Military Review

Project MBT K2PL. Perspective without perspective

58

Layout tank K2PL for Poland


Currently, the Polish armed forces are studying the issue of modernizing the tank forces. It is supposed to write off outdated equipment and purchase a number of new machines. Among others, South Korean corporation Hyundai Rotem is interested in obtaining a production contract. She offers the Polish military a promising MBT K2PL.

Looking for a replacement


The program of modernization of tank forces with the code Wilk ("Wolf") started in 2017. Its goal is to decommission the obsolete T-72M1 and PT-91 Twardy tanks and purchase up to 500 vehicles of the new model. These may be tanks of foreign design, but it is planned to produce them, at least with the participation of the Polish industry. Along with the new tanks, the existing Leopard 2 undergoing modernization will remain in service.

At the moment, "Wolf" is in its early stages. The Ministry of Defense studies its needs and considers offers on the market. Thus, the possibility of joining the French-German MGCS program or another foreign project is being investigated. In 2019, the Polish military showed interest in the South Korean K2 Black Panther tank and even got acquainted with a production vehicle of this type.

In January of this year, the South Korean media appeared news on the imminent signing of a contract between the Polish Ministry of Defense and Hyundai Rotem Corporation for the development of the K2 modification, taking into account Polish requirements. The document has not yet appeared, but the project, most likely, has entered the preliminary study stage.


The military-technical exhibition MSPO-8 was held in Poland from 10 to 2020 September. At this event, Hyundai Rotem showed for the first time a mock-up of a tank with the symbol K2PL. Such an MBT differs markedly from the serial appearance of the "Black Panther" and should more fully meet modern requirements - both Polish and global.

New components on the old platform


The K2PL project provides for a relatively quick and easy creation of a new MBT with higher performance. It is proposed to keep the standard hull and turret, power plant and other components. At the same time, the complex of protection and weapons is being seriously reworked, and the chassis is being strengthened to compensate for the increased combat mass.

It is proposed to supplement the standard armor of the K2 tank with overhead modules - combined or dynamic protection. Such modules are placed on the frontal projection and on the side. The aft compartment of the hull, in order to avoid overheating, is equipped with lattice screens. The layout also contains active protection launchers. It is possible to use a complex of optical-electronic suppression.


The replacement of the engine and transmission has not been reported, and it is likely that the standard units of the South Korean MBT will be retained. However, the exact composition of the power unit is unclear - serial tanks for the Korean army had three variants of engines and transmissions. In all cases, a 1500 hp diesel was used. and automatic transmission. The undercarriage for the K2PL gets an additional pair of hydropneumatically suspended road wheels to compensate for the expected increase in combat weight.

The tank should retain its standard 120mm smoothbore gun that meets NATO standards. At the same time, a significant modernization of the fire control system is proposed. It will retain the overall architecture with combined gunner and commander sights (panoramic), but may receive new components. To the standard firing modes, at the request of the customer, they can add firing at low-altitude air targets.

Additional armament was rebuilt to the standards of the Polish army. At the same time, they retained a coaxial machine gun of normal caliber. A combat module with a heavy machine gun is provided on the roof of the tower. It is proposed to place two batteries of smoke grenade launchers along the sides of the tower, under the cover of hinged modules.


In terms of dimensions, the upgraded K2L tank should not seriously differ from the basic K2. A slight increase in width is possible due to the use of new onboard modules. At the same time, a significant increase in mass is expected over 55 tons of the base sample. The measures taken to compensate for this weighting are likely to keep the driving characteristics at the same level.

Better and more expensive


The South Korean K2 Black Panther, according to various estimates, is one of the best main tanks in the world. It has an optimal balance of all the main characteristics and, at least, is not inferior to other advanced developments. Now Hyundai Rotem corporation continues to assemble tanks for the South Korean army, and is also looking for foreign customers.

