Military Review

Burkhard Minich in the service of Russia. The vicissitudes of fate

95
Burkhard Minich in the service of Russia. The vicissitudes of fate

Portrait of Count Minich by G. Buchholz. hermitage Museum


Article Burkhard Munnich. The incredible fate of the Saxon who chose Russia " was told about the European period of the life of this statesman and commander, his service to Russia under Peter I, Catherine I, Anna Ioannovna, the siege of Danzig and campaigns against the Turks, as well as about the palace coup that ended with the arrest of the regent Biron. We ended this story with a message about the conflict between Minich and the new rulers of Russia.

Minich was stripped of all government posts, but his resignation did not save him from the revenge of the "meek Elizabeth" who came to power as a result of another palace coup.

And again, it was not without the participation of the guards. These were no longer the Petrine veterans of Lesnaya and Poltava, but the "praetorians" corrupted by the life of the capital, whom the secretary of the French embassy in Russia Claude Carloman Rulier called "guards, always terrible for their sovereigns" in his notes.


Secretary of the Embassy of France Claude Carloman Ruleur

And the French diplomat Favier wrote about the guards regiments of St. Petersburg at that time:

"A numerous and extremely useless corps ... the janissaries of the Russian Empire, whose garrison is in the capital, where they seem to keep the courtyard in prison."


Russo-Swedish war and Elizabeth's conspiracy


On August 30 (September 10), 1721, the Nishtadt Peace Treaty was signed. Twenty years passed, and in 20 a new Russian-Swedish war began.

Anti-Russian forces, thirsting for revenge and revision of the results of the Northern War, in Sweden have united in a party of "combat hats" (meaning officer hats). The Swedish "hawks" contemptuously called their opponents, who wanted peace, "nightcaps", although they preferred to call themselves "caps" (the hats of the civilian population). As a result, the war party won. The fighting took place on the territory of Finland in 1741-1743, in Sweden this adventure is often called hattarnas ryska krig - "Russian war of hats". It also ended with the victory of Russia: Sweden was forced to confirm the terms of the Nystadt Peace Treaty of 1721, to hand over to Russia the fortress of Nyshlot and the mouth of the Kyumeni River. The commander-in-chief of the Russian army in this war was already familiar to us from the first article, Peter Lassi. But what does the retired Minich have to do with it?

In a narrow circle of supporters of the daughter of Peter I, Elizabeth, a conspiracy has long matured. The conspirators counted primarily on the Preobrazhensky regiment, with whose soldiers Elizabeth strenuously flirted (the company of Transfiguration grenadiers, which took part in the coup, then turned into the Life Campaign, notorious for its unpunished debauchery).


Officer of the Life Campaign in a cavalry garment. Engraving. 1742-1762

Initially, it was supposed to expel the young emperor and his parents (Anna Leopoldovna and Anton Ulrich) from the country. The new emperor was to be another boy - Elizabeth's nephew Karl Peter Ulrich Godstein-Gottorp, and Elizabeth had only to rule Russia on his behalf until he reaches the age of majority. But appetite, as you know, comes with eating. The nephew (future Peter III) from Kiel was summoned, but declared only the heir to the new empress. The juvenile emperor from a rival family of Tsar Ivan Alekseevich spent his entire life in solitary confinement. He was killed while trying to free him according to the instructions drawn up by Catherine II (who set a "record" by being involved in the murder of two legitimate Russian emperors at once).


Tvorozhnikov I. Mirovich in front of the body of Ivan VI

His mother died in Kholmogory after the fifth birth at the age of 28, his father died in 1774, having outlived his son by 10 years.

But let's not get ahead of ourselves - we are back in 1741. Anna Leopoldovna had every chance to remain the Blessed Empress-Ruler (that was her title), and the young John to become the sovereign emperor.


Emperor John Antonovich and his mother, ruler Anna Leopoldovna. Lithography

Elizabeth's position was precarious, the "game" was extremely risky and adventurous, and the government had every reason to arrest her on charges of high treason. Back in the spring of 1741, the English ambassador Finch handed over to Andrei Osterman and Anton-Ulrich a letter from King George II, which literally said the following:

"A large party has formed in Russia, ready to take on weapon for the enthronement of the Grand Duchess Elizabeth Petrovna ... This whole plan was conceived and finally settled between Nolken (the Swedish ambassador) and the agents of the Grand Duchess with the help of the French ambassador, the Marquis de la Chetardie ... All negotiations between them and the Grand Duchess are conducted through the French- a surgeon (Lestok) who has been with her since childhood. "

It was Chetardie who financed the conspiracy, the purpose of which was to destroy the Russian-Austrian alliance and help Sweden by destabilizing the situation in St. Petersburg. This letter from the King of England, oddly enough, did not have any consequences, like other warnings coming to Anna Leopoldovna in considerable numbers. And in November 1741, two events occurred that provoked the conspirators to take immediate action.

On November 23, Anna Leopoldovna presented Elizabeth with a letter from a Russian agent that had come from Silesia. It contained a detailed story about a conspiracy surrounded by the daughter of Peter I and an appeal to immediately arrest the court doctor and adventurer Lestock, through whom Elizabeth was in contact with the ambassadors of France and Sweden and who took money from both.


G.K. Groot. Portrait of Johann Hermann Lestock

Anna Leopoldovna, who was only 22 years old, was not distinguished by either great intelligence or insight. 32-year-old Elizabeth, too, has not yet been called very smart, but she was much more experienced, cunning and more resourceful than her cousin niece. In a long private conversation, she managed to convince the ruler of her innocence.


B. Chorikov. Elizaveta Petrovna and Anna Leopoldovna, engraving

But both the princess and Lestok realized that the danger was very great. And it was already impossible to hesitate. And then, fortunately for them, the very next day (November 24, 1741) the guards regiments of St. Petersburg were ordered to prepare for a march to Finland - for the "war of hats". Anna Leopoldovna hoped in this way to remove the Transfiguration faithful to Elizabeth from the capital, but she was tragically mistaken. The Life Guards of St. Petersburg did not want to fight and were not going to leave the cozy capital brothels and merry taverns. And therefore the conspirators did not have to persuade them for a long time. A total of 308 Transfigurations (they will become the Leib-Campanians under Elizabeth) decided the fate of Russia by capturing the legal juvenile emperor and arresting his parents.


The arrest of Anna Leopoldovna and Anton Ulrich, German engraving

The juvenile emperor John (he was then 1 year and three months old), Elizabeth forbade waking, and an ominous guard stood at his cradle for about an hour. But they did not stand on ceremony with his younger sister Catherine and even dropped her on the floor, from which the girl became deaf forever and grew up mentally retarded.

A close friend of Anna Leopoldovna, Baroness Julia Mengden, was also arrested. Some said that the girls were "too close" friends, and, according to the Swedish diplomat Manderfeld, Anna Ioannovna even ordered a medical examination of Juliana before her niece's wedding in order to determine her gender, which turned out to be female. However, this friendship did not prevent Anna Leopoldovna from getting pregnant regularly, and Juliana to be on excellent terms with her husband, Anton Ulrich.


Juliana Mengden and John Antonovich

In total, Baroness Mengden spent 18 years in captivity and exile, after which she was expelled from the country.

This is how the "merry Elizabeth" came to power. The unfortunate Emperor John "reigned" for only 404 days. The Saxon envoy Petzold said then:

"All Russians recognize that you can do anything with a certain number of grenadiers, a cellar with vodka, and a few bags of gold."



E. Lancere. The Preobrazhensky proclaims Elizabeth Petrovna Empress

Minich was in retirement, but, as a former member of the opposing palace grouping, just in case he was arrested and sentenced to death by quartering.

