Military Review

Combat aircraft. Small and harmful, but very useful

41
Combat aircraft. Small and harmful, but very useful

This is not to say that it was a masterpiece like an airplane. It cannot be said that it was a hydraulic device. But here we have such a golden mean, especially in comparison with others, and really golden mean. Even the middle.


And our today's hero was a rather interesting phenomenon in the world of seaplanes. But we'll talk about this a little below, but for now it's worth saying a few words about why it was needed in general.

In the 30s of the last century in all fleets with varying degrees of success, attempts were made to create such a thing as a radar, a locator, a radar. You can call it whatever you like, in fact it turned out to create a radar station, which, in fact, sentenced reconnaissance seaplanes as a class.

But while the work was going on, every large ship (from a light cruiser and above) was equipped with what? That's right, catapult and seaplanes.


This was the only useful intelligence concept at the time. The plane, which rose even a kilometer, greatly facilitated the work of observers to find the enemy. In general, the aircraft in the navy (we do not take aircraft carriers) was viewed in this way - as a universal means of reconnaissance.

Accordingly, it should have been a small plane, but with a decent flight time. The crew had to detect the enemy, contact their ships, point them at the enemies, and then adjust the artillery fire on the enemy.

Naturally, the plane had to somehow protect itself in the event of opposition aviation enemy, it is quite natural that the enemy on the ships had absolutely similar aircraft. With the same tasks.

This is how a separate class of seaplanes appeared - ejection wagons. They could be scouts, spotters, some could even destroy another plane or torture a submarine with bombs.

They were supposed to take off from a catapult, and after completing the task, they would splash down next to the carrier ship and wait until the plane was lifted aboard the ship.

Our hero could do anything. Unlike many of his classmates. And this made it, perhaps, the best aircraft in its class.

But the Germans generally did not look for easy ways, but went their own way. As a result, they sometimes came where no one else could reach. And sometimes they got something not entirely clear. But our case is from the first folder.

In general, the path of the German ejection aircraft went a peculiar way.

The first catapult with a claim to long service was born Heinkel Ne.60.


It was a biplane that can be considered an attempt to combine friendship with water and air. In fact, no, the He.60 flew very below average in terms of speed and range, it was very difficult to control and, most importantly, unstable in the air.

Friendship also did not work out with water. The hydro attachment stubbornly peeled off and sank, dragging the plane along. In general, the aircraft did not have any advantages, except, perhaps, the fact that the enemy could hardly capture it. The Heinkel sank very quickly with the slightest excitement.

In general, in the Kriegsmarine for some reason they wanted a reusable seaplane.

Heinkel built the plane, but He.114 also "did not enter".


It flew only 30 km / h faster than its predecessor, and managed in much the same way. The armament also consisted of a defensive MG.15 machine gun and two bombs of 50 kg each.

And then the Ministry of Aviation (we are not surprised, by that time Goering had scooped up everything that was flying) announced a competition. To fill the vacant position of a catapult aircraft on all ships of the Kriegsmarine.

The companies Arado, Dornier, Focke-Wulf and Gotha presented their projects. The offended Heinkels did not participate.

And in the end the aircraft of the "Arado" company won. The naval officers were overjoyed and ordered four aircraft to be tested. True, the success was slightly spoiled by the opinion of the old conservatives in the naval ministry, who believed that the ejection plane simply had to be a biplane.

Therefore, they took and built a couple of biplanes from the Focke-Wulf, FW-62. It's just that no one offered more biplanes.


Tests of two machines showed a huge advantage of the Arado aircraft, and it went into series. He was faster, more maneuverable, "hung" longer, and most importantly - was just a godsend in terms of weapons.

We will begin to discuss and compare the seaplanes of that war in bulk in the very near future, but now it is worth mentioning that the Ar.196 had no competitors in its class in terms of weapons. Small aircraft, where the weight went to strengthen the structure, for the sake of the duration and range of flight, sacrificed primarily weapons.