The basic K2 was developed taking into account the specifics of the potential Korean theater of operations. The modernized K2PL has a number of differences due to the specifics of the European theater of operations and its typical threats. By improving protection, OMS, etc. a certain increase in all basic characteristics is possible. In fact, a good tank gets even better.


Basic K2 (foreground) and its "Polish" variant

However, K2 and its "Polish" modernization have a big drawback - high cost. Serial "Black Panthers" of the latest series for South Korea cost approx. $ 9 million. Retrofitting by installing new components and appliances can increase the cost. The customer and the developer will look for ways to reduce the cost of the tank, but one should hardly count on a serious drop in price.

Doubtful prospects


The future of the K2PL project under the Wolf program is uncertain. We can say with confidence that the rearmament with the help of such tanks will not take place at all or will be very limited. The reasons for this are simple - the South Korean tank is too expensive for poor Poland.

It should be considered that serial K2PLs, even when produced at Polish enterprises, will not be cheaper than $ 8-9 million per unit. Accordingly, a series of 50 required tanks will cost at least $ 4 billion. For comparison, Poland's defense budget for 2020 is 12 billion. It is unlikely that the government will approve a tank building program worth a third of the Defense Ministry's annual budget.

There are several ways out of this situation. The first is planning the construction of a large series for a long time, which will reduce annual costs to an acceptable level. The second is the reduction of the required series, incl. with a division of the total cost over several years. The third way out is to abandon the interesting but expensive South Korean project in favor of cheaper technology.


It should be recalled that Poland plans not only to purchase new tanks, but also to modernize the existing Leopards-2. Such a project also requires a lot of money and can take a long time. At the same time, the search for funds for two tank projects will certainly face problems.

"Wolf" and "Panther"


The Wilk armored forces modernization program is still in its very early stages. The army is still studying the possibilities and proposals - and still has not chosen a tank for purchase. Taking into account various circumstances and factors, it is possible to predict the further development of events and imagine how the current work will end.

Apparently, Poland by the end of the decade will have to abandon the T-72M1 and PT-91 tanks due to the development of a resource and the impossibility of full service or modernization. Only German-made vehicles will have to remain in service, which are planned to be updated in a few years according to the Leopard 2PL project.

Purchases of completely new equipment are still in question. To do this, the Polish Ministry of Defense needs to complete ongoing research and select an MBT for purchase. You also need to assess the possibilities, draw up plans and get the approval of the country's leadership. Which tank will be chosen and what the procurement plans will be is a big question.

Regardless of the results of the Wilk program, the K2PL project is of great interest from a technical point of view. South Korean engineers proposed an interesting option for improving the serial tank by introducing new components and assemblies. However, outside the “Polish” context, the future of this project is also in question. The K2 tank, which is characterized by an excessive cost, has not yet become the subject of an export order. And it is very likely that its new modification will not change this state of affairs.
Author:
Photos used:
Ministry of Defense of the Republic of Korea
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  1. Keyser soze
    Keyser soze 11 September 2020 18: 23 New
    +4
    By the way, the original K2 is quite ready with a network application and for modern warfare. A very good car.

    And "poor Poland" is a rather strange argument, with the fact of buying 32 penguins .... they can also acquire K2, how to drink .... and they will tear the Hyundai ass to enter the European market and can give a good price.
    1. bubasa
      bubasa 11 September 2020 18: 49 New
      +6
      And why such confidence "that you are ready"? I somehow do not remember the outstanding achievements of the South Caucasus tank school ...
      1. Keyser soze
        Keyser soze 11 September 2020 18: 55 New
        -1
        why such confidence "that I'm ready"


