Military Review

Burchard Munnich. The incredible fate of the Saxon who chose Russia

122
Burchard Munnich. The incredible fate of the Saxon who chose Russia

Burchard Christoph Munnich, a native of Saxony, does not have a very good reputation in Russia. In the works of Russian historians, he often appears in the form of a rude soldier, who


from afar,
Like hundreds of fugitives,
On catching happiness and ranks
Thrown to us by the will of fate.

(M. Yu. Lermontov.)

There is not the slightest doubt that if he were Russian, the assessment of his activities would have been higher.

In Soviet times, a great influence on the formation of the image of Minich among people interested in history, said Valentin Pikul, who, for all his merits, was a person who was carried away and did not recognize halftones. In the novel "Word and Deed" Minich, at the behest of the writer, found himself in the camp of the enemies of the "patriots of Russia". V. Pikul also reluctantly told about Minich's victories, but in such a way that it becomes clear to everyone: the visiting German only knew how to overwhelm enemies with corpses and blood of Russian soldiers.

Meanwhile, Minich's services to the new fatherland are indisputable and very great. And he was an outstanding and talented person. Talking about him in the future, we will now and then say the words "first", "first", "first". Pay attention to this when reading the article. It is not by chance that the image of Minich appeared on the Novgorod monument "Millennium of Russia".

And Catherine II, whose enthronement our hero tried with all his might to prevent, once said about Minich:

Not being a son of Russia, he was one of her fathers.

So, let's try to briefly talk about it.


Burchard Christoph von Munnich. Engraving by Martin Bernigerote

Burchard Munnich: young years in Europe


The real surname of our hero is Münnich (Münnich), he was born in the city of Neuenhuntorf in the Saxon county of Oldenburg in 1683. He was a second generation nobleman and, like his father, became a military engineer. People grew up quickly at that time. Already at the age of 16, our hero entered the service of the French army. Before moving to Russia, he managed to serve in the armies of some German states and Poland. He took part in the War of the Spanish Succession: in 1702 he distinguished himself with the rank of captain during the siege of Landau, in 1709, already as a major, fought in the famous Battle of Malplaket. In 1712, Lieutenant Colonel Munnich was wounded during the Battle of Denene and taken prisoner, in which he was held until the conclusion of the Rastadt Peace between France and Austria in March 1714. After his release, with the rank of colonel, he was engaged in the construction of a canal between Fulda and Weser in Hesse.

In 1716, he was in the service of August II, the Saxon elector and king of Poland. Here he rose to the rank of major general, took part in two duels (on one of them he killed Colonel Ganf, on the other he was wounded).

Invitation to Russia and service under Peter I


In 1721, Minich was invited to Russia by the Russian ambassador to Warsaw G. Dolgorukov, whom Peter I later thanked for "a good engineer and general." When meeting with the emperor, the Saxon man described himself as a specialist in serf work and the organization of infantry troops and warned that he was poorly versed in architecture, artillery, as well as in everything that concerns fleet and cavalry. He also said that he can teach mathematics, fortification and martial arts.

As a result, Minikh arranged the Obvodny Canal in St. Petersburg and a lock on the Tosna River, built a road from St. Petersburg to Shlisselburg, and then headed the construction of the Ladoga Canal.


A. Moravov, I. Sytin. Digging the Ladoga Canal

Peter himself once said this about him:

No one understands and fulfills my thoughts as well as Minich.

In the service of Peter II and Anna Ioannovna


In 1728, already during the reign of Peter II, Minich became Count of the Russian Empire and was appointed Governor-General of St. Petersburg, replacing the disgraced A. Menshikov in this post. This appointment did not seem particularly high and prestigious then, because Peter II and his entourage preferred Moscow, and no one could know about the imminent death of the young emperor.


Peter II, portrait by an unknown Russian artist, Hermitage

Nevertheless, Minikh, as best he could, tried to continue the arrangement of St. Petersburg, Kronstadt and even Vyborg.


V.N.Bovin. Portrait of B. Kh. Minich, 1848 Hermitage

In July of the same 1728, Munnich received an unexpected assignment to "paint on the banners" and "bring to mind" both old and recently composed coats of arms - instead of the repressed manager of the Heraldry's Office Santi. Not at all embarrassed, Minich immediately set to work and in May 1729 sent the heraldic book he created for approval to the emperor. At present, it is the coats of arms invented by Minich that are used by St. Petersburg, Kursk and Bryansk. Thus, he can be called not only a Russian commander, engineer and statesman, but also a king of arms.


After the unexpected death of the sick Peter II, Anna Ioannovna, who became empress, returned the court to Petersburg in 1732.


Louis Caravac. Portrait of Anna Ioannovna, 1730

Minich, who was involved in all matters of moving and placing the Empress and her courtiers in a new place, made the most favorable impression on Anna. As a result, he was promoted to Field Marshal General and President of the Military Collegium. In this post, Minich created two new Guards regiments (Izmailovsky and Horse Guards). In addition, it was under Minich that cuirassier, hussar and sapper regiments appeared in the Russian army. For the newly created cuirassier regiments, horses had to be imported from abroad. Minich oversaw the procurement and development of Russian stud farms.

And also the German Munnich equalized foreign and Russian officers in the salary they received. The arrears on payments that had been accumulating over the years were also liquidated. Also, at the initiative of Minich, 50 fortresses were built or reconstructed on the border with Turkey and Persia. The service life of privates was reduced to 10 years, and the only breadwinner in the family was forbidden to be recruited. On Minich's initiative, several military hospitals and garrison schools were opened. He also became the founder of the Gentry Cadet Corps. He remained its director until 1741, which, on the one hand, ensured decent funding for this institution, and on the other, made education in it prestigious.

War of the Polish Succession


In 1733, a war began, in which Stanislaw Leszczynski, supported by France, and the Saxon Elector Friedrich August, were arguing for the crown of Poland, on whose side Russia and Austria took the floor.

The Russian troops were then led by Peter Lassi, an Irishman of Norman origin, one of the most successful Russian generals of the XNUMXth century, who, unfortunately, is little remembered now.

Peter Lassi



The Spanish ambassador to St. Petersburg, Duke de Lyria, wrote about him as follows:

Lassie, General of Infantry, originally Irish, knew his job perfectly. They loved him, and he was an honest man, incapable of doing anything wrong, and everywhere he would have enjoyed the reputation of a good general.

Already at the age of 13, Pierce Edmond de Lacy (the Irish version of the name - Peadar de Lasa) with the rank of lieutenant took part in the War of the Two Kings (William III against James II) on the side of the Jacobites. After the defeat, he emigrated to France, where he had to join the Irish Regiment as a private, but he earned himself an officer rank during the Savoy campaign. In 1697 he went to the Austrian service, fought with the Turks under the command of the Duke de Croix, in 1700 he ended up in Russia with him. He took part in the Northern War since the Battle of Narva. He took part in the Battle of Poltava and in the Prut campaign. In 1719 he commanded a corps that devastated the outskirts of Stockholm, after which the Swedes agreed to peace negotiations. As a result, a private of the Irish regiment of the French army, Peter Lassi, rose to the rank of field marshal general of the Russian army. Agree, the case is not ordinary and quite unique.

He also became the Count of the Holy Roman Empire of the German nation.

It was Lassi who took Kovno, Grodno, Warsaw and many other cities, passing all of Poland - to the Baltic Sea. Under the protection of his army, the Grochowski Diet was held, at which Friedrich August was elected king of Poland. Later, the movement of the Lassi corps through Bavaria became the decisive reason for France's withdrawal from the War of the Polish Succession, and an epigram was written in Germany about this:

O Gauls! Did you know the hussar blades
And in fear they thought: devils are serving the Germans!
Tremble - Moscow is sending loyal regiments to us.
Hardly any of you will escape a terrible death!

In Germany, Lassi met with the famous Austrian commander - 70-year-old Eugene of Savoysky, who recently won his last victory. The prince highly appreciated the state of the Russian regiments of Lassi after this rather difficult campaign, and did not skimp on compliments.

The Siege of Danzig


In 1734, Minich led the Russian troops during the siege of Danzig (now Gdansk), replacing Petr Lassi as commander-in-chief.


Siege of Danzig, 1734

It was then, for the first time in history near besieged Danzig, where Leshchinsky was hiding, the Russians and the French entered the battle. The soldiers of the regiments of Perigord and Blaiseau under the command of the Count de Plelot landed near the fortress and went through the swamp directly to the positions of the Russian troops. Since their gunpowder became damp during this transition, they did not bring much trouble to the Russians: 232 Frenchmen, including the commander, were killed (only 8 people died in the Russians), the rest surrendered. As a result, Stanislav Leshchinsky had to flee Danzig, disguised as a peasant's clothes.