And the "Arado" turned out to be a rather creepy monster, whose armament consisted of two 20-mm MG-FF cannons and an MG.17 machine gun, which was installed to the right of the engine in the nose. Plus the MG.15 machine gun, which defended the aircraft in the rear sector. Plus two SC 50 bombs, 50 kg each.

In general, this "small catapult reconnaissance aircraft" could easily pile on any fighter of that time in terms of the force of a salvo. In 1937 he looked very ... impressive in terms of performance characteristics. Yes, speed was not his strong point, so you could just get away from this plane, but if he caught up, that's where the problems really started.


The ammunition load was very serious. 120 rounds for each cannon, 500 rounds for a machine gun, 525 for defensive.

The first serial Ar.196A-0 (10 pcs.) Were produced without nodes for launching from a catapult, so they went to reconnaissance units of the Luftwaffe in Wilhelmshaven and Kiel. And already the second series, Ar.196A-1, which consisted of 20 vehicles, has already gone directly to the ships. The planes were equipped with the necessary devices for taking off from catapults.

The first ship on which Ar.196 entered service was the raider "Admiral Graf Spee".


Next, the new seaplanes were received by the heavy cruiser "Deutschland". Then came the turn of the battleships "Scharnhorst" and "Gneisenau", the heavy cruisers "Admiral Scheer", "Admiral Hipper" and "Prince Eugen".


On the deck of the "Gneisenau"


So they decided to place the catapult on the Scharnhorst

The last aircraft received were the battleships Tirpitz and Bismarck.


Catapult of the battleship "Bismarck"

"Bismarck" and "Tirpitz" received 6 aircraft each.

Scharnhorst and Gneisenau - 4 units each.

Heavy cruisers such as "Deutschland" and "Hipper" - 2 aircraft each.

By that time, the aircraft of the first series had already been flown and were highly appreciated by the pilots. And the coastal patrol service ordered more planes at maximum armory complete set. And she was right.

Ar.196A-2, caught in the coastal defense units, regularly patrolled the waters of the North Sea. And on May 5, 1940, an epoch-making incident occurred when two Ar.196A-2s seized Her Majesty's submarine "Seal". The submarine laid mines in the Kattegat Strait, but ran into its own mine (God marks rogue sometimes) and was forced to surface. Here she was found by two patrol "Arado", who immediately began to treat the boat with bombs and shells.

The British chose to surrender.

Catapult aircraft also performed their tasks quite normally. All 11 ships, which were sunk in his only cruise "Admiral Graf Spee", were discovered precisely with the help of scouts "Arado".


And how not to recall the epic sinking of Operation Wonderland, when, due to the fact that both aircraft on the Admiral Scheer were out of order, the Germans missed an almost unarmed, but very important (for us) convoy.

Seaplane pilots from the Bismarck tried to intercept the scout Catalina, which had discovered the battleship and cruiser Prince Eugen. However, "Catalina" managed to get away, since the speed was actually equal to the speed of "Arado". And two days later, the Bismarck was sunk.

Throughout 1941, the Coast Guard seaplanes based in the Bay of Biscay fought constant battles with the British. It turned out to be a kind of circulation: the British "Whitleys" and (since 1942) "Wellingtons" hunted for German submarines. Arado intercepted British patrol planes and made life difficult for them. As the British “Beaufighters” and “Mosquito” appeared, the crews of “Arado” began to have problems. The 190s Focke-Wulfs had to be allocated to escort the scouts.

The circle was opened only after the defeat of the Germans, but more than a dozen aircraft rested in the coastal waters.


Arado Аr.196А-4 was noted from the heavy cruisers Lutzov and Prince Eugen on the Eastern Front, adjusting the firing from the cruisers at the advancing Soviet troops in the Baltic.

