Military Review

Swedish trade with Germany: ore, coal and tulips

42

Norwegian electric locomotive NSB El 12 pulls ore train to Narvik. This is a post-war photo, but the line is the same.


Trade between Sweden and Germany during the war is usually viewed exclusively through the prism of the supply of Swedish ore. Moreover, a pseudo-knowledge even developed around this issue, when it is asserted that the Swedish iron ore had a certain special quality, therefore the Germans appreciated it. There is some truth in this, however, even very knowledgeable authors do not know all the details regarding Swedish ore, which once determined its supply to Germany and its use in ferrous metallurgy.

In addition to ore, the Swedish-German trade included a number of other items. In addition, Sweden traded not only with Germany itself, but also with the occupied territories: Norway, Holland, Belgium. In other words, Sweden, despite its neutral status, was de facto an important part of the occupation economy built by the Germans during the war.

Swedes tried to please the Germans


Swedish neutrality was maintained, as already mentioned in previous article, on treaties with Germany, and there were quite a few of these treaties. Sweden entered into close economic relations with Germany in the mid-1920s, providing several loans to cover reparations payments under the Dawes and Jung plan.

After the Nazis came to power, a new era began, in which the Swedes quickly realized the aggressive nature of German politics, realized that they had no chance of opposing the Germans in any form, and therefore behaved very courteously towards German trade and economic interests.

The RGVA funds preserved two cases, which contain the minutes of negotiations between the Swedish and German government committees on payment and commodity circulation (Regierungsausschuß für Fragen des Zahlungs- und Warenverkehr) for 1938-1944. All protocols and materials to them are labeled "Vertraulich" or "Streng Vertraulich", that is, "Secret" or "Top secret".

The committees at the meetings held in Stockholm discussed the size of trade between the two countries, the volume and range of supplies from each side, so that the amount of payments from both sides would be balanced. In fact, it was interstate barter, since Germany had almost no freely convertible currency, and with the start of the war, the free quotation of the Reichsmark stopped. The Germans replaced the freie Reichsmark with the so-called. register mark (die Registermark), which was used when comparing the cost of mutual goods deliveries. The "register mark" appeared before the war and was used for some time together with the free Reichsmark, and, say, on the London Stock Exchange the value of the "register mark" was 56,5% of the free mark at the end of 1938 and 67,75% on the last peace day , 30 August 1939 (Bank für internationale Zahlungsausgleich. Zehnter Jahresbericht, 1. April 1939 - 31-März 1940. Basel, 27. Mai 1940, S. 34).

After discussing all the issues and agreeing on the volume and cost of supplies, the commissions drew up a protocol, which was binding on both parties. The bodies authorized for foreign trade in both countries (in Germany these were the sectoral Reichsstelle) were obliged to authorize imports and exports only within the framework of the concluded agreements. Buyers of imported goods paid for them in national currency, in Reichsmarks or Swedish kronor, and exporters received payment for their products in national currency. Banks in Sweden and Germany netted deliveries and made other payments as needed.

Such meetings were held regularly, since the trading plan was drawn up for each year. Therefore, the minutes of these negotiations reflected many aspects of the Swedish-German trade during the war.

In trade agreements with Germany, the Swedes paid great attention to the ongoing territorial changes. Let not the next day, but rather quickly German representatives arrived in Stockholm and an agreement was concluded on trade in new conditions. For example, on March 12-13, 1938, Austria joined the Reich, and on May 19-21, 1938, negotiations were held on payment and commodity circulation with the former Austria (RGVA, f. 1458, op. 44, d. 1, l. 8 ).

On March 15, 1939, the Czech Republic was occupied and part of its territory was turned into the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia. From May 22 to May 31, 1939, the issue of trade with this protectorate was discussed in Stockholm, the parties agreed to carry out settlements in free currency (RGVA, f. 1458, op. 44, d. 1, l. 42). On June 3, 1939, a separate trade protocol was signed with the Sudetenland, included in the territory of the Reich.

These territorial changes could have been denied, especially in the case of Czechoslovakia, and this would have had little impact on Swedish-German trade. However, the Swedes were clearly trying to please Germany, as indicated at least by the protocol on trade with the Sudetenland. It is unlikely that Swedish trade interests in this region, cut off from Czechoslovakia, were so great as to be considered separately, but the Swedes did this in order to demonstrate their position friendly to Germany.

At the end of 1939, the Germans thanked the Swedes. On December 11-22, 1939, negotiations took place in Stockholm, in which a trade procedure was developed, which was then used throughout the war. On January 1, 1940, all previous protocols were canceled and a new protocol was introduced, already with a delivery plan. Sweden was granted the right to export to the new Greater German Reich and territories under its control in the amount of exports to Germany, Czechoslovakia and Poland in 1938. Swedish interests did not suffer from the start of the war (RGVA, f. 1458, op. 44, d. 1, l. 63).

What Germany and Sweden Traded


At the end of 1939, Sweden and Germany agreed that they would sell to each other during the war.

Sweden could export to Germany:
Iron ore - 10 million tons.
Charcoal iron - 20 thousand tons.
Pine oil (Tallöl) - 8 thousand tons.
Ferrosilicon - 4,5 thousand tons.
Silicomanganese - 1 thousand tons.

Germany could export to Sweden:
Bituminous coal - up to 3 million tons.
Coke - up to 1,5 million tons.
Rolled steel - up to 300 thousand tons.
Coke iron - up to 75 thousand tons.
Potash salts - up to 85 thousand tons.
Glauber's salt - up to 130 thousand tons.
Edible salt - up to 100 thousand tons.
Soda ash - up to 30 thousand tons.
Caustic soda - up to 5 thousand tons.
Liquid chlorine - up to 14 thousand tons (RGVA, f. 1458, op. 44, d. 1, l. 63-64).

