Military Review

Multipurpose nuclear submarines "Type 093" (China)

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Multipurpose nuclear submarines "Type 093" (China)

Submarine "093" at sea


To date, the PRC has built a fairly large nuclear submarine fleet, equipped with ships of all the necessary classes. The basis of such forces at the moment are the Type 093 multipurpose nuclear submarines. There are at least six such ships in service, presumably of three modifications. Submarines of different versions are capable of fighting underwater and surface targets, as well as attacking enemy ground targets.

Project and its development


In the mid-seventies, the PRC Navy received its first nuclear submarine - it was the ship of the newest project "091" (the spelling "09-I" is also found). At the beginning of the next decade, work began on the second generation of multipurpose nuclear submarines, and later this project received the number "093" ("09-III"). Also used cipher "Shang" or Shang-class. Their goal was to search for technologies to create a more advanced hunter submarine.

The direct design of the new nuclear submarine began only in 1994 and took several years. The lead ship of the series was laid down in 2001. Due to the high complexity, the construction was delayed, and the submarine entered sea trials only in 2003. Soon after, the existence of the new project was learned abroad, and the promising submarine for a while became one of the main topics in the specialized media.

At that time, a version appeared according to which Soviet / Russian technologies were used in the new Chinese project, and the submarine was similar in design to the project 671RTM or 971. However, China always emphasizes the independent nature of its developments.


In mid-2007, Beijing officially announced the new nuclear submarine for the first time. At one of the exhibitions, some materials on the project were presented, and then a solemn ceremony of introducing the submarine into the Navy took place. Soon the fleet began to transfer the following submarines, built from the beginning of the two thousandth years.

In 2009, the third submarine of the project entered service. According to foreign data, it was built according to the updated Type 093A project. The main differences were in a wider range of missile weapons. According to the IISS reference book The Military Balance, four such ships have been built.

In recent years, there have been reports of the existence of two new variants of the old project. The nuclear submarines "093B" are distinguished by a general improvement in design and onboard equipment, but they do not fundamentally differ from previous submarines. The next project "Type 093G" provides for the use of vertical launchers for missiles of various types. There are no exact data on the construction of boats "B" and "G". According to some reports, Type 093G was brought to construction, and they changed the basic modification in production.

Technical features


Nuclear submarines "Type 093" are approx. 107-110 m with a width of up to 10-11 m. The submerged displacement is estimated at 7 thousand tons. In the "G" modification, the length and displacement are increased due to the appearance of a new missile compartment. It is placed behind the wheelhouse and forms a small hump above the deck.


Estimated ship layout

The boats have an elongated hull with a rounded bow and tapering stern. Closer to the bow there is a wheelhouse fence with horizontal rudders. The stern carries vertical and horizontal rudders. Accurate information on architecture, type and characteristics of rugged case, etc. absent.

According to Chinese data, boats "093" are equipped with a graphite-gas reactor of unknown capacity. In foreign sources, one or two pressurized water reactors are indicated. The newer submarines differ from the previous "Type 091" by the greater safety of the power plant. A seven-blade propeller is used for propulsion. The submarine is capable of developing an underwater speed of up to 30 knots and has an unlimited cruising range.

The exact composition of the onboard equipment is classified. At the same time, it is known about the presence of a complex hydroacoustic complex with high characteristics. It includes a main station with a bow antenna and side-looking antenna canvases - three per side. Thus, the submarine "093" is capable of monitoring the front hemisphere and areas on the sides, which dramatically increases situational awareness.

In the first versions of the 093 project, the armament included only six torpedo tubes of 533 mm caliber, installed in the nose in two tiers. Early submarines could only use standard Chinese-made torpedoes. Type 093A received the YJ-82 missile system. Its rocket is launched through a torpedo tube and can hit surface targets at ranges of up to 30-35 km.


Type 093G retains torpedo tubes and also carries a versatile vertical launcher that can hold 12 different types of missiles. Anti-ship capabilities are expanded with the YJ-18 missile with a range of up to 540 km. The ability to attack ground targets has been obtained - for this, a CJ-10 cruise missile with a range of more than 1500 km is used.