In addition to "normal" warships, Ar.196A, primarily due to its compactness, were registered on the decks of the auxiliary cruisers Orion, Komet, Atlantis, Tor, and Mikhel. And, accordingly, they performed the functions of reconnaissance aircraft for the raiders of the Third Reich.

In general, the Ar-196A turned out to be an extremely balanced aircraft, so it was used on all ships, from a battleship to an auxiliary cruiser converted from a civilian ship.


The Ar.196A became the last and most widespread Luftwaffe float aircraft. Only 526 aircraft were produced, but given its narrow specialization, the figure is quite decent. For comparison, the KOR-1 / Be-2, a similar aircraft in the USSR Navy, was produced in a series of 13 aircraft.

But "Arado" could be found anywhere, in the entire theater of operations of the Second World War. Atlantic, North Sea, Baltic, Mediterranean and Black Seas. Even in the East, in the Malaysian Penang, there was an "East Asian department", which was supposed to provide assistance and support to raiders and submarines of Germany. The department had two Ar.196A aircraft at its disposal.

In general, Ar.196A received the nickname "Eyes of the Kriegsmarine" for a reason. The appearance of this aircraft over an allied convoy anywhere in the oceans could mean only one thing: trouble begins in full. And we must wait for an attack in the very near future.

The fact that virtually unchanged the plane served the entire war is evidence of a lot. First of all, about the successful design of the car.

It is clear that in the second half of the war, starting in 1944, the Ar.196A became obsolete. Fighters of all countries have stepped too far, and the widespread development of radars by countries and the construction of aircraft carriers simply brought the Ar.196A to the bottom.

The advent of radar and aircraft carriers put an end to the very concept of the combat use of hydroplanes. Any, the most seedy aircraft, launched from an aircraft carrier, in its characteristics utterly surpassed the small seaplanes of the ejection launch.


The seaplane has ceased to be relevant at all. And Ar.196A was no exception. But it was a very outstanding and useful aircraft, primarily as a reconnaissance aircraft.

By the way, on the basis of Ar.196 at the beginning of the work, a sports seaplane was created for the Schneider Cup races. But, having seen what kind of flight characteristics the new scout has, the Luftwaffe decided not to release the sports aircraft for races, so as not to declassify the data of the new naval scout.

LTH Ar.196A-3:

Wingspan, m: 12,44.
Length, m: 10,96.
Height, m: 4,45.
Wing Area, m2: 28,30.

Weight, kg:
- empty aircraft: 2 335;
- normal takeoff: 3 303.

Engine: 1 х ВМW-132К х 960 HP
Maximum speed, km / h: 320.
Cruising speed, km / h: 268.
Practical range, km: 800.
Maximum rate of climb, m / min: 415.
Practical ceiling, m: 7 000.

Crew, person: 2.

Armament:
- two wing-mounted 20 mm MG-FF cannons (120 rounds per barrel);
- one synchronous 7,9 mm MG-17 machine gun (500 rounds);
- one 7,9 mm MG-15 machine gun on a mobile installation (525 rounds);
- two 50-kg bombs on ETS-50 wing suspensions.
Author:
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  1. The leader of the Redskins
    The leader of the Redskins 12 September 2020 07: 00 New
    11
    I heard about this aircraft, saw in reference books, but never knew about its rich military past. Thank you author.
  2. Cyril G ...
    Cyril G ... 12 September 2020 07: 03 New
    17
    Her Majesty's submarine "Seal".