On January 18, 1742, the convicts, among whom were the recently omnipotent Reingold Gustav Levenvolde (favorite of Catherine I and chief marshal of Anna Leopoldovna) and Andrei Ivanovich Osterman (the closest employee of Peter I, first cabinet minister of Anna Leopoldovna, general-admiral, father of the future chancellor of Russia empire of Ivan Osterman), brought to the scaffold, erected near the building of the twelve colleges. All the eyes of those present were fixed on Munnich. He was the only one clean-shaven and behaved well, having fun talking to the security officer. At the scaffold it was announced about the "mercy" of the new empress: instead of execution, the condemned were sent into eternal exile. Minikh "got" the Ural Pelym (now in the Sverdlovsk region), which even now can be reached only by water.


Singed. Engraving by N. Witsen, 1711

The jail here was built according to the blueprint of Minich himself and was intended for the overthrown by him Biron. Together with the field marshal, anticipating the fate of the Decembrists, his second wife, Barbara Eleanor (Varvara Ivanovna) Saltykova, nee von Maltzan, went.

By the way, in 1773 Emelyan Pugachev was sent to Pelym for attempting a riot, but he escaped safely from there in order to start a full-fledged Peasant War, not a riot. Then two Decembrists were exiled here: Vranitsky and Briggen. The USSR and Russia continued this tradition by organizing a colony-settlement No. 17 here, which was closed in 2013. In 2015, Pelym was completely empty.

Return to Petersburg and Catherine's conspiracy


But back to our hero. In Pelym, Minikh spent 20 years: he was engaged in gardening, raised livestock, taught local children. Only after the death of the "gentle" Elizabeth, he was pardoned by the new emperor Peter III, who restored him in all ranks and ranks and returned the orders to him. At the time of his return to the field marshal was 79 years old, but, according to Rühliere, he "returned from exile with a rare vigor in such years."

In February 1762, Peter appointed Minich a member of the Imperial Council, on June 9 of the same year - also the Siberian governor and chief director of the Ladoga Canal.

But already on June 28, 1762, his own wife, Catherine, spoke out against the legitimate emperor. Unlike many others, Minich remained loyal to Peter III to the end, and if the emperor decided to follow his advice, this strange and incredibly poorly drafted conspiracy would have ended in complete failure and disaster for its participants.

Minich suggested that Peter, taking only 12 grenadiers, go with him to St. Petersburg to appear to the troops and people: no one would dare to publicly arrest the legitimate emperor or shoot him. Most likely, this plan would have worked, because the conspirators deceived everyone, spreading rumors about the death of Peter and even staged a procession with the "coffin of the emperor." And at first, everyone was sure that they were swearing allegiance to Pavel Petrovich, the accession to the throne of the German woman Catherine seemed impossible.

Then Munnich offered to sail to Kronstadt, which was not captured by the revolt, but Peter hesitated, and this strategically important fortress was intercepted from him by Admiral Talyzin, who had participated in the conspiracy.

Minich advised to go to Pomerania to the army of Peter Rumyantsev, loyal to the emperor, and the path was free: there were removable horses and carriages along the Narva tract, the emperor had a yacht and a galley at his disposal, and in Narva or Reval, where they did not know anything about the events in the capital, was to board any ship. The mere news of the movement to the capital of a real combat (and victorious) army led by the best commander of Russia, no doubt, would have thrilled the corrupted garrison of Petersburg. If Catherine and her accomplices had failed to escape, the guards would probably have arrested them themselves and met Peter on their knees.

Finally, the emperor had a completely combat-ready detachment of the Petershtadt garrison: three thousand personally loyal and well-trained soldiers. And, contrary to popular belief, among them were not only the Holsteiners, but also many Russians. But the rioters' soldiers were unreliable: they certainly drank free vodka for the health of "Mother Catherine" with great pleasure, but shooting at the order of a visiting German woman who did not even have the slightest rights to the throne at the "natural emperor" was a completely different matter.

On top of that, not only the rank and file, but also many officers did not understand what was happening: the conspirators used them "in the dark." Jacob Shtelin recalled the arrest of the Holsteinites, whom Peter III forbade to resist:

“The monster Senator Suvorov (the father of Alexander Vasilyevich) shouts to the soldiers:“ Chop the Prussians! ”And wants all the disarmed soldiers to be chopped up.
“Do not be afraid, we will not do anything bad to you; we were deceived, they said that the emperor was dead. "

Seeing a living and healthy Peter at the head of the troops loyal to him, these hussars and soldiers of other units could well go over to his side.

In addition, during a poorly organized drunken march to Oranienbaum, a column of rebel troops stretched out along the road. And the experienced Minich, who stood at the head of Peter's sober and extremely motivated soldiers, would hardly have missed the chance to defeat the mutinous regiments in turn. He was never afraid of blood - neither his own, nor someone else's, and he was determined not to take away.

Rulier reports that, upon learning of Peter's decision to surrender to Catherine, Minich,

"enveloped in indignation, asked him: Does he really not know how to die like the emperor in front of his army? If you are afraid," he continued, "of a saber strike, then take a crucifix in your hands, they will not dare to harm you, and I will command in battle ".

This was discussed in detail in the article Emperor Peter III. Conspiracy.

It was with Minich that Pushkin proudly compared his grandfather:

My grandfather when the mutiny rose
Among the Peterhof courtyard,
As Minich, remained faithful
The fall of Third Peter.

("Pedigree".)

The last years of the hero's life


Minich lived for another five years, continuing to serve Russia. Catherine II deprived him of the post of Siberian governor and a place in the imperial council, but left behind him the leadership of the Ladoga and Kronstadt canals. Then he was instructed to complete the construction of the Baltic port. At the same time, he still found time to write "An Outline of the Management of the Russian Empire", which describes the rulers of Russia from Peter I to Peter III and the peculiarities of their reigns.


Chemesov E.P. Portrait of B. Kh. Minich, 1764

It is curious that it was Minich who was appointed the Supreme Arbiter of a kind of knightly tournament - "Carousel", which took place on June 16, 1766. The courtiers, divided into four teams ("quadrilles") - Slavic, Roman, Indian and Turkish, competed in horse riding, dart throwing, and scarecrow cutting.


Virgilius E. Portrait of Grigory Orlov in costume for the Carousel, Hermitage

Only shortly before his death, he turned to Catherine with a request to resign, but received an answer: "I have no second Minich."

Burchard Christoph Munnich died on October 27, 1767 and was initially buried in the Lutheran Church of Saints Peter and Paul on Nevsky Prospect. However, then his remains were transferred to his estate Lunia, which is located on the territory of present-day Estonia.
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Ryzhov V.A. Burkhard Minich. The incredible fate of the Saxon who chose Russia
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  1. apro
    apro 18 September 2020 05: 21
    +5
    Germans in russia are an inexhaustible topic ... from tsars to doctors. How did the service of the Germans differ from the service of the Russians? gave a chance to realize themselves. the more the Russian tsars did not skimp on it. these were purposeful people. It was easier for a Russian nobleman ... there is always a village where to hide. there is always a relative who will help ...
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 18 September 2020 05: 33
      13
      ... .these were purposeful people. it was easier for the Russian nobleman ... there is always a village where to hide. there is always a relative who will contribute ...
      hi
      It's not the same for everybody. Someone and Ivan Susanin got into fellow travelers! laughing
      Pelym on Remizov's map.