War with the Ottoman Empire


And then there were victories in the Russian-Turkish war of 1735-1739, which washed away the bitterness of defeat on the Prut River and showed everyone that both the Ottomans and the Crimean Tatars can be defeated.

Since 1711, both the monarchs of Russia and its generals experienced fear at the thought of a war with the Ottoman Empire. Painful memories of the humiliating situation in which the army found itself then literally paralyzed the will of the contemporaries of that campaign and especially its participants. But the generation changed, and two Russian armies under the leadership of the new field marshals Minich and Lassi entered the Crimea in turn and successfully fought against the Turks at Azov, Ochakov and Khotin.

In 1736, Minich's troops for the first time in Russian history took Perekop by storm and entered the land of the terrible peninsula, capturing Gezlev (Evpatoria), Ak-Mechet and the khan's capital Bakhchisarai.


Russian victory at Perekop in 1736

Peter Lassi at that time took the fortress of Azov, abandoned under the terms of the Prut Peace.


The capitulation of Azov in 1736. Azov Pasha Mustafa Aga hands the keys to the city to Count Lassi. Fragment of German engraving 1740 of the year

Due to the lack of food and the outbreak of the epidemic, Minich was forced to leave the Crimea. The Tatars responded with a raid on the Ukrainian lands, but on the way back they were intercepted by the Don Cossacks ataman Krasnoshchekov, who recaptured the prisoners.

In June 1737 Ochakov was taken by storm by the army of Minich.


Siege of Ochakov. XNUMXth century engraving

Lassi at that time moved his troops through the Sivash, in two battles (June 12 and 14) defeated the troops of the Crimean Khan and through Perekop entered the territory of Ukraine.

In August 1739, the Russian army of Minich defeated the Ottoman troops of Seraskir Veli Pasha in the Battle of Stavuchans, and in this battle, Minich was the first in Russia to build his troops in squares - very large, several thousand people each.

Have you noticed how many times in our story we have already used the words "first" or "first"?

The Russian army was surrounded for two days, undergoing continuous attacks from all sides, but successfully and with great losses for the Turks repulsed these attacks. Finally, on August 17 (28), after a demonstration on the enemy's right flank with the forces of five regiments, Minich launched a powerful blow on the left flank. The Ottomans fled.

The Stavuchansk battle went down in history as the most bloodless victory of the Russian army (despite the fact that the Russian army was inferior in number to the Ottoman-Tatar): only 13 were killed among the Russians, at least 1000 people died among the Turks and Tatars. And this victory was won by the commander, who is traditionally accused of "washing away the shame of the Prut world with streams of Russian blood."

In fact, the losses in the armies of Minich were really great: mainly from reasons not related to military operations (primarily from infectious diseases). But they were just as great in all the armies of that time. And, of course, they were no more losses in the armies of the same Peter I, about whom they said that he "regrets people less than horses" (and about the "enlightened European" Charles XII - that he "does not regret either those or others "). Recall that during the same Prut campaign in 1711, the Russian army lost 2 people in battles, and 872 from disease, hunger and thirst.

After the victory at Stavuchan, the Russians occupied Khotin, Yassy and almost all of Moldova.


Khotyn Fortress

Mikhail Lomonosov at this time was not yet an academician or a court poet. He was a student sent to study in Germany. Lomonosov learned about the victory of Minich at Stavuchany and the capture of Khotin by the Russian troops from the newspapers, and this news so inspired him that, not at all by order, but at the behest of his soul, he wrote the famous ode:

But the enemy that left the sword,
Afraid of his own trail.
Then seeing your run,
The moon was ashamed to shame them
And in the gloom face, darkened, hid.
Glory flies in the darkness of the night,
Sounds in all lands by the trumpet,
Kohl Rossky terrible power.

Here, for the first time, he used the ten-verse stanza, iambic tetrameter, female and male rhymes, cross, pair and encircling rhymes - and in fact created the size of the classic Russian solemn ode, which finally took shape in the 40s of the XNUMXth century through the efforts of Sumarokov. Odes were written in this size at the beginning of the XNUMXth century, including G. Derzhavin ("Felitsa") and A. Radishchev ("Liberty"). And the iambic tetrameter became the favorite size of A.S. Pushkin.

But, since all these extraordinarily important in all respects victories over the Ottoman Empire were won by an Irishman and a Saxon, and even during the reign of the "terrible" Anna Ioannovna and, terrible to say, "Bironovism", it was customary to talk about them in Russia not too loudly. The emphasis has always been on the subsequent victories of Rumyantsev and Suvorov. These generals, of course, were more successful, their victories are more ambitious and impressive, but it was Minich and Lassi who started.

"Night Revolution" of 1740


However, many, speaking of Minich, remember not his administrative talents or even victories, but the "Night Revolution" on November 9, 1740 - the first (and again we hear this word!) Coup d'etat in the Russian Empire.

Before her death, Anna Ioannovna signed a decree appointing her grand-nephew, two-month-old John Antonovich, the son of Anna Leopoldovna and Prince Anton Ulrich of Braunschweig-Bevern-Luneburg (whose adjutant for some time was the notorious Baron Munchausen), the heir to the throne. And the dying empress appointed her favorite Ernst Johann Biron as regent.


In Russia, this German of Courland was declared literally a monster, which, of course, is a great exaggeration. Pushkin also wrote about him:

He had the misfortune of being German; the whole horror of Anna's reign, which was in the spirit of his time and in the mores of the people, was piled on him.

Biron was a stranger in Russia, he had few friends, but many enemies, and therefore he practically had no chance of holding such a high post. Ambition ruined him. On October 17, 1740, Biron began to fulfill his duties as regent, and on November 9, Minich's people, led by Lieutenant Colonel Manstein, “came” for him.

Now the mother of the young emperor became regent, and Munnich got the post of "first minister in our councils", while he remained president of the Military Collegium. However, the rank of Generalissimo went to Anton Ulrich, who thus turned out to be the head of Field Marshal Minich in military affairs, which became the cause of the fatal conflict.

In addition, after the coup, Minich fell seriously ill (caught a cold on a cold autumn night, waiting for the return of Manstein's "expedition"), and while he was lying at home, the emperor's parents managed to agree with A. Osterman about such a redistribution of responsibilities that almost nothing remained of Minich's power ... He tried to fight - without any success. It ended with the fact that on March 3, 1741, Minich went for broke, submitting a letter of resignation. To his surprise, they did not dissuade him, the application was immediately satisfied.

In the next article we will talk about the second, sadder part of the life of this extraordinary man: the palace coup on November 26, 1741, the 20-year exile in Pelym, the return of Minich to St. Petersburg, his unsuccessful attempts to save Peter III and the service under Catherine II.
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  1. rich
    rich 16 September 2020 06: 03 New
    15
    The Russian troops were then led by Peter Lassi, an Irishman of Norman origin, one of the most successful Russian generals of the XNUMXth century, who, unfortunately, is little remembered now.

    "An experienced, fearless commander," the historian DN Bantysh-Kamensky described Lassi, "he was distinguished by his speed on the battlefield, with an enlightened mind he united a kind heart, lofty feelings ..."
    In July 1719, Lassi took part in an expedition to the shores of Sweden. Landing with a detachment near Stockholm, Lassi devastated the surroundings terribly. The booty taken by the Russians from this expedition was estimated at a million thalers, and the devastation at 12 million. The Russian attack on indigenous Sweden broke the last resistance; since that time, peace negotiations have been going on continuously, the Swedes have made almost all the concessions demanded of them.
    1. rich
      rich 16 September 2020 06: 15 New
      13
      D.N. Bantysh-Kamensky:
      Petr Petrovich received a field marshal's baton through a courier, and with it the empress's order to move immediately to Azov: the military leader was required at the theater of the Russian-Turkish war of 1735-1739. Anna Ioannovna tried to destroy the Prut Treaty, humiliating for Russia.
      Lassi captured Azov on July 20, 1736, while the commander was wounded. The award was the Order of St. Andrew the First-Called. But his main participation in the war fell on the next two years. Twice in 1737 and 1738. the troops entrusted to him fought successfully in the Crimea. And in both cases, the commander showed a penchant for non-standard tactics. The khan was expecting him at Perekop, but Lassi undertook a roundabout maneuver along the Arabat arrow. The deep penetration of the Russians into the rear terrified the Tatars, their army scattered, and Lassi was able to occupy the entire peninsula. But the lack of food and the threat of being locked up in the Crimea forced him to retreat to Northern Tavria.
      Siege of Azov. 1736 g.

