Military Review

1975 Helsinki Act. Albanian "exception"

43
1975 Helsinki Act. Albanian "exception"

Bright August 75th



The last month of 1975 drew a strategic line under the period of tightening of the "cold war" and at the same time, as it were, summed up the Soviet Union's many years of efforts to establish a dialogue with the West. The apotheosis of these tendencies was the signing on August 1, 1975 in Helsinki by 35 states, including the USSR, the USA, Canada and Turkey, of the Act on Security and Cooperation in Europe.

The economic situation in the USSR at that time was rapidly deteriorating in combination with the world arms race, as well as the growing military and political confrontation between Moscow and Beijing. There was also a number of related factors that required a slowdown in the unwinding of the spiral.

At the same time, the West was not inclined to build up the already high tension in relations with the USSR. At that time, the notorious long-term oil and gas contracts of the first half of the 70s for the supply of Soviet oil and gas to Western Europe had already been signed.

It is they, we emphasize, that for the first time revealed the real possibility of the West to "get rid of" the maximum dependence on raw materials from the Near and Middle East. Therefore, the well-known initiatives and efforts of Brezhnev, Gromyko and Kosygin of the late 60s - mid 70s to ease tensions between the USSR and the West / Warsaw Pact and NATO were crowned with success.

This was substantively embodied in the Helsinki Act of August 1, 1975, which, among other things, proclaimed the inviolability of the post-war European borders. In addition, the priority of dialogue and compromise in relations between the Soviet and American blocs, and their respect for each other's interests, at least in Europe, was officially recognized.


In a forgotten corner of Europe


But, as they say, not without a significant, albeit miniature fly in the ointment. For, according to the official position of Tirana - Beijing, outside the brackets of Helsinki-75 there are many unresolved interstate conflicts, which are still real. Therefore, Stalinist Albania turned out to be the only country in Europe that refused to participate in the Helsinki conference itself and in the negotiations for the preparation of this forum.

The Albanian authorities called on the East European "satellites of Moscow" to draw attention to the fact that the Soviet leadership "for the sake of the West and above all the FRG" does not seek to clarify in detail the post-war borders in Eastern Europe and demand an official ban on West German revanchism.


Because of such a policy, as Albanian leader Enver Hoxha believed, the prospect of implementing Bonn's revanchist claims is real in the event of the weakening of the USSR, the GDR and the Warsaw Pact.

The same position was expressed in the Stalinist and openly pro-Albanian and pro-Chinese Communist Party of Poland, which was illegal at that time. Its permanent leader Kazimierz Miyal was supported by a number of politicians from other Warsaw Pact countries who did not recognize criticism of Stalin's personality cult (for more details see: “Communists of Eastern Europe. They did not become "strange" allies ").

Tirana and Beijing reasonably appealed to the fact that, firstly, in the treaties of the early - mid-70s of the USSR, Poland, Czechoslovakia and the GDR with the FRG, the inviolability of the post-war borders of those socialist countries with West Germany was noted only in general terms. But the relevant territorial provisions of the treaties, where the new borders between these countries were fixed in detail, were not confirmed in the corresponding agreements with the FRG, at least in references to these treaties, which Albania and the PRC proposed.

Secondly, the same treaties did not contain the FRG's obligations to cancel or at least change a number of articles of its Basic Law (1949), confirming the claims to the entire former Prussia, Pomerania, Sudetenland, part of Silesia. And also to Austria and a number of regions in Western Europe that were part of Nazi Germany. The revanchist essence of these articles was also ignored in the Helsinki Act.

Thus, Article 134 of the Basic Law of the Federal Republic of Germany states: "The property of the former Germany becomes the property of the Federation and is subject to gratuitous transfer to the competent authorities."

Article 135 is even more specific: "Shared ownership of the former land of Prussia", that is, including the regions of Poland adjacent to the Kaliningrad region and the Klaipeda-Neman region of Lithuania, "in private enterprises goes to the Federation."