      To the attention of members of the forum, there is still no road to the village! Only water or winter road !!!
      Valeria - thanks !!!
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 18 September 2020 07: 57
        +5
        Here it is worth clarifying that there are two settlements with the name Pelym in the Sverdlovsk region
        1. VLR
          18 September 2020 08: 07
          +7
          Yes. In the place where he was in exile, Minich, the "city-forming enterprise" was a colony. After its closure, the village fell into decay, it seems, no one lives there permanently. During the season, fishermen and hunters come there, using the purchased houses as a base.
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 18 September 2020 11: 20
            +4
            it seems that no one lives there permanently.
            about 80 people, again from Vicky.
        2. Kote Pan Kokhanka
          Kote Pan Kokhanka 18 September 2020 08: 35
          +7
          Quote: 3x3zsave
          Here it is worth clarifying that there are two settlements with the name Pelym in the Sverdlovsk region

          Anton, the roads are dumb to both !!! Only on the tank !!! laughing
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 18 September 2020 09: 20
            +5
            Railway station on the Ivdel-Priobie line. The Serov - Khanty-Mansiysk highway runs 4 km north of the village. (from wiki)
            1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
              Kote Pan Kokhanka 18 September 2020 11: 37
              +7
              Quote: 3x3zsave
              Railway station on the Ivdel-Priobie line. The Serov - Khanty-Mansiysk highway runs 4 km north of the village. (from wiki)

              Anton, are you talking about p.g.t. Pelyme, with a population of more than three thousand people. There is even asphalt there, if memory does not fail on exactly three streets and one square. But there are no normal roads to the village, especially during spring floods, and if there are, then you will not wish the enemy.
              Historical Pelym, today a village. located in the Garinsky district. The population is no more than 100 people, mainly in summer. The colony was nearby, and not in the place of Pelym.
              There are no roads, from the word "in general"!
              But what can I say, I ride on off-road tires to my place in Sergi (300 miles farther south and safer). I had the sad experience of being stuck in the middle of Frunze Street last year.
              Good day!
              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 18 September 2020 11: 40
                +4
                I wrote that there are two Pelymas.
            2. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku 18 September 2020 12: 53
              +7
              Railway station on the Ivdel-Priobie line. The Serov - Khanty-Mansiysk highway runs 4 km north of the village. (from Wiki)

              There was one more "resort" for misguided politicians, only the first half of the XNUMXth century - Berezov. Menshikov, Dolgorukov, Osterman were successively exiled there ... laughing
              1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
                Kote Pan Kokhanka 18 September 2020 19: 24
                +5
                Nikolay, next to me is the village of Pervomaika, before the revolution Gorobovo. At one time there was even the Grobovskaya fortress, just on the Siberian highway. I think there is no point in explaining the toponymy, to discard the Hydronyms near the rivers Staraya Utka, Cheremsha and Gryaznukha! Not surprisingly, I will use acacia in the form of the 1917 revolution, the village was renamed faster than a pig's squeal! By the way, there are two Pervomays only in my area, in the area there are five!
                Garinsky district, where Pelym is located, is one of the most inaccessible in the middle Urals. There is even a saying “there are three holes in the Urals - Shali, Gary, Tabory. But the nature is cool there !!!
                Regards, Vlad!
                1. Pane Kohanku
                  Pane Kohanku 19 September 2020 22: 36
                  +2
                  Garinsky district, where Pelym is located, is one of the most inaccessible in the middle Urals. There is even a saying “there are three holes in the Urals - Shali, Gary, Tabory. But the nature is cool there !!!

                  Vlad, it's really beautiful there. I was not, but I saw the photo. Our country is great and wonderful views! drinks
    2. cost
      cost 18 September 2020 06: 15
      12
      Germans in Russia are an inexhaustible topic ...

      Not every Russian has been honored to be immortalized on the Millennium of Russia Monument, and the figure of Christopher Minich is included among these outstanding people.
      Catherine II said wonderful words about him - "Not being the son of Russia, he was one of her fathers"
      Minich at the Millennium of Russia Monument in Veliky Novgorod. Photo:
      1. cost
        cost 18 September 2020 07: 00
        14
        The personality of Minich is undoubtedly one of the most remarkable figures in Russian history. Of all the so-called Germans of Peter the Great, including among them both those he found in the fatherland and raised by his all-pervasive genius, and the foreigners invited by him to Russia, it is hardly possible to point to a more appropriate meaning of being the successor of the work of a great reformer like Minich. A skilful administrator, a wise statesman, an invincible commander, wherever fate put him, he was everywhere a worthy successor of Peter the Great, for whose memory he retained reverent respect until the grave. Even in his tireless activity and in his boundless hard work, he reminded Peter. Being a foreigner in Russia and a mercenary in the Russian service, he, in his vast mind, could not follow the general prejudice of his fellow Germans, who, entering Russia, considered it a barbaric country, looked at the Russian people as material suitable only for their selfish and ambitious plans. Minich did not cease to belong to the nationality in the depths of which he was born, but, like few natural Russians, he understood all the dignity of the Russian people and served the benefit and interests of Russia honestly, openly and tirelessly.
      2. Astra wild
        Astra wild 18 September 2020 21: 34
        +2
        Dmitry "Rich" agrees with your assessment of Minich. Osterman is already a slightly different type: smart, but his prudence was more likely to prevail
    3. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 18 September 2020 07: 24
      +6
      I think with great professionalism. and a desire to advance in a new homeland.
      There were also enough adventurers and crooks.
      1. apro
        apro 18 September 2020 08: 59
        +3
        Quote: 3x3zsave
        I think with great professionalism. and a desire to advance in a new homeland.
        There were also enough adventurers and crooks.

        There is no doubt ... but constituting a fraction of a percent in the population of the R ... made up 30% of the naval and 10% of the land officers ...
    4. Astra wild
      Astra wild 18 September 2020 21: 27
      +3
      "there is a relative who will contribute" if you take in general, then we (Russians) are characterized by the breadth of nature: to love, to hate, we have it in full breadth.
      Traditionally, there were hotheads among the people who were ready to oppose the authorities (anyone) and there are always those who will sympathize with them.
      The Germans are more petty and disciplined. Among them there are fewer "hotheads" "and very, very few people openly sympathize with the rebel. Therefore, the tsars preferred to rely on the Germans.
  2. Van 16
    Van 16 18 September 2020 05: 35
    +8
    Very interesting, thanks. Reading history once again is never harmful.
    If I am not mistaken, in some of his books Bushkov called Minich, very respectfully, the Tin Woodman.
  3. Lester7777
    Lester7777 18 September 2020 06: 21
    +5
    He was a tough man. Very strong.
  4. cost
    cost 18 September 2020 06: 42
    10
    It is curious that it was Minich who was appointed the Supreme Arbiter of a kind of knightly tournament - "Carousel", which took place on June 16, 1766. The courtiers, divided into four teams ("quadrilles") - Slavic, Roman, Indian and Turkish, competed in horse riding, throwing darts, and chopping stuffed animals

    Valery, what a pity that you stopped at this and did not finish the main thing - namely, Minich's speech. I do not even doubt that you are well aware of it. Let me bring her
    At the end of the knightly games, he said in French to the gentlemen and ladies:
    "I am the oldest field marshal in Europe, I have been in the service for sixty-five years; I have led the glorious Russian army to victories, I consider these moments the most precious reward in my life, and I am grateful to God that fate linked me with the service of Great Russia. I am proud that the choice of the empress to be the judge of your brilliant exploits fell on me, noble ladies and gentlemen! "

    He presented the first prize to Countess Chernysheva and gave her prizes for distribution to others.
    1. cost
      cost 18 September 2020 06: 46
      +9
      Only shortly before his death, he turned to Catherine with a request to resign, but received an answer: "I have no second Minich."

      in this request he compared himself with the Verzen, whom King David reluctantly let go of himself (Kings II, ch. XIX, v. 34):
      "My taste is not seduced by feasts, the voices of singers and singers no longer captivate my hearing. Why will your servant be a burden to his king! Allow, most merciful Empress, your servant to return and die at the grave of his father and mother."

