created, and often it was not possible to find workers with experience - they had to be trained right on the job. After the United States entered the war, some of the specialists went to the front, and they needed a replacement. The number of workers without experience has grown; women began to come to work.

With a high pace


It took about 14-220 days to build the first series of 240 ships. Then the enterprises gained momentum, and by the end of 1942, no more than 40-50 days passed from laying to commission. Working at such a pace, 18 factories could commission a ship every couple of days. On average for the entire time, every three days the customer received two steamers. As they joked sadly at the time, America managed to build ships faster than Germany sank them.

The production of steam engines at several factories also proceeded at a high pace. For example, the Permanente Metals Corporation shipyard in Richmond received engines from the Joshua Hendy Iron Works. Over time, he managed to accelerate production and release cars with an interval of 41 hours.


Assembly of the bow section at the Richmond plant. Photo UK Imperial War Museum

Acceleration and simplification had an economic effect. Serial "Liberty" cost approx. $ 2 million - less than 40 million at current prices. The cost reduction in comparison with other vehicles of the time allowed the EC2 to be built in a large series, covering the needs of the United States and allies. Until 1945, 2710 ships were built. There were orders for another 41 corps, but with the end of the war they were canceled.

From a certain time, a kind of competition was conducted between the factories. So, in September 1942, the Oregon Shipbuilding Corporation built the SS Joseph N. Teal dry cargo ship in just 10 days. The shipyard in Richmond soon responded to this. At noon on November 8, she laid down the SS Robert E. Peary transport. On November 12, by 16:00, the ship was launched, and the acceptance certificate was signed on November 15. The construction took 7 days and 15 hours.


Liberty ships in convoy, 1942. Photo by US Navy

Such records were widely covered in the press and were actively used in propaganda. The civilians and soldiers at the front, as well as the enemy, were shown what American industry was capable of - and why it was not worth getting involved in a war with the United States. However, all these were isolated cases. Record construction projects required a special strain on the efforts of the plant and its suppliers, and could also lead to a drop in the quality of the "fast" vessel and negatively affect other orders.

Not without flaws


It should be noted that the EC2-S-C2 vessels and their derivatives, for all their advantages, were not ideal. There were a lot of problems of various kinds, often leading to negative consequences. The main reason for this was the compromise approach to design and construction - often sacrifices were necessary to complete the main tasks of the project.

From the very beginning, the project had image problems. The vessels of a simplified design had an appropriate appearance, which is why they were criticized both in the press and from officials. It is for this reason that in September 1941 it was necessary to take action and call EC2 "courts of freedom".


Decommissioned U.S. Navy steamers layered before scrapping, 1965. Photo by Wikimedia Commons

Cracking of structures became the main problem during operation. Cracks appeared in the hulls and decks, and in some cases this led to the death of the ship. It was found that when operating at low temperatures, the steel body parts in the area lose strength next to the welded seams. Because of this, invisible cracks appear and spread, which can lead to accidents and even crashes. Overload, wave loads and other factors increased the risk of cracking.

To prevent damage and collapse, a number of structural elements were redesigned to eliminate potential cracking points. At the same time, a radical restructuring of the vessel was not provided. During the war, more than 1500 steamers faced the problem of cracking, but thanks to timely measures, only 3 were lost.

Another consequence of the simplified design was a limited resource. By the end of 1945, more than 2400 ships remained in service, and soon the United States began to sell them to everyone - private and state structures, incl. foreign. As the resource depleted, the steamers were decommissioned and decommissioned. The overwhelming majority of such ships completed their service by the mid-sixties. The US Navy abandoned the last representatives of the project by 1970. Even regular repairs and modernizations did not allow to extend the service life and compete with newer ships.


One of the surviving transports is SS Jeremiah O'Brien. Photo Wikimedia Commons

Results and consequences


The main result of the EC2-S-C1 / Liberty project was the construction of more than 2,7 thousand auxiliary vessels fleet for allied countries. With their help, a highly efficient logistics system was built, which made a significant contribution to the victory over the Axis countries. After the war, Liberty significantly influenced the development of civilian transportation.

During the development and construction of mass sea transport, new technologies for the American industry were mastered and worked out, and at the same time already known solutions were perfected. The technical, technological and organizational experience gained during the construction of the Liberty has been applied in the following projects of merchant ships developed in a number of countries.

Thus, the course towards simplification and cost reduction has fully justified itself. It allowed to solve topical issues of the pre-war and war period, and also created a foundation for further development. Thanks to this, the EC2 project and its variants occupy a special place in stories shipbuilding.
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  1. Ingvar 72
    Ingvar 72 18 September 2020 18: 09
    +8
    With logistics, the Pendos have always been at their best.
    1. tralflot1832
      tralflot1832 18 September 2020 18: 18
      12
      Historians of the fleet, could Libertos in 79 stand on a sludge in Murmansk on Ugolki? I saw two of them in South Africa in 90, and the towboat dragged them by the nostril to India for cutting! hi
      1. nnm
        nnm 18 September 2020 18: 27
        16
        Not a great specialist, but taking into account the fact that one ship participated in the transportation of missiles to Cuba during the Caribbean crisis, I think that it is quite
        1. tralflot1832
          tralflot1832 18 September 2020 18: 33
          +7
          He made his first voyage in 79, something very similar was at the pier. Always interested in the northern convoys. Photos from childhood are remembered. hi
      2. Mikhail Alexandrov
        Mikhail Alexandrov 19 September 2020 09: 06
        +6
        The tug "Neftegaz-66", I was there at that time the third mechanic. They were dragged from Norfolk, they stood with the amers until the last, like supply vessels. They were fully equipped.
        1. tralflot1832
          tralflot1832 19 September 2020 10: 04
          +4
          The tugboat Neftegaz 66 was built in Poland, then it was still new. A year or two as from a new building. You passed through the fishing area. I was on a BAT of the Gorizont type "Petr Sgibnev", the port of preschool Murmansk refmashinist. I remember how you passed us. Day, sea " water in the swamp "the last Liberty dangles in tow almost in the wake. Our cap contacted your where you drag such beauty from. We reminded you. You looked beautiful from the outside. Health. hi drinks
          1. Mikhail Alexandrov
            Mikhail Alexandrov 19 September 2020 21: 44
            0
            Yes, that's right, Polish. We had three of them, 25,31 and 66.25 were sent to Sakhalin, he worked in Vietnam in VietSovPetro. Later he worked for 31. good drinks
            1. tralflot1832
              tralflot1832 19 September 2020 21: 53
              0
              I read about 66, the hard worker participated in the installation of the Rosneft terminal in the Gulf of Ob. I tried to find it in the vast seas for marine traffic. You are from Kaliningrad, until 10 years old, like 66 belonged to Lukoil Kaliningrad. The last owners are Kaliningrad, home port Limassol, Cyprus.
              1. Mikhail Alexandrov
                Mikhail Alexandrov 20 September 2020 07: 07
                +1
                66, now sailing under the Danish flag, the name SIMA, now in the Kola Bay ... At one time, yes, it belonged first to Kaliningradmorneftegaz, and then to Kaliningradmorneft-Lukoil.
                1. tralflot1832
                  tralflot1832 20 September 2020 07: 39
                  0
                  Oh, the Kola Bay, a native place. We had a "nest there." hi
    2. The comment was deleted.
    3. nnm
      nnm 18 September 2020 18: 31
      -3
      And if you remember the D-day landing of the allies? It seems that the most important event for them during the entire war, it did not differ in normal logistics.
      1. Snail N9
        Snail N9 18 September 2020 19: 04
        +8
        Thank you for the article! During my youth, I had to work as a minder on the Soviet "Liberty" - a tanker of the "Kazbek" type. Until now, I am amazed by the single-circuit cooling system of the main engine.
        1. tralflot1832
          tralflot1832 18 September 2020 19: 08
          +3
          Like seawater? hi
        2. alsoclean
          alsoclean 18 September 2020 21: 26
          +3
          Well, "Kazbeks" are not steam engines! If I remember correctly - "Russian Diesel"? And I would call "Kolomna" Soviet "Liberty". I did my practice at Kotlas! hi
          1. tihonmarine
            tihonmarine 19 September 2020 09: 05
            +1
            Quote: alsoclean
            And I would call "Kolomna" Soviet "Liberty". I did my practice at Kotlas!