      In 1738 Lassi also used bypass maneuvers, bringing troops into the Crimea through the Sivash and forcing the garrison of the Perekop fortress to surrender.
      .........
      Elizaveta Petrovna became convinced of the absolute loyalty of Lassi. But right after the palace coup, as a result of which she ascended the throne, there were certain doubts whether the "foreigner" would support her.
      They say that when the field marshal was woken up in the middle of the night and demanded to answer which side he was on, which party he belonged to, Pyotr Petrovich showed an extraordinary mind and endurance. He gave a simple and clear, laconic like a soldier and therefore a win-win answer: "To the one who now reigns." And thus he retained his position.

      According to General D.F. Maslovsky, “he was a permanent sentry on guard of the real needs of the orphaned Russian army, abandoned during the reign of Biron and Minich ... He gave this army fifty years of his life and, dying, he could say that his whole life was given to him“ for military needs ” second homeland ".
      1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
        Kote Pan Kokhanka 16 September 2020 07: 35 New
        13
        Hello everyone, Thanks to the author for an interesting topic!
        From myself I will add only one thing - Minh constantly bet on the wrong "horse", preferring "stallions" to "mares"! In this connection, he was "manic" unlucky!
        1. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku 16 September 2020 10: 45 New
          17
          In this connection, he was "manic" unlucky!

          Yes, that's for sure. Let's wait for the second part. drinks
          How can I tell you, my friends .. Valery touched upon a topic that is usually little mentioned. hi The reign of Anna Ioannovna is generally mentioned in popular culture in passing, and, mainly, in black colors. Like, "jesters-hunts-Biron"... Although even this time had its own heroes and victories. soldier Without a doubt, Minich is the "familiar" military leader of his time in Russian military history. In the film "Secrets of Palace Revolutions" his role, albeit episodic, went to the brilliant Ivars Kalninsh ...

          At the moment we have a very good article. hi Plus Dmitry-Rich was very pleased with the comments - this is already becoming a small huge tradition. good I hope the forum does not disappoint in the future. Valery, I bow! By the way ... the future legendary man - Baron Munchausen took part in that Russian-Turkish war! wink would you like to write a cycle about the greatest liar, Valery? drinks If you remember, even during the war in Nazi Germany, a film was made about him, where the baron is quite himself at war on the side of the Russians with the Turks!
          1. VLR
            16 September 2020 10: 58 New
            +8
            Good afternoon, I already wrote about the baron - the article "Two Barons of the City of Bodenwerder" was published in May 2019:
            https://topwar.ru/157863-dva-barona-goroda-bodenverder.html

            He came to Russia precisely because in that war two adjutants of Anton-Ulrich, the father of the unfortunate John, were killed. And there were not many who wanted to become the third. But Munchausen took a chance.
            1. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku 16 September 2020 11: 25 New
              +8
              Good afternoon, I already wrote about the baron: the article "Two Barons of the City of Bodenwerder" was published in May 2019.

              Oh, apparently I missed! I will reread! yes
          2. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 16 September 2020 10: 58 New
            +7
            Valery already had an article about Munchausen.
            1. Krasnodar
              Krasnodar 16 September 2020 20: 01 New
              +2
              Quote: 3x3zsave
              Valery already had an article about Munchausen.

              Hello Anton! hi
              So he was on the moon or was it a fake Hollywood and NASA?
              1. rich
                rich 16 September 2020 21: 37 New
                +8
                So was he Munchausen on the moon or is it a fake?

                It is difficult to answer unequivocally here
                Countess Sofonisba Anguissola de Luna and Arellano does not mention this in her memoirs winked
                Sofonisba Anguissola de Luna. Self portrait

                by the way, the heiress of three famous Spanish grandrods - Anguissolo, Luna y Arellano and Cortess ... and the world's first professional female court artist
                Sofronisba Anguissola de Luna "Portrait of Isabella Valois"

                1. Liam
                  Liam 16 September 2020 21: 57 New
                  0
                  Quote: Rich
                  by the way, heiress of three famous Spanish grandrods - Anguissolo, Luna y Arellano and Cortess

                  What can you not read in the vast VO ..
                2. Solo2503
                  Solo2503 16 September 2020 22: 35 New
                  +1
                  bravissimo! And yet, what is the side of this beautiful woman to Karl Ieri (how is he there!) Baron has that?
                3. Krasnodar
                  Krasnodar 16 September 2020 23: 06 New
                  +2
                  Nothing is eternal under the Moon laughing
  2. apro
    apro 16 September 2020 06: 04 New
    10
    Yes. even the nobles. had nowhere to study. and in the development of military and engineering affairs seriously inferior to the Europeans. and chose an obvious way to solve the problem. invite knowledgeable workers ...
    1. Astra wild
      Astra wild 16 September 2020 18: 53 New
      +1
      Colleague Apro, in many respects I agree, in the previous comments too, but let me clarify: "there was no universal literacy even among the nobles" at that time there was NOT ANYWHERE 100% literacy.
      An idle fiction that in Russia everyone was illiterate. For each historical period, Russia was, if not among the leaders, then almost at the level of literacy. About runic inscriptions and in comparison with Europe, here Bar knows more.
      What was the literacy rate in the 11th century? We do not know 100% of this, but judging by the birch bark letters, and more than 200 of them have already been found in Novgorod, perhaps there were a lot of them in other cities, but they have not survived. Even judging by those found in Novgorod, there were a lot of literate people among ALL strata of the population: merchants, i.e. city dwellers and among women, were literate, and in EUROPE the women of that time had no idea about literacy. Why Russia traditionally lags behind in medicine and engineering, I do not know.
  3. rich
    rich 16 September 2020 06: 49 New
    11
    Minikh arranged the Obvodny Canal in St. Petersburg and a lock on the Tosna River, built a road from St. Petersburg to Shlisselburg, and then headed the construction of the Ladoga Canal.

    Fig.Map of the bypass, along Lake Ladoga, the canal of Emperor Peter the Great (1741-42), the largest hydraulic structure in Europe for its time
  4. Van 16
    Van 16 16 September 2020 06: 53 New
    10
    Thanks, very interesting.
    I look forward to continuing, since the second part of life, although more sad, is no less exciting.
    And thank you for the additions above.
  5. rich
    rich 16 September 2020 06: 55 New
    10
    At the beginning of 1739, Minich launched an offensive against Moldova and achieved a turning point in the war.

    In August, the Russian army defeated the Turkish troops in the battle at Stavuchany near Khotin.
    Plan of the Stavuchansky battle on 17 (28) August 1739.

    Here, the Turkish army of up to 90 thousand surrounded the Russian army. But Minich applied military cunning, simulating an attack with the left flank, and then attacking the enemy with the main forces from the right. The Turkish army in disarray retreated across the Prut River, the losses of Minich's army amounted to 13 killed and 54 wounded. Two days later, the Turkish fortress Khotin surrendered, and soon most of Moldova was occupied. This victory was sung by Lomonosov in his first ode, which is considered the first poetic experience in Russian literature.
    1. rich
      rich 16 September 2020 07: 22 New
      13
      More than fifty fortresses and fortified lines on the borders with Persia and Turkey were built under the general leadership of Minich. During the reign of Anna Ioannovny, the head of the Fortification Directorate, and then of the Military Collegium, Burkhard Minich, achieved the construction of several defensive lines in the south of the empire: Maloros, Tsaritsyn, Orenburg, Zakamsk, Uisk, Tobol-Ishim, Irkutsk and Kolyvanskaya. They were built in accordance with the system of continuous fortifications prevailing in Europe at that time.
      It is not for nothing that Minich is called the grandfather of Novorossiya
      Work on the construction of the Novorosskaya fortified line began in the spring of 1730 and went under the general command of Minich. The Kiev governor-general, Count Weisbach, directly supervised the work, and were organized by generals Andrey Debrinyi and Alexey Tarakanov.
      Until the end of October of the same year, 10 fortresses were built (out of the planned 16). Basically, they were erected in the form of bastion quadrangles. In each of them, barracks, a seikhgauz, a powder magazine, a treasury, and a well were built. The fortresses were connected by a continuous rampart and a moat about 300 km long. The inter-fortress spaces were reinforced with redoubts, palisades, blockhouses, and outposts.
      The first of the laid fortresses was named Ivanovskaya (St. John) "in the name of the blessed memory of the Great Tsar Tsar and Grand Duke John Alekseevich ...". Later, in honor of the mother of the Empress Paraskovia Fyodorovna, the Paraskovia fortress was laid (now the village of Paraskovia, Kharkov region). In honor of the first tsars from the Romanov dynasty, Mikhailovskaya and Alekseevskaya fortresses were named (now the villages of Mikhailovka and Alekseevka of the Pervomaisky district of the Kharkov region). The Petrovskaya fortress (now the village of Petrovskoe, Kharkov region) was named after the patron saint of Peter I.
      The fortresses were completed with regiments of one-courtiers together with families
      By the end of 1732, the regiments were officially named after the cities where they were mainly formed: Rylsky, Putivl, Kursk, Sevsky, Belgorodsky, Bryansk, Starooskolsky, Valuisky, Novooskolsky, Livensky, Yeletsky, Voronezh, Orlovsky, Kozlovsky, Tambovsky, Efremovsky , Ryazhsky, Borisoglebsky, Slobodskoy, Belevsky. This helps to determine the geography of origin of the first inhabitants of the Novorosskaya line. The mass resettlement of odnodvorets together with their families to the Novopos line began in 1734.
      In 1738, the names of a number of regiments were given to several new fortresses between the Dnieper and the Seversky Donets. This is how the Belyovskaya fortress appeared here (the administrative center of the line, later - the town of Belyov, renamed into Konstantinograd, and then Krasnograd), the Livenskaya fortress (now the village of Livny, Poltava region), the Ryazhskaya fortress (now the village of Ryasskoye, Poltava region), Efremovskaya fortress (now - the village of Efremovka, Kharkiv region), etc.
      link: Akunin. "The history of Novorossiya: silences, delusions and just lies" ©
      1. Astra wild
        Astra wild 16 September 2020 19: 10 New
        +4
        Dmitry "Rich" which Akunin are you talking about? I know B. Akunin, the author of Fandorin, and Akunin, a historian, I did not know
        1. Phil77
          Phil77 16 September 2020 19: 37 New
          +6
          Quote: Astra wild
          and Akunin is a historian, I did not know