      To which he received the famous answer of Catherine
      1. cost
        cost 18 September 2020 06: 53
        +8
        But this answer and sent by the Empress to Munnich for acquaintance, so that the elder, having read it, would tell her his opinions, the New Code of Laws - "Mandate" found Minich on his deathbed. He fell ill with febrile seizures and stabbing in the side. After two weeks he began to recover. Four days before his death, he wrote to Oldenburg that he was ill, but the illness was already passing, and he hoped that soon his strength would completely recover. But after relief from the disease, his strength suddenly began to disappear, and Minich died on October 16, 1767, having lived 84 years, 5 months and 6 days.
        1. cost
          cost 18 September 2020 06: 54
          +9
          His desire to be buried in the Oldenburg family tomb was not fulfilled. His body was first laid in the church of St. Peter in St. Petersburg, as the builder and benefactor of this church, and then it was taken to Livland in its scanty Lunia, not far from Derpt, and there was buried. His wife survived him. After him, four children remained: a son and three daughters, all from his first marriage. Each of the children had not only children, but already grandchildren, so that the elder, who was freed from his sad confinement, spent his last days as an Old Testament patriarch among his young offspring.
          1. cost
            cost 18 September 2020 07: 09
            11
            To everyone who is interested in this wonderful series of articles by Valery, I recommend reading Minich Burkhard Christopher "Notes of Field Marshal Count Minich"
            Edited by: S.N. Shubinsky
            Publisher: Type. Bezobrazova and comp.
            Place of publication: St. Petersburg.
            Год издания: 1874
            Number of Pages: 434 s.

            link for free download in different formats: https://runivers.ru/lib/book4482/53779/
  5. 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 18 September 2020 07: 27
    +9
    A man of amazing fate and thirst for life, 20 years of exile did not break the will to work!
    Thank you, Valery!
    1. cost
      cost 18 September 2020 08: 00
      11
      a curious fact. When creating the Military Gallery of the Winter Palace, the English artist Dow used the works of the famous Russian artist V.A.Tropinin as iconographic material, whose brush captured a number of heroes-victors of the Patriotic War.
      V. A. Tropinin "The Lacemaker" 1823 Tretyakov Gallery, Moscow.

      V. A. Tropinin Portrait of A. S. Pushkin.1827g.

      How did Tropinin's work end up in the comments to the article about Minich? Very simple. Vasily Andreevich Tropinin was a serf Minikhov -. Countess Natalya Antonovna Morkova, nee Countess Minich (daughter of Count Anton Sergeevich Minich (grandson of B. Kh. Minich) and his wife Vera Ivanovna Choglokova).
      V.A.Tropinin. Family portrait of Counts Morkov, 1813 city

      With the money of the spouses Morkovs, Tropinin studied at the Imperial Academy of Arts, and in May 1823 received a free diploma as an Easter gift.
  6. cost
    cost 18 September 2020 08: 10
    11
    Great article. There is absolutely nothing to add to the author's text. Valery revealed everything. good
    Thanks to the Author for a wonderful series of articles about the now undeservedly forgotten great figure of Russian history
  7. Olgovich
    Olgovich 18 September 2020 09: 35
    -3
    32-year-old Elizabeth is also very smart nobody haven't named yet


    Historians were called much more authoritative than the author of such statements:
    Historian Klyuchevsky:
    "Elizabeth was SMART and kind "

    Preobrazhensky regiment, with whose soldiers Elizabeth flirted intensely
    Peter's Glorious Guard all many years opals of Elizabeth ITSELF supported her own daughter Peter in every possible way, seeing how the temporary workers destroyed everything that was created by Peter and in the hope of restoring his traditions

    Elizabeth, daughter who ruled The Emperor and Empress of Russia, had much more rights to the throne than some already ... seedy grand-nephew of Anna Ioanovna, whose parents themselves had never been.
    in 1741. Anna Leopoldovna had every chance to remain the Blessed Empress-Ruler (this was her title), and the minor John to become sovereign emperor.

    Emperor ... imbecile? The prospect is "good".
    But they did not stand on ceremony with his younger sister Catherine and even dropped her on the floor, from which the girl became deaf forever and grew up mentally retarded.

    Yes, in that family, EVERYONE, it turns out, was dropped on the floor:
    “King John was by nature grieving in his head. Of the deceased's three daughters, each inherited many of the traits of her parent's weak mind ... "
    The same was written about all the children of Anna Leopoldovna.
    would hardly miss

    If

    conspiracy would end

    "Woulds" cost nothing.

    And the natural and necessary ascent of the Great Catherine took place.
    1. Astra wild
      Astra wild 18 September 2020 21: 51
      +1
      Olgovich, and I agree with you in part: Elizabeth had more rights than Anna Ioanovna, because the "leafy" order of inheritance was canceled, and even more so with Anna Leopoldovna.
      1. Senior seaman
        Senior seaman 20 September 2020 23: 12
        +2
        Quote: Astra wild
        Elizabeth had more rights than Anna Ioanovna

        Why did it happen?
        Anna is the legitimate daughter of the eldest of the brothers, who was a completely legitimate king. Elizabeth is a bastard who survived before marriage.
        1. Astra wild
          Astra wild 22 September 2020 13: 42
          0
          I beg your pardon, I confused the middle name: instead of Leopoldovna, I stuck in Ioanovna.
          Regarding the "bastard" look at my answer-opinion to Mikhail "Trilobite"
          1. Senior seaman
            Senior seaman 23 September 2020 10: 51
            0
            In vain you tried to stick her (Leopoldovna) :))) She never claimed the throne, only regency.
            Your answer to your colleague Trilobite ... is kind of mild ... emotional, but illiterate.
            The fact is that at the time of the events described in the article, the cathedral code of 1649 is in force, and in it illegitimate children are referred to in no other way as "you ..." I cannot write in full, for they will be banned. (I'm not kidding, this is a legal term of those years) And the possibility for such a person to inherit any property is not provided from the word at all. The father could have been any boyar, but his son from a servant would have been recorded as a servant.
            From the point of view of the Orthodox Church, the subsequent wedding also did not make such children legal in any way.
            Yes, Peter retroactively recognized his children from Martha Skavronskaya, but he also issued a decree according to which the reigning emperor could arbitrarily appoint an heir for himself. And Anna Ioannovna appointed her grand-nephew Ioann Antonovich as such.
            1. Astra wild
              Astra wild 23 September 2020 13: 52
              +1
              I am not a professional historian. However, historians also grind such that there is no gate. We also have these on our website.
              Regarding the Cathedral Attachment, I know there was a similar term. Perhaps you will again talk about complete illiteracy, but formally and in fact, there are 2 big differences. I read somewhere that some of the Code of Councils are not formally canceled today. Peter, roughly speaking, turned the Cathedral Regulations as he wanted, which means that in the army, of two mutually exclusive orders, they use the last one. To be honest, I don't remember the full wording, but I remember the essence. So it is with legislation in the Petrine period.
              Last summer in "Rodina" was interesting work about Sophia Alekseevna and Peter the Great. The point is that even without Peter, Russia would have followed the path of transformation, but without such sacrifices. They listed examples of legal limitlessness and what it led to
              1. Senior seaman
                Senior seaman 23 September 2020 16: 19
                +1
                Quote: Astra wild
                However, historians also grind such that there is no gate. We also have these on our website.

                Historians are people too :)))
                Quote: Astra wild
                which means, as in the army, of two mutually exclusive orders, the latter is used.

                The last one in this case is the decree of Anna Ioannovna :))))
                Quote: Astra wild
                The meaning is that even without Peter, Russia would have followed the path of transformation

                Right.
                Quote: Astra wild
                but without such sacrifices

                Although this is possible, it is not at all necessary.
                Quote: Astra wild
                They listed examples of legal limitlessness and what it led to

                Rest assured, the conditional anti-Peter would make his mistakes. Perhaps even more bloody.
                1. Astra wild
                  Astra wild 23 September 2020 19: 56
                  +1
                  The sailor, it seems Ivan, cannot argue with the last statement.
                  "Antipetr" ie Sofya Alekseevna and her Galant Vasily Golitsin. Or Tsarevich Alexei. I don’t remember others, probably, and you will not name.
                  Do you remember the novel by Alexei Tolstoy "Peter 1" scene when Ivashka Brovkin warned Romadanovsky about the rebellion of the archers?
                  Suppose "Brovkin" slept, could the archers free Sophia? I think yes. Then there would be a picture: "The morning of a soldier's execution".?
                  You know history better and the question is: could this have resulted in a "new turmoil"?
                  1. Senior seaman
                    Senior seaman 23 September 2020 21: 46
                    0
                    You understand what's the matter. Whatever Peter does, for a domestic-style patriarchal Russia he is much less of a shock to the foundations than a girl on the throne. This is the first thing.
                    Tolstoy's novel is still a work of art. Before escaping to Trinity, it was the archers who warned Peter about the danger. And during the riot of 1896, out of more than one and a half dozen Moscow rifle regiments, only four rebelled, and even then not in full force. This is the second.
                    So the new Troubles is unlikely.
                    By the way, the connection between Queen Sophia and Prince Vasily Golitsyn, to put it mildly, has not been proven and, most likely, was invented by the supporters of Peter.
    2. Astra wild
      Astra wild 18 September 2020 21: 52
      +1
      If we compare Catherine II and her predecessors - heaven and earth
  8. Pane Kohanku
    Pane Kohanku 18 September 2020 11: 42
    +9
    Virgilius E. Portrait of Grigory Orlov in costume for the Carousel, Hermitage