        This is according to the statements of the Koreans - the tank has network-centric capabilities.
        1. Lexus
          Lexus 11 September 2020 19: 40 New
          +1
          I want to note that it has no significant advantages over the modernized Polish Leopard-2 (if not to take into account the KAZ), which it got "for a cheap price. Even it will not be difficult for them to turn the" main "T-72B3 into scrap metal. is even before meeting with a potential adversary. ”The defective managers have saved so well for themselves.
    2. Paranoid50
      Paranoid50 11 September 2020 21: 02 New
      +1
      Quote: Keyser Soze
      rather strange argument, when buying 32 penguins

      laughing Especially if you know WHAT they are paying. yes wink
    3. Megatron
      Megatron 12 September 2020 04: 04 New
      +6
      Cheto, I did not understand, the author has problems with mathematics?
      9 million tank, 50 tanks = 450 million, and he writes 3 billion ...
      1. Stalllker
        Stalllker 13 September 2020 08: 07 New
        -1
        Technique + kickbacks = 3+ lard
    4. datur
      datur 12 September 2020 19: 31 New
      -1
      what next/? wink wink what will the Baltic tigers buy? wink
      1. AllBiBek
        AllBiBek 12 September 2020 19: 59 New
        -1
        Cannon fat for your entire military budget.
        For lubrication.
      2. Megatron
        Megatron 13 September 2020 22: 36 New
        0
        Yes, they have an adYn tank there for three, they let it go around, (God forgive me) during their teachings. They have enough.
  2. ares1988
    ares1988 11 September 2020 18: 28 New
    +6
    "a series of 50 required tanks will cost at least $ 4 billion" - zero was lost.
    1. Keyser soze
      Keyser soze 11 September 2020 18: 39 New
      +2
      a series of 50 required tanks will cost at least $ 4 billion "


      Yes, and I didn't understand this account at all. 50 tanks in 4 billion. Maybe they will be diamond. Otherwise, the Poles voiced the production of 800 machines. How true this is I cannot judge. A bit like Polish bragging.
      1. Constanty
        Constanty 11 September 2020 20: 29 New
        +4
        The author apparently ate one zero - $ 4 billion is 500 $ 8 million apiece. Simple math.

        The production of the Borsuk infantry fighting vehicle should begin soon - initially about 50 units per year - the production capacity of HSW will not allow more.
        The Cegielski plant in Poznan, which is supposed to produce the K2PL, has a lower capacity than the HSW, but assumes the production of 50 tanks. the annual expenditures of the Polish ministry will be not 1/3, but 1/30 of the annual budget per year.

        And it will end so that the stamps "big brother" and we will take the old Abrams from the desert - not cheaper at all
        1. Private-K
          Private-K 12 September 2020 21: 37 New
          +2
          With a budget of 12 billion. dollars Poland can easily afford 500 new expensive tanks.
          In general, they have planned to invest only in the rearmament of 7 billion in 47 years. bucks.
          Poland does not need to independently invest in certain types of weapons, it is spent on the appropriate military structures, etc.
          They will also buy new artillery for themselves. and missiles, and armored vehicles, and a bunch of everything else.
          Poland has a most favored nation regime - the West turns a blind eye even to the Polish attitude towards migrants, lack of tolerance, right-wing radicalism and other "progressive" trends. All for the sake of anti-Russianness - for this, everything is forgiven. It is used to prepare a fighter against the Russian Federation. Forward.

          Shl As far as I know, a cool fact, Polish Nazinals, right-wing radicals, treat Russia and Russians quite positively.
          1. Keyser soze
            Keyser soze 12 September 2020 22: 30 New
            +1
            From it they prepare a fighter against the Russian Federation


            I don't know ... I don't think Americans are stupid. Nobody can fight with Russia and win. Except for Russia ... you don't have smart tsars like Peter the Great, Princess Fike, Nicholas I, or Stalin. You will defeat yourself with a Russian revolt in 20 years. And again the cycle of history will begin from the beginning ... hi
            1. Jager
              Jager 12 September 2020 23: 57 New
              0
              There is a riot in Russia in 20 years, and in 20 years Poland will be divided again)) So be careful in your forecasts.
  3. Postum
    Postum 11 September 2020 18: 46 New
    +2
    They will be able to, they are already using the K9 chassis from the Koreans, they will abandon the sophisticated suspension, maybe also from the AZ, they will localize the production of everything they can replace with their counterparts
    1. pytar
      pytar 11 September 2020 20: 48 New
      +4
      They will be able to, they are already using the K9 chassis from the Koreans, they will abandon the sophisticated suspension, maybe also from the AZ, they will localize the production of everything they can replace with their counterparts