The issue of noise level of submarines "093" is being actively discussed in foreign circles. In Chinese and foreign publications it is reported that the first ships of this type generated noise at a level of 90-110 dB. This corresponds to American or Soviet submarines created at the turn of the seventies and eighties - thus, the Chinese shipbuilding lagged behind the leaders for 20-25 years.

Later, the Chinese side claimed that the new boat "093G" is much quieter than the previous modifications, but without any clarifications. It is quite possible that the further development of technology and technology made it possible to bring the characteristics of the Chinese nuclear submarine to the level of newer foreign models - but not advanced and modern ones.

The core of the nuclear fleet


From 1974 to 1991, the PLA Navy received five Type 091 submarines. Two of them have now been removed from the fleet, one has become a museum. The status of the three remaining is unclear - they remain in service or have already been put into reserve. As a replacement for "091" new submarines "093" were created - six units were built. It is also known about the development of a new project "095", and the lead ship, according to various sources, is already under construction.


Comparison of submarines of different modifications. The later ones are distinguished by the characteristic hump of the rocket compartment.

In fact, at the moment six Type 093 pennants are the only multipurpose nuclear submarines in the Chinese fleet. Older samples are put into reserve, while newer ones have not yet appeared at all or are absent in noticeable quantities. As a result, all combat work falls on "093" with missile and torpedo armament.

Thanks to such submarines, the PLA Navy at the end of the 093s was able to organize combat duty in dangerous areas to search for and destroy enemy submarine and surface forces. The appearance of submarines "XNUMXG" in combat strength will expand the range of tasks and will allow the fleet to hit ground targets.

At the same time, it should be noted that the presence of only six multipurpose nuclear submarines seriously limits the potential of the submarine forces. Diesel-electric submarines remain the core of this component of the Navy - with known problems and limitations.

History projects of the "Type 093" family shows that the Chinese military shipbuilding is able to build nuclear submarines of different classes, incl. multipurpose ships. At the same time, large-scale and fast production is still impossible. Perhaps the new project "095" will change this situation - but such results are still far away.
Author:
Photos used:
Globalsecurity.org, Hisutton.com
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  1. Comrade
    Comrade 19 September 2020 05: 44 New
    -4
    large-scale and fast production is still impossible

    The Chinese cannot master what the Soviet Union did in its time.

    Submarines of projects 667A "Navaga" and 667AU "Nalim" - 34 units, the first in the series was laid down on November 4, 1964, the last in the series was commissioned on December 25, 1974.
    Submarines of project 667B "Murena" - 18 units, the first in the series was laid down on March 30, 1970, the last in the series was commissioned on December 28, 1977.
    Total - for thirteen years was laid and put into operation fifty two nuclear missile submarines.
    1. BDRM 667
      BDRM 667 19 September 2020 06: 58 New
      +7
      Quote: Comrade
      The Chinese cannot master what the Soviet Union did in its time.

      Quote: Comrade
      Submarines of projects 667А "Navaga"

      Quote: Comrade
      Submarines of project 667B "Murena"


      "Аzuhi ","Бukahi ", and finally - 667 BDRMas we joked, Бbig Рesin Дlinear Мupgraded ...
    2. Doccor18
      Doccor18 19 September 2020 07: 01 New
      12
      The Chinese cannot master what the Soviet Union did in its time.

      They can't yet ...
      But the point here is not the lack of shipbuilding capacities, but the imperfection (so far) of the Chinese nuclear submarine component. In fact, the PRC Navy now has an experimental submarine fleet, a fleet of technology development and personnel training. As soon as they realize that they have reached the world level (the level of the USA and the Russian Federation), large-scale production of nuclear submarines will begin. They moved in exactly the same way in the destroyer and frigate program. So it is with aircraft carriers.
      1. Comrade
        Comrade 20 September 2020 03: 34 New
        -1
        Quote: Doccor18
        But the point is not in the absence of shipbuilding facilities.

        Facts are a stubborn thing.
        The first Chinese nuclear-powered missile submarine was laid down in 1978, i.e. forty two years back, and what has been done since then? In addition to the aforementioned, six more nuclear-powered missile submarines have been commissioned, clearly "ripped off" from the Soviet.
        And the USSR for twenty three years went from the nuclear missile submarines of Project 659 (the head K-19 was laid down on 17.10.1958/941/208) to the Project 29.12.1981 "Akula" (the lead TK-XNUMX entered service on the XNUMX/XNUMX/XNUMX).