In January 1940, another meeting was held at which the cost of the supplies was calculated. From the Swedish side - 105,85 million Reichsmarks, from the German side - 105,148 million Reichsmarks (RGVA, f. 1458, op. 44, file 1, l. 74). German deliveries were less by 702 thousand Reichsmarks. However, the Swedes almost always made additional requests related to the supply of small quantities of various chemicals, pharmaceuticals, machinery and equipment; they were satisfied with this remainder.

By the end of the war, Swedish-German trade had grown significantly in value and new commodity items appeared in it, which somewhat changed the structure of trade. As a result of the negotiations December 10, 1943 - January 10, 1944, the trade turnover was as follows:

Swedish export to Germany:
Iron ore - 6,2 million tons (1944 deliveries), - 0,9 million tons (the remainder of 1943).
Burnt pyrite - 150 thousand tons.
Ferrosilicon - 2,8 thousand tons.
Pig iron and steel - 40 thousand tons.
Zinc ore - 50-55 thousand tons.
Bearings - 18 million Reichsmarks.
Machine tools - 5,5 million Reichsmarks.
Bearing machines - 2,6 million Reichsmarks.
Wood - 50 million Reichsmarks.
Cellulose for artificial fiber - 125 thousand tons.
Sulphated cellulose - 80 thousand tons.

German exports to Sweden:
Bituminous coal - 2,240 million tons.
Coke - 1,7 million tons.
Rolled steel - 280 thousand tons.
Potash salts - 41 thousand tons.
Glauber's salt - 50 thousand tons.
Rock and table salt - 230 thousand tons.
Soda ash - 25 thousand tons.
Calcium chloride - 20 thousand tons (RGVA, f. 1458, op. 44, d. 2, l. 54-56).

From this data, boring at first glance, a couple of interesting conclusions can be drawn.

First, food, oil and petroleum products are completely absent in the Swedish-German trade. If the lack of food is more or less explained by the fact that Sweden provided itself and did not need to be imported, then the lack of oil products is surprising. Sweden needed about 1 million tons of oil products per year, while Germany did not supply them. Hence, there were other sources. Most likely, transit from Romania and Hungary, but not only. Also, the Swedes had a "window" for the purchase of oil products, but where they purchased them and how they were delivered remains unknown.

Second, the Swedes and Germans traded almost exclusively in industrial raw materials, chemicals and equipment. A large amount of salt that Sweden bought in Germany went to the needs of the agro-industrial sector: potash salts - fertilizer, edible salt - preservation of fish and meat, calcium chloride - a food additive in canning vegetables, meat, dairy products and bread, Glauber's salt - most likely in total, use in large refrigeration plants. Soda ash is also a food additive and a component of detergents. Caustic soda is also a detergent. Thus, a significant part of the trade was aimed at strengthening the food situation in Sweden and, probably, creating food stocks, which is understandable in those conditions.

Barter economy


With the mediation of Germany, Sweden also traded with the occupied territories. Just two weeks after the final occupation of Norway, which took place on June 16, 1940, negotiations were held in Stockholm on July 1-6, 1940 to resume Swedish-Norwegian trade. The parties agreed, and from that moment on, Sweden's trade with Norway was conducted on the same basis as with Germany, that is, through barter.

The volume of trade was small, about 40-50 million Reichsmarks per year, and also consisted almost entirely of raw materials and chemicals. In the first half of 1944, Norway supplied to Sweden sulfur and pyrite, nitric acid, calcium carbide, calcium nitrate, aluminum, zinc, graphite and so on. Swedish exports to Norway consisted of machinery and equipment, cast iron, steel and metal products (RGVA, f. 1458, op. 44, d. 2, l. 12).

Likewise, and at about the same time, Swedish trade with occupied Holland and Belgium was organized. It was somewhat more interesting than with Norway, and completely different in structure.

Sweden mainly exported to Holland sawn timber and pulp in the amount of 6,8 million Reichsmarks, or 53,5% of the total export, amounting to 12,7 million Reichsmarks.

Swedish purchases in Holland:
Tulip bulbs - 2,5 million Reichsmarks.
Food salt - 1,3 million Reichsmarks (35 thousand tons).
Artificial silk - 2,5 million Reichsmarks (600 tons).
Radio equipment - 3,8 million Reichsmarks.
Machinery and equipment - 1 million Reichsmarks (RGVA, f. 1458, op. 44, d. 2, l. 95).

The trade with Belgium was much more modest, and the whole exchange had a volume of only 4,75 million Reichsmarks.

Sweden exported pulp, machinery and bearings to Belgium and received from there:
Tulip bulbs - 200 thousand Reichsmarks.
Photo materials - 760 thousand Reichsmarks.
X-ray film - 75 thousand Reichsmarks.
Glass - 150 thousand Reichsmarks.
Machinery and equipment - 450 thousand Reichsmarks.
Artificial silk - 950 thousand Reichsmarks (240 tons).
Calcium chloride - 900 thousand Reichsmarks (15 thousand tons) - (RGVA, f. 1458, op. 44, d. 2, l. 96).

Purchases of tulip bulbs for 2,7 million Reichsmarks are certainly impressive. Someone fought, and someone decorated flower beds.

Swedish trade with Germany: ore, coal and tulips

Tulip bulbs. It was necessary to recruit a whole vessel of tulips for the batch to reach 2,7 million Reichsmarks

Germany tried to bring all trade in continental Europe under her control. Taking advantage of the fact that during the war all sea and rail transport in Europe was under German control, German trade authorities acted as intermediaries in a wide variety of transactions between different countries. Sweden could supply different consignments of goods in exchange for other goods. The Germans created a kind of trading bureau, in which applications and proposals were brought together and it was possible to choose what to change for. For example, Bulgaria asked Sweden for 200 tons of shoe nails and 500 tons of shoe shoes in exchange for sheepskin leather. Spain offered Sweden to supply 200 tons of pulp in exchange for 10 tons of sweet almonds. There was also a proposal from Spain to supply bearings in exchange for lemons (RGVA, f. 1458, op. 44, d. 17, l. 1-3). And so on.