      K2 Black Panther, designed for action on the Korean Peninsula. Teren there abounds in mountains and hills. It is because of this that he also has a running gear, which makes it possible to tilt the body, additionally increase the vertical angle of fire. Approximately if you need to shoot up the slope or down, without going beyond the ukritiya. Something similar to the Swedish Strv 103, only there is a tower here.

      Poland is a flat country, there is no need for it from such a complex and expensive chassis. Probably they will be putting on a classic entryway.
  4. bubasa
    bubasa 11 September 2020 18: 48 New
    -4
    The South Korean K2 Black Panther, according to various estimates, is one of the best main tanks in the world.

    Forgive even Armata in Syria lit up, but "in which regiment did you serve?" that is, the cats fought? By the way, until recently, either Abrasha or Leopard was considered the best. The events in Iraq, Syria, Yemen and the appearance of the T-90 and its successful debut, coupled with the catastrophe of all Western tanks, the Leperd fiasco is especially significant and here again another "best". That South Korea has a powerful tank engineering school? It seems like no, and suddenly voila "the best", just another "the strongest army on the continent" laughing This has never happened, and here again ...
    1. Mirabo
      Mirabo 11 September 2020 19: 47 New
      -2
      Which Western tanks specifically crashed? Abrams in Yemen, who were abandoned by the "valiant" SA warriors? Or Turkish Leopards 2A4 of the 80s in Syria? Well, then you will remember the Iraqi T-72, since it comes to that))
      1. bubasa
        bubasa 13 September 2020 08: 23 New
        -1
        I can remember the Iraqi T-72s with which the pidos on the abrashs are forbidden to engage in combat, and they were destroyed only thanks to aviation. I can also remember the abrash convoy, which the Iraqis looted from the Mi-24. https://topwar.ru/135356-v-sirii-polnostyu-unichtozhen-tureckiy-tank-leopard-2a4.html Leopard 2a4 in service with Turkey is a modification that forms the basis of the entire Leopard 2 tank park, I can remember how Leo2 was torn with a cornet. I can show how many Saudis' abrashes were beaten by barefoot Yemenis, how many abrashes were killed in Iraq. It is not for nothing that Egypt and Iraq refused to purchase abrash, and the Omerigans themselves do not produce them now. Let me remind you how many merkabs were poked by the ancient RPG-7s and others in the last war with the Hezbollah fighters ... everywhere a complete ass for Western tank building, boxes stuffed with dudes flying around ... https://andrei-bt.livejournal.com /460871.html https://ria.ru/20180206/1514022478.html https://rg.ru/2019/03/25/opozorivshiesia-v-sirii-tanki-leopard-2-poluchili-reaktivnuiu-broniu.html
        well, the final shame