        They earned money on the production of consumer goods, but it turned out that money is not everything. You need a creative genius and organizational skills that you can't buy for any money.
        In support of this thesis - the epic with the purchase of the aircraft-carrying cruiser "Varyag". The Chinese did not have enough balls to develop their own aircraft carrier, so they had to buy a Soviet one so that there was something to clone later.
    3. Saxahorse
      Saxahorse 19 September 2020 20: 31 New
      +1
      Quote: Comrade
      The Chinese cannot master what the Soviet Union did in its time.

      They can, of course, but they don't want to. There is no point in building ships of the 1980s level, they are poor and vulnerable by today's standards. The technology will be pressed at least to the level of Sea-Wolf, and then it will be put into production.
    4. Tutashkhia date
      Tutashkhia date 25 September 2020 09: 05 New
      -3
      Likewise, the Savets Union was unable to do what modern Russia has done over the past 20 years. For example, to build the Crimean bridge. Or create submarines superior to NATO in all respects.
  2. The leader of the Redskins
    The leader of the Redskins 19 September 2020 05: 47 New
    +2
    Thanks. Not a specialist in the fleet, but the photo on the screen saver reminds me more of an "American" than our school of the submarine fleet.
    1. TermNachTer
      TermNachTer 19 September 2020 12: 33 New
      +3
      So they are all a compilation of everything that Chinese spies were able to steal in Russia, the United States, and the French helped a little.
    2. Alvis07
      Alvis07 19 September 2020 16: 14 New
      -3
      You don't even need to be a specialist there. Our boats are mainly of two hulls, with ballast and auxiliary tanks. American - single-hull. China, naturally, is trying to build on the basis of the best engineering solutions, so China's submarines are built on the American type of submarines.
  3. Aleksandr21
    Aleksandr21 19 September 2020 11: 03 New
    +1
    At the same time, it should be noted that the presence of only six multipurpose nuclear submarines seriously limits the potential of the submarine forces.


    Strange, according to Chinese sources, I counted 8 Type 093 submarines (3 units - 093, 3 units - 093A, 2 units 093A +), and regarding the Type 095 project, it is already in operation, since 2017, 1 submarine. There is no more information, perhaps there are more of them, but given the secrecy of this project and the Chinese approach to disclosing such information, one can only guess. With the mass production of nuclear submarines of this class (093), China of course had a problem, with which it is not clear, perhaps the emphasis was on diesel submarines, since Type 039A / B they riveted 18 pieces at the moment, or maybe they were waiting for development "Type 095" which is clearly superior in technology and characteristics to "Type 093" ... time will tell. By the way, there is still "Type 097" in development, so who knows, maybe in a couple of years we will see a new nuclear submarine of China.
  4. Roman3219
    Roman3219 19 September 2020 12: 46 New
    +1
    "Due to the high complexity, construction was delayed, and the submarine entered sea trials only in 2003"

    I wonder how much we would have built with problems of "high complexity"
  5. The eye of the crying
    The eye of the crying 19 September 2020 13: 34 New
    +4
    The lead ship of the series was laid down in 2001. Due to the high complexity, construction was delayed, and the submarine entered sea trials only in 2003.