Such a barter economy, apparently, has received a fairly large development, all countries and territories of Europe were involved in it, regardless of their status: neutrals, Germany's allies, occupied territories, protectorates.

The intricacies of the iron ore trade


Much has been written about Sweden's export of iron ore to Germany, but mostly in the most general words and expressions, but technical details are very difficult to find. The protocols of negotiations between the Swedish and German government commissions retained some important details.

First. Sweden supplied Germany mainly with phosphorous iron ore. The ore was divided into grades depending on the content of impurities, mainly phosphorus, and this was taken into account in the supplies.

For example, in 1941, Sweden had to supply the following grades of iron ore.

High in phosphorus:
Kiruna-D - 3180 thousand tons.
Gällivare-D - 1250 thousand tons.
Grängesberg - 1300 thousand tons.

Low in phosphorus:
Kiruna-A - 200 thousand tons.
Kiruna-B - 220 thousand tons.
Kiruna-C - 500 thousand tons.
Gällivare-C - 250 thousand tons.

Apatite mining tailings - 300 thousand tons (RGVA, f. 1458, op. 44, d. 1, l. 180).

Total: 5730 thousand tons of phosphorous iron ore and 1470 thousand tons of low-phosphorus ore. The ore with low phosphorus content accounted for about 20% of the total volume. In principle, it is not difficult to find out that the ore in Kiruna is phosphorous. But in numerous works on stories of the German economy during the war, this moment is not noted by anyone, although it is very important.

Most of the German iron and steel industry produced pig iron from phosphorous ore and then processed it into steel by the Thomas process in converters with compressed air blowing and adding limestone. In 1929, out of 13,2 million tons of cast iron, Thomas-cast iron (the Germans used a special term for it - Thomasroheisen) accounted for 8,4 million tons, or 63,6% of the total production (Statistisches Jahrbuch für die Eisen- und Stahlindustrie. 1934 Düsseldorf, Verlag Stahliesen mbH, 1934 S. 4). The raw material for it was imported ore: either from the mines of Alsace and Lorraine, or from Sweden.


Völklinger Hütte is one of the largest iron and steel works in Germany that processed phosphorous iron ore

However, the Alsatian and Lorraine ore, which the Germans captured again in 1940, was very poor, 28-34% iron content. The Swedish Kiruna ore was, on the contrary, rich, from 65 to 70% iron content. The Germans, of course, could also melt the poor ore. In this case, the coke consumption increased 3-5 times, and the blast furnace operated, in fact, as a gas generator, with a by-product of pig iron and slag. But one could simply mix rich and poor ores and get a charge of quite decent quality. The addition of 10-12% lean ore did not worsen the smelting conditions. Therefore, the Germans bought Swedish ore not only for the sake of a good yield of pig iron, but also for the possibility of economical use of the Alsatian-Lorraine ore. In addition, phosphorus fertilizer arrived along with the ore, which was beneficial, since phosphorites were also imported in Germany.

Thomas steel, however, was more fragile than grades smelted from ore with a low phosphorus content, so it was mainly used for construction metal rolling and sheet.

Second. The enterprises that processed phosphorous ore were concentrated in the Rhine-Westphalian region, which caused the requirement for sea transport. Almost 6 million tons of ore was to be delivered to the mouth of the Ems river, from where the Dortmund-Ems canal begins, connecting with the Rhine-Herne canal, on which the largest German metallurgical centers are located.

With the seizure of the Norwegian port of Narvik, it would seem that there should be no problems with export. But problems arose. If before the war 5,5 million tons of ore went through Narvik, and 1,6 million tons of ore through Luleå, then in 1941 the situation changed to the opposite. Narvik sent 870 thousand tons of ore, and Luleå - 5 million tons (RGVA, f. 1458, op. 44, d. 1, l. 180). This was possible because both ports were connected to Kirunavara by an electrified railway.


Scheme of a railway line in northern Sweden connecting mines with seaports

The reason was obvious. The North Sea became unsafe and many captains refused to go to Narvik. In 1941, they began to pay a military premium for the delivery of goods, but this did not particularly help. The premium rate for Narvik was from 4 to 4,5 Reichmarks per ton of cargo, and it did not at all compensate for the risk of getting a torpedo in the side or a bomb in the hold. Therefore, the ore went to Luleå and other Baltic ports in Sweden. From there, the ore was transported by a safer route from the Baltic along the Danish coast or along the Kiel Canal to its destination.

Freight rates were much more lenient than in Finland. For example, the Danzig-Luleå coal freight ranged from 10 to 13,5 crowns per ton of coal and from 12 to 15,5 crowns per ton of coke (RGVA, f. 1458, op. 44, d. 1, l. 78-79) ... The rates were approximately the same for ore. The ratio of the Swedish krona to the "Registered Reichsmark", as can be calculated from the minutes of January 12, 1940, was 1,68: 1, that is, 1 krone 68 ore per Reichsmark. Then the cheap freight Danzig - Luleå was 5,95 Reichsmarks per ton, and the expensive one was 9,22 Reichsmarks. There was also a commission on freight: 1,25% and 0,25 Reichsmarks per tonne was the fee for storage in a warehouse in the port.

Why was Finnish freight so expensive compared to Swedish? Firstly, the danger factor: the route to Helsinki passed near enemy (that is, Soviet) waters, there could be attacks from the Baltic Fleet and aviation... Secondly, the return traffic from Finland was obviously less and irregular, in contrast to the transport of coal and ore. Thirdly, there was clearly the influence of high political circles, in particular Goering: Swedish ore, as a vital resource for the Reich, had to be transported cheaply, but let the Finns be ripped off by freight companies as they want.