    2. Revolver
      Revolver 11 September 2020 21: 41 New
      +1
      Quote: bubasa
      and here again another "best"

      Well, since the Korean tank is the most expensive, it is the best. And sho, are there any other opinions? Although it seems like the Japanese Type 10 is also quite expensive.
      Armata doesn't count, the ambassadors don't look in that direction.
      1. Jager
        Jager 12 September 2020 23: 59 New
        +1
        Leclerc was forgotten. A pair of aircraft carriers and a battalion of Leclerc would ruin even Britain.
    3. Stalllker
      Stalllker 13 September 2020 08: 12 New
      0
      Armata appeared in "newspapers" and not in Syria. Show photos of Armata in SAR
      1. bubasa
        bubasa 14 September 2020 23: 26 New
        0
        it is also made of cardboard, and svidomites in pans say they were burned in the Donbass in hundreds;) your clowning is wonderful;)
    4. bubasa
      bubasa 14 September 2020 23: 25 New
      0
      the reaction of lovers of common human values ​​from the truth is remarkable; diarrhea began;))))))))))))))))
  5. smart fellow
    smart fellow 11 September 2020 19: 00 New
    +3
    The Turks have caught up with the price of Altay up to $ 10,5 million - the Turkish copy of the South Korean K2 and are not worried. According to the Turkish side, Altai borrowed 60% of the technologies used in K2. The remaining 40% is apparently a German engine and transmission, which they will have to buy for now.
    1. svp67
      svp67 11 September 2020 19: 25 New
      +4
      Quote: smart fellow
      The remaining 40% is apparently German engine and transmission,

      On K-2, from there ...
    2. Graz
      Graz 12 September 2020 17: 29 New
      0
      Germans do not sell engines to Turks for a long time
    3. Jager
      Jager 13 September 2020 00: 00 New
      0
      Excuse me, what is Turkish in the project then? Crew?)
  6. KVU-NSVD
    KVU-NSVD 11 September 2020 19: 03 New
    +2
    The aft compartment of the hull is equipped with lattice screens to avoid overheating.
    strange phrase from the author request
  7. Free wind
    Free wind 11 September 2020 19: 06 New
    +3
    The panther costs $ 6 million. The author exaggerated a little, plus there are a lot of electronics on the panther, there are only about thirty video cameras, active protection near the llama, suspension with hydropneumatics, you can also remove it, and it's so cool that the tank lies on its belly. In short, they want to do it, and Hyundai is a serious company.
    1. Jager
      Jager 13 September 2020 00: 02 New
      -1
      And then what is left there without all these bells and whistles? The hull at the Pz. IV?
  8. svp67
    svp67 11 September 2020 19: 25 New
    +2
    If desired, Poland can go the Turkish way, creating a tank based on the K-2 ...
    1. Constanty
      Constanty 11 September 2020 20: 32 New
      +3
      Currently, Poland does not have such production capacities and competencies - since 2009, the Labendy can no longer even produce PT-91, the plant for the production of engines for PZL Wola tanks has been opened.
      1. Grazdanin
        Grazdanin 11 September 2020 20: 39 New
        +2
        Quote: Constanty
        Currently Poland does not have such production facilities and competencies.
        Modern technologies allow mega-factories to be built in half a year. The only problem is in people, thanks to the stupid leadership of neighboring countries, there will be no shortage in direct hands in Poland.
        1. Constanty
          Constanty 11 September 2020 20: 49 New
          +2
          When I wrote about the lack of competencies, I meant a lack of experienced employees, both from the point of view of ordinary employees and engineers, and people who could cope with such a serious enterprise.
          1. Grazdanin
            Grazdanin 11 September 2020 20: 59 New
            +1
            Quote: Constanty
            lack of experienced staff

            That's not a problem at all, they themselves have more than enough experienced and qualified people, if someone is not enough they will be invited from Germany, France, England. They can easily go to Poland.
            Modifying and setting up serial production of tanks in cooperation with Rheinmetall, BAE or Hyundai is not just a feasible task, but an easy one.
      2. svp67
        svp67 12 September 2020 04: 00 New
        +1
        Quote: Constanty
        Currently Poland does not have such production facilities and competencies.

        How long has Turkey had such "competencies"?
  9. 7,62h54
    7,62h54 11 September 2020 19: 57 New
    -3
    How do these panthers feel in the middle of a tactical nuclear weapon explosion?
    1. pytar
      pytar 11 September 2020 20: 27 New
      0
      How do these panthers feel in the middle of a tactical nuclear weapon explosion?