    An interesting action that few people know about! good
    The Empress appointed Prince P.I.Repnin as the steward of the carousel, who repeatedly observed these colorful actions abroad. The prince developed and presented to Catherine II a detailed plan called "Description of the carousel". The plan was approved by the Empress on May 25, 1765, and preparations began.
    Here is a link, for anyone interested - read it! drinks
    © https://peterburg.center/story/interesnye-fakty-iz-istorii-goroda-na-neve-peterburgskaya-karusel-i-karuseli-v-rossii.html#Peterburgskaya_Karusel%60_1766_goda

    Grigory's brother Aleksey Orlov also took part in the Carousel.

    V. Eriksen. Portrait of AG Orlov. GE. 1766. Graf is depicted in the costume of the chief (leader) of the Turkish quadrille, in which he performed on that year on the famous court carousel. Photo: State Hermitage Museum
    In 1766, the weather was favorable for the carousel, and on June 16 Petersburgers began to flock to Palace Square. According to Antonio Rinaldi's design, a five-tiered wooden amphitheater for several thousand spectators with separate boxes for Catherine II and the twelve-year-old Grand Duke Pavel Petrovich was built on the square, which at that time was a meadow overgrown with grass.

    The key architect of the 60-70s is Rinaldi! Significant surname. I managed to set up a lot of things in St. Petersburg and the surrounding area. Including the Gatchina Palace, which was later rebuilt by the already unclean thief Brenna. hi
    The carousel made a great impression on Paul. After becoming emperor, he arranged them in his residence - Gatchina. The schedule of the action was worked out in writing and approved by the king.

    In the future, similar carousels were arranged many times, not only in St. Petersburg, but also in Moscow. Under Paul I, carousels were held in Gatchina, where a stationary amphitheater with sod benches was built. The ramparts left from it can still be seen in the Gatchina park.
    The author of this unique park structure was a talented architect, as well as a musician, poet N. A. Lvov, who built another earthly building in Gatchina - the Priory Palace. In the Kushelev albums with plans and projects for Gatchina in 1798, which are kept in the palace-museum, there is a project of this amphitheater.
    On the project, executed in color with watercolors, you can see the Amphitheater as it should have been: with green turf benches along the shaft, statues, vases, lamps, with forged gates and the monogram of Paul I, with green trellises made of shorn bushes along the top of the shaft ...
    Unlike ancient amphitheaters, in which gladiator fights and animal shows were held, Gatchina was intended for knightly carousels - equestrian competitions or the performance of various figures on horses.
  9. Pane Kohanku
    Pane Kohanku 18 September 2020 12: 16
    +9
    Finally, the emperor had a completely combat-ready detachment of the Petershtadt garrison: three thousand personally loyal and well-trained soldiers. And, contrary to popular belief, among them were not only the Holsteiners, but also many Russians. But the rioters' soldiers were unreliable: they certainly drank free vodka for the health of "Mother Catherine" with great pleasure, but shooting at the order of a visiting German woman who did not even have the slightest rights to the throne at the "natural emperor" was a completely different matter.

    Munnich spoke of the Holsteins like this: “This is true news to me; I could never achieve this. " But, apparently, this is about drill training.
    On top of that, not only the rank and file, but also many officers did not understand what was happening: the conspirators used them "in the dark." Jacob Shtelin recalled the arrest of the Holsteinites, whom Peter III forbade to resist:
    “The monster Senator Suvorov (the father of Alexander Vasilyevich) shouts to the soldiers:“ Chop the Prussians! ”And wants all the disarmed soldiers to be chopped up.
    “Do not be afraid, we will not do anything bad to you; we were deceived, they said that the emperor was dead. "

    True truth. The daddy of the future generalissimo at the head of the detachment of hussars loomed behind the backs of Izmailov and Orlov, accepting the abdication of Peter III. The swords were taken from the Holstein officers. Note - that the Holstein, that the Prussian, everything was perceived as one. You shouldn't have pissed off the guards! laughing
    Stehlin also reported that most of the Holsteins later died. When they were deported to Germany, they were put on dilapidated transports, a storm broke out near Reval ... In general, 30-50 people swam out and survived. request
    In detail:
    https://topwar.ru/158768-petershtadt-broshennaja-igrushka-petra-iii.html
  10. Pane Kohanku
    Pane Kohanku 18 September 2020 12: 18
    +7
    The arrest of Anna Leopoldovna and Anton Ulrich, German engraving


    Valery, I bow again for the pleasant "little things". drinks Elizabeth is holding a "status officer's spear" - an esponton.
  11. Trilobite Master
    Trilobite Master 18 September 2020 12: 32
    +8
    You can relate differently to Empresses Elizabeth and Catherine, but it should be admitted that there were no alternatives to them, unfortunately, or fortunately (as anyone). Anna Leopoldovna and her husband, like Peter III, had time to consolidate their power, and, of course, there were opportunities to keep it during the coups. Do we see from their side distinct attempts to retain power? Not.
    Of all the political figures that existed in the Russian Empire, that Elizabeth, that Catherine, apparently, were better suited to rule than others, that's all. There was no one better at that time. In general, the results of their rule can be considered quite satisfactory. Whether to be considered outstanding - here you can argue, but satisfactory, in my opinion - definitely. smile
    This I mean that you should not feel sorry for those who lost the struggle for power. They were hardly better than those who won it.
    About Minich.
    Man has lived a decent life. To the one to whom he swore he served honestly and faithfully. He brought no small benefit to his ministry, even though he was a German. smile It is not clear why Elizaveta did not believe him, it seems that she had to understand people, but here such a frame as Minikh has been rotting in prison for twenty years ... it is not clear. I would have sworn allegiance to Mother Empress and would have served, I would have continued to bring benefits.
    Maybe he blurted out something wrong, or spoke inadvertently about the future empress, something like that, personal, but she couldn't forgive because of her “feminine nature”, but one way or another, twenty years of service was lost, although Elizabeth Minich was not an enemy , and in general, politics, it seems, was not fond of.
    1. Pane Kohanku
      Pane Kohanku 18 September 2020 13: 04
      +6
      It is not clear why Elizaveta did not believe him, it seems that she had to understand people, but here such a frame as Minikh has been rotting in prison for twenty years ... it is not clear. I would have sworn allegiance to Mother Empress and would have served, I would have continued to bring benefits.

      It would have turned out to be a very dangerous competent military leader with dubious loyalty with a living, albeit isolated, "heir"! request
      1. Trilobite Master
        Trilobite Master 18 September 2020 13: 55
        +7
        Quote: Pane Kohanku
        It would turn out to be a very dangerous competent military leader

        Why immediately a military leader? He could quite successfully prove himself in the civil service.
        For myself, I can explain this situation as follows.
        Personally, it seems to me that Minich was from that breed of people for whom the oath is not an empty phrase. Based on this assumption, I just thought: maybe he just openly refused to swear allegiance to Elizabeth? I believe that after the death of Anna Ioannovna he could and should have sworn allegiance to Anna Leopoldovna. Accordingly, while she was alive, he had to refuse to swear allegiance to Elizabeth as a man of honor. And only after the death of Anna Leopoldovna was he ready to show loyalty to Elizabeth (it seems that from exile he asked to return to the service several times), but she had already decided everything for herself and did not want to change it. Or they simply did not report to her about Minich's letters. smile
        After the death of Elizabeth, the whole country swore allegiance to Peter III, apparently Minich too. Peter's death freed him from this oath and he could continue to serve Catherine with a clear conscience.
        A somewhat romantic, but quite possible construction, in my opinion. smile
        Now experts of this period of history will come and from my "theory" they will not leave a stone unturned, proving once or twice with quotes and references to sources that everything was completely different. smile
        Dear, I can't even dream up? smile
        It will take great pleasure for me to examine your proofs. Well, if I argue where, then only in this way, as a warm-up, so that you do not lose shape. smile
        1. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku 18 September 2020 14: 13
          +6
          Based on this assumption, I just thought: maybe he just openly refused to swear allegiance to Elizabeth? I believe that after the death of Anna Ioannovna he could and should have sworn allegiance to Anna Leopoldovna. Accordingly, while she was alive, he had to refuse to swear allegiance to Elizabeth as a man of honor. And only after the death of Anna Leopoldovna was he ready to show loyalty to Elizabeth (it seems that from exile he asked to return to the service several times), but she had already decided everything for herself and did not want to change it.