Third. The fact that the ore went to Luleå had negative consequences. Before the war, Narvik had three times the capacity, huge ore storage facilities, and it did not freeze. Luleå was a small port, with less developed storage and transshipment facilities, and the Gulf of Bothnia was frozen. This all limited transportation.

As a result, the Germans started with Napoleonic plans, setting a limit on the export of Swedish ore at the level of 11,48 million tons for 1940. The next year, at the negotiations on November 25 - December 16, 1940, the German position changed: the restrictions were lifted (RGVA, f. 1458, op. 44, d. 1, l. 119). It turned out that so much ore cannot be taken out of Sweden. Germany received about 1940 million tons of iron ore in 7,6, and there was still a shortfall of 820 thousand tons of ore. For 1941, an agreement was reached on the supply of 7,2 million tons of ore with additional purchases of 460 thousand tons, and the entire volume with the remainder of last year reached 8,480 million tons. At the same time, the possibilities for export were estimated at 6,85 million tons, that is, by the end of 1941, 1,63 million tons of unloaded ore should have accumulated (RGVA, f. 1458, op. 44, d. 1, l. 180).

And in 1944 the parties agreed on the supply of 7,1 million tons of ore (6,2 million tons of mined and 0,9 million tons of the remaining supplies of 1943). 1,175 million tons were shipped by the end of March 1944. A monthly loading plan was drawn up for the remaining 5,9 million tons for April-December 1944, within which loading was to increase 2,3 times, from 390 thousand tons to 920 thousand tons per month (RGVA, f. 1458, op. 44, d. 2, l. 4). However, the Germans also severely under-supplied coal to Sweden. At the end of December 1943, they had 1 million tons of undelivered coal and 655 thousand tons of coke. These remnants were included in the treaty for 1944 (RGVA, f. 1458, op. 44, d. 2, l. 63-64).

In general, from a more detailed examination of the intricacies of the Swedish-German trade, it becomes not only clear and obvious, but also well perceptible that Sweden, despite its neutral status, was de facto part of the German occupation economy. It is worth noting that the part is very profitable. Germany spent on Swedish trade the resources she had in excess (coal, mineral salts), and did not spend scarce resources, such as oil or oil products.
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  1. rich
    rich 15 September 2020 05: 16 New
    12
    Sweden entered into close economic relations with Germany in the mid-1920s, providing several loans to cover reparation payments under the Dawes and Jung plan.

    After the First World War, reparations were ordered to Germany, which was found to be the culprit. By 1922, it was this problem that had come to the fore. Germany was unable to pay its bills, and the country began an economic crisis. This was taken advantage of by France, which, joining forces with the Belgian, occupied the Ruhr region, in which the entire German heavy raw materials industry was concentrated. This caused an intensification of the crisis in the country, inflation began, and in the Ruhr region the population fought against the occupation power by means of sabotage and strikes.
    The Ruhr conflict quickly grew into an international one - Great Britain and the United States did not want France to strengthen on the European continent, so they immediately intervened in the situation. It was decided to convene a conference to resolve reparation issues.
    The London Conference was convened in 1924. It adopted a plan to stabilize the economies of European countries, developed by the American banker Charles Dawes. The Dawes plan was intended to solve most of the economic problems of Europe, moreover, it fully corresponded to the interests of the United States.
    Basic terms of the Dawes plan:
    1. France and Belgium left the Ruhr.
    2. Germany was obliged to pay reparations on time.
    3. The USA offered Germany a loan to pay off the first reparations bills.
    4. In Germany, conditions were created for foreign investment in the economy.
    5. Germany opened its markets to imports from the United States.
    6. International control over the finances of Germany was abolished.
    7. According to the Dawes plan, Germany was to move its foreign market to the countries of Eastern Europe and the USSR - thus France, England and the USA got rid of the main trade competitor in Europe.
    A new step in solving the problem of reparations was the "Jung's plan" adopted in 1929 in The Hague, developed by the American businessman O. Jung. Under this plan, Germany's reparations were reduced to 2 billion marks for the next 37 years. All forms of international economic and financial control over Germany were abolished. The Bank for International Settlements was created, designed primarily to support heavy industry in Germany.
    In general, Jung's plan was structured in such a way that it strengthened the position of large capital in Germany. It was these forces that later brought the Nazis to power.
  2. rich
    rich 15 September 2020 05: 26 New
    11
    Sweden not only traded with Germany during the war
    During the German attack on the USSR, neutral Sweden allowed the Wehrmacht to use the Swedish railways to transport (June-July 1941) the German 163rd Infantry Division, along with howitzers, tanks, anti-aircraft guns and ammunition for them from Norway to Finland.
    In the last year of the war, Sweden received refugees from Germany and the Baltic states. In June 1945, the Soviet Union demanded the extradition of about two thousand soldiers who arrived in Sweden in German military uniform. Most of them were Germans. The Swedish government refused to extradite them, as did the 30 civilians who fled to the country. However, at the beginning of 1946, 145 Baltic legionnaires and 227 Germans who had committed war crimes on the territory of the USSR were extradited to the Soviet Union. At the same time, most of the Nazi soldiers, including Swedes, remained in the country and were not punished for their crimes.
    1. The leader of the Redskins
      The leader of the Redskins 15 September 2020 06: 18 New
      +9
      Maybe in some kind of ridiculous nuances I will be wrong, but it is reprehensible to blame Sweden for something. Yes, she traded with Germany during the war. But she remained neutral. (Individual volunteer formations and groups of individuals in the Wehrmacht and the anti-fascist movement are not counted).
      Trade and service? Not prohibited, if I'm not mistaken. We also had trade when the world war marched across Poland, Holland, Great Britain.
      And in Switzerland, in addition to the banking system, there was also an OFFICIAL (!) Point for the exchange of propaganda films between the warring parties!
      So the proverb "business and nothing personal" was relevant at that time more than ever
      1. Niel-le-Calais
        Niel-le-Calais 19 September 2020 21: 14 New
        +2
        Quote: Leader of the Redskins
        Maybe in some legal nuances I will be wrong, but it is reprehensible to blame Sweden for something. Yes, she traded with Germany during the war. But she remained neutral.