But why exactly the "Basic Law" and not the Constitution? The answer can be found in the official clarification of the Federal Government Press and Information Office (1999): “We are talking about the foundations of constitutional regulation in the transition period before the reunification of Germany. This choice accentuates the geographically limited scope of the Basic Law. ”

It turns out that the absorption of the GDR and West Berlin by West Germany in 1990, as was believed in Tirana, is only a prologue opening the floodgates for the aforementioned claims when the time comes ... Because of these factors, the then treaties with the FRG were criticized, although not publicly, in Romania , Yugoslavia and the DPRK.

Support from Beijing


At the same time, China, together with Albania, officially condemned the position of the USSR and the countries under its influence on these issues. But proposals from Warsaw, Prague, Bucharest and East Berlin to listen to the arguments of Beijing and Tirana were rejected in Moscow.

In the PRC and Albania, it was reasonably believed that the border clauses of the treaties of the USSR, Poland and Czechoslovakia with the GDR (first half of the 50s) should have been noted in the aforementioned agreements with the FRG. And the forthcoming Helsinki Act 75 should have been supplemented with an appendix containing at least references to these documents, coupled with a recommendation to Bonn to revise the revanchist provisions of the Basic Law of the FRG.

"Otherwise," the People's Daily noted on August 14, 1970, "there is a betrayal of the sovereignty of the GDR and a number of other countries, stimulating revanchist claims on the part of Bonn." In the PRC in September 1970, a brochure of the Central Committee of the Communist Party and the Foreign Ministry was published in Russian with a detailed justification of these and related arguments.

Albanian and Chinese propaganda of that period argued that the then leadership of the USSR actually laid a bomb of indefinite action under the territorial integrity and sovereignty of many Eastern European countries. Moreover, it did this in favor of the desire to quickly negotiate with Bonn about the credit and technological replenishment of Soviet oil and gas supplies to the FRG and the neighboring countries of the West.

This, as Beijing remains convinced, could also call into question the sovereignty of the USSR in the Kaliningrad-Klaipeda region of the former East Prussia. Moscow has invariably ignored the position of its opponents. But after the collapse of the USSR, the liquidation of East European socialism and the Warsaw Pact, German revanchism, at least "unofficial", became, as is known, more active.

Moreover, it became more active after the official recognition by the leadership of the USSR in 1989 of the illegitimacy of the Soviet-German political agreements of 1939. By the way, this position of Moscow was officially condemned by Romania under the leadership of N. Ceausescu and Albania, which remained Stalinist until the beginning of the 90s.


Territorial disputes in Europe are commonplace

In Albania, it was proposed to include in the agenda of Helsinki-75 a very "original" idea of ​​the then Francoist leadership of Spain - the illegal British status of Gibraltar; and also the proposal of the Republic of Cyprus on the illegitimacy of the self-styled "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus".

It was also proposed from Tirana to involve in Helsinki-75 a number of independent Mediterranean states adjacent to the countries participating in the meeting, that is, the countries of North Africa, as well as Syria, which have always had very strong ties with the old continent. But in vain. As a result, Albania ignored the big Helsinki meeting.

But the above-mentioned conflicts, and in Cyprus; and with Gibraltar and between Syria and Turkey, and even the Spanish-Moroccan dispute over the Spanish enclaves in Morocco, have not disappeared to this day. It seems that on this issue the special position of the then Albania was not “unfounded” and “unnecessary”?
Author:
Photos used:
i.imgur.com, vestikavkaza.ru, img.tsargrad.ru, za.toluna.com
43 comments
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  1. apro
    apro 14 September 2020 04: 59 New
    +6
    The Helsinki Act is a mistake. There was no point in resolving security issues with the main opponents of this security. The parity of force is a much better solution.
    Concessions to the USSR did not bring results and put the USSR in an ambiguous position.
    1. Same lech
      Same lech 14 September 2020 05: 48 New
      +7
      The Helsinki Act is a mistake.