          You just listed santa barbara's succession to the throne in the XNUMXth century. It's just darkness, to be honest. negative The merits of Pavel Petrovich include the fact that he, who almost lost the throne himself, settled this issue with the "Act of Succession". The act listed only his, Paul's, children; it can be considered that this is a document of precedent nature, but, apparently, it was then used by analogy. hi Apart from the strange behavior of Konstantin Pavlovich on the eve of the Decembrist uprising, there were no more questions with who to occupy the throne ... soldier
          On the other hand, Catherine can be somewhat grateful that Pavel was sitting out in Gatchina, so as not to see his mother.laughing For in the society of his wife, he "did" so much that, for sure, the question of heirs would no longer arise! fellow
          1. The comment was deleted.
            1. Trilobite Master
              Trilobite Master 18 September 2020 16: 32
              +7
              I have long concluded that Paul the First is your favorite historical character, Nikolai. smile
              The choice, in general, is a good one, I believe - the actions and decisions of Paul are often so contradictory and unexpected that it will not be possible to interpret them somehow unambiguously, no matter how hard you try, which means that there is always something to discuss and argue about. What can I say, if even the most general assessment of his reign and personality ranges from "imbecile hysterical" to "invaluable genius". smile
              For me, he sorely lacked perseverance and consistency, and this was his main weakness, which in the end ruined him.
              As for the mess with the succession to the throne in post-Petrine times, in fact everything is very simple there and, as strange as it may seem, practically (but not entirely) in full accordance with Paul's decree - in accordance with the principle of the birthright.
              The common ancestor of all participants in the Sabbath is Alexei Mikhailovich.
              Of his children, two reigned - the elder Ivan, who left two daughters, and the younger Peter, from whom there were also two daughters and the grandson Peter (Peter II), the direct male heir.
              When Peter II died, there were no men left in the family and it was the turn of the girls. Let me remind you, there were four of them: two from the elder Ivan - Ekaterina and Anna and two from the younger Peter - Anna and Elizabeth, but the last two were bastards. If they were legal, they would become heirs of the first order, like the legitimate children of the last emperor, but this does not work.
              So, we unscrew the birthright back to Alexei Mikhailovich and here Catherine and Anna Ioannovna, the daughters of his eldest son Ivan (legitimate), come out on top. Catherine is not allowed - she is married to a Protestant, he does not want to be re-baptized. So Anna.
              After the death of childless Anna, Catherine's offspring came to the fore among the heirs, and there the picture is as follows: Catherine herself died, but there is her Orthodox daughter Anna Leopoldovna and grandson John. Anna cannot be crowned - she is also married to a Protestant, there remains a grandson - John VI.
              Elizabeth's accession to the throne, of course, is completely illegal, although at the time of the coup she was already the next contender for the crown by law, since her older sister Anna Petrovna was married to a Protestant, and Anna Leopoldovna had no other children. If the infant Ivan died before his brother or sister was born, Elizabeth would inherit the crown by law. What to do, although he is a bastard, there are no others. But she did not want to wait, and one way or another, it, her accession, took place and then the throne passes exclusively to the descendants of Peter. Peter III is just the son of Anna Petrovna, Elizabeth's sister.
              Those. it turns out that at first all men in the family reigned, then women - the descendants of Ivan V, the elder brother of Peter I, then came the turn of the descendants of Peter himself, his bastards. Elizabeth only slightly moved this line forward - one point in total. And the discrepancy with the act of Paul's succession to the throne is only in this "smallness" - Elizabeth's accession to the throne is slightly out of turn. smile
              Coincidence? I do not think. laughing
              I am quite sure that Paul simply formulated the rules of succession that were well known and established before him. And, most importantly, it was necessary to officially cancel the decree on the succession of Peter I of 1722, although, by and large, it did not actually work, only formally.
              1. VLR
                18 September 2020 18: 06
                +8
                Yes, the fact of the matter is that Elizabeth is an illegitimate daughter, born of a metressa, and received the title of crown princess "retroactively." On legal grounds, she had practically no chance of becoming an empress. Moreover, Anna Leopoldovna did not limit herself to the birth of one child, and at the time of the coup she already had two children. And Elizabeth's chances were very slim. Therefore, Minich did not seriously consider her as a contender for the throne. And so Elizabeth had to take money from de la Chtardie, follow the advice of the clever adventurer Lestock (who was the real head and creator of the conspiracy) and use the Transfiguration.
                1. Trilobite Master
                  Trilobite Master 18 September 2020 19: 38
                  +5
                  Quote: VlR
                  at the time of the coup, she already had two children.

                  Yes indeed. Ekaterina Antonovna was six months old. Well, the more reason Elizabeth had to act.
                  Personally, I don't think she was in any way wrong. Power is a thing that must be fought for and must be protected. If power is defenseless, it is not power, no matter how legal and legitimate it is. Chetardie and Lestok helped her? Yes, please, as much as you like. Did everyone act in their own interests? So there they were all, with very few exceptions. Here, Minich, maybe. smile For twenty years Empress Elizabeth ruled, ruled for a solid "offset", brought up good "eagles" for Catherine (I did not mean the Orlov brothers now repeat ), in general, well done.
                  And stay on the throne of John VI - who knows what would have grown out of him. His great-grandfather was not quite successful to say, and his father was somehow ... strange.
                  In general, I think that genetically Martha Skavronskaya saved the dynasty. Otherwise, everyone would have degenerated much earlier. Look what cheerful children have gone from her. smile
                  1. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 18 September 2020 20: 20
                    +4
                    In general, I think that genetically Martha Skavronskaya saved the dynasty. Otherwise, everyone would have degenerated much earlier. Look what cheerful children have gone from her.
                    Duc, Alexei Petrovich was also, the guy is a bad guy! Only Peter pushed him into a far corner, in the light of the appearance of a fertile mistress.
                    1. Trilobite Master
                      Trilobite Master 18 September 2020 22: 02
                      +3
                      Quote: 3x3zsave
                      in the light of the emergence of a fertile mistress

                      Well, here my son is to blame, I think. Martha, although she was apparently chock-full of raisins, could hardly have done anything if Alexei had been his father's assistant, ally and sincerely wanted to continue his work.
                      I understand Peter in this regard - the peasant has been buried all his life to become the ruler of a country that is not ashamed of, which would be respected in the world in which it exists, and his son publicly and repeatedly expressed his intentions to do everything "as it was." So when Martha's son was born, the fate of the unlucky offspring was decided. The decree on succession to the throne and ... and, just in case, so that without options, to eliminate the main obstacle to all plans and accomplishments.
                      Is it cruel? Probably. But science to all disobedient offspring. smile
                      1. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 18 September 2020 22: 11
                        +4
                        Quite a few copies have already been broken about Alexei's role in supporting his father's undertakings, however, I am inclined to think that initially, with the advent of Martha, the conflict happened at the level of “stepmother-stepson”.
              2. Pane Kohanku
                Pane Kohanku 19 September 2020 22: 35
                +2
                I have long concluded that Paul the First is your favorite historical character, Nikolai.