      No better than any Armata there. As far as such a hypothetical madness reaches, responses will be immediate. But who will go where later, there is controversy ... Some believe that they will go to Paradise ... I believe that everyone will remain in their places and prudently will not press various dangerous buttons ...
      1. Jager
        Jager 13 September 2020 00: 05 New
        -1
        After that, they will fight on T-34s removed from their pedestals, where all the "electronics" in the form of a crew will remain intact even five kilometers from the epicenter.
    2. Free wind
      Free wind 11 September 2020 20: 29 New
      +1
      If the explosion is on the roof of the tower, it will most likely evaporate like any tank, to test, the glory of the busty Ishtar, has not yet been thought of.
  10. mvg
    mvg 11 September 2020 20: 03 New
    +1
    The author, as usual, took other people's texts, but the main conclusions were not shmog. The photo shows that the suspension is different. And the cost of the object will not go up, but down. Will come out at a price tag of $ 5-6 million. At the same time, $ 2,5-3 billion will be extended over 10 years. Not very poor Poland can afford it. If we are ready to pay 2 billion for the maintenance of the American base, then it is. This project will definitely bring pshek to the first place in the EU on land.
    1. Grazdanin
      Grazdanin 11 September 2020 20: 22 New
      +2
      Quote: mvg
      Will come out at a price tag of $ 5-6 million.

      If the Koreans take this contract and can fit into 6 million, then a new serious player will appear on the MBT market.
      1. mvg
        mvg 11 September 2020 20: 37 New
        -1
        will be able to fit into 6 million

        It is believed that MBT, as a sales market, is ending. There will be no contracts for 100-200 cars. Therefore, the Americans do not twitch. By the way, Abrams is also <$ 6 million. If without any packages SEP and KAZ. What about the extreme contract? 102 cars to Taiwan. Leo2A7 has 18 units on the BV, Leclerc has nothing, Panther has nothing ..
        This is not the point to emphasize. I would offer India the Premier League, the same money. And the exhaust is cooler.
        Well, you have to fight for Iran, it's scary to dump, even if it's a minus to begin with.
        1. Grazdanin
          Grazdanin 11 September 2020 20: 50 New
          -1
          Quote: mvg
          It is believed that MBT, as a sales market, is ending.

          I also stick to it. Time for OBT ends. Therefore, a completely new car appeared only in Russia and is in no hurry to enter the series. But the process "ends" will stretch for a couple of decades. There will still be contracts, the average level of countries is growing, many can afford them. We will sell a few hundred more T-90s, to the Arabs.
          1. mvg
            mvg 11 September 2020 21: 40 New
            -1
            we will sell a few hundred, to the Arabs some

            If only the Persians. Maybe Syria. But, I think, we will lose VT4 in terms of the price tag. The rest of the mobs are on imported cars. Abrams, Leclerc, Leopard. I can't imagine how the contract went to Iraq. BV is not ours at all, moneyless Syria remained. Better to sell to the rich, they have money. And this is not our profile. We are friends with the poor, Robin Hoods, after all.
        2. Jager
          Jager 13 September 2020 00: 08 New
          -1
          The Abrams are quite satisfying to the Americans. Who should they fight against? In the Middle East and all sorts of Nigralands, even the old M-60 is enough. And, as always, aviation will deal with a stronger enemy.
  11. Pavel57
    Pavel57 11 September 2020 20: 44 New
    +1
    What is K2 so expensive?
    1. mvg
      mvg 11 September 2020 22: 09 New
      +1
      What is K2 so expensive?

      Same as Leclerc and Type 10. Small series, stuffed with electronics, plus hydropneumatic suspension, plus engine license, gun license. It will not be built like the T-72 with a circulation of 30K. Or Abrams 9800+. Well, they don't save on the crew, like the T-54/55/62.
      Lada and Audi.
  12. Victor Tsenin
    Victor Tsenin 11 September 2020 22: 27 New
    +1
    The lattice screens at the stern, perhaps to protect against overheating?)
  13. Glaz8000
    Glaz8000 12 September 2020 01: 37 New
    -1
    Hug and cry.
    Where did the logs get so much money for Korean tanks.
    Moreover, Germany is close at hand and it is all the cheaper to take Leo 2a4 and modernize it, or if the money is already started, then Leo2 a5 / a6.
    1. Private-K
      Private-K 12 September 2020 22: 05 New
      0
      Quote: Glaz8000
      Where did the logs get so much money for Korean tanks.