            I also happened to be in practice a sailor on a Soviet "libertos", "collective farmer" of the "Second Five-Year Plan" project, if I am not mistaken. The steamboats were successful.
      2. Ingvar 72
        Ingvar 72 18 September 2020 22: 58
        +9
        Quote: nnm
        It seems that the most important event for them during the entire war, it did not differ in normal logistics.

        Why then? Their entire campaign against Germany, starting with the Normandy landing, depended ONLY on logistics. request So did Vietnam, Iraq - everywhere the troops were dependent on supplies and supplies. And the Pendos coped with this successfully. I do not admire, I evaluate objectively. Something they have a lot to learn from. hi
        1. Narak-zempo
          Narak-zempo 19 September 2020 09: 12
          0
          Do you remember the classics:

          "There is no new law of war -
          In retreat, you eat your fill
          On the defensive - is it so, so,
          In the offensive - on an empty stomach "
          1. Reviews
            Reviews 19 September 2020 13: 47
            +2
            Quote: Narak-zempo
            Do you remember the classics:

            "There is no new law of war -
            In retreat, you eat your fill
            On the defensive - is it so, so,
            In the offensive - on an empty stomach "

            There is no less classic - "battalions do not march on an empty stomach."
        2. Narak-zempo
          Narak-zempo 19 September 2020 14: 40
          -2
          Quote: Ingvar 72
          Why then? Their entire campaign against Germany, starting with the Normandy landing, depended ONLY on logistics

          So after all, in their rear, German aircraft did not hunt for everything that moves.
          And in general, with superiority in the air force by an order of magnitude, you can operate in greenhouse conditions.
          So it's not a problem.
      3. voyaka uh
        voyaka uh 19 September 2020 14: 04
        +9
        "And if you remember the landing of the allies on D-day" ///
        -----
        Without the right logistics, the operation would have failed.
        They landed half a million soldiers and equipment on the defended coast in two weeks.
        And a million in a month.
        Are you impressed by Private Ryan?
        But Spielberg chose the hardest landing site for the film.
        Omaho. In the rest of the sections, there was no such "felling".
        1. Cherry Nine
          Cherry Nine 19 September 2020 14: 36
          +4
          How does felling have to do with logistics? Spielberg shows an airborne assault operation, which, in addition, is carried out by poorly trained units (the ILC did not participate in it). The operation went almost perfectly, even the losers from Omaha lost people quite comparable to the 101st Rifle Division on Shumshu. Not to mention some Taman.

          As for the logistics, it was at the highest level. Yes, there was a lot of mess - there was an exceptionally much mess in the war - but even the loss of one of the floating harbors did not stop them, so much was being prepared then.
  2. polpot
    polpot 18 September 2020 18: 19
    +9
    Fast and cheap, this is the main thing for war.
    1. mr.ZinGer
      mr.ZinGer 18 September 2020 21: 29
      +4
      It's like a marine stockbacker
      1. polpot
        polpot 18 September 2020 22: 37
        +1
        Yes, there were also PPSh and T34, cheap and simple
  3. nnm
    nnm 18 September 2020 18: 32
    +3
    Can someone tell me if it is true that one of the ships sank immediately after launching due to poor build quality?
    1. The comment was deleted.
  4. dauria
    dauria 18 September 2020 18: 48
    10
    The customer is the state. It also determines shipyards, factories and prices. Military acceptance. No competition, just a plan. Even socialist competition. And an excellent result. Congratulations, Americans. From 41st to 45th you had socialism. laughing
    By the way, about "the Germans did not have time to drown." After the 42nd year, the submarines no longer drowned anyone. More precisely, more boats were sunk than ships. It was Doenitz who did not have time to build them. "Paukenshlag" at the beginning of the 42nd - the last performance of submariners.
    1. Macsen_wledig
      Macsen_wledig 18 September 2020 19: 29
      +9
      Quote: dauria
      "Paukenshlag" at the beginning of the 42nd - the last performance of submariners.