        And it's always convenient to blame someone.
        Especially when everyone is doing it.
        For example, the author blames Sweden.
        Someone blames the USSR.
        So what, they all traded as neutrals. WHAT US and Mexico are oiling with Germany being neutrals. that the USSR. that Sweden. For the latter, these agreements and neutrality were, in general, the salvation from the occupation. Don't be a "window" Even for coffee supplies!
        If you look at the map of the occupation, then all the neighbors are occupied quickly. And Finland is actually Germany's ally. Even if you consider that Sweden has always helped Finland. What's in the Winter War what's in the Second World War This is the younger sister of Sweden. They hold on to each other there.
        By the way, who will blame Sweden for its deed of rescuing POW camps from Germany?
        For a loan from the USSR in 1946?
        In 1946, Sweden issued a loan to the USSR in the amount of 20 billion kroons (in 2015 prices) for a period of 5 years.
        For helping the hungry (Greece for example)
        During the war, Sweden was the organizer of several humanitarian actions: in 1942 - grain deliveries to Greece, whose population was experiencing hunger. The Netherlands also received similar assistance. Folke Bernadotte, vice-president of the Swedish Red Cross, negotiated with Nazi leader G. Himmler at the end of the war to free Norwegian and Danish Resistance members from German concentration camps. Gradually Himmler agreed to this. The liberated were transported to Sweden on the so-called "white buses".
        For the rescue and transfer of the Soviet military from the Baltic States (sailed there during the Second World War)
        Sweden interned a number of Soviet servicemen who sailed to its territory in 1941 from Estonia. In addition, Soviet prisoners of war ended up in Sweden, who were also interned. In 1944, the Swedish authorities repatriated part of the Soviet military personnel to the USSR. As of October 31, 1944, 916 people (all prisoners of war) were repatriated from Sweden to the USSR, as of December 30, 1944, the number of repatriated to the Soviet Union from Sweden was already 1289 people (of which 1263 prisoners of war and 26 civilians)
        About oil for the author is a mystery.
        Yes, the same path as for coffee. And also Mexico (by the way, 20% of oil for Germany is also it)
    2. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 15 September 2020 07: 05 New
      13
      It should be noted that Sweden also accepted tens of thousands of refugees from occupied Norway. About 15 thousand of them became part of the anti-fascist paramilitary organizations, although they did not manifest themselves in any way.
    3. Olgovich
      Olgovich 15 September 2020 07: 56 New
      +2
      Quote: Rich
      neutral Sweden allowed the Wehrmacht to use Swedish railways to transport (June-July 1941) the German 163rd Infantry Division

      If only: more than TWO MILLION German soldiers were transported to WWII along the railway of Chevtia.
  3. Alex013
    Alex013 15 September 2020 07: 28 New
    +3
    A little detailed about the structure of exports / imports of Sweden in the 30-50s

    https://svspb.net/sverige/export-import-shvecii-vtoroj-mirovoj.php

    There was information about our purchases of drilling rigs of the Krelius type with diamond heads in Sweden.
  4. Olgovich
    Olgovich 15 September 2020 07: 52 New
    +5
    Sweden needed about 1 million tons of oil products per year, while Germany did not supply them. Hence, there were other sources. Most likely, transit from Romania and Hungary, but not only. where they acquired them and how they delivered them remains unknown
    .
    In the West: In 1940, the Germans and the British laid minefields from the southern coast of Norway to the northern tip of Jutland. Sweden could not conduct free maritime trade. BUT the Government succeeded at the end of 1940, he will agree with the Germans and the British on limited shipping traffic with Western countries through mined areas. It was the so-called"guaranteed shipping"... Thus, Sweden could import certain goods important for it and Nazi Germany, above all, oil and even coffee.

    The Swedish Nazis fought against the USSR and were taken prisoner as part of the Finnish and German army-demets of the Swedes.

    At the same time, Jewish refugees from Europe found refuge in Sweden ....
  5. silberwolf88
    silberwolf88 15 September 2020 08: 30 New
    -1
    All of Europe was built (plowed on) into the economy of the Reich ... there were no "neutrals" there, each had its own purpose and price ... supposedly neutral states were a hub of trade with the rest of the World (like officially fighting the Nazis) ...
    all such countries made their feasible contribution to the war of the united forces of the Nazis of Europe with the USSR ... BUT broke off ...
    1. Elturisto
      Elturisto 15 September 2020 21: 29 New
      +2
      It is not clear what kind of utyrk minus your efficient post ...
      1. silberwolf88
        silberwolf88 16 September 2020 21: 21 New
        -1
        these are those who support European values ​​... like gays but translated into Russian)))
  6. Undecim
    Undecim 15 September 2020 08: 56 New
    +4
    In trade agreements with Germany, the Swedes paid great attention to the ongoing territorial changes
    Did the Swedes have a choice?