      I think it was even more stupid ... to establish a dialogue with the West on the basis of gentlemen's agreements and hope that the West will fulfill them the height of stupidity and naivety ... they will be thrown like suckers and time has proved it.
      1. Reptiloid
        Reptiloid 14 September 2020 06: 51 New
        +5
        Quote: The same Lech
        ..... I think it was even more stupid ... to establish a dialogue with the West on the basis of gentlemen's agreements and hope that the West will fulfill them the height of stupidity and naivety ... thrown like suckers and time has proved it.
        it was the time of the degeneration of the leadership of the USSR, the degeneration of the nomenklatura, which specifically began with the coming to power of Khrushchev.
        .... already the disintegration went from within. But the residents didn't know yet. And they believed in their strength. And they sent help to the brothers ...
  2. Far B
    Far B 14 September 2020 05: 39 New
    14
    In fact, the entire post-Stalinist policy of the USSR leadership towards the left, revolutionary movement was comprador, treacherous in essence - there can be no compromise with an obvious ideological enemy. The peak of this policy was Khrushchev, but even after him, the same Brezhnev did not have enough courage or brains to abandon all the "transformations and exposures" of Kukuruznik. It's not even worth talking about the post-Brezhnev leaders.
    But in scanty Albania they saw quite clearly what this policy was leading to. And the very extravagant Mao saw it too. And they warned. But they were not heard. The result - "gorbostroyka" and the collapse of the USSR. Until now, we cannot get enough of the results of this muck.
    1. Same lech
      Same lech 14 September 2020 05: 45 New
      +2
      Until now, we cannot get enough of the results of this muck.

      Hmm .... what
      Someone Alexander Kutinov gave another portion of such muck about the children's writer Gaidar ... read I recommend.
      https://www.maximonline.ru/guide/music/_article/gaidar/
      1. Umalta
        Umalta 15 September 2020 00: 56 New
        +2
        And you don't need to read nasty things, you just need to understand that at the age of 16, if I'm not mistaken, to command a regiment where there were front-line soldiers, having seen a lot, you have to be a very tough psychopath.
    2. Reptiloid
      Reptiloid 14 September 2020 06: 44 New
      +5
      ..... in tiny Albania ......
      The time of the Helsinki agreements is the time of my parents 'and relatives' youth. It was said that this was covered as an achievement. They also said that in the Brezhnev era, Albania was never mentioned anywhere. As if she was not at all. And then even more so. Before the destruction of Yugoslavia
      1. Aviator_
        Aviator_ 14 September 2020 07: 57 New
        +2
        that in Brezhnev's time, Albania was never mentioned anywhere. As if she was not at all.

        Quite right. And its weight in world politics was somewhere on the level of Andorra.
        1. Reptiloid
          Reptiloid 14 September 2020 08: 12 New
          +6
          hi Good morning, Sergey!
          Well, yes, the country is small, but they were against the actions of Khrushchev to debunk the personality cult of Stalin! Unlike other countries, in which they rejoiced and began to throw down monuments to Stalin, and at the same time others who glorified Ours.
          1. Aviator_
            Aviator_ 14 September 2020 14: 12 New
            +4
            Good afternoon, Dmitry. Well, Enver Hoxha brought the Stalin case to insanity, it's like thinking that the Khmer Rouge were building a communist future. But Albania itself is not needed by anyone, I remember from the school geography course that there are deposits of natural asphalt, and there is nothing else at all. But if you feed these wild ones, then a piece of Serbia can be annexed, and that's what happened.
            1. Reptiloid
              Reptiloid 14 September 2020 17: 23 New
              +4
              That's what I thought, dear hi Sergei!
              Quote: Aviator_
              Good afternoon, Dmitry. ........ if you feed these wild ones ...
              At least these wild ones, at least others ...... What happens often is that someone lures in their own interests. Yes, there is nothing special in Albania, but the place is the situation. ...
  3. parusnik
    parusnik 14 September 2020 06: 12 New
    +4
    And the result? The de facto Helsinki Act of 1975, now denounced.
    1. Reptiloid
      Reptiloid 14 September 2020 06: 36 New
      +6
      Now NATO includes former members of the Warsaw Pact dissolved by the marked and non-Balts, Ukraine, Georgia and Moldova can too.
      Since then, the disintegrated Yugoslavia has disappeared. Its inhabitants had to endure terrible events. No Czechoslovakia, East Germany. Russia has become territorially smaller and weaker than the USSR.
    2. sevryuk
      sevryuk 14 September 2020 21: 52 New
      0
      It has not been denounced by anyone. Everyone has the right to restore legal boundaries. As well as freedom of movement through those.
  4. Avior
    Avior 14 September 2020 06: 28 New
    10