    Mr. Skomorokhov, the names of warships are not usually translated into Russian in military literature. And the story there is so epic that it could be told in its entirety
    1. Catfish
      Catfish 12 September 2020 07: 40 New
      +8
      Cyril, and share the story with the people, at least briefly. smile
      1. Cyril G ...
        Cyril G ... 12 September 2020 07: 45 New
        16
        If very meek - the Arado pilots, having forced the submarine to surrender, sat down near the boat and demanded the boat commander "Otherwise, no one will believe us" (p.), which was then taken to their base. They took off after the first German ship was on the way. In general, it is advisable to read this story in the original source. It's worth it ... After all, the only case in history when a plane captured a submarine ... wassat
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 12 September 2020 08: 24 New
          +4
          Thank you, what is the name of the original source? Actually, of course, the story looks fantastic, but ... anything can happen in life. I chewed through both Morrison and Ruge, not counting the others, but I have never seen this story anywhere. There is a link, I will be grateful. hi
          1. Blacksmith 55
            Blacksmith 55 12 September 2020 09: 33 New
            +8
            Briefly about this story, I found information when asked in Wikipedia: Ar 196 HMS Seal. But unfortunately only in German, there is no Russian translation, I don't know English.
            Seal is a small submarine, only 6 people were captured. There is not a single word about the fact that the pilots took the captain with them. The boat was towed to a German port and repaired.
  3. Free wind
    Free wind 12 September 2020 07: 09 New
    +4
    And why did the Germans not use the experience of the Italians. The Italians were very active in seaplane speed racing. They competed with the British. The British won with their 1900 hp Merlin. , these are single versions of the motor, the speed of the aircraft reached 560 km per hour. The Italians due to aerodynamics are about 500 km per hour.
    1. Cyril G ...
      Cyril G ... 12 September 2020 07: 46 New
      +5
      Quote: Free Wind
      The Italians due to aerodynamics are about 500 km per hour.


      The record in the 30s was 709 km / h, on the Italian MS-72 if sclerosis does not let me down
      1. Alf
        Alf 13 September 2020 00: 01 New
        +3
        Quote: Cyril G ...
        Quote: Free Wind
        The Italians due to aerodynamics are about 500 km per hour.


        The record in the 30s was 709 km / h, on the Italian MS-72 if sclerosis does not let me down

    2. Alf
      Alf 12 September 2020 22: 07 New
      +4
      Quote: Free Wind
      And why did the Germans not use the experience of the Italians.

      And you take an interest in the resource of those racing motors, you will be greatly surprised. If memory serves, the British dviguns on them were calculated for one flight.
      1. Cyril G ...
        Cyril G ... 13 September 2020 08: 00 New
        +2
        Quote: Alf
        If memory serves, the British dviguns on them were calculated for one flight.

        It seems like no more than 5 hours ... But given that in the record flight everything is to the maximum, then yes,
        1. Alf
          Alf 13 September 2020 23: 01 New
          +1
          Quote: Cyril G ...
          Quote: Alf
          If memory serves, the British dviguns on them were calculated for one flight.

          It seems like no more than 5 hours ... But given that in the record flight everything is to the maximum, then yes,

          And at 5 o'clock too, neither to the organ, nor to the Luftwaffe.
          1. Cyril G ...
            Cyril G ... 13 September 2020 23: 12 New
            +2
            I'll tell you more. This is a declared resource. With the real thing, I think everything was much worse.

            However, Napier Saber went into series during the war with a resource of 10 hours.
            And the average resource of the BMW-801 during 1942 grew painfully from 24 to 28 hours.
            1. Alf
              Alf 13 September 2020 23: 16 New
              +3
              Quote: Cyril G ...
              And the average resource of the BMW-801 during 1942 grew painfully from 24 to 28 hours.

              But as some of the technicians here like to pour with substance M-107 with a 25-hour resource ... As usual, the Germans have gut, our schlecht.
              Saber, which one stood on Tempest 2?
              1. Cyril G ...
                Cyril G ... 13 September 2020 23: 32 New
                +1
                But as some of the technicians here like to pour with substance M-107 with a 25-hour resource ... As usual, the Germans have gut, our schlecht.