    Has it dragged on for two whole years? Kapets.
  6. mvg
    mvg 19 September 2020 14: 18 New
    +1
    Another very weak article from the author. "Presumably", "unknown", "according to the Western press", etc. It turns out about nothing. Neither by quantity, nor by performance characteristics .. How can you do this, not pick up a synonym, draw?
    095 has been in service for a long time, there are pictures on defens.pk, there is info on 091 and 093G, T.
    PS: Writing, even just articles, even copying someone else's in a simple way, is definitely not for the author. I suggest trying yourself as a turner or a welder.
  7. Boa kaa
    Boa kaa 19 September 2020 14: 18 New
    +8
    Thanks to the author for the article, but this time Kirill was clearly too lazy to dig deeper into the sources in order to decorate the article with data on the PLA of the PRC Navy. His disclaimer that
    There are no exact data on the construction of boats "B" and "G". According to some reports, Type 093G was brought to construction, and they changed the basic modification in production.
    It is ... disappointing.
    Therefore, everything that we managed to find:
    - Project 093G submarine is building a shipyard in Bohai (Yellow Sea). Double-hull. Series of 03 items to replace PLA pr. 091 "Han". Built between 2005 and 2010.
    - The boat has VI (surface / underwater): - 4750 / 6800t;
    - Main dimensions: length -107 (110) m; diameter (width) -11,0 m; draft amidships - 9,0 m,
    - Depth of immersion - 450m (maximum).
    - Travel speed (surface / underwater) - 20 / 30,0 knots;
    - GEM: nuclear, 2 V-V reactors with a capacity of 150 MW each, 2 GTZA, 1 propeller 7-blade fixed pitch propeller.
    Armament:
    - Torpedo: 6 x 533-NTA (24 units), torpedoes with TU and on the wake.
    - Missile: can carry up to 12 anti-ship missiles YJ-8-II with D = 80km, as well as KR type SLCM, SSM.
    - GAS: H / SQC-207 bow A / P, 3 conformal airborne and 1 GPBA. (I did not find the range). It is noted that in terms of the level of acoustic visibility, they are approximately comparable to the PLA of the Los Angeles series 1. (The only submarine pr.093V (May 2016) with a water jet had a noise lower than that of Elk).
    Crew - 105 people. Autonomy - 100 days.
    Also in foreign media reported that the range of anti-ship missiles m. up to 300 km along the NK, and from the TLU 12 (16?) KR units YJ-18 (analogue of our 3M54E) with D = 280km and V at the final section 2,9M. It was also noted that it can carry CRBD type YJ-83, YJ-62 and PLUR CY-3.
    According to g / m Yang Yi, China should have its own submarines in the amount of 1/3 of the number of US submarines, so the process of improving the submarine forces of the PLA Navy is underway. Therefore, the fourth generation submarine t. 095 (2008) was designed and built. The series is also supposed to consist of 03 units. At the same time, since 2002, a naval base was built for its basing on about. HAINAN near Sanya. The fact that 095 entered the Navy was reported by the Zhimin Ribao newspaper in the issue of August 26.08. 2013 (According to other sources, she was accepted into the combat-ready forces of the fleet in 2015). For her, a new anti-ship missile system with D = 500 km (NY-4) / was developed. It is noted that the boat is capable of hitting the BC. KR can carry SBP.
    Here's what I have to report, briefly about our "partner" in the APR.
  8. Mark kalendarov
    Mark kalendarov 19 September 2020 15: 01 New
    +1
    And it was not necessary to trade in one booty for two markets. They have a portrait of Mao on the wall as a symbol of continuity and consistency. And we had to hang a portrait of Stalin and pursue a policy in line with approval, revival and buildup ... Otherwise, all the curtsies, all "our foreign partners" ... Ugh ...
  9. Charik
    Charik 19 September 2020 19: 33 New
    +3
    Scratched Elk-Angela
  10. withoutreverse
    withoutreverse 20 September 2020 17: 25 New
    -1
    “By now, the PRC has built a fairly large nuclear submarine fleet, equipped with ships of all necessary classes. The basis of such forces at the moment is the Type 093 multipurpose nuclear submarine.
    There are at least six such ships in service "

    - well what can you say .. very numerous submarine fleet in the PRC))
    1. Charik
      Charik 21 September 2020 00: 19 New
      0
      6 pcs-093-and how many more count or crawl somewhere
  11. Ersh
    Ersh 21 September 2020 15: 37 New
    0
    The author writes God knows what. There are problems with nuclear power plants, not weapons. A gas-graphite reactor is cool! There are doubts that the Chinese were able to do it. And why? There are proven water and water.
  12. kig
    kig 14 November 2020 12: 58 New
    0
    [QuoteThe lead ship of the series was laid down in 2001. Due to the high complexity, construction was delayed, and the submarine entered sea trials only in 2003.quote] - is the author joking like that?