      "The second happy times" ended in April 1943, some historians even call a specific convoy (ONS-5), in which the loss of submarines for the first time turned out to be greater than the loss of transports.
      1. dauria
        dauria 18 September 2020 19: 57
        +9
        "Happy Second Times" ended in April 1943

        Well, that's overkill. Winter-Spring 42nd beating of unarmed US babies who have been thwarted by the holiday season. Summer of the 42nd introduction of the convoy system, centimeter locator, radio direction finder, bomb launchers, massive construction of corvettes and frigates, air patrols that blocked the west and east of the Atlantic. The end of the 42nd - the actual "Stalingrad" for Doenitz. I was looking for weak areas in the Caribbean, where to dial tonnage figures. And the beginning of the 43rd is the capitulation in the war with the convoys.
        1. Macsen_wledig
          Macsen_wledig 18 September 2020 20: 08
          +6
          Quote: dauria
          Well, that's overkill.

          Read Morison chtol: it's not for nothing that his 10th volume is called "The Atlantic Battle Won. May 1943 - May 1945 "...;)
          The old man probably knew what he was writing about.
          1. dauria
            dauria 18 September 2020 20: 14
            +6
            Morison read chtol:

            I read a bunch of things before the Internet ... laughing While sculpting these things. Don't argue with the modelers, they sometimes know how many times German shipbuilders changed the propellers on the Novik cruiser. No offense . hi
            1. Macsen_wledig
              Macsen_wledig 18 September 2020 20: 22
              +5
              Quote: dauria
              Don't argue with the modelers, they sometimes know how many times German shipbuilders changed the propellers on the Novik cruiser.

              If the modelers know so much, then maybe they will tell you when, how, and most importantly why they reworked Boolean garments on the "Admiral Hipper" and "Blucher" ....;)

              As for submarine warfare, the periodization of Blair and Morison is still closer to me. :)
            2. beeper
              beeper 18 September 2020 21: 58
              +1
              Quote: dauria
              Morison read chtol:

              I read a bunch of things before the Internet ... laughing While sculpting these things. Don't argue with the modelers, they sometimes know how many times German shipbuilders changed the propellers on the Novik cruiser. No offense . hi

              hi Whoop-punk, Dauria, these are homemade "U-bot" - "seven" and "XXI" ?! Beauties!
              Respect! good Taking off my hat! hi
              1. dauria
                dauria 18 September 2020 22: 44
                +9
                these are homemade "U-bot" - "seven"

                Well, thanks for your kind words. But they knew how to dive. By the way, fairy tales that radio waves do not penetrate under water - three meters easily laughing But not handsome. Handsome man here.
                1. beeper
                  beeper 19 September 2020 01: 36
                  +3
                  hi I also always liked Novik - the proportions and laconic silhouette, its concept and history as part of the Russian imperial fleet! winked
                  A reservoir for testing models as to order - with such transparent water (part of the river, stretches?) And a sandy bottom, a clean shore without coastal vegetation .... and voluminous (in every sense, that is, from the word "hug"! ) The beauty of Nature around (from a very atmospheric photo of yours, you can feel the unstoppable movement of clouds and the singing of birds in the heavenly heights, the barely audible rustle of grass and the quiet splash of water on the shore)! yes good
                  1. Alf
                    Alf 19 September 2020 12: 18
                    +3
                    Quote: pishchak
                    and voluminous (in every sense, that is, from the word "hug"!) The beauty of Nature around Coast)!

                    Yes, you, my friend, are a poet!
                    1. dauria
                      dauria 19 September 2020 13: 38
                      +2
                      Yes, you, my friend, are a poet!

                      This is the Volga below Balakhna. Every second will become a poet in our country, and after half a liter - every first. So it comes as no surprise. wink
    2. Cherry Nine
      Cherry Nine 19 September 2020 14: 42
      +4
      Quote: dauria
      Congratulations, Americans. From 41st to 45th you had socialism.

      You're right, the Roosevelt administration brought the United States closer to socialism in the history of this country. And this did not begin during WWII, but much earlier: one of the measures of the New Deal was state price control.

      Naturally, the inevitable result of this policy was monstrous embezzlement, corruption and nepotism. One of the senators in those years became very famous, having created a special Senate committee to investigate murky schemes in public procurement, especially the military.

      Truman Committee.
      1. dauria
        dauria 19 September 2020 15: 30
        +3
        You're right, the Roosevelt administration brought the United States closer to socialism in the history of this country.


        Lord. "Socialism" ... Yes, everything is simpler. And in the USSR, and then in the USA, and even in Hitler's Germany there was never any socialism. There was state mobilization capitalism. Effective in the period of preparation for war, the war itself. But at normal times he loses completely. The Soviet Union simply delayed military capitalism, China regained consciousness in time.
        All the confusion of "Marxukh in the USSR" came from this - to call socialism what is not. This is monopoly capitalism of the last stage, where all hired workers are without any property. And the board of directors is also hired.
        1. Cherry Nine
          Cherry Nine 19 September 2020 16: 05
          +2
          Quote: dauria
          Congratulations, Americans. From 41st to 45th you had socialism

          Quote: dauria
          There was state mobilization capitalism.

          You will decide, please, I do not have time for your political economy.
          1. dauria
            dauria 19 September 2020 17: 01
            +2
            You already decide, please


            Okay, "socialism" in quotes. He is not and was not anywhere. There are its initial elements. And in countries, ordinary capitalism. From the DPRK, the USSR to Finland. With varying degrees of inclusions of elements of "socialism". In the USSR, absolute monopoly capitalism. An element of socialism is, for example, such a form of ownership as a share. You can sell, buy, bequeath - it means property. And at the same time, a bunch of owners at the same plant - share (or public). Here's socialism. You can't think of another.
            What the "Leninists" came up with is absurd. A sort of "fair capitalism in the highest monopoly stage."
            1. Cherry Nine
              Cherry Nine 19 September 2020 17: 12
              0
              Forgive me, but I am no longer a young person, and far from modern interpretations of socialism. With me socialism is the rejection of private ownership of the means of production and of the labor of hired workers in favor of a private person - the owner of the means of production. The USSR used some ersatz of private enterprises (artels, cooperatives, collective farms), but it was believed, at least officially, that the contribution of all participants was labor, without the formation of a situation when one of the participants received not labor, but rental income from their property for account of the labor of other participants. Naturally, this is in theory, but in practice it happened in different ways.