    The Declaration of Helsinki, adopted on the initiative of the USSR, according to Brezhnev's plan, was to become a triumph of Soviet diplomacy in Europe - fixing the achievements of the USSR.
    In the USA, they were not delighted with her, as she recorded the achievements of the USSR in creating a socialist bloc in Europe, negotiations. it took two years, but in the end Ford signed it all the same.
    The Maoist leadership of Albania at that time was against peace agreements with the damned capitalists. But a year later, the commitment to Maoism severed.
    Andorra has not signed the declaration yet - I don't know why. Did they have plans to redraw the borders? :)))
  5. nikvic46
    nikvic46 14 September 2020 06: 40 New
    +1
    The principled "allies" Albania and China were the first to rush into the arms of the West. From the point of view of modern politics, it is impossible to consider what happened in Helsinki in 1975. This brings up the idea that the collapse of the USSR was caused by a mine planted in 1975. The situation in the world was different. If now they consider the movement of planes in our direction with full weapons as unfriendly. At that time it happened every day. Now the inevitability of war is considered as an essence. At that time it was different.
  6. Olgovich
    Olgovich 14 September 2020 06: 49 New
    -1
    .
    At that time, the notorious long-term oil and gas contracts of the first half of the 70s for the supply of Soviet oil and gas to Western Europe had already been signed.

    It is they, we emphasize, that for the first time revealed the real possibility of the West to "get rid of" from the maximum raw material dependence on the Near and Middle East.

    It was they, I emphasize, who brought the currency of the USSR, for which they bought food products abroad, turning it into the largest importer of grain, etc.

    in the treaties of the beginning - mid-70s of the USSR, Poland, Czechoslovakia and the GDR with the FRG, the inviolability of the post-war borders of those socialist countries with West Germany is noted only in general terms.

    What an agreement on the borders between the USSR and .... Germany, what nonsense?
    But after the collapse of the USSR, the elimination of East European socialism and the Warsaw Pact, German revanchism, at least "unofficial", became, as is known, more active.

    Moreover, it became more active after the official recognition by the leadership of the USSR in 1989 of the illegitimacy of the Soviet-German political agreements of 1939.
    What does the Pact of RM 1939 have to do with .... borders after 1945,? belay
    They are determined by decisions of conferences of allies and post-war interstate agreements.

    But the above-mentioned conflicts, and in Cyprus; and with Gibraltar and between Syria and Turkey, and even the Spanish-Moroccan dispute over the Spanish enclaves in Morocco, have not disappeared to this day. It seems that on this issue the special position of the then Albania was not “unfounded” and “unnecessary”?

    And in what question did they turn out to be "solid? Where are the promised claims of Germany to Austria, Sudetenland, Prussia, Pomerania? Nonsense.

    On Cyprus, no one recognized the Turkish Republic, Turkey does not dispute the border with Syria, and the states will decide among themselves with small enclaves.

    Helsinki is an outstanding achievement of the Soviet Union and world diplomacy, which reduced the danger of military conflicts, TMV and military spending and a worthy continuation of almost a century of consistent Russian struggle for peace
    1. Essex62
      Essex62 14 September 2020 19: 24 New
      -1
      Obsalyutno correct conclusion. I will support an ideological opponent.
  7. Undecim
    Undecim 14 September 2020 08: 27 New
    13
    The historical section of the site is increasingly slipping into primitive propaganda - a sketch. Moreover, the agitator Chichkin slipped to the point that, under the guise of a map of territorial conflicts in Europe, he inserted into an article a map of how Santa Claus is called in different countries. This is a vivid illustration of the author's attitude to the audience.
    True, for a significant part of the audience, judging by the comments, this does not matter.
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 14 September 2020 09: 08 New
      +6
      Yes, "Kolotun Babay" impressed me!
      1. Undecim
        Undecim 14 September 2020 09: 12 New
        +6
        Arouses interest - the author deliberately inserted this picture with the aim of neighing at the hamsters, or through carelessness in the rush to prepare the "imperishable".
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 14 September 2020 09: 16 New
          +3
          Well, there are many different pictures on Yandex.Pictures, and you can be wrong.
      2. bubalik
        bubalik 14 September 2020 13: 20 New
        +4
        "Kolotun Babay"
        ,, and who is it? a play on words? like [i] Jackie Chan - Abizyana stuntman, Zebra - Ishak Sailor i]?
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 14 September 2020 13: 46 New
          +7
          And the saiga is a Jewish antelope.
          According to the map given by the author, Kolotun Babay is Kazakh Santa Claus.
          1. bubalik
            bubalik 14 September 2020 13: 55 New
            +4
            ,,, Kazakhs were surprised.
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 14 September 2020 18: 14 New
              +1
              It is worth asking the natives. For example, Igor has "Han Tengri". He really lives in Tashkent, but I think he can enlighten.
              1. Lexus
                Lexus 14 September 2020 20: 25 New
                +7
                Hello! "Once there was such a booze ..." (C), there could have been more pictures. "Burn" - until the end! If there is nothing to read, even laughing heartily on the topic of "leaders of states".