    Map of Europe for June 1941. What options did the Swedes have?
    1. Blacksmith 55
      Blacksmith 55 15 September 2020 09: 34 New
      +4
      Your map does not match June 1941.
      For example, the border with Finland.
      Perhaps this is a map BEFORE the Soviet - Finnish war.
      1. Undecim
        Undecim 15 September 2020 10: 38 New
        +8
        This is not my card. This is a map from a book The Economics of Neutrality: Spain, Sweden and Switzerland in the
        Second world war

        Obviously, the author considered that it does not matter in this case. Moreover, in August the Finns returned to the old border.
    2. Niel-le-Calais
      Niel-le-Calais 19 September 2020 21: 21 New
      +2
      Quote: Undecim
      What options did the Swedes have?

      no one except the author will blame them.
      We survived by trading and helping everyone.
      In a situation where they are swatted like a fly, this is ideal.
      However, they were very worried.
      In 1941-1942, the defense budget reached 1846 million, that is, exceeded the original figure by more than ten times
      Many men, fit for military service in age, were regularly called up for retraining to receive military education and serve as coast guard "somewhere in Sweden."
      At the same time, they remained the most stable country in Europe. With a high standard of living (although taxes increased greatly)
      During the war, many Swedish sailors died, delivering goods to Nazi Germany. 250 Swedish ships were sunk, about 1200 people died.
  7. Free wind
    Free wind 15 September 2020 09: 39 New
    +6
    Tolley question, or addition. It is not clear what the term pine oil means. Pine oil is a part of various ointments and tinctures, used in baths for aroma. Rather pine resin. It is used for the preparation of rosin, in the electronics industry. It is also used in the production of tires.
    1. sheet
      sheet 16 September 2020 07: 43 New
      0
      Quote: Free Wind
      Tolley question, or addition. It is not clear what the term pine oil means. Pine oil is a part of various ointments and tinctures, used in baths for aroma. Rather pine resin. It is used for the preparation of rosin, in the electronics industry. It is also used in the production of tires.

      + thermal power plants, diesel.
      https://sv.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Råtallolja
  8. antivirus
    antivirus 15 September 2020 10: 26 New
    -2
    Sweden, despite its neutral status, was de facto part of the German occupation economy.

    - that's what Wallenberg did. and then a "left-back", an ordinary agent of 3 hosts.
  9. Undecim
    Undecim 15 September 2020 11: 02 New
    +1
    Such a barter economy, apparently, has received a fairly large development, all countries and territories of Europe were involved in it, regardless of their status: neutrals, Germany's allies, occupied territories, protectorates.
    The structure of Sweden's foreign trade for the period 1938 - 1944. The Swedes traded successfully with everyone.
  10. iouris
    iouris 15 September 2020 11: 08 New
    -1
    The author presents the case in such a way that Sweden is a raw material colony of the Reich. Data on deliveries to the Reich of high-tech (including unique) products from (through) Sweden are not provided. Our thesis: Sweden is a state consistently pursuing an anti-Russian policy. During WWII, the ruling circles of Sweden (ie "Sweden") were Hitler's accomplices. Sweden's "neutrality" made it possible to supply unique products at inflated prices to both the United States and the Reich.
    This is the source of high living standards in Sweden. Before WWI, Sweden was a poor country with a heavily drinking population.
    1. Niel-le-Calais
      Niel-le-Calais 19 September 2020 21: 32 New
      +1
      Quote: iouris
      Before WWI, Sweden was a poor country with a heavily drinking population.

      Sweden has been neutral in international relations for over a hundred years - since the end of the Napoleonic wars in 1815
      Over the course of several decades of the XNUMXth century, Sweden from a poor agricultural country turned into one of the richest and most highly developed industrial powers.
      This unprecedented development was based on the natural wealth of northern Sweden - timber, ore and hydropower resources - combined with a number of revolutionary Swedish inventions and their further development and operation, such as the steam turbine, AGA gas beacons, milk separator, safety match, variable speed propeller. steps, tetrapack packaging and many others.
      And also the attitude towards taxes. ecology and man.
      For example, since WW2 Sweden has improved its position in the world. compared to the years of the war.
      The reason is in the Swedes themselves. and not trade with Germany in WW2.
  11. ee2100
    ee2100 15 September 2020 11: 09 New
    +3
    It is certainly informative about the economic relations between Germany and Sweden during WW2, but it would be very interesting to read about the diplomatic relations between the USSR and Germany through the mediation of Swedish diplomats and politicians at the same time.
    1. iouris
      iouris 15 September 2020 16: 28 New
      -4
      Quote: ee2100
      it would be very interesting to read about diplomatic relations between the USSR and Germany through the mediation of Swedish diplomats and politicians at the same time

      Well, ask the "Swedish diplomats".
  12. Mik13
    Mik13 15 September 2020 11: 29 New
    +1
    However, the Alsatian and Lorraine ore, which the Germans captured again in 1940, was very poor, 28-34% iron content. The Swedish Kiruna ore was, on the contrary, rich, from 65 to 70% iron content. The Germans, of course, could also melt the poor ore. In this case, the coke consumption increased 3-5 times, and the blast furnace operated, in fact, as a gas generator, with a by-product of pig iron and slag. But one could simply mix rich and poor ores and get a charge of quite decent quality. The addition of 10-12% lean ore did not worsen the smelting conditions. Therefore, the Germans bought Swedish ore not only for the sake of a good yield of pig iron, but also for the possibility of economical use of the Alsatian-Lorraine ore.