              Therefore, the USSR is still yes, but the United States is not. It is another matter that the FDR, with its ill-understood Keynesianism, has largely unbalanced the market mechanisms for regulating the economy. It is in this part that FDR's accusations of socialism are true. The path to socialism is through redistribution in favor of society (represented by the state and trade unions) not property, but economic power.
              1. your1970
                your1970 28 September 2020 11: 42
                0
                Quote: Cherry Nine
                without the formation of a situation when one of the participants receives not labor, but rental income from their property due to the labor of other participants
                - and immediately a contradiction - the collective farms were based on of property nested in them. And income - including due to the labor of other participants. And because of this, the question arose - how to account for work and how to divide the earned. ....

                And this is their global difference from state farms, where the property was state. Where is the question, "why does he have a higher salary?"

                Z. We had a fist with a steam engine in one village. Apparently he was smart and cunning - he joined the commune, then the collective farm, handed over the car and did not get it in the first years. And to the mass collective farm wave, he died ... Not dispossessed ...
                In the 90s, his heirs rolled out a lawsuit against the collective farm - the cost of the car at the time of joining the collective farm was 1/4 of the total book value of the collective farm .. We got to the Supreme Court - but recaptured several buildings and equipment (from 10 to cars and tractors)
                1. Cherry Nine
                  Cherry Nine 2 October 2020 08: 25
                  0
                  immediately a contradiction - the collective farms were based on the property invested in them


                  Collective farms were founded at the expense of little people assigned to them. Humans did not have any property, property in property is legal nonsense.

                  Quote: your1970
                  In the 90s, his heirs rolled out a lawsuit against the collective farm

                  The Russian legislator did not find time to deal with these issues. So the lawsuits could be the strangest, some of them even won. But it depends on how the judge feels, nothing else.
                  1. your1970
                    your1970 2 October 2020 12: 23
                    -1
                    Share property was brought into the collective farm. I have a very distant relative on a collective farm in the 70s to get a job - I bought 2 cows from my parents and a dozen more sheep from neighbors. And vice versa - I know two cases of going out in the 80s - the collective farm reimbursed the shares with money (the policeman and his family were transferred to the Far East, the wife and mother-in-law of the collective farmer were)
                    You state farms с collective farms lol
                    confused ...
                    In the state farm - yes, there was no property ...
  5. nnm
    nnm 18 September 2020 19: 04
    +2
    Quote: dauria
    From 41st to 45th you had socialism

    I immediately remembered the methods by which the beacons of democracy removed the candidacy of Wallace at the congress, who pulled the United States out of the Great Depression by the ears.
    1. Cherry Nine
      Cherry Nine 19 September 2020 14: 43
      0
      Quote: nnm
      Wallace, who pulled the United States out of the Great Depression by the ears.

      Here is the news.
      1. nnm
        nnm 19 September 2020 14: 47
        0
        An excellent and motivated objection:
        Quote: Cherry Nine
        Here is the news
        1. Cherry Nine
          Cherry Nine 19 September 2020 14: 55
          +3
          What other objection? That the communist Wallace was pulling the United States out of the Great Depression by the ears, being in the 33-40 years as Secretary of Agriculture? It's hard to argue with that. The Secretary of Agriculture is a key figure in the American economy of the 30s, Speer and Earnhard rolled into one.
          1. nnm
            nnm 19 September 2020 15: 04
            0
            Apparently, I misunderstood your previous comment.
  6. Region-25.rus
    Region-25.rus 18 September 2020 19: 27
    +3
    I saw something similar on the Busan raid in 97, it seems ... Of course, I do not argue, but something similar.
  7. Region-25.rus
    Region-25.rus 18 September 2020 19: 29
    +3
    Quote: nnm
    Can someone tell me if it is true that one of the ships sank immediately after launching due to poor build quality?

    read it seems about it. It broke, sort of like at the outfitting wall.
    1. garri-lin
      garri-lin 18 September 2020 19: 44
      +6
      The first ships had problems with welding. Maybe because of this. By the way, the Americans worked out the technology very quickly.
  8. Alf
    Alf 18 September 2020 20: 46
    +5
    A common product of wartime, built according to the ideology "Fast, cheap, a lot." He served the service, justified himself, wrote off. One word, well done.
    I think that the biggest problem for US sailors was to come up with a huge number of ship names, there was not enough imagination.
    1. Alex_You
      Alex_You 18 September 2020 22: 20
      +2
      the Liberty courts were named after famous American patriots since the signers of the Declaration of Independence, while any group of people providing war loans of more than $ 2 million could offer their name
      1. Alf
        Alf 18 September 2020 22: 22
        +3
        Quote: Alex_You
        the Liberty courts were named after famous American patriots since the signers of the Declaration of Independence, while any group of people providing war loans of more than $ 2 million could offer their name

        I have not heard, thanks. But it is unlikely that there were many such groups, two million TEK dollars is a very serious amount, if you remember that the Mustang P-51 cost 50 thousand green.
        1. Alex_You
          Alex_You 18 September 2020 22: 36
          +1
          I don't know, but one of the surviving Liberty SS John W. Brown is named after the union leader, which is kind of a hint.
          1. Alf
            Alf 18 September 2020 23: 40
            +4
            Quote: Alex_You
            I don't know, but one of the surviving Liberty SS John W. Brown is named after the union leader, which is kind of a hint.

            Perhaps, though I first thought of John Brown, the abolitionist who led the Harpers Ferry massacre and the African descendent.
  9. Catfish
    Catfish 18 September 2020 21: 05
    +4
    In our fleets, these transports were simply called "Libertos", the men told us that in the late seventies, entirely in "cement boxes" they walked along the Northern Sea Route.
    1. mr.ZinGer
      mr.ZinGer 18 September 2020 21: 33
      +4
      Translate "cement box" for a land rat.
      1. old_pferd
        old_pferd 18 September 2020 21: 48
        +1
        https://www.trans-service.org/ru.php?section=info&page=bezop&subpage=voda_05
      2. Catfish
        Catfish 18 September 2020 21: 49
        +3
        Salvation from old age, without entering the dock, thus "patching up the bottom", the formwork is made and the mortar is poured. I haven't seen it myself, but competent comrades explained.
        1. Saxahorse
          Saxahorse 18 September 2020 22: 24
          +4
          Concrete is an extremely durable material. Especially if the cement was of high quality. :)
          If steel rusts and decomposes over time, then concrete, on the contrary, hardens. During WWII, a whole series of concrete ships were built, as some are still sailing. Almost.. laughing

          This is a breakwater in Colombia, just one of those American concrete transports.
          1. Reviews
            Reviews 19 September 2020 02: 25
            +2
            There are even cement yachts.
  10. Arthur 85
    Arthur 85 18 September 2020 21: 12
    +1
    And why is this not a frigate? Attach a UVP, and for the crew - an armored capsule with positive buoyancy, buried in the deck, and tied with ropes ... Will the industry master the steam engine?
    1. Alf
      Alf 18 September 2020 22: 23
      +2
      Quote: Arthur 85
      And why is this not a frigate? Attach a UVP, and for the crew - an armored capsule with positive buoyancy, buried in the deck, and tied with ropes ... Will the industry master the steam engine?