                Vaughn, Chilean villains Viejo Pascuero "tied". laughing
                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 14 September 2020 20: 33 New
                  0
                  Judging by the preliminary speech, Lukashenka was detained in Minsk in a Dedmorozov suit.
                  1. Lexus
                    Lexus 14 September 2020 20: 41 New
                    +4
                    In Minsk, Lukashenka was detained in a Dedmorozov suit.

                    Did you pick sweets for Kolya from gifts? Runs the risk of ending like this Befana.

                    1. 3x3zsave
                      3x3zsave 14 September 2020 21: 00 New
                      +3
                      Lech! You are a sadist! You can't do that, for the coming sleep!
                      1. Lexus
                        Lexus 14 September 2020 21: 13 New
                        +7
                        Good! Let’s turn down the heat, but we don’t get off the topic. good
                        Hike, our "gilded" is visited by Hoteisho. And his name is similar to their insatiable "I want ishsho", and in general they are more and more like him. But I want to note that Hoteisho is the god of the poor !!! Our poor officials and oligarchs! laughing



                        There is no snow in Brazil. What are these adorable New Year's creatures called? "Pesyurochki"? From ... to wash them. repeat

                      2. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 14 September 2020 21: 28 New
                        +4
                        Again
                        "Wide native Brazil,
                        Every inhabitant in it is full and drunk,
                        I do not know another such country,
                        Where there are so many wild monkeys "(c)
        2. cost
          cost 14 September 2020 14: 05 New
          +6
          I like this author.
          podymych he knows how to write articles with a minimum of text and a maximum of information - the newspaper "hardening" is immediately felt - when the editor limits the number of lines to the journalist. good
          Thank you, Alexey Alekseevich. As always on top
          PS... And for the "Soviet Encyclopedia" 1985-1991, you have a separate huge republican
          Best regards
          Dmitriy
          1. 3x3zsave
            3x3zsave 14 September 2020 17: 21 New
            +2
            Hello Dmitry!
            And I don't really like it. I can't explain it, but after reading the materials of this author, I get the impression that I was globally kicked in some place.
  8. ee2100
    ee2100 14 September 2020 09: 23 New
    +4
    This was supposed to be an illustration for another article!
    1. Undecim
      Undecim 14 September 2020 09: 26 New
      +5
      About the role of Santa Claus "collective West" in the collapse of the USSR?
      1. ee2100
        ee2100 14 September 2020 09: 27 New
        +4
        The secret role of Santa Claus
  • north 2
    north 2 14 September 2020 08: 32 New
    +8
    Khrushchev and Khrushchev again. From him, the boards began to urgently release from the camps
    all the evil spirits that Stalin put into the camps before the war, during the war and after the war. But just
    without this evil, the country made a colossal breakthrough before the war and won the war and after
    won the country instantly rebuilt. And this Khrushchev from the camps released evil spirits in the republics quickly became
    national elite and out of gratitude supported any fornication of Khrushchev. So from this elite
    Brezhnev's "endorsements" were born, which then quickly transformed into frank
    destroyers of the Soviet state under Gorbachev and Yeltsin. So couldn't such an elite
    not to surrender to the West everything that was created and conquered by Stalin and Stalin and the Stalinist ideas by the faithful elite in a short time? Of course she passed everything. Both within the country and in international security. The Brezhnev elite is the chicks from the Khrushchev nest, who ate both Khrushchev and those who fed them with hatred to Stalin. transplanted. Well, Khrushchev, who was an ardent supporter not of the camps, but of the death penalty, as soon as Stalin died, so quickly realized that if he were to release those who were sitting in the camps, they would be out of gratitude.