          Irony? good Yes, Vera, he has a historical work- * History of the Russian state *. Reviews? Pros? I will write so ambiguous!
          1. rich
            rich 16 September 2020 20: 18 New
            +4
            Good evening, Sergey.
            Remember this anecdote - Brezhnev and Gromyko are seeing off some African prince on the runway. The plane flew away a long time ago, and Leonid Ilyich kept waving after him. Gromyko says, "Come on already, Leonid Ilyich, why wave in vain - as a politician he is very ambiguous, the right word - no. Brezhnev replies - Yes, as a politician he is completely guavish, but how he kisses smile
            And if it's no joke, in his "History of the Russian State" Akunin has many interesting references to real historical documents. Feels like he "shoveled" in the archives a lot in the work on his "History"
            1. Phil77
              Phil77 17 September 2020 05: 51 New
              +1
              Quote: Rich
              he "shoveled" in the archives a lot in the work on his "History"

              Good morning Dmitry! Sorry, did not answer right away.
              Well, you must agree, a very * controversial * author!
              Yes, and he wrote * this * work with a specific purpose, I think that not for the glory of historical science.
              1. rich
                rich 17 September 2020 06: 19 New
                +1
                Very, very
  6. rich
    rich 16 September 2020 07: 02 New
    12
    Curious fact General Fed Marshal Munnich is credited with an aphorism that is now often used in various kinds of historical publications and was once quoted by V.V. Putin: "The Russian state has the advantage over others that it is controlled directly by God himself, otherwise it is impossible to understand how it exists." However, this phrase was uttered by his son Johann Ernst Minich, since 1764 - the chief director of customs duties of the Russian Empire, in a conversation with the director Petrishule Büsching. The authorship of the aphorism was changed in 1910 and, probably due to a misunderstanding, in the essays “Results of the Eighteenth Century in Russia”, published in Moscow by the Sytin publishing house. In the book of the former member of the State Council of the Russian Empire V. I. Gurko "Tsar and Tsarina" (Paris, 1927), this mistake was repeated. Since then, the real authorship of the aphorism has hardly been remembered.
  7. Phil77
    Phil77 16 September 2020 07: 09 New
    11
    Good morning! Well, literally * two in one *! Excellent article by Valery and excellent comments by Dmitry! hi
    1. rich
      rich 16 September 2020 07: 39 New
      +9
      Good morning, Sergey hi
      Such a wonderful good article and nice to comment on.
      It is clear that the affairs of such a person as Minich cannot fit into one article, I hope dear Valery will not swear too much for the additions of commentators?
      1. VLR
        16 September 2020 07: 52 New
        12
        Well, what are you, such comments are nice to read.
        I wanted to write one review article about Munnich, it turned out two, but it would take five to cover all aspects in more or less detail. And your comments are very pertinent.
        1. rich
          rich 16 September 2020 08: 33 New
          +7
          VLR (Valery Ryzhov): In July of the same 1728, Munnich received an unexpected order of "painting on the banners" and "bringing to mind" both the old and recently composed coats of arms - instead of the repressed manager of the Heraldry's office Santi. Not at all embarrassed, Minich immediately set to work and in May 1729 sent the heraldic book he created for approval to the emperor. At present, it is the coats of arms invented by Minich that are used by St. Petersburg, Kursk and Bryansk. Thus, he can be called not only a Russian commander, engineer and statesman, but also a king of arms.

          a photo.Coat of arms of Kursk "on the banners". Coat of arms of 1730
        2. Liam
          Liam 16 September 2020 11: 54 New
          +3
          You, as a historian, seriously believe that what is happening between two armies of 60.000 and 80.000 people, armed artillery and firearms, as a result of which 13 people are killed, can be called sooth?
          1. VLR
            16 September 2020 13: 23 New
            +6
            But the enemy had losses of the order of a thousand (the reason was a disorderly flight, they were chased and beaten).
            1. Liam
              Liam 16 September 2020 13: 29 New
              +1
              ))) I will not even ask who was counting.
              The loss of 1000 people out of 80.000 (at a time when they lost more on the day's marches) - could not cause either panic or flight, or if it was not the army that caused it.
              I would have thought a little what all the same it was.
              1. VLR
                16 September 2020 13: 36 New
                +5
                No, on the contrary, panic and flight contributed to the losses of the Turks. It was not the losses that caused the panic and flight.
                1. Liam
                  Liam 16 September 2020 13: 43 New
                  +3
                  What caused the panic and flight then?)
                  It looks like a joke about money in the nightstand.
                  In order to understand something, one must probably look at the situation a little more broadly. In the context of that war, who was involved in it, what happened a little earlier than this "battle" and what happened immediately after. And why the results of the war were just such, quite shameful, despite for such "brilliant" victories. The shameful world a month after the brilliant victories, there must be some serious reasons for this.
                  By the way, it is surprising that there are no Turkish sources (and Austrian ones as well) in Russian studies on the Russian-Turkish wars of the 18th century, both under Minich and then under Rumyantsev / Suvorov. Almost all figures are exclusively from the reports of Russian military leaders.
                  1. VLR
                    16 September 2020 16: 05 New
                    +7
                    And with Turkey, all wars ended this way: the commanders gain brilliant victories, and then diplomats come (including European ones, who kindly offer themselves as arbitrators) - and pathetic pieces remain of the Russian conquests.
                    1. Liam
                      Liam 16 September 2020 18: 51 New
                      +2
                      Perhaps because a slightly distorted picture of both the scale and significance of these victories has been created in Russian historiography, and the role of the same Austrians in them
                  2. Astra wild
                    Astra wild 16 September 2020 19: 24 New
                    +4
                    "exclusively from the reports of Russian military leaders", but they have no faith. Is that what you mean?
                    Is it difficult to assume that the Turks, for obvious reasons, are not interested in remembering defeats? As a child, you fought with boys and where you won, you naturally liked to remember and vice versa. Also with the Turks, and the Austrians were then, to put it mildly, not Russophiles
  8. Olgovich
    Olgovich 16 September 2020 07: 22 New
    -7
    Since 1711, both the monarchs of Russia and its generals experienced fear at the thought of a war with the Ottoman Empire. Heavy memories literally paralyzed the will of the contemporaries of that campaign and especially its participants.

    Examples of such "paralysis" among the Victors in the Northern War, the author?

    two Russian armies under the leadership of the new field marshals Minich and Lassi took turns entering the Crimea and successfully fought against the Turks at Azov, Ochakov and Khotin.


    "Successfully" is with wild losses of half of the troops and a shameful flight from the Crimea, with the abandonment of Ochakov and Khotin.

    through Perekop entered the territory of Ukraine
    what is this ... "Ukraine" in ... the 1730s? belay lol Diggers of the Black Sea again ...
    In fact, the losses in Munnich's armies were really great: mainly from reasons not related to military operations (primarily from infectious diseases)


    First of all, from the lack of quality food and water (hence the disease), which a normal military commander takes care of, setting up bases along the route of the troops and which was not done. And for a long time the piles of bones of Russian soldiers on the way to the Crimea were white ...
    After the victory at Stavuchan, the Russians occupied Khotin, Yassy and almost all of Moldova.