                Not surprising

                Saber

                2 thousand strong H-shaped.
    3. Undecim
      Undecim 13 September 2020 16: 36 New
      +6
      Because the record and military aircraft are completely different aircraft.
      The Italians, thanks to their engine, Fiat AS.6 with 3100 hp. set in 1934 on the Macchi MC72 the unbeaten record for piston seaplanes - 709,2 km / h.
      Only the engine resource at this power was one minute.
  4. Trevis
    Trevis 12 September 2020 07: 30 New
    +1
    Oh, in the tundra they gave it recently)
  5. BISMARCK94
    BISMARCK94 12 September 2020 07: 40 New
    +2
    The aircraft ended the era of seaplanes on ships with dignity in fact.
  6. Alexey RA
    Alexey RA 12 September 2020 10: 07 New
    +6
    But "Arado" could be found anywhere, in the entire theater of operations of the Second World War. Atlantic, North Sea, Baltic, Mediterranean and Black Seas.

    In Kamaev's memoirs "On a torpedo boat" (a kind of "sea trench truth" - an unvarnished story with a lot of casual details) in describing the hostilities of the first year of the war in the Baltic, "Arado" is in the first place in the list of dangers for the TKA. Moreover, this is exactly Ar.196, since cannon fire is constantly mentioned when attacking boats.
    1. Cyril G ...
      Cyril G ... 13 September 2020 11: 17 New
      +1
      Quote: Alexey RA
      Kamaeva "On a torpedo boat"

      Do you have an email?
      1. Avior
        Avior 13 September 2020 21: 33 New
        +2
        http://publ.lib.ru/ARCHIVES/K/KAMAEV_Valentin_Sergeevich/_Kamaev_V.S..html
        In two formats
  7. Macsen_wledig
    Macsen_wledig 12 September 2020 11: 16 New
    +8
    Catapult of the battleship "Bismarck"

    The author, as usual, was able to ...
    This is Prince Eugen ...

    Scharnhorst and Gneisenau - 4 units each.

    As usual, the author did not dive into details. :)
    Initially, "Gneisenau" had two "Arado" only on catapults, when they built a hangar, there were still two cars left.

    Heavy cruisers such as "Deutschland" and "Hipper" - 2 aircraft each.

    "Dochlandov" has one, although, perhaps, the author has some drawings of the Ahnenerbe
    and he will provide them to us.
    The "hippers" had three planes: two in the hangar, one on the catapult. After rebuilding the hangar on the "Hipper", two seaplanes remained.

    Seaplane pilots from the Bismarck tried to intercept the scout Catalina, which had discovered the battleship and cruiser Prince Eugen. However, "Catalina" managed to get away, since the speed was actually equal to the speed of "Arado". And two days later, the Bismarck was sunk.

    I wonder if the author can give German document describing this brilliant interception?
    1. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 12 September 2020 17: 21 New
      +5
      Quote: Macsen_Wledig
      I wonder if the author can cite a German document describing this brilliant interception?

      Maybe you meant "Tirpitz" and the battle of 09.03.42, when a pair of "Arado" tried to drive off the "Albacore" scouts, damaging one of them and wounding the navigator?
  8. Undecim
    Undecim 12 September 2020 13: 22 New
    14
    The author, as always, copiously equips copy-paste with his own fables, trying to get something original.
    The offended Heinkels did not participate.
    Nobody "offended" anyone. Everything was exactly the opposite - "Heinkel" received an order for the He-114, that the prospects for this aircraft are not bright. until no one guessed. therefore, Heinkel saw no need to participate in the competition.
    Therefore, they took and built a couple of biplanes from the Focke-Wulf, FW-62. It's just that no one offered more biplanes.
    And here everything is exactly the opposite - everything. besides "Arado" offered biplanes., which was the main reason for choosing the aircraft of the "Arado" company.
    I can not understand. why the author is engaged in such dubious creativity. Copy and paste to yourself quietly normal authors. only indicate the sources under the article. No, I want creative achievements. probably.
  9. DeKo
    DeKo 12 September 2020 13: 26 New
    -3
    Author, why don't you write about Soviet aircraft of this class?
  10. Alex013
    Alex013 12 September 2020 13: 54 New
    +1
    By the way, there was a poster about the case of the capture of a submarine