      It remains to add the strength norms of the warship somehow.
      1. Arthur 85
        Arthur 85 19 September 2020 06: 23
        +1
        But 100 years ago, it was unthinkable to imagine a capital ship without armor, or a ship incapable of fighting against the coast (this is why it is like that). Now nothing. A torpedo hit will disable him in any way. And the crew will survive ...
        1. Alf
          Alf 19 September 2020 12: 14
          +5
          Quote: Arthur 85
          A torpedo hit will disable him in any way. And the crew will survive ...

          Not always. How many cases were there in WW2 when ships, having received a torpedo, got home on their own.
          1. Alf
            Alf 19 September 2020 14: 41
            +4
            Quote: Alf
            Quote: Arthur 85
            A torpedo hit will disable him in any way. And the crew will survive ...

            Not always. How many cases were there in WW2 when ships, having received a torpedo, got home on their own.


  11. APASUS
    APASUS 18 September 2020 21: 25
    -1
    The only advantage of this type of ships was the speed of their production.
    1. Reviews
      Reviews 19 September 2020 13: 52
      -3
      Quote: APASUS
      The only advantage of this type of ships was the speed of their production.

      ... which was enough in a big war. As far as I understand, Liberty counted on one flight and if someone survived after this voyage, it was perceived only as a pleasant bonus. And that was exactly the case with other delivery vehicles - landing gliders.
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  12. Petrol cutter
    Petrol cutter 18 September 2020 21: 32
    +4
    They got money from American shipbuilders ...
    And we, here all are surprised at something ...
    A series of three thousand ships / boats of some kind. Will give you such an upsurge in the shipbuilding industry - that mom do not cry.
  13. Normal ok
    Normal ok 18 September 2020 21: 39
    +3
    My father went in the 70s on a dry cargo ship of the Liberty type (made in the USSR. "Bryansk Machine Building" if I remember correctly). I spent half of my childhood on such ships.
  14. Proctologist
    Proctologist 18 September 2020 22: 17
    +9
    Quote: nnm
    Can someone tell me if it is true that one of the ships sank immediately after launching due to poor build quality?

    out of 2500+ ships, one had every right to sink due to an alien attack, the curse of the Nibelungs, a blow to the periscope of a German submarine, etc.
    1. nnm
      nnm 18 September 2020 23: 08
      +1
      Yes, I didn’t ask to denigrate the project. I just heard this statement on one channel and wanted to clarify with knowledgeable people whether there was such a case in reality or not.
      1. Alf
        Alf 18 September 2020 23: 42
        +1
        Quote: nnm
        Yes, I didn’t ask to denigrate the project. I just heard this statement on one channel and wanted to clarify with knowledgeable people whether there was such a case in reality or not.

        Anything can be, even the battleship Vaza sank, barely moving away from the wall.
        1. nnm
          nnm 18 September 2020 23: 51
          +1
          So it was 1628, and even though they write about constructive mistakes, but as I remember (but I can be wrong, because I'm not special in naval history) from the video, they just wanted to make it a symbol of power and hung it up with everything possible, if only the richness and strength of the creators was visible. And as a result, he simply lost the design stability (and again I apologize if I misused the term).
          1. Alf
            Alf 19 September 2020 00: 22
            +5
            Quote: nnm
            So it was 1628, and even though they write about constructive mistakes, but as I remember (but I can be wrong, because I'm not special in naval history) from the video, they just wanted to make it a symbol of power and hung it up with everything possible, if only the richness and strength of the creators was visible. And as a result, he simply lost the design stability (and again I apologize if I misused the term).

            No, no, you have described everything correctly. Anything can happen. There were TWO incredible incidents in the history of the PL. In WW1, a German boat stuck a torpedo into a transport carrying steam locomotives. One steam locomotive, thrown up by the explosion, took off and crashed onto the submarine. Drowned. In WW2 exactly the same case and again with a German submarine, but this time a tank fell on the boat. The result is the same. Happens...
            1. nnm
              nnm 19 September 2020 00: 35
              +2
              Yes, how many such cases have changed not only the history of the battle, but also the war ... how the two best aircraft carriers of Japan could not approach Midway due to the fact that they had to be replenished after the transition, namely they had to act in conjunction with battleships and how they were then stupidly sunk; our Makarov; delivery of combat-ready Port Arthur and the squadron; or how the British, at the beginning of the Second World War, tried to sink the ships of their recent ally - France, and one cruiser went through the entire English order and fled; our submarine commander during the Caribbean crisis, who prevented the war from starting .... sometimes it seems that all life consists of chances.
              And again I apologize for possible mistakes - I have only recently become interested in the history of the fleet and have only superficial knowledge.
              1. Macsen_wledig
                Macsen_wledig 19 September 2020 11: 07
                +4
                Quote: nnm
                ... how the two best aircraft carriers of Japan could not approach Midway due to the fact that they had to be replenished after the transition, namely, they had to act in conjunction with battleships and then they were stupidly sunk

                Sorry, but you have some kind of alternative Midway ...

                Quote: nnm
                our Makarov

                Another semi-myth based on "dreams": with all the talents of Stepan Osipovich, they made an icon out of him in order to somehow justify the failure.

                Quote: nnm
                delivery of combat-ready Port Arthur and the squadron

                By the time Port Arthur was surrendered, only Sevastopol remained more or less "combat-ready" in the squadron of large ships ... As for the fortress, in order to avoid conspiracy, read the 2nd book of the 8th volume "The work of the military-historical commission" - "Defense of Quantoon and Port Arthur. From the beginning of the close taxation to the end of the siege"

                Quote: nnm
                or how the British, at the beginning of the Second World War, tried to sink the ships of their recent ally, France, and one cruiser went through the entire English order and fled;

                Where can you find a description of this interesting fact?