                Mikhail, do you know what the overwhelming majority of us, "our belching", are distinguished? We love everything non-standard and little-known. I chose Pavel for myself. And the point is not that he was somehow slandered and so on. Paul must be understood not as a sovereign, but as a person! stop Too much overlapped in his personality, one on top of the other, to get a tsar, to whom, to put it mildly, page-sized labels in official historiography were stuck for two hundred years. And that's it! And there ... everything was much more interesting! hi
                When Peter II died, there were no men left in the family and it was the turn of the girls.

                Exactly! And it was Pavel Petrovich who made the wealth of "men" in the family! drinks
        2. VLR
          18 September 2020 14: 28
          10
          Yes, you are right, a personal motive was of great importance: "Elizabeth, a meek heart," was very vindictive, and Minich did not see her as a contender for the throne, and treated her with condescension and disdain. On the other hand, Elizabeth all her life was afraid of a new palace coup - she never slept for two nights in a row in the same room - and here Minich, who had already tried it once, and succeeded. But there was nothing to show the field marshal - he was sitting quietly in retirement, not bothering anyone. And then he was accused of embezzlement. At the same time, the chairman of the court, Nikita Trubetskoy, was himself a real embezzler and during the Turkish war he plundered funds intended for the purchase of provisions and weapons. But Minich for some reason took pity on him and did not give him up to the tribunal. And at the trial he told Trubetskoy in the presence of Elizabeth that he was ready to give an answer to God for his actions, but he only regrets that he did not hang Trubetskoy for his embezzlement. Elizabeth realized that the case was bad with the evidence, the process was dragging on, she ordered the investigation to be terminated: she simply signed the verdict - they say, I'm an autocratic queen, or not? Whom I want to be executed, whom I want - sweet.
    2. Astra wild
      Astra wild 21 September 2020 12: 38
      0
      Mikhail, "Trilobite", although belatedly, I will answer.
      Concerning Catherine, I agree unconditionally: she was mentally superior to her husband many times over.
      I try to be incessant, but it turns out badly: I try, if not to justify, then to understand it. She appeals to me.
      It is more difficult with Elizabeth: I'm not sure that Yelezaveta Petrovna was much smarter than Anna Leopoldovna, but she had trump cards: legitimacy - "Peter's daughter".
      "Thieves" always annoy people. If V.V.'s entourage consisted of foreign adventurers, then imagine how the people were seething. And Elizaveta is Russian and means good.
      I doubt the discernment
      1. Trilobite Master
        Trilobite Master 21 September 2020 14: 16
        0
        Quote: Astra wild
        she had trump cards: legitimacy - "Daughter of Peter"

        It was precisely this trump that she did not have.
        Bastard, conceived and born out of wedlock. Who else's attitude to Peter and his transformations was far from as unambiguous as it may seem now. Many considered him the antichrist, so Elizabeth's lineage itself played rather against her.
        It seems to me that two factors played the main role in the coup, which I would call the main reasons for such an easy and bloodless coup. The first is the personal charm of Elizabeth, who managed to enlist the support not only of the guards, but also of many state dignitaries who faithfully served her after her accession. The second is the catastrophic unpopularity of Anna Leopoldovna's husband, Anton Ulrich, and, in general, the dominance of "Germans" at court. Roughly speaking, Minikh and Osterman are against Shuvalov and Razumovsky - who will be supported by the guard, which consists of small-scale Russian noblemen?
        Elizabeth was not at all a frivolous fool. She very deftly managed to surround herself with people loyal only to her (who did not get along with each other) and create and maintain a balance of power, allowing these people to put together two counterbalance groups at court (conditionally, Austro-British and Franco-Prussian). At the same time, Elizabeth did not allow bias to one of the parties and, thus, remained their only arbiter.
        And, of course, she did not forget to use all the pleasures available in her position as empress, which in itself, it seems to me, cannot be blamed on her, since with the rest of her duties she (or someone else authorized by her ) coped quite well.
        1. Astra wild
          Astra wild 21 September 2020 20: 26
          0
          Mikhail, of course I'm against you, a kitten, but a kitten can scratch too.
          "Bastard, conceived and born out of wedlock" is actually a masculine bastard, but this is so in passing. I read somewhere that Peter ardently wanted to declare his daughters illegitimate, but he did not do this and was married to Catherine, and if so, formally, Yelezaveta Petrovna is legitimate.
          Even Anna Ioanovna, albeit formally, recognized her as legal. In this case, the then "society" is obliged, though formally, to recognize the legitimacy of Elizabeth, and what they will whisper about at home does not matter.
          In the eyes of the people, it is legitimate. The elite have never INTERESTED or INTERESTED in the opinion of the people!
          "Many considered him the Antichrist." Peter 1 died in January 1725, and Yelezaveta Petrovna seized power in 1741 during this time the "society" had time to get used to Peter's reforms and even condemning the current morals to regret the Peter's times. Remember, von Wieden: "Minor" - Starodumov. True, this is a later era, but the essence does not change. This is how a person is arranged that the bad is forgotten, but the good is remembered. Remember, jokes about Brezhnev: "an ordinary politician of the times of Alla Pugacheva", and now this period is remembered with nostalgia. Perhaps V.V. will be remembered like that. A man lives in the next doorway, he likes to "relax" (only with "home" liqueur), from Sverdlovsk. He claims that many there are quietly proud that B. N's fellow countrymen, he alone thought about the people: "postponing the holidays" and long weekends in May and January. Even convinced communists enjoy these holidays
          "the dominance of" Germans "at court" You yourself recognized this trump card of Elizabeth.
          I agree: Elizabeth managed to balance between "white" and "colored" (flag colors), and this is an indicator of intelligence
          1. Trilobite Master
            Trilobite Master 21 September 2020 21: 38
            +1
            Vera, in those days even a legalized bastard - this concept is applicable to both men and women, there is no word "bastard" smile - could certainly claim only the property of the father or mother, and titles - only in the absence of legal heirs and, as a rule, with the highest permission. So even the recognized bastards were not on the same level with their legal heirs. Since you are referring to fiction, remember the film "Midshipmen, Forward" by Nikita Olenev. He was able to claim the title of father only after the death of his half-brother, who did not have time to leave heirs. I don’t remember whether this death was mentioned in the film, but Sorotokina’s book definitely said about it. At the time of the coup, Elizabeth, as Valery rightly pointed out to me, was the third in the line of heirs, after Ivan and Ekaterina Antonovich, and every child born to Anna Leopoldovna would have pushed her even further away from the throne.
            Only fifteen years elapsed from the death of Peter to the accession of Elizabeth. This period is not at all long for that society. Of course, much during the reign of Peter himself managed to change, many of his undertakings had already taken root, but these changes mainly concerned the nobility and aristocracy, the people remained a people and the further from the capital, the stronger the traditional way of life in society was. So this argument in favor of Elizabeth is also not absolute, although she managed to play this card competently.
            In general, I see no subject for a dispute in our case with you.
            The legality of her claims to the throne at the time of the coup is more than doubtful, but she managed to turn all the other moments to her advantage.
            1. Astra wild
              Astra wild 22 September 2020 14: 11
              +1
              In general, I did not argue with you, but I expressed my opinion
  12. Pane Kohanku
    Pane Kohanku 18 September 2020 13: 10
    +6
    B. Chorikov. Elizaveta Petrovna and Anna Leopoldovna, engraving


    And here the artist was mistaken! wink It takes place in 1741. What's in the hands of the officers? Partizans. yes However, they were replaced by espontons ten years earlier! drinks
    Although there is an opinion that they were not used at all then:
    In 1732, the halberds for fourier and sergeants became uniform, and officers were ordered to replace the espantons with rifles. But already in 1734 non-commissioned officer halberds were canceled altogether.
    http://army.armor.kiev.ua/forma/alebarda.shtml
  13. Catfish
    Catfish 18 September 2020 16: 31
    +7
    "All Russians recognize that you can do anything with a certain number of grenadiers, a cellar with vodka, and a few bags of gold."