    As they took it ... they gave it away.

    In general, the whole result of these huge sacrifices and victories is just .... returned Azov (and then-without the right to have a fleet) ... What are these ... victories and "conquered" fear? belay

    and yes, there was no "fear" of the Turks and Tatars either before or after, they were always beaten: both Peter and before Peter and everything after him ...
    1. Undecim
      Undecim 16 September 2020 10: 03 New
      12
      what is this ... "Ukraine" in ... the 1730s?
      The same as in the 1680s.

      A page from the book "Notes of Field Marshal Count Minich", 1874 edition.
      1. Undecim
        Undecim 16 September 2020 10: 17 New
        13

        This is from there. Moreover, not "on", but "in". Probably Minich did not know that Ukraine did not exist then.
        1. Olgovich
          Olgovich 16 September 2020 11: 37 New
          -10
          Quote: Undecim

          This is from there. Moreover, not "on", but "in". Probably Minich did not know that Ukraine did not exist then.

          He is a foreigner - what can you take from him?

          . -And here you tell me: what kind of beast such - "Ukraine" - existed at the end of the 17th century, who ruled, about "Ukrainians", "borders", "device", etc.
          1. Undecim
            Undecim 16 September 2020 11: 48 New
            10
            He is a foreigner - what can you take from him?
            Minich went down in Russian history as an outstanding person who showed himself both in the military and in the civilian field. Therefore, it is not unknown Romanians to doubt his competence.
            And then you know, the comment is not addressed to you, but to those who will read your torrent. Everyone knows perfectly well that a discussion with a former general is a waste of time. All questions - to Minich.
            1. Olgovich
              Olgovich 16 September 2020 12: 18 New
              -8
              Quote: Undecim
              Minich went down in Russian history as an outstanding person who showed himself both in the military and in the civilian field.

              Apparently, therefore, a pigsty was arranged on his grave ..

              Although, yes, no one doubts that the minich was an extraordinary and competent person, a commander and an official
              Quote: Undecim
              Therefore, it is not unknown Romanians to doubt his competence.

              Poor Romanians ... And why did they not please the Romanophobe? request

              By the way, yes, and to whom do you allow? Curiously, with a slobbering lip protruding to the waist (from arrogance) - is it possible? hi
              Quote: Undecim
              And then you know, the comment is not addressed to you, but to those who will read your torrent.

              You know perfectly well that you are not allowed to respond to my comments, moreover, you agreed, and now again incontinent request

              AGAIN: click on "Quote" and confess to your heart's content, otherwise I open the "notice", and there, ... fi ...
              Spare me the phi ... hi
            2. Liam
              Liam 16 September 2020 12: 25 New
              +1
              In vain you run into Romanians. They are decent people. And our great emperor is on the neck of the Moldovan pension fund. In Moldova they are called venetic.
              1. Undecim
                Undecim 16 September 2020 12: 45 New
                10
                In vain you run into Romanians.
                I don't run into Romanians. I characterize only one person, a well-known marginal site.
                1. Olgovich
                  Olgovich 16 September 2020 16: 09 New
                  -5
                  Quote: Undecim
                  I am a marginal from the site.

                  ... That is, you characterize the Curiosity and, as there you were called in previous "lives",. banned forever for obscenities and rudeness...
                  1. Astra wild
                    Astra wild 16 September 2020 19: 44 New
                    +5
                    Olgovich, I know that Viktor Nikolaevich in past lives was: Curios, Tenth, Eleventh, and Curiosity?
                    Р
                    S.
                    In the eyes of a woman, what you said is not entirely ethical.
                    Р
                    D
                    I will not allow rudeness towards Olgovich
              2. Olgovich
                Olgovich 16 September 2020 15: 43 New
                0
                Quote: Liam
                You shouldn't run into Romanians, they are decent people

                Certainly decent. As, however, and everyone else.
                Quote: Liam
                And our great emperor is on the neck of the Moldovan pension fund. In Moldova, such
                moldogastarbeiter - opomiy in italy - envies people who managed to earn at home. and not even interested in what is his cherished and unrealizable dream - a pension of ... 50 euros from the MPF. The real "Europyan" ...

                Envy, yes, one of the worst deadly sins ...
                1. Astra wild
                  Astra wild 16 September 2020 19: 52 New
                  +5
                  About envy I agree and plus
          2. Trilobite Master
            Trilobite Master 16 September 2020 13: 58 New
            11
            Quote: Olgovich
            Tell me: what kind of beast is this - "Ukraine" - existed at the end of the 17th century

            I got the illusion that a certain Operator, well-known here, began to write comments for you, Olgovich. To complete this illusion, it remains to start using the word "suddenly" and give some data on the percentage of haplogroups.
            The rhetoric and the content of your comments have become very similar.
            Perhaps this observation will be a reason for you to think a little ...
            1. Olgovich
              Olgovich 16 September 2020 15: 53 New
              -4
              Quote: Trilobite Master
              I got the illusion of what is behind you

              Don't you know what to do when ... "illusions" arise? request
              Quote: Trilobite Master
              A well-known Operator began to write comments here. To complete this illusion, it remains to start using the word "suddenly" and give some data on the percentage of haplogroups.

              Indeed, strange associations: what caused them? Nothing even close is mentioned ... request
              Quote: Trilobite Master
              The rhetoric and the content of your comments have become very similar.
              Perhaps this observation will be a reason for you to think a little ...

              The strangeness of such an observation makes one think about the observer ... hi
              1. Trilobite Master
                Trilobite Master 16 September 2020 16: 24 New
                +7
                Quote: Olgovich
                The oddities of such an observation make one think about the observer.

                It's as you wish, decide for yourself what to think about, everything that I wanted and could do for you, I did. smile
                Although, I will probably not refrain from remarking that altruism is, of course, a good thing, but in this case, it would probably be more appropriate to think about yourself, leaving the observer to think about "the observer". laughing
                1. Olgovich
                  Olgovich 16 September 2020 16: 31 New
                  -6
                  Quote: Trilobite Master
                  all i am hotel and could do for you, I did.

                  Ie ..... nothing request Was it worth "wanting"?what
                  Quote: Trilobite Master
                  Although, I will probably not refrain from remarking that altruism is, of course, a good thing, but in this case, it would probably be more appropriate to think about yourself, leaving the observer to think about "the observer".

                  The observer himself drew attention to the observer by the appearance of the observer's amazing ... observations.

                  Observed, as it were, and has nothing to do with it. crying

                  Yours faithfully, hi
              2. Astra wild
                Astra wild 16 September 2020 19: 56 New
                +3
                "what should be done when the" illusion "of being baptized arises?
                1. Phil77
                  Phil77 17 September 2020 05: 40 New
                  0
                  Quote: Astra wild
                  are there "illusions" to be baptized?

                  There is a more effective way! Close and sharply open your eyes, several times. If * allusion * has not disappeared ..... then this is not an illusion! wink laughing
                  1. Astra wild
                    Astra wild 17 September 2020 06: 49 New
                    0
                    I'll know. thank
    2. Astra wild
      Astra wild 16 September 2020 19: 35 New
      +5
      Colleague Olgovich, remark and question 1) The "Prut campaign" of Peter 1 was ABSOLUTELY not prepared. So let's not nod at Minich.
      Question: "and Peter and before Peter", when and who beat the Turks before Peter? Isolated cases do not count
      1. rich
        rich 16 September 2020 20: 52 New
        +7
        when and who beat the Turks before Peter?

        Are you serious?
        That is, you do not know about the Don, Yaik, Pridnestrovian and Zaporozhye Cossacks. And what about the "Azov seat"? And about the first Russian-Turkish war 1568-1570. When did the 30-strong brave army of Russian soldiers and Cossacks convey their greetings to the Turkish "builders of Volgodon"? And about the second Russian-Turkish war of 1672-1681, which is called the "Chigirin campaigns"?
        All this was long before the Azov campaigns of Peter hi
        1. Astra wild
          Astra wild 17 September 2020 08: 16 New
          0
          Dmitry, I forgot about the "Azov sitting", I heard the first "Russian-Turkish" war of 1568-1570 in "Good Morning", but there they are very mocking inevitably doubt
          1. rich
            rich 17 September 2020 08: 35 New
            0
            Good morning Vera hi
            in "Good morning", but there they are very mocking inevitably doubt

            That's for sure. Come on, they would be mocking. They just kill with their "knowledge"
            For me personally, this program simply "died" after they told about the Naval Parade in the Botanical (??? !!!) Bay belay Yes, yes - it is in the Botanical, and not in the Bothnian. Experts, damn it fool
      2. Olgovich
        Olgovich 17 September 2020 06: 46 New
        -3
        Quote: Astra wild
        Colleague Olgovich, remark and question 1) The "Prut campaign" of Peter 1 was ABSOLUTELY not prepared. So let's not nod at Minich.