    In order not to smelt the poor ore, ore dressing was actively practiced in Germany. By the way:

    A transcript of the talks between the German Ambassador for Special Assignments K. Ritter and Stalin on the night of December 31, 1939 to January 1, 1940: “Ritter declares that he will only deal with major issues. He is interested in the supply of iron and iron ore associated with large supplies to the Soviet Union of equipment that contains a lot of metals. Initially, the German side asked for 4 million tons of iron ore and 0,5 million tons of scrap. Further, it turned out that due to large orders a lot of metal would be required, at least more than previously envisaged. The Soviet side told us 3 million tons of iron ore with an iron content of 38,42%. This iron content will not suit the German side. Ritter asks to supply one and a half million tons of iron ore with 50% iron content. In addition, 200 thousand tons of pig iron and 200 thousand tons of scrap. He declares that the supplied iron and cast iron will be returned to the Soviet Union as finished products. Stalin replies that the Soviet side cannot fulfill the demands of the Germans, since Our metallurgy does not have ore dressing technology, and Soviet industry itself consumes all the iron ore with a high iron content. In a year, the Soviet side may be able to supply iron ore with a high iron content, but in 1940 this possibility was not available. The German side has good iron ore beneficiation technique and can consume iron ore with 18% iron content»
  13. NF68
    NF68 15 September 2020 16: 44 New
    +2
    First, food, oil and petroleum products are completely absent in the Swedish-German trade. If the lack of food is more or less explained by the fact that Sweden provided itself and did not need to be imported, then the lack of oil products is surprising. Sweden needed about 1 million tons of oil products per year, while Germany did not supply them. Hence, there were other sources. Most likely, transit from Romania and Hungary, but not only.


    It is not surprising that the Germans did not supply the Swedes with oil and there was no oil products.

    The Germans themselves did not have enough oil. In the second half of 1943, the first half of 1944, before the Allies thoroughly took up the destruction of German factories producing synthetic liquid fuel and when the Germans produced the largest quantity of oil products in the entire WWII, the Luftwaffe received about 60% of the aviation gasoline they needed. In the navy, the situation was even worse. And in the ground forces, the Germans had more than enough problems due to the lack of crowd. For comparison, the Americans in 1943-1944 produced about 220 million tons of oil a year. And the Germans:



    The second column is all liquid fuels produced by Germany - those oil and synthetic liquid fuels. The third column is synthetic liquid fuel, the fourth column is the share of synthetic liquid fuel in the total amount of all liquid fuel. How could the Germans sell oil or synthetics to the Swedes if they themselves really needed them and this created huge problems for the Germans?
  14. Sergey Oreshin
    Sergey Oreshin 15 September 2020 19: 01 New
    +3
    A big plus of the article is that the author actively attracted archival materials
  15. Sergey Oreshin
    Sergey Oreshin 15 September 2020 19: 05 New
    +3
    Quote: Undecim
    What options did the Swedes have?

    Apparently, from the point of view of some overly patriotic commentators (for whom someone else's head is half a penny and their own neck is a penny), the Swedes should have declared war on Germany and heroically died within 2-3 months.
    There is no doubt that the Germans killed in such a hypothetical war would never have appeared on the Soviet-German front, but the Swedish government was guided (quite reasonably!) Not by Soviet interests, but by its own.
    And in the end, she was able to save her people from the horrors of war
    1. Beringovsky
      Beringovsky 16 September 2020 03: 44 New
      0
      And what should patriotic commentators be guided by? Swedish interests?
      For this there are people like you and Kolya from Urengoy.
      And what for example do I care about these interests?
      1. Sergey Oreshin
        Sergey Oreshin 16 September 2020 10: 38 New
        +2
        Elementary logic. Obviously, the Swedish government was faced with the task of avoiding war, economic destruction and the death of their people. The Swedish leadership has fulfilled this task. How - including this article explains.
        But some overly zealous patriotic commentators believe that the Swedes should have, like heroic berserkers, declared war on Germany and died heroically. The position is stupid. Very similar, by the way, to the position of the left-wing communists at the beginning of 18: "We should not conclude peace with Germany under any circumstances. Only war to the end! A lot of Russian people will die and Russia will be occupied - and besides, the main thing is - the war with the German to the end ".
        1. Beringovsky
          Beringovsky 16 September 2020 14: 13 New
          -1
          The position of the Swedes is understandable, cowardly and selfish. You can understand it, but not accept it. That is why I need these interests of Sweden, a country cooperating with Hitler during the war with our country? For me these interests are not worth a pittance, although I repeat - I can understand them.
          In vain they were not bombed by the allies. This would also fit into your logic - the less the Swedes send ores, metals, bearings and various equipment to Germany, the less the Germans will have equipment and weapons, the more lives of their soldiers the allies will save.
          How do you like this option? This is true in my opinion.
          But some overly zealous patriotic commentators believe that the Swedes should have, like heroic berserkers, declared war on Germany and died heroically. The position is stupid.

          This stupid position was taken by many others - Norway, Denmark, Holland, etc.
  16. Elturisto
    Elturisto 15 September 2020 21: 30 New
    +1
    Thanks to the author for the interesting publication.
  17. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
    Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 15 September 2020 23: 33 New
    +1
    Damn it, I don't understand the angry censurers ... The Reich stubbornly stepped on the eggs of the Swedes, PM Hansson turned inside out in order to somehow maintain neutrality and reason with the stupid Riksdag. Plus the Fuererophile Gustav the 5th ... In April 40, they caved in under the Reich, allowing the transit of medical personnel, wounded, medicines, clothing, food and other humanitarian aid to Narvik, yes - so what? And in May, the Germans demanded permission for the transit of three trains "under seals" - the heroic Swedes refused and even brought their förshwarshmakten into combat readiness. But the most significant, of course, was the government meeting on the already June demands of the Germans for military transit. During the races in the government "we will give, we will not give" the news came that France, sorry, kaput. "We will give," the Swedes decided sadly.
    You should not throw manure at them. For the most part, Hansson & Co. did everything right.
  18. Sergey Oreshin
    Sergey Oreshin 16 September 2020 10: 40 New
    +1
    Quote: Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
    I do not understand angry censurers ...