    Looking out the window, we can conclude that nothing is changing in Russia. request

    Thank you very much Valery, I studied it with real interest. good
    1. Korsar4
      Korsar4 18 September 2020 20: 20
      +3
      A picture of either Russia or Tortuga. The only difference is that outside the window is a birch or a palm tree.
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 18 September 2020 20: 24
        +3
        Also in the color of the skin of the one who is pulled up on this tree. laughing
        Hello, Sergey. drinks
        1. Korsar4
          Korsar4 18 September 2020 20: 31
          +3
          Some nerdy botanists would even say that the palm is grass.

          The main thing, probably, is how strong the branch on which it is pulled up is.
          However, the selection could come out quite good.

          And you won't forget Prince Igor with two birches either.
          1. Catfish
            Catfish 18 September 2020 20: 50
            +4
            How not to remember "Sisyphus and Death":
            "- The Hanged Men hang out on ropes and amuse passers-by with their jokes!" laughing
            1. Korsar4
              Korsar4 18 September 2020 20: 56
              +3
              “Three villains were hauled onto a yard.
              But not enough. Four were needed ”(c).
              1. Catfish
                Catfish 18 September 2020 21: 03
                +4
                And then:
                "One hundred villains are captured,
                And Magomayev sings in KVN. "(C)
                1. Korsar4
                  Korsar4 18 September 2020 21: 23
                  +4
                  "Georges is a road,
                  Richard, however, did not ”(c).
                  1. Catfish
                    Catfish 18 September 2020 21: 47
                    +4
                    "Two TVs - twist and twist!" (C)
                    1. Pane Kohanku
                      Pane Kohanku 19 September 2020 23: 31
                      +2
                      "Two TVs - twist and twist!"

                      You know how to shock, Uncle Kostya! good drinks
          2. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 18 September 2020 21: 25
            +4
            Some nerdy botanists would even say that the palm is grass.
            And would you be right !!!
            1. Korsar4
              Korsar4 18 September 2020 21: 28
              +4
              This is from which bell tower to look. The absence of cambium is not everything. Plants grow to themselves. This is what people classify. And then the classifications are changed.
              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 18 September 2020 21: 31
                +4
                People are still looking for four-leaf clover and fern flowers ...
                1. Korsar4
                  Korsar4 18 September 2020 21: 36
                  +4
                  A four-petaled clover lies dried in my notebook. It's not uncommon.

                  For the flowering of secretive plants - this is to Ivan Kupala.
                  1. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 18 September 2020 21: 51
                    +3
                    It's not uncommon.
                    Here's another topic for historical research on your profile.
                    1. Korsar4
                      Korsar4 18 September 2020 22: 11
                      +3
                      What only this forum will not teach me. Even pictures are a habit.
                      And I like to collect bikes about historical ones for a long time.
                      1. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 18 September 2020 22: 26
                        +3
                        And I like to collect bikes about historical ones for a long time.
                        There is such a thing. To refute, even more interesting
                      2. Korsar4
                        Korsar4 18 September 2020 22: 31
                        +3
                        Pictures of acceptable and compatible.
                2. Catfish
                  Catfish 18 September 2020 21: 52
                  +3
                  For the flowering of secret plants

                  From this moment - in more detail! wassat
                  1. Korsar4
                    Korsar4 18 September 2020 22: 13
                    +5
                    Linnaeus singled out opaque plants (ferns and others) in contrast to flowering plants - phantom plants.
                    1. Catfish
                      Catfish 18 September 2020 22: 15
                      +4
                      Huh ... that's all.
                    2. Korsar4
                      Korsar4 18 September 2020 22: 22
                      +4
                      "Sorry, lads, there are no bananas" (c).
                    3. 3x3zsave
                      3x3zsave 18 September 2020 22: 47
                      +3
                      So we are all one, that banana, that sensimilla, the essence is grass! True, evil tongues claim that the latter is a tree, they simply do not allow it to grow ...
                    4. Korsar4
                      Korsar4 19 September 2020 02: 28
                      +2
                      “And there are plants like hemp!
                      Hemp plant - for inspiration "(c).
                3. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 18 September 2020 22: 42
                  +4
                  Did you think Shakespearean passions? An immortal play by Karl, ours, Linnaeus, "Ferns and Crucifers" ?, with the tragic, but epic, death of a young fern shoot and a young cabbage leaf, in each other's arms?
                4. Catfish
                  Catfish 18 September 2020 23: 22
                  +5
                  "There is no story sadder in the world,
                  Than a story ... about Romeo and Juliet. "(C) crying
                  Or about how Othello satnello and killed Desdemona.
                5. Pane Kohanku
                  Pane Kohanku 19 September 2020 23: 33
                  +2
                  Or about how Othello satnello and killed Desdemona.

                  the hands of the "mythical captain Mikhailov" stick out of the prompter's box. bully Choking Mikado the cat! angry
  • Sergey Oreshin
    Sergey Oreshin 18 September 2020 21: 03
    +4
    Quote: apro
    how did the service of the Germans differ from that of the Russians?

    Nicholas I is credited with the following phrase: "Russian nobles serve the Fatherland, and German ones serve our dynasty"
  • Sergey Oreshin
    Sergey Oreshin 18 September 2020 21: 10
    +7
    Quote: Olgovich
    Elizabeth, the daughter of the reigning Emperor and Empress of Russia, had much more rights to the throne.

    But then the Peter's decree on succession to the throne was in effect, according to which the current emperor was free to determine his own successor. Anna bequeathed the throne to Ivan Antonovich.
    Whatever one may say, but Elizabeth's coup is exactly what a coup, a violent seizure of power.
    And the fate of Ivan Antonovich evokes sincere compassion in any normal person.

    As for Elizabeth, she had a mind and ingenuity, but she spent too much money on dresses and balls, and serfdom became more severe, the common people lived in poverty
    1. Catfish
      Catfish 18 September 2020 21: 21
      +3
      As for Elizabeth - she had a mind and a wit, but she wasted money too much on dresses and balls,

      "The merry queen was Elisabeth, she sings and rejoices,
      There is no order at all ... "(C) smile
      1. Sergey Oreshin
        Sergey Oreshin 18 September 2020 21: 25
        +6
        Alexey Konstantinich Tolstoy was generally a sarcastic peasant, but, kmk, he expressed the essence of Elizabeth's reign quite accurately.
        She had, of course, intelligent advisers, but the Empress herself was engaged in principle with balls, masquerades, men, etc. By the way, I loved masquerades with women dressing up as men, and men as women))) Today would be appreciated in certain circles)))
  • Sergey Oreshin
    Sergey Oreshin 18 September 2020 21: 17
    +6
    Quote: Trilobite Master
    This I mean that you should not feel sorry for those who lost the struggle for power.

    That is, in your opinion, is it okay to separate the boy from his family and throw him into the dungeon and keep him there all his life ??? And then kill in cold blood ...
    For any normal person, the fate of Ivan Antonovich causes sincere pity
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 18 September 2020 23: 03
      0
      For any normal person, the fate of Ivan Antonovich causes sincere pity
      You know it doesn't. Perhaps I am a "crazy person", but 80 percent of his contemporaries lived much worse and died more painfully.
      1. Sergey Oreshin
        Sergey Oreshin 18 September 2020 23: 39
        +2
        And what is Ivan Antonovich's fault here? This is the obvious fault of the same Elizabeth and Catherine, who brought the apogee of serfdom.
        With Ivan, whatever one may say, they acted in a bestial manner. Without any guilt, the boy was taken from his parents, thrown into a slammer, and then killed in cold blood.
  • Astra wild
    Astra wild 18 September 2020 21: 39
    +2
    Minich is really a bright personality, not a little lucky: his biography is like a "roller coaster" up and then sharply down.
  • Astra wild
    Astra wild 18 September 2020 22: 00
    +3
    Valery, I do not have time to argue with you about the overthrow of Peter3, there are few strong arguments, but I will tell you my opinion. Munnich was lucky in old age that Catherine the Great was smart. Even you admit it