        Peter had much more important (and more than one, like Minich) tasks
        Quote: Astra wild
        Question: "and Peter and before Peter", when and who beat the Turks before Peter? Isolated cases do not count

        The Austrians, Hungarians, spins, the Germans beat them up to Peter.
        Dmitry below answered our ..
  9. Undecim
    Undecim 16 September 2020 09: 46 New
    +5
    I will allow myself a few clarifications.
    Saxon County of Oldenburg
    County Oldenburg is not Saxon. It is an independent county within the Holy Roman Empire, and since 1777 - a duchy.
    Already at the age of 16, our hero entered the service of the French army.
    Minich did not serve in the French army. He was in France improving his fortification when the War of the Spanish Succession began. Villerois Minich rejected the offer to serve as an engineer in the division, as he considered it impossible for himself to fight against his compatriots and left for Hesse-Darmstadt, where he entered military service at the age of 17 with a captain's patent.
    But Minich was in French captivity. He was taken prisoner after being seriously wounded at the Battle of Denene in Flanders.
    1. alpamys
      alpamys 16 September 2020 22: 56 New
      +2
      Quote: Undecim
      I will allow myself a few clarifications.
      Saxon County of Oldenburg
      County Oldenburg is not Saxon. It is an independent county within the Holy Roman Empire, and since 1777 - a duchy.

      something does not agree, a nobleman in the second generation, the title von Münnich means his family is from Munich, where is Saxony from? the Bavarian comes out he.
      1. Undecim
        Undecim 16 September 2020 23: 31 New
        0
        Munich in german München.
        His surname is Mönnich. Münnich is a consequence of an error in the design of the nobility. And his grandfather's estate in Neuenhuntorf - Lower Saxony.
        1. alpamys
          alpamys 17 September 2020 00: 20 New
          +3
          Quote: Undecim
          Munich in german München.
          His surname is Mönnich. Münnich is a consequence of an error in the design of the nobility. And his grandfather's estate in Neuenhuntorf - Lower Saxony.

          I have lived in Bavaria for over 20 years and believe me, the old name is Munich, Munnich or Minnich. pronunciations are different, but the meaning is the same, Myonnih is the same ..
          1. Undecim
            Undecim 17 September 2020 00: 31 New
            +1
            Wolf-Armin von Reitzenstein has lived in Bavaria for 80 years. I trust him much more.
        2. Undecim
          Undecim 17 September 2020 08: 19 New
          +1
          The presence of the thinking apparatus of the minus is of interest.
  10. Catfish
    Catfish 16 September 2020 11: 50 New
    +9
    There is not the slightest doubt that if he were Russian, the assessment of his activities would have been higher.

    For some reason, I immediately remembered the film "Kutuzov", there was a scene where Barclay de Tolly (Nikolai Okhlopkov), walking around the bivouac at night, heard the conversation of soldiers sitting near the fire: "Well, Barclay is a German, he only knows what to retreat ... "The general stopped and said quite calmly -" I am not a German, I am a Scotsman. " - and went further to bypass the camp. And what was it like in his soul? Since he is German, it means that he is doing everything either wrong, or even to the detriment of. It's the same story here ... alas.
    Thank you very much Valery for the article. For me, as always, there was a lot of new in it. smile drinks
    1. Pane Kohanku
      Pane Kohanku 16 September 2020 12: 35 New
      +8
      And what was it like in his soul?

      It was bad ... sad
      Here are his notes from Wikitheka (sorry, the link is long):
      https://ru.wikisource.org/wiki/%D0%98%D0%B7%D0%BE%D0%B1%D1%80%D0%B0%D0%B6%D0%B5%D0%BD%D0%B8%D0%B5_%D0%B2%D0%BE%D0%B5%D0%BD%D0%BD%D1%8B%D1%85_%D0%B4%D0%B5%D0%B9%D1%81%D1%82%D0%B2%D0%B8%D0%B9_%D0%BF%D0%B5%D1%80%D0%B2%D0%BE%D0%B9_%D0%90%D1%80%D0%BC%D0%B8%D0%B8_%D0%B2_1812_%D0%B3%D0%BE%D0%B4%D1%83_(%D0%91%D0%B0%D1%80%D0%BA%D0%BB%D0%B0%D0%B9-%D0%B4%D0%B5-%D0%A2%D0%BE%D0%BB%D0%BB%D0%B8)
      Barclay himself, after his arrival in the army of Kutuzov, was in a kind of "suspended state".
      "Despite the fact that on the night of the nineteenth to the twentieth we received an order to continue the retreat; on the nineteenth, General Bennigsen was appointed by order of the armies chief of the main staff, and Colonel Kaisarov was the duty general under Prince Kutuzov. At the same time, it was announced that their orders should be honored by the orders of The rearguard was ordered to report directly to General Bennigsen and receive instructions from him.
      ....
      But this is still not enough: the troops often received orders from Bennigsen, Kaisarov, Tolya and Kudashev, not only without information from the commander-in-chief of the army, but also from the corps commanders. Then the commanders-in-chief of the armies became completely superfluous. In the army itself, it was difficult to investigate who exactly was in charge, for it was obvious that the prince bore only the name under which his accomplices acted. This arrangement of affairs aroused the parties, and from these came intrigues. The strongest party and having the most extensive influence belonged to Prince Kudashev. Although the army did not have the main information about his joining the society of the commanders, as the son-in-law of Prince Kutuzov, he retained primacy over the others. "

      It can be assumed that Mikhail Illarionovich brought with him "his team", with which he was used to working. And who did not consider it necessary to inform Barclay of their actions.hi
      Further, before Borodin:
      “Towards evening it was noticed that the non-combatant troops were insufficient to cover the old Smolensk road.
      The hull is withdrawn at night to the end of the left flank. Why is it occupied at night by the 3rd building. This order was completed without the slightest information of mine. Colonel Toll arrived at the corps and ordered it to follow him; the adjutant, sent by me with orders to this corps, notified me of this incident. No one knew under whose command he should have been, and it is also unknown to whom he was subject to treat and receive instructions. I presented this to the prince and received in response that the reason for this was a mistake that will not happen again. Each of the commanding persons doubled the troops and had them, without honoring the commander-in-chief with a notification. These circumstances during the case would have cost the death of almost the entire army. "

      All this was further enhanced by Bennigsen's intrigues:
      "General Bennigsen, who is proud of the glory he stole and considers himself the first general in the world! He tries to instill this idea at every opportunity, and even to me he announced this in conversations about various abuses that had settled in the army. Everything that did not come from him or did not he was supposedly condemned. From Vilna itself, he harbored anger against me for the failure of his schemes to gain some influence on the administration of the army. "
      In general, Mikhail Bogdanovich really had a bad time. soldier
      Therefore, I think, Pikul wrote with dignity:
      Raevsky's division stormed Belleville, the Prussians were breaking ahead - insanely daring in the vicinity of a Russian ally. Barclay de Tolly said:
      - The Lord Almighty rewarded me for all my humiliations in the twelfth year ... The end of my life is wonderful!
      And in this rumbling hell of battle, in the nervous cries of commands and the cries of the dying, Orlov was so scared, it was so painful to hear his difficult, male sobs ...

      This is a very worthy hero of our military history!
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 16 September 2020 13: 07 New
        +7

        Today, 12: 25
        +1
        In vain you run into Romanians. They are decent people. And our great emperor is on the neck of the Moldovan pension fund. In Moldova they are called venetic.
        Undecim
        Undecim
        Today, 12: 45
        +2
        In vain you run into Romanians.
        I don't run into Romanians. I characterize only one person, a well-known marginal site.

        Damn, I still do not understand who is arguing with whom and because of what. wassat
        1. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku 16 September 2020 13: 33 New
          +8
          Damn, I still do not understand who is arguing with whom and because of what.

          and it is not necessary. It's their business! laughing The main thing is that you don't argue with anyone. drinks
          1. Catfish
            Catfish 16 September 2020 13: 55 New
            +7
            The main thing is that you don't argue with anyone.

            And I don’t want to, this is a rotten thing. negative
            1. Pane Kohanku
              Pane Kohanku 16 September 2020 14: 10 New
              +6
              And I don’t want to, this is a rotten thing.

              And rightly so! Peace, friendship, pacifism! drinks
              1. Catfish
                Catfish 16 September 2020 14: 35 New
                +6
                It remains only to add about tolerance. laughing
                1. Pane Kohanku
                  Pane Kohanku 16 September 2020 15: 19 New
                  +5
                  It remains only to add about tolerance.