    And their logic is simple and primitive. To paraphrase the well-known proverb: "If my cow dies, then the neighbor's cow should die too! What, she's not dead? Well, you, neighbor, and a shit!"
    That is, from their point of view, if the USSR suffered heavy losses in WWII, then Sweden should have suffered no less losses. Why? Well, just because. How else could it be? We washed ourselves with blood, but they, bourgeois bastards - no ??!
    Flawed logic, of course, but there are a lot of them hanging out on this site
  19. Sergey Oreshin
    Sergey Oreshin 16 September 2020 15: 40 New
    +2
    Quote: Beringovsky
    The position of the Swedes is clear

    Already good))
    Quote: Beringovsky
    selfish

    Did the Swedes give a subscription to be altruists and fight the universal world evil?
    Quote: Beringovsky
    cowardly

    Well, yes, it was necessary to rush headlong into declaring war on Germany and do not care about the inequality of forces and means, they would have died in 2 months, beautiful ... but stupid
    Quote: Beringovsky
    That is why I need these interests of Sweden, a country cooperating with Hitler during the war with our country?

    Don't you want to understand the historical events of the past? Are you content with simple and clumsy propaganda propaganda?
    Quote: Beringovsky
    How do you like this option? This is true in my opinion.

    Fair enough, but it could lead to undesirable complications: Sweden would join the Axis, which in particular would lead to the appearance of a regular Swedish army on the Eastern Front, and several tens of thousands of Soviet soldiers would die in battles with them, and even more would become disabled. Yes, and the allies would have had a hard time economically, and maybe even militarily. Neutrality, even pro-German Sweden, suited everyone both during WWI and WWII.
    Quote: Beringovsky
    This stupid position was taken by many others - Norway, Denmark, Holland, etc.

    They just wanted to maintain neutrality with all their might and were not eager to get involved in the war on anyone's side, but Germany itself attacked them. She could have attacked Sweden, the Germans had such plans. But luckily for the Swedes, the war never came to their land.
    1. Beringovsky
      Beringovsky 17 September 2020 01: 17 New
      0
      What does agitation have to do with it? Deliveries of Swedish products to Germany are measured in tons and pieces and not in agitation. It is a fact. The fact that this happened during the war with us is also a fact. As well as what the weapon was made of and where it went. So what does agitation have to do with it ?! Didn't you notice the numbers in the article? Haven't read all the comments? This is the analysis of historical events of the past.
      Again. I can understand the Swedes, respect and accept their position - no. Like this.
      It was necessary to take Gotland away from them. Not enough of course, but oh well. Supplying the Germans? Pay. And the interests of Sweden are for me personally an empty phrase.
      Perhaps I bow for this hi
      1. Niel-le-Calais
        Niel-le-Calais 19 September 2020 22: 13 New
        +1
        Quote: Beringovsky
        Deliveries of Swedish products to Germany are measured in tons and pieces and not in agitation. It is a fact.

        fact
        И
        that too. While they were neutral.

        The agreements concluded between Moscow and Berlin dealt with the supply to the Reich of one million tons of grain, 900 thousand tons of oil, half a million tons of phosphates and iron ore, 300 thousand tons of cast iron, 100 thousand tons of chromium. And also - about hundreds of tons of copper, zinc, nickel, tungsten and other strategic raw materials. Echelons regularly went to Germany until June 22, 1941, and the last train with Soviet grain crossed the bridge across the Western Bug to Terespol 1 hour 15 minutes before the German attack on the USSR
        Did you supply the Germans? Pay. And the interests of Sweden are for me personally an empty phrase.

        Supplied all neutrals.
        And the price paid was different. Sweden did a lot for the Allies too.
        She has also always supported Finland. From Winter to WWII.
        She has nothing to give to the USSR. She even gave him a loan in 1946.
        From the point of view of Sweden, she acted based on her interests. Although some of her actions were on the side of humanity and pleasing neighbors (she saved the neighboring military from the camps)
  20. evgen1221
    evgen1221 16 September 2020 19: 42 New
    +2
    A very solid series - it was very pleasant to read and very informative. The author approached the work seriously, for which many thanks.
  21. Sergey Oreshin
    Sergey Oreshin 17 September 2020 11: 18 New
    +2
    Quote: Beringovsky
    respect

    So, like you, no one forces you to respect the Swedes))
    Quote: Beringovsky
    accept their position - no.

    Okay, put yourself in the place of the Prime Minister of Sweden in 41st (let me remind you that there are Germans in Norway, and the Finns are German allies) and suggest your strategy of action. Simulate, so to speak. Based on the real resources of your country.
    Quote: Beringovsky
    Gotland had to be taken from them.

    It's very good to say this while sitting on a warm couch. After all, it would not have been you who had to die during the storming of Gotland, but the unknown private Vasya Ivanov from the Oryol province. And both legs in a minefield would not have been lost by you, but by sergeant Ivan Vasiliev with many children from the Tambov province. However, to Stalin's credit, it should be noted that he acted very wisely and did not get involved in an absolutely unnecessary war for the USSR with Sweden.
  22. Kostadinov
    Kostadinov 17 September 2020 14: 01 New
    +1
    The Germans, of course, could also melt the poor ore. In this case, the coke consumption increased by 3-5 times, and the blast furnace operated, in fact, as a gas generator, with a by-product of pig iron and slag. But one could simply mix rich and poor ores and get a charge of quite decent quality.

    Poor ore could be enriched. So, for example (from memory) in MK Kremikovtsi ore was beaten with a content of 32-33% iron and from it they made an agglomerate with 56% iron content.
  23. Talgarets
    Talgarets 19 September 2020 06: 55 New
    0
    It is very monetary to be neutral during periods of military conflict.
    1. wehr
      19 September 2020 10: 29 New
      0
      Not monetary, but expensive. And you, an American spy, are learning Russian! bully
    2. Niel-le-Calais
      Niel-le-Calais 19 September 2020 22: 16 New
      +1
      Quote: Talgarets
      It is very monetary to be neutral during periods of military conflict.

      it's risky in the first place.
      Both during the war and after (claims)
      Sweden is one of 8 countries where the risk was justified.