                Quote: nnm
                And again I apologize for possible mistakes - I have only recently become interested in the history of the fleet and have only superficial knowledge.

                Well, there are not even mistakes, but reading some very alternative sources.
                On Midway, you can read Morison "The American Navy in World War II: The Coral Sea, Midway and Submarine Operations (Spring-Summer 1942)"
                From the Japanese side - Fuchidu "Battle of Midway Atoll"
                On "Catapult" it would be reasonable to read Roskilde ...
                1. nnm
                  nnm 19 September 2020 11: 46
                  +1
                  Quote: Macsen_Wledig
                  Sorry, but you have some kind of alternative Midway ...

                  Maybe. But then it is rather not an alternative, but my ignorance. For, again, I know little on this topic and only recently began to compensate for the lack of knowledge. But I meant Sekaku and Zuikaku.
                  1. Macsen_wledig
                    Macsen_wledig 19 September 2020 12: 39
                    +2
                    Quote: nnm
                    But then it is rather not an alternative, but my ignorance. For, again, I know little on this topic and only recently began to compensate for the lack of knowledge.

                    I already understood that.
                    So read Morison and Okumiya.

                    "Cranes", if they remained intact or complex, would have gone with the Nagumo compound, but not with the Yamamoto LK.
                2. nnm
                  nnm 19 September 2020 11: 47
                  0
                  Quote: Macsen_Wledig
                  Another semi-myth based on "dreams": with all the talents of Stepan Osipovich, they made an icon out of him in order to somehow justify the failure.

                  So it's not about his talents or the lack of them, but about the very accident that determines the consequences
                  1. Macsen_wledig
                    Macsen_wledig 19 September 2020 12: 42
                    +1
                    Quote: nnm
                    namely, about the very randomness that determines the consequences

                    The trouble is that this accident greatly affects the views of people: in 95% of cases, about Makarov, you can read "if it were Makarov, then the Japanese were khan ..."
                    But no one knows how it would be in reality ...
                    1. nnm
                      nnm 19 September 2020 12: 44
                      0
                      That's for sure. No wonder it is said that history does not know the subjunctive moods.
                      But again, from what I heard from Klim Sanych about that period, my opinion about Makarov as a possible savior of the situation was greatly extinguished.
                  2. Alexey RA
                    Alexey RA 21 September 2020 15: 37
                    0
                    Quote: nnm
                    So it's not about his talents or the lack of them, but about the very accident that determines the consequences

                    The death of Makarov is not an accident, but a pattern. The name of which is formulaic maneuvering. The Japanese "sketched" Makarov's eight, along which he led the squadron near Port Arthur, and set mines on exactly one of the loops. And then they did everything to make Makarov again lead the squadron "the beaten track".
                    However, the Japanese themselves immediately stepped on the same rake of "stereotyped maneuvering", having lost 2 EBRs on Russian mines deployed in the area of ​​regular passage of the Japanese squadron near Port Arthur.
                    1. nnm
                      nnm 21 September 2020 16: 00
                      0
                      Yes, I heard about it from Zhukov, in my opinion.
              2. Alf
                Alf 19 September 2020 12: 16
                +2
                Quote: nnm
                And again I apologize for possible mistakes - I have only recently become interested in the history of the fleet and have only superficial knowledge.

                No need to apologize, we're not all-knowing. I myself am sometimes wrong.
  15. Engineer
    Engineer 19 September 2020 00: 08
    +2
    About the cheapness and manufacturability of Liberty
    Revived David Brown's opinion from Nelson to Wangard
    Average price (in the original cost is the cost, but the author systematically uses cost in terms of the total amount paid by the fleet) Liberty is $ 1.2 million or 450 thousand pounds and 500-650 thousand man hours
    For similar British Empire-type transports, the price is 180 thousand pounds and 350 thousand man-hours.
    More for comparison
    frigates "colony" $ 2.25 million = 570 thousand pounds
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colony-class_frigate

    That is, Liberty does not look cheap and technologically advanced either in comparison with its British counterpart or with a frigate-class escort ship.
    1. Alf
      Alf 19 September 2020 00: 23
      +2
      Quote: Engineer
      Oh there is Liberty does not look cheap and technologically advanced either in comparison with the British counterpart

      Is there a difference in displacement and construction speed?
      1. Engineer
        Engineer 19 September 2020 00: 28
        +1
        Carrying capacity of about 10 thousand tons for both
        I don't know about the speed of construction of the Britons. like they didn't set records
      2. nnm
        nnm 19 September 2020 00: 44
        0
        I think then the Brits would not have asked the states for these lend-lease deliveries. But it was about the ships and vessels that they asked in vain (at first). It is not for nothing that they received 6 times more under Lend-Lease than the USSR
    2. Engineer
      Engineer 19 September 2020 00: 25
      +2
      Threat Didn't check Brown. He incorrectly converted dollars to pounds for Liberty at a rate of 1 to 4, it would be 300 thousand pounds
    3. Cherry Nine
      Cherry Nine 19 September 2020 14: 49
      +1
      Quote: Engineer
      That is, Liberty does not look cheap and technologically advanced either in comparison with its British counterpart or with a frigate-class escort ship.

      What is your position? That the Americans stole more on the construction? I agree. So what?
      1. Engineer
        Engineer 19 September 2020 14: 54
        +2
        What is your position?

        Here it is
        That is, Liberty does not look cheap and technologically advanced either in comparison with its British counterpart or with a frigate-class escort ship.

        Theft on construction not very rolling. The contracts are fixed - the price was negotiated in advance, as far as I know. As in the British Navy, by the way.
        It feels like they just pumped money into the economy. An unthinkable amount of money. Strange, but monetarism did not seem to be invented then.
        1. Cherry Nine
          Cherry Nine 19 September 2020 15: 00
          0
          Quote: Engineer
          the price was negotiated in advance, as far as I know. As in the British Navy, by the way.

          Yes, but Americans were overpriced. The war will write off everything.
          Quote: Engineer
          Strange, but monetarism did not seem to be invented then.

          Yes, but Case's ideas are quite in tune with him. Our friend, the American national debt, by the way, just in those years for the first time showed itself to its fullest.
          1. Engineer
            Engineer 19 September 2020 15: 10
            +2
            How simple you are)
            The Americans had an overpricing before the war. But selective. Yorktown was built at the right price, Brooklyn is not
            I don’t know how the Americans were pricing.