                  Tolerance - no, but a little shocking - that's us forever! wink drinks
                2. Phil77
                  Phil77 16 September 2020 18: 12 New
                  +5
                  Quote: Sea Cat
                  It remains only to add about tolerance.

                  Tolerance? Oops, wrong! Tolerance. wink Here's an aphorism: Whose? I don't know, but it sounds beautiful! So.
                  * True tolerance is that tolerance that is tolerant of a lack of tolerance. *
                  Ufff! It seems to be not confused ..... in tolerances! bully
                  1. Phil77
                    Phil77 16 September 2020 18: 15 New
                    +4
                    Or so.
                    * True tolerance is when the ass is red with rage, and the head smiles and nods in agreement with .... / to choose! /. what
                    1. Catfish
                      Catfish 16 September 2020 18: 45 New
                      +5
                      My first option smile drinks I liked it more. wassat

                      But the second is also nothing. laughing
                      1. Phil77
                        Phil77 16 September 2020 18: 51 New
                        +8
                        Quote: Sea Cat
                        But the second is also nothing.

                        * The next stage of tolerance.
                        It is necessary to forbid the smart to think, so as not to offend the feelings of the stupid. *
                        A question of the near future, eh? angry
        2. bubalik
          bubalik 16 September 2020 15: 52 New
          +8
          did not understand

          ,, from the minutes: ,, - Wanting to watch the fight to the end, I was beaten by both sides "wassat
          1. Catfish
            Catfish 16 September 2020 18: 42 New
            +7
            Cool, Seryozha !!! good laughing
          2. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 16 September 2020 19: 22 New
            +6
            "Blessed are the peacemakers, for they get it from both sides!" (UN troops motto)
          3. Trilobite Master
            Trilobite Master 16 September 2020 19: 27 New
            +7
            Quote: bubalik
            from the protocol:

            Inspired by memories of a stormy youth.
            From the protocol of his confession:
            ... when he fell asleep, I stuck two knife wounds into the field and also went to sleep in the dump where I am temporarily chewing ... It is actually written by hand.

            The spelling and punctuation of the author are preserved. smile
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 16 September 2020 20: 05 New
              +5
              The spelling and punctuation of the author are preserved.
              A piece of paper pasted on the door of the men's room in the drama theater in Pyatigorsk, 1987. "Dissatisfaction".
          4. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 16 September 2020 19: 49 New
            +6
            "I like to walk in the late evening. I take a walk. I met several strong young people. I asked for a smoke. I am lying down. I smoke."
            1. The comment was deleted.
              1. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 16 September 2020 20: 00 New
                +4
                I already read it yesterday.
                1. bubalik
                  bubalik 16 September 2020 20: 08 New
                  +5
                  "On the table a deck, gentlemen, -
                  Marked deck!
                  He changed her. " - "When?" (from)
                  1. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 16 September 2020 20: 21 New
                    +5
                    "Baron, you drank water" (C)
                    "It was April, or maybe March,
                    Birds flew from the south
                    And at this time Bonaparte,
                    I crossed the border "(C)
      2. rich
        rich 16 September 2020 17: 25 New
        +6
        Barclay de Tolly is a very worthy hero of our military history!

        Full Knight of the Order of St. George
        He received the 4th degree of the order in 1794, for the courage which he showed against the Polish rebels and for the difference during the assault on Vilna.
        The Order of the 3rd degree was awarded in 1807, for the bravery and courage that he showed in the battle with the French troops at Pultusk.
        The Order of the 2nd degree was received in 1812 for his participation in the Battle of Borodino.
        For the victory over the French at the Battle of Kulm in 1813, he was awarded the 1st degree of the Order of St. George.
        Mikhail Bogdanovich Barclay de Tolly (1761-1818) - Field Marshal
  11. Trilobite Master
    Trilobite Master 16 September 2020 12: 00 New
    +9
    Khotyn Fortress

    The author, do not mislead readers. We are all smart here and we know history, thank God.
    It is quite obvious that this is the La Rochelle fortress, just watch our historical film about Dartagnan. If the author could not even do this, what kind of knowledge of history on his part can we talk about?
    And before getting the name La Rochelle, it was called Torkilston and belonged to Baron Fron de Boeuf. It's a shame not to know such things, and also a historian ...
    wassat laughing
    But seriously, thank you, Valery, it was interesting and informative.
    The campaigns of Golitsyn, Peter I, Minich and Lassi and their followers Rumyantsev, Suvorov, Kutuzov, Paskevich, Gurko and Skobelev - all these are links in the same chain that eventually led the Russian troops in 1829 and 1878. to Adrianople.
    I remember your point of view on Britain and its relations with Russia, but nevertheless, you must agree, we have never had such "love" as with the Turks, with the British. Ten wars with the Turks, with a total duration of more than forty years in just two centuries, the XVIII and XIX, if you do not count the first war under Ivan the Terrible, it turns out that 20% of all the time Russia was at war with the Ottoman Empire. belay
    And you say Britain. smile
    1. Pane Kohanku
      Pane Kohanku 16 September 2020 12: 17 New
      +6
      The campaigns of Golitsyn, Peter I, Minich and Lassi and their followers Rumyantsev, Suvorov, Kutuzov, Paskevich, Gurko and Skobelev - all these are links in the same chain that eventually led the Russian troops in 1829 and 1878. to Adrianople.

      Michael, I want to add - in 1829 Diebitsch brought the army to Andrianople. For which he received the prefix to the surname Dibich-Zabalkansky, and became one of the four full knights of the Order of St. George (specifically for this campaign, he received the 1st degree).
      By the way, he is also a half-forgotten Russian commander. It was he who signed the Taurgen Convention with York! And, in fact, from that moment on, Prussia once again slowly began to become an ally of Russia against Napoleon. soldier
      You can also mention Kamensky, father and son, and Michelson. drinks
      1. Trilobite Master
        Trilobite Master 16 September 2020 13: 31 New
        +2
        Yes, I forgot about Diebitsch, I agree, without him this series is clearly incomplete. sad
        And so many more can be mentioned.
        The main thing is not to forget Erast Fandorin - that's who the real hero is! smile And the girl with him was some ... that's the same, I forgot. They were still catching a spy in a hot air balloon. smile
        1. Pane Kohanku
          Pane Kohanku 16 September 2020 13: 34 New
          +4
          And so many more can be mentioned.

          Well yes. Three hundred years of wars with Turkey, though. Well, or less.
          1. Trilobite Master
            Trilobite Master 16 September 2020 14: 06 New
            +4
            The first war under Ivan the Terrible (Battle of Molodi). Then there was a hundred years break and it started. For two hundred years, forty years of various wars, not counting the First World War.
            1. Ryazan87
              Ryazan87 16 September 2020 14: 54 New
              +5
              Well, the Turks are more like the Astrakhan expedition. About the Battle of Molodi - doubtful, although the Janissaries are usually mentioned there.
              1. Trilobite Master
                Trilobite Master 16 September 2020 16: 27 New
                +4
                It seems to me that this war can quite rightly be considered the first Russian-Turkish one.
                1. Ryazan87
                  Ryazan87 16 September 2020 16: 30 New
                  +4
                  Quite with a touch of hybridity.
        2. Phil77
          Phil77 16 September 2020 18: 34 New
          +4
          Quote: Trilobite Master
          The main thing is not to forget Erast Fandorin - that's who the real hero is! And the girl with him was some ... that's the same, I forgot. They were still catching a spy in a hot air balloon.