    and Khrushchev will support and from Khrushchev, as suspicions will be taken away from the executioner and Stalin will be spoiled.
    1. Essex62
      Essex62 14 September 2020 21: 54 New
      0
      No not like this. If Brezhnev hadn't stopped Khrushchev, we got capitalism in the early 70s. Oxygen, the true Bolshevik Brezhnev, then blocked the counter-revolution. But I didn’t count on my health. At the level of journalistic investigation, it was said that with Andropov's sanction, he was fed with something. A tough fighter suddenly began limply to allow himself to be hanged in tons of orders and to make speeches with a tangled tongue. I did not prepare the receiver and did not clean it.
  • ee2100
    ee2100 14 September 2020 08: 51 New
    +3
    The Helsinki Agreement in 1975 was presented as a diplomatic victory for the USSR, they said that Finland was chosen by the Union so that our leaders would not wander around the world. Then this treaty was important, a milestone in the consolidation of the field of war organization in Europe.
    Now only political scientists remember about him and his price is zero. The USSR was destroyed. Yugoslavia was destroyed and someone remembered about the Helsinki Treaty?
    In 1991-1992. there were many interesting articles in the press, often very controversial and sometimes seemed fantastic.
    About one of them. The author is German, of course I don't remember who, and what his name would give me. Meaning. Germany will make every effort, with the help of the United States, so that in the newly formed Baltic countries and in other countries of the former Warsaw Pact, a dig on the equalization of the Soviet and Nazi regimes unfolds. Fortunately, the USSR has already recognized the Molotov-Ribbentrop pact as not legitimate. Certain propaganda will be carried out among the population. Now the OSCE is discussing this possibility in full. If "the entire world" community recognizes this equation, then the responsibility for unleashing WW2 will be divided in half. Until recently, Germany pretends that it has nothing to do with it. But when the responsibility of the parties is properly formalized, Germany will make territorial claims because
    everything must be returned to the borders of 1939. Another reset!
    Now the UK is trying to leave the EU with a "divorce" agreement. And he will. We talked about this 2 years ago.
    History teaches that the price is not worth anything fixed on paper. The "uncle" will come with a gun and reset everything.
  • Valery Potapov
    Valery Potapov 14 September 2020 08: 55 New
    0
    Let me remind you that this recognition of borders in Europe after World War II was never signed by the legislative bodies of the United States. Beasts, but honest ...
  • The comment was deleted.
  • forester1971
    forester1971 14 September 2020 09: 35 New
    +5
    The "strongest" component of the article about the Helsinki agreements is a map with how Santa Claus is called in European countries. Comics about spider-man will soon be used in analytical articles.
  • Operator
    Operator 14 September 2020 10: 40 New
    +1
    Damn, who cares about Albania's opinion on any issue?

    At the moment, "super-transparent" Albania, together with its Kosovo branch, voluntarily fell under the "evil and terrible" USA. To refer to the opinion of the Albanian mongrels is to respect yourself. As soon as the African American States begin to degrade, the Serbs and Macedonians will exterminate the Albanians like cockroaches.

    China of 1975 and 2020 is two completely different countries: the first is communist, the second is state capitalist (which is absolutely violet for some kind of Helsinki Act, communism, Stalinism and other isms).

    To understand the issue: the Federal Republic of Germany still does not have either the Basic Law or the Constitution (everything still lies in parliament in the form of drafts), and the joke is also that the largest subject of the German federation Bavaria has not signed a federal treaty and in at any moment can leave the FRG. Therefore, what kind of Prussia, Silesia and the Sudetenland - the Germans would not have rolled back to the Rhine Union of the 1812 model, and then bread.