    https://waralbum.ru/wp-content/comment-image/3864.jpg
  11. Alex013
    Alex013 12 September 2020 14: 00 New
    0
    I read that in the 50s at least one copy of Arado 196 was operated in our fleet
  12. hohol95
    hohol95 12 September 2020 15: 16 New
    +7
    The article does not contain information about the post-war use of Ar.196 by the border troops of the NKVD of the USSR.
    "Arado" and "Siebel" on the border of the USSR
    Author Oleg GROZNY, Anatoly KULEBA
    govza.ru
    A group of engineering and technical personnel from a separate aviation brigade of the NKVD of the USSR, headed by Lieutenant Colonel-engineer G.L. Schwartz.
    The engineers carefully examined all the aircraft and came to the conclusion that they can be restored. It was also established that an aircraft plant is located near Damgarsten, where maintenance and repair work was carried out on the Arado-196 seaplanes during the war.
    When the first aircraft were repaired, the question arose about testing them in the air. For this, a former German test pilot was found. He taught our pilots how to fly the Arado-196. As a result of hard work, aviation specialists managed to restore 37 seaplanes. In addition to aircraft, many more engines and spare parts were discovered, which were sent to the Soviet Union in several echelons.
    For more than ten years, German seaplanes have been successfully used in the protection of the USSR maritime borders in the Baltic and Black Seas, in all border aviation units in the Far East. They were used to illuminate the coast, coastal waters and distant approaches to Sakhalin Island, reconnaissance of ice conditions in the Aniva Bay, La Perouse Strait and in the coastal waters of the Sea of ​​Okhotsk, identify forest fires in the southern part of Sakhalin, as well as for flights to establish the nationality of unknown floating craft and many other tasks.
    The use of captured aircraft in border protection was quite effective. So, in 1956, the crews of the aircraft Li-2 and "Arado-196" discovered 251 Japanese schooners near our waters, on their edge and in the territorial waters. According to aerial reconnaissance, border ships then detained 12 foreign ships.
    During operation in the border troops, the Arado-196 aircraft were re-equipped, they were equipped with domestic radio communication and navigation equipment, and their own engines. German seaplanes were operated until 1962, and only then were they finally written off.
    1. Pavel57
      Pavel57 12 September 2020 15: 27 New
      +2
      And some were equipped with domestic motors.
      1. Cyril G ...
        Cyril G ... 13 September 2020 08: 02 New
        +1
        Which motor? Ash-62?
  13. Alex013
    Alex013 12 September 2020 17: 06 New
    +7
    in service in the border troops
  14. Macsen_wledig
    Macsen_wledig 12 September 2020 17: 44 New
    0
    Quote: Alexey RA
    Maybe you meant "Tirpitz" and the battle of 09.03.42, when a pair of "Arado" tried to drive off the "Albacore" scouts, damaging one of them and wounding the navigator?

    If so, then on the face of a complete mess ... :)
  15. DrEng527
    DrEng527 12 September 2020 18: 27 New
    +3
    curious - thanks to the author!
  16. Saxahorse
    Saxahorse 12 September 2020 19: 43 New
    -1
    Frankly speaking, the plane is stupid. Against the background of very anachronistic biplanes, it probably stood out. But the scheme itself with two floats and a bunch of props and jumpers speaks of disgusting aerodynamics.

    A normal seaplane is something like that.
    1. Alf
      Alf 12 September 2020 22: 17 New
      +4
      Quote: Saxahorse
      Frankly speaking, the plane is stupid. Against the background of very anachronistic biplanes, it probably stood out. But the scheme itself with two floats and a bunch of props and jumpers speaks of disgusting aerodynamics.