          Greetings Mikhail! Varvarrrra! The girl's name was Varvara, her last name was Suvorov. hi
          1. Trilobite Master
            Trilobite Master 16 September 2020 19: 08 New
            +6
            Hello, Sergey.
            I remember when watching the movie she "pissed me off", however, like the main character. Disgustingly revealed characters, whose actions can only be explained if the entire work is considered a comic farce. I don't remember the film well, but I remember my feelings from the unnaturalness of what is happening perfectly.
            1. Phil77
              Phil77 16 September 2020 19: 27 New
              +5
              So after all, in fact, all of Akunin's fiction is nothing more than a farce. You noticed this correctly, bravo! Fascinating / unattractive / reading for historical * moments *.
              A film adaptation? Yes, just filmed, let's say - * clip *. In Russia, a good movie will not appear soon, if at all. There are no worthy directors, there are no worthy scriptwriters, there are no worthy actors. Really worthy. People !!!!! Not by title, but essentially! Awful ...
              1. Trilobite Master
                Trilobite Master 16 September 2020 19: 41 New
                +5
                I have a mother-in-law (health to her smile ) I was fond of Akunin, I also read a couple of opuses about Fandorin. For me - so-so. Characters, mostly cardboard, some popular prints.
                I saw the film with Menshikov and this one with Lykov as the villain. I liked Menshikov more, probably. There is one phrase there that is simply gorgeous, in my opinion:

                Well said. good The last "hope", though, it seems to me, is superfluous. Such things must be said with complete confidence that they are right, then they make a greater impression. laughing
      2. rich
        rich 16 September 2020 17: 34 New
        +5
        The Imperial Military Order of the Holy Great Martyr and Victorious George was the highest military award of the Russian Empire. The order had 4 degrees of distinction.
        It is interesting that all the degrees of the order differed from each other in the enamel of St. George

        Order of the Holy Great Martyr and Victorious George 1 degree
    2. VLR
      16 September 2020 20: 05 New
      +5
      The Khotyn fortress was also besieged by the Cossacks in the film "Taras Bulba". And in the films "Black Arrow" and "The Adventures of Quentin Dorward" she lit up
      1. Trilobite Master
        Trilobite Master 16 September 2020 20: 55 New
        +6
        You see! And nowhere in the official history is there a word about it!
        Richard the Lionheart is a Russian Cossack, Dartanyan is an Orthodox Armenian in the service of the Russian-Tartar Tsar, this is obvious! Oh sorry, Rusko-Tartar, of course. laughing
  12. Undecim
    Undecim 16 September 2020 12: 25 New
    +7
    As a result, Minikh arranged the Obvodny Canal in St. Petersburg
    Minich never arranged the Obvodny Canal in St. Petersburg. It began to be laid in 1769, two years after the death of Minich. Minikh arranged the Staroladozhsky Canal.
  13. combat192
    combat192 16 September 2020 13: 00 New
    -5
    What are the Ukrainian lands, what is the territory of Ukraine? The author, what are you talking about?
    Have you confused the XNUMXth century with the present one?
  14. bubalik
    bubalik 16 September 2020 13: 07 New
    +8
    ,,, eh fellow , since such a booze has gone, yes I'll bring in my own five kopecks. I hope Dear Author will not mind.?
    Coat of arms of the family of Counts Minich.

    In the shield, divided into four parts, in the middle on a gold stripe there is a small silver shield decorated with an count's crown, which depicts a standing barefoot monk in a black robe, holding a rosary in his hands raised up. On the sides of this shield, a half-split black eagle with crowns on each of the two heads is visible, and in its paws it holds golden maces decorated with the Russian-imperial eagle. In the first part, a silver swan is depicted in a blue field. In the second part, there are two overturned red rafters in a silver field. In the third part there are three red trefoil flowers in a silver field. In the fourth section, a brick battlement is visible in a blue field, and a rising silver moon above it. Between these last fields, in the lower part, there is a pyramid built of bricks with a golden pillar erected on it, entwined with two snakes. At the top of this pillar is the golden head of Janus in a jagged crown. The shield is crowned with three helmets decorated with kleinods, of which the middle one is covered with a count's crown, on which two Turkish banners are visible, of which the right one is white, and the left one is red and have: the first is a golden moon, and the second is a silver moon, and behind these banners, between the outstretched silver eagle wings, a monk is depicted, described in a small shield. On the extreme helmets, decorated on the right side with a princely hat, and on the left with a noble crown, there are three Turkish white bunchuks each, hanging with wattle fences on golden rods with white and red brushes at the top. Shield holders - two warriors dressed in armor, having over their helmets on their heads: the one standing on the right side has a stone crown, and in the right hand a geometric drawing, standing on the left side - three ostrich feathers (red, silver and black), and with his left hand holds on his shoulder carbine. The basting on the shield is blue and red, enclosed in gold and silver.

    Count Burgard Christopher Minich comes from an ancient noble family. His ancestor Minich was first in Bavaria, then in Eastfriesland, and finally settled in the County of Oldenburg, owned estates there; and of the same kind Anton Ginter Minich was granted the dignity of a Danish nobleman by the fifth Christian King of Denmark in 1686.

    In modern times, the aforementioned Count Burgard Christopher Minich, while in the Russian service, acquired the name and glory of his whole family by his efforts and exploits for the service and benefit of the Russian State.

    Blessed and eternally worthy of memory, Emperor PETER II, in 1728 February on the 24th day, All-mercifully deigned to build this Minich and his offspring into the Count's All-Russian Empire dignity.

    This same Russian Empire, Count Minich, was also granted by the Count of the Roman Empire, which is proved by the Diploma given to him in February 1742 for 4 days, from which the translation is kept in the Herald.



    The image of the coat of arms of Counts Minikhov in the certificate of honor prepared on behalf of the im John VI (Antonovich) to Field Marshal B. Minikh for the title of count
    1. Pane Kohanku
      Pane Kohanku 16 September 2020 13: 38 New
      +6
      once such a booze has gone, yes, I'll bring in my five cents.

      Why do you come so chaotically, you are our fickle? drinks We've been waiting for Sergei for weeks, but he's gone and gone ... sad and suddenly - shast! fellow And immediately information with pictures! good
      1. bubalik
        bubalik 16 September 2020 13: 45 New
        +4
        ,,,
        waiting for weeks
        stop
        1. Astra wild
          Astra wild 16 September 2020 20: 07 New
          +4
          Sergey "bubalik", your last picture, some people may not understand correctly. Are you not afraid of this?
      2. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 16 September 2020 19: 58 New
        +6
        It's just that some marginal people, on weekdays, during working hours, have the audacity to work !!!
  15. tolancop
    tolancop 16 September 2020 14: 37 New
    +5
    Thanks to the author for the great material !!! I read and enjoyed myself. Unfortunately, nowadays there are few such materials on VO. But this only increases the value of publications like this one.
  16. DrEng527
    DrEng527 16 September 2020 14: 57 New
    +5
    Interesting - thanks to the author for the poorly known pages of the history of Russia ...
  17. faterdom
    faterdom 16 September 2020 18: 33 New
    +3
    In the novel "Word and Deed" Minich, at the behest of the writer, found himself in the camp of the enemies of the "patriots of Russia". V. Pikul also reluctantly told about Minich's victories, but in such a way that it becomes clear to everyone: the visiting German only knew how to overwhelm enemies with corpses and blood of Russian soldiers.

    I disagree, Valentin Savich was the first of our writers to return to history, in its popular form, the name of Burkhard Minich, and fully set out one of his grandiose deeds: the capture of the capital of the Crimean Tatars. It was no longer a bell, but a bell for the Turks and their allies, they began to beat strongly from the north. And it was Minich.
    And the history textbooks of that time were very sparse: Peter I, Menshikov, Poltava, Anna Ioannovna with Biron, Catherine II, Suvorov, Pugachev, Pavel I. Yes, also Lomonosov and Salavat Yulaev. All!
    There were no Minikhovs and Lassi, Rumyantsev and Potemkin - in passing ... There is no connection between history and such an approach.
    And Pikul has rediscovered this most important century for Russia and its actors.
  18. Astra wild
    Astra wild 16 September 2020 20: 01 New
    +4
    Valery, and the portrait of Minich is 1848, scratched I hope the original is intact?
    1. VLR
      16 September 2020 20: 38 New
      +4
      I'm afraid this is a photograph of the original.
  19. Astra wild
    Astra wild 16 September 2020 20: 08 New
    +5
    Quote: DrEng527
    Interesting - thanks to the author for the poorly known pages of the history of Russia ...

    And therefore it is especially interesting.
  20. 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 16 September 2020 20: 44 New
    +2
    Thank you, Valery!
  21. 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 16 September 2020 20: 49 New
    +3
    By the way, Valery, it's a pity that your literary prototype character cycle has come to naught.
    1. VLR
      16 September 2020 20: 59 New
      +2
      Do you mean articles about Herbert of Aurillac and currency with Bulgakov's parallels, or earlier articles about the Musketeers, Munchausen and others?
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 16 September 2020 21: 10 New
        +4
        Earlier ones, of course. De Bergerac, Müchhausen, musketeers (this one was enchanting!). But there are also historical literary plots that have become common nouns, with real prototypes. The same "Robinson Crusoe", "The Legend of Ulenspiegel", "Ivanhoe" ...
        1. VLR
          16 September 2020 21: 22 New
          +5
          Perhaps I will write one more this year
        2. Lexus
          Lexus 16 September 2020 22: 50 New
          +5
          Antonhi I remembered a plot from the French film "Love from All Diseases" (2014).

          I still had to explain to the judge why I was arrested as Jean Valjean, deported as Anton Miroslav, and returned from Chypkistan as Cyrano de Bergerac. All this is not very legal ... But the French police really wanted to hide the fact of issuing an international arrest warrant for Victor Hugo, so we managed to solve this story amicably.