            For the British, the prices were set by the same designers, who were not very interested in the issue. Planning and economic department was not to help them. Shipyards accepted the assigned price usually without bargaining - you have to eat. Profitability ranged from 1 percent to 70 percent.

            Keynesianism and monetarism, as far as I know, approach the crisis in different ways. Keynesians want to play with the discount rate, monetarists are focusing on the money supply.
            1. Cherry Nine
              Cherry Nine 19 September 2020 15: 34
              +1
              Quote: Engineer
              How did the American pricing work?

              )))
              By concepts.
              Quote: Engineer
              Keynesianism and monetarism, as far as I know, approach the crisis in different ways.

              In very different ways, but the credit pumping of the economy at the expense of government spending and the national debt is combined with this and that. Keynesianism is even better.
              Quote: Engineer
              The Americans had an overpricing before the war

              )))
              Of course, FDR did not teach the Americans to steal. Came, so to speak, ready.
              1. Engineer
                Engineer 19 September 2020 15: 48
                0
                FDR is braided, the goal is achieved)
                Returning to the original topic
                For Empire we get 514 pounds for 1000 man-hours
                For Liberty 460 - 600 pounds per 1000 man-hours

                In this aspect, nothing extraordinary for the price tag of Americans, provided that Brown does not have a mistake - typos averaging $ 1.2 million for Liberty
                1. Cherry Nine
                  Cherry Nine 19 September 2020 16: 13
                  +2
                  Quote: Engineer
                  FDR braided, goal achieved

                  Little, you need to braid more. One is from Kansas, the other is a battleship.
                  Quote: Engineer
                  For Empire we get 514 pounds for 1000 man-hours
                  For Liberty 460 - 600 pounds per 1000 man-hours

                  The original theme seems too academic to me. The author compares a large-scale sectional building with a much less massive project. Spherical horses. And your thought that Liberty was, yes, massive, but no, not cheap, seems to me quite trivial. I do not remember anything particularly cheap from the Americans of those years.
                  1. Engineer
                    Engineer 19 September 2020 16: 24
                    0
                    Little, you need to braid more. One is from Kansas, the other is a battleship.

                    I do not doubt your success for a second.
                    The author compares a large-scale sectional building with a much less massive project. Spherical horses. And your thought that Liberty was, yes, massive, but no, not cheap, seems to me quite trivial. I do not remember anything particularly cheap from the Americans of those years.

                    Not just expensive, but also low-tech (or far from optimal) in terms of labor costs. From the point of view of labor requirements and the criterion for maximizing production, it is quite technological.
                    My post had two purposes: To point out a certain paradox in the technological aspect. An attempt, if not to refute, then at least partially revise the mainstream epithets of Liberty
                    PS The economies of scale of production seem to have failed

                    seems trivial enough to me

                    I apologize, esteemed sir, that my humble thoughts do not reach your standards of originality)
                    1. Cherry Nine
                      Cherry Nine 19 September 2020 16: 58
                      +2
                      Quote: Engineer
                      thoughts fall short of your standards of originality)

                      Quote: Engineer
                      FDR braided, goal achieved

                      And, frankly speaking, I myself am not always original.

                      By the way, in this respect something else surprised me at one time. Commercial shipyards built ships somehow much more expensive than naval ones (it struck me with the example of the Carolyn / Dakot, perhaps not the most suitable one). This struck me as counterintuitive. But on the other hand, I remember that Nikolai had exactly the same problems.

                      Quote: Engineer
                      My post had two purposes: To point out a certain paradox in the technological aspect. An attempt, if not to refute, then at least partially revise the mainstream epithets of Liberty

                      You are right, "mass" does not always mean "technological" and certainly "cheap". Usually this case is analyzed using the example of the T-34-76, but the Americans are also full of examples.
                      1. Engineer
                        Engineer 19 September 2020 17: 22
                        0
                        To heap
                        I decided to compare the average earnings in the war among industrial workers in the United States and Britain
                        43 years of the United States almost a dollar an hour
                        p 15
                        https://fraser.stlouisfed.org/title/wages-manufacturing-industries-wartime-4241
                        43 years Britain 2.29 shillings per hour (men, women 1.29) = 0.11 pounds = 0.44 dollars
                        p 658
                        https://library.pcw.gov.ph/sites/default/files/womens%20pay%20in%20british%20industry.pdf
                        Twice the salary when converted into US dollars.
                        That is, there was an overpricing in the USA, but less significant than it seems at first glance. Superprofits from military orders, respectively, are also not as big as it seems.
                        Returning to the unfortunate Liberty
                        The twice as many man-hours for the liberty explains the twice the price of the empire.
                        But now we are applying the knowledge about double salary in the United States, so the difference should be much greater?
                        Possible explanations
                        Less overhead and even margin in USA?
                        Perhaps the difference is leveled by the fact that the British shipyards employed mostly qualified professionals, receiving salaries above average. And on the American low-skilled with below average prevailed?
                      2. Cherry Nine
                        Cherry Nine 19 September 2020 17: 34
                        0
                        Comrade Ehrenburg simplifies.

                        Firstly, the mentioned calculations of h / h seem to me somewhat abstract, all this was extremely floating. Secondly, it is incorrect to reduce s / s to man-hours, the same economies of scale and organization of production, for example, in terms of the minimum slip period, also contributed to s / s.
                      3. Engineer
                        Engineer 19 September 2020 17: 50
                        0
                        Did I mention somewhere that the key is in salaries?
                        This is one aspect that is very important to keep in mind when comparing shipbuilding in different countries.
                        Current resume
                        Liberty Not a cheap device, but it doesn't have an exorbitant price tag either. This works against the theory of a monstrous drink in the military-industrial complex. At least in this particular case
                        The relatively high cost of Liberty is largely explained by the large labor costs.
                        Economies of scale are best described by total labor costs. For there is no binding to prices for specific operations on specific equipment. This is an objective criterion. The only question here is trust in Brown. And here the conclusion is this: Compared to traditional methods, the Americans did not succeed from a purely economic point of view. With the military it turned out quite
                      4. Cherry Nine
                        Cherry Nine 19 September 2020 18: 01
                        0
                        Quote: Engineer
                        The conclusion is this: Compared to traditional methods, the Americans did not succeed from a purely economic point of view. With the military it turned out quite

                        Well, this fits organically into my personal picture of the world. Let's take note.
                      5. Engineer
                        Engineer 19 September 2020 18: 05
                        0
                        Well, this fits organically into my personal picture of the world. Let's take note


                        Comrade Erenburg Simplifies

                        Anyway. suum cuique)
                2. Cherry Nine
                  Cherry Nine 19 September 2020 17: 37
                  0
                  Quote: Engineer
                  Britain 2.29 shillings per hour (men, lbs 0.11 for women

                  It’s even strange, 0.11 pounds is 2.2 shillings, the salary is almost the same. Suddenly.
                3. Engineer
                  Engineer 19 September 2020 17: 51
                  0
                  Corrected the original post.
  • nnm
    nnm 19 September 2020 11: 54
    0
    Quote: Macsen_Wledig
    Where can you find a description of this interesting fact?