      It's 1937, which is pretty good. In addition, it is worth considering the fact that the Japanese seaplane designers knew their business, the country is maritime and dependent on the navy, and in Germany they were engaged in naval aircraft according to the principle - Make an excellent board - great, it will be so-so-it will also do. Hundreds of copies of naval aircraft were not produced in Germany, in contrast to Japan and the USA. By the way, in the United States before the war, naval aviation was also not weak.
      1. Saxahorse
        Saxahorse 13 September 2020 20: 58 New
        +1
        Quote: Alf
        It's 1937, which is pretty good. In addition, it is worth considering the fact that the Japanese seaplane designers knew their business, the country is maritime and dependent on the fleet,

        Generally speaking, it was the German seaplanes of Heinkel and Dornier that were the trendsetters in the world in the period between the wars. The same Japanese learned from Henschel :)

        This same Arado looks like a hasty alteration of some kind of land specimen. There are two floats, and the absence of folding wings and, in general, rather poor performance characteristics, range for example .. If desired, we could make something much more interesting and easier to use. As it often happens, the choice was probably not the best, but simply "by agreement."
        1. Alf
          Alf 13 September 2020 23: 03 New
          +2
          Quote: Saxahorse
          As it often happens, the choice was probably not the best, but simply "by agreement."

          On the other hand, how did the 196's competitors shine?
          1. Saxahorse
            Saxahorse 14 September 2020 22: 44 New
            0
            Quote: Alf
            On the other hand, how did the 196's competitors shine?

            Perhaps nothing. Until the end of the war, the Japanese used the biplane as a ship reconnaissance officer. Although they did decent seaplanes.

            Maybe initially they looked at them as a consumable. If only it is inexpensive. It flies somehow, okay.
  17. Valery Potapov
    Valery Potapov 13 September 2020 08: 57 New
    +4
    After the war, captured Arado was used in our border aviation. From the floats of decommissioned aircraft, as from boats, I myself caught gobies in the Khadzhibey estuary near the Hydroport near Odessa in the late 50s ...
  18. Avior
    Avior 13 September 2020 21: 50 New
    +3
    ... in fact, it turned out to create a radar station, which, in fact, condemned reconnaissance seaplanes as a class.

    The advent of radar has expanded the capabilities of reconnaissance kilometers to 40 kilometers or a little more at best.
    The range capabilities of aviation are much greater, of course. And by function. In general, different things
    The submarine laid mines in the Kattegat Strait, but ran into its own mine (God marks rogue sometimes) and was forced to surface. Here her and

    The phrase about rogue stung my eyes. Actually, English sailors were at war with the Nazis at that time, and the phrase does not sound very good ...
  19. Avior
    Avior 13 September 2020 22: 05 New
    +3
    Details of the history of the English minelayers can be read here
    https://sergiovillaggio.livejournal.com/55499.html
    ... April 29, 1940 "Sil" went on a campaign with the task of setting 50 mines in the Swedish region of Gothenburg. They managed to overcome the German anti-submarine lines with great difficulty, on May 3 the boat was discovered and bombed by aircraft, and its solid hull was damaged. However, the submarine commander, Lieutenant Commander Rupert P. Lonsdale, decided to continue the operation. In the early hours of May 4, "Seal" staged and laid down on the return course. But soon it was discovered by ships of the 12th flotilla of hunters. The persecution continued for eight hours, but it was unsuccessful.

    However, the circumstances were against the British. At 19:00 an explosion was heard under the bottom of the "Sila", the boat quickly fell down and lay to the bottom. For six hours, the submariners fought vigorously for their lives and, in the end, forced the submarine to rise to the surface. The situation did not bode well: the solid hull was punctured, only one diesel engine was in good condition, and almost 500 miles to the native shores. In the circumstances, Lonsdale saw the only chance in an attempt to reach the Swedish coast. After relaying a message to the Admiralty, the Sil moved slowly eastward.

    The boat looked like this at the time the Germans approached.

    She was in Swedish waters, hoping to intern there, the Germans were not very embarrassed by the neutral status of Sweden ...