      With a budget of 12 yards and a special program of 47 yards, just rearming in 7 years is enough.

      Quote: Glaz8000
      anyway it is cheaper to take leo 2a4 and modernize it, or if the money is already started, then leo2 a5 / a6.

      Nope. Buying a 1984 release from Leo's storage means:
      - throw out of it that way up to half of the parts replacing them with new ones
      - capitalize the rest,
      - buy modern pribludy and
      - install everything on an OLD technology car from the late 1970s.
      All this will result in a pretty penny no less than buying NEW, FRESH tanks.
      Moreover, Leo2 was generally far from perfect and has characteristic flaws.
      Therefore, the new Korean tank will be better than the old German one. And if Poland manages to agree on the deployment of production at home, then the gain will become fabulous; and promising in any political scenario for the next 30-40 years.
      1. Jager
        Jager 13 September 2020 00: 16 New
        0
        What technologies? Tanks, like other traditional weapons, have practically reached the "ceiling" of perfection. It remains to evolve slowly and hard. Only weapons based on new physical principles can radically increase their characteristics.
        The hull as such does not play a big role - with the current power of ammunition, piercing up to a meter of armor. And with the proper use of electronics, the IS-2 can be turned into an autonomous killer robot.
  14. AllBiBek
    AllBiBek 12 September 2020 19: 57 New
    0
    Has a hyena profiled her fangs and hopes to get by with budget implants for the promotion?
    I have bad news for her; this will not affect the barking volume, but biting effectively will no longer work, they are disposable a priori.
  15. Gloomy skeptic
    Gloomy skeptic 13 September 2020 13: 43 New
    0
    [quote] South Korean K2 Black Panther, according to various estimates, is one of the best main tanks in the world. It has an optimal ratio of all the main characteristics and, at least, is not inferior to other advanced developments. [Quote] and I immediately remembered an anecdote in the topic:
    An ancient grandfather comes to the doctor and complains: "I already can't do anything with my old woman, what should I do?"
    Doctor: Grandpa, how old are you?
    Grandfather: Eighty four!
    Doctor: So enjoy life, why do you need any stress with women!
    Grandfather: And I have a neighbor in the country, he is eighty-six, so he also entertains his grandmother at night so that she cannot get enough of it!
    Doctor: How do you know this, grandfather?
    Grandfather: So he tells me so!
    Doctor: So you tell him the same about your old woman, and just enjoy life !!!
    The same is with the South Korean tanks: everyone "knows" about them that they are the best, but no one saw them in battle, did not see them during trials, their parameters are known only from the words of the Koreans themselves - well, very "good" tanks !!!
    The Koreans fought victoriously for the last time with bows and spears among themselves, so their "might" and combat effectiveness can be put in very large quotation marks.
    At first glance, the boastful from the rich cannot be distinguished!
  16. Zementbomber
    Zementbomber 14 September 2020 12: 50 New
    0
    Apparently, Poland will have to abandon the T-72M1 and PT-91 tanks by the end of the decade.

    Nonsense. By the way - no one is going to refuse PT.91U within the Wilk program - this is either a rather rude Ashshibka of the author, or deliberate misinformation on his part.
    It should be assumed that serial K2PLs, even when produced at Polish enterprises, will not be cheaper than $ 8-9 million per unit. Accordingly, a series of 50 required tanks will cost at least $ 4 billion.

    Let the author negative learns arithmetic for a start - it will be 400-450 Million US dollars.