    Battleship Strasbourg. Fight at Mers-El-Kebir
    1. Macsen_wledig
      Macsen_wledig 19 September 2020 15: 44
      +2
      Quote: nnm
      Battleship Strasbourg. Fight at Mers-El-Kebir

      To begin with, the Strasbourg never broke through the British line.
      He calmly slipped under the coast, and when the British realized it was already too late: attempts to catch up were not crowned with success.
  • nnm
    nnm 19 September 2020 11: 55
    0
    Quote: Macsen_Wledig
    Well, there are not even mistakes, but reading some very alternative sources.

    So far, he has not grown to literature. Basically, Klim Sanych and Morozov.
    1. Macsen_wledig
      Macsen_wledig 19 September 2020 15: 48
      +2
      Quote: nnm
      So far, he has not grown to literature. Basically, Klim Sanych and Morozov.

      "Flotsky" Zhukov is better off immediately in the furnace: he mows a lot ...
      Morozov - yes, in the subject and interestingly expounds, but the main emphasis is the USSR Navy
      So whatever one may say, on the "foreign" fleets will have to read books. :)
  • iouris
    iouris 19 September 2020 13: 44
    +1
    Bravo. Finally, the author got his hands on a very relevant historical and technical topic for us.
    I strongly recommend that a wide circle of "domestic" readers (thinkers) comprehend the seemingly completely wrong approach to design and production, implemented in the United States on the eve of entering the big war as a forge, a granary, and an arsenal. Building a ship designed for only one passage (one way) is efficient (very rational). However, this approach has been implemented with all its bourgeois might only today in the production of "our" foreign cars, foreign refrigerators, washing machines, etc. with the planned date of reaching the limit state. And in the USSR, at military factories, according to military standards, they designed and assembled "eternal", and therefore terribly expensive for the operator (consumer) ZIL-130, "Zhiguars", etc.
    By the way, these ships in the "domestic" fleet went almost until the 1960s. Those. vaunted American engineers miscalculated. It could have been cheaper.
  • Engineer
    Engineer 19 September 2020 14: 13
    +3
    The author did not mention the most striking episode of the ship of the Liberty type
    On September 27, 1942, the ship Stephen Hopkins, en route from South Africa to Suriname, met the German auxiliary cruiser Stier. Despite the inequality of forces 1-102 mm versus 6-152 mm, the Americans refused to surrender and entered into an unequal battle. After an hour of firefight, Stephen Hopkins sank. The rescued were placed in the only boat, which reached Brazil a month later.
    Stir got hit in the power plant and steering. Two hours after the battle, the Germans left the ship that had lost its combat capability.
    1. iouris
      iouris 19 September 2020 16: 48
      -1
      Well, the episode is not that bright, but it is not relevant to the case (topic) (read the title of the publication).
  • Aviator_
    Aviator_ 19 September 2020 18: 46
    +3
    at low temperatures, the steel parts of the body in the area lose strength next to the welds.

    In what other area? Well, the phrase, did Google translate this? Perhaps, at low temperatures in the area of ​​welded seams, the strength dropped?
  • Alexey RA
    Alexey RA 21 September 2020 16: 26
    0
    In 1939-40. before the belligerent Great Britain and the neutral United States, the question arose of organizing massive sea transportations across the Atlantic in the face of active opposition from German submarines. To solve such problems, it was required to be simple to manufacture and operate, as well as inexpensive and massive transport ships.

    In fact, it all started even earlier, in the mid-30s. Then the American government was concerned about the state of the American merchant fleet, most of whose ships were obsolete (WWII times) and slow-moving. The Merchant Marine Act of 1936 was adopted to restore the position of American companies in the shipping market and to create a personnel reserve for the merchant fleet. The state decided to take the matter of renewing the ship fleet into its own hands: to order new merchant ships - and lease them to shipping companies. US shipping companies participating in this program received benefits and subsidies. The same subsidies were allocated to shipbuilders to expand production for new ships. An additional condition was the completion of the new vessels with 90% of the American team. Free marketwhat already there ... smile
    It was this pre-war program that laid the foundation for the future "Liberty" and "Victory".
  • sh3roman
    sh3roman 30 October 2020 14: 36
    0
    By 1940, the population of the United States and the USSR was almost the same, but during the war, the Americans had 100 aircraft carriers !!!!! In the USSR, more than one, tens of thousands of strategists were built 17,24,29, the USSR 79 pe8, the USSR 9 thousand dshk, the Americans more than 400 thousand Browning, about the production of trucks, radio stations, aviation gasoline, you can not talk in the us in dozens, if not hundreds of times more !!!! and that was 80 years ago. Now we simply do not have the industry. And after all this to our population, even cartoons show how we will erase them into powder, that's where insanity is so insanity !!!!
  • Dmitry V.
    Dmitry V. 6 November 2020 10: 25
    +1
    Yes - this is an impressive project - an example of technology.

    However, the biggest impression was made by the FORD mega-factory, which produces the B-24 Liberator.

    18 aircraft produced
    At peak production in the second half of 1944, two Convair factories, Ford, (Douglas and North American had already stopped production of B-24s by mid-1944) were producing more B-24s every day than 21st La-5 / La-7.
  • Sergey Grishechkin
    Sergey Grishechkin 9 November 2020 14: 58
    0
    In the 60s - 70s he lived in Chukotka, I remember well that at that time ships of this type often came to navigation. In FESCO, they were exploited somewhere until the mid-70s, until they were completely written off ...