Military Review

USSR and allies: at the origins of Lend-Lease

199
USSR and allies: at the origins of Lend-Lease

Comrade Stalin admitted this.



At the Tehran Conference of 1943, when after the Battle of Kursk no one had any doubts about the coming victory, Stalin found it necessary to declare to the American President Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Churchill that "without American products the war would be lost."

It is possible that this was something of a curtsey towards the allies, but the Soviet leader was never inclined to such a slyness. Most likely, Stalin remembered well the first days of the 1941 campaign, when border battles were lost almost along the entire length of the front.


Recall that then the Southwestern and Southern fronts were still holding, but it was not completely clear whether it was worth expecting real help from the allies at all. It seems that Churchill's famous speech in support of Red Russia was perceived by the Soviet leadership to a greater extent as evidence of the considerable relief that the whole of Britain felt when Hitler turned to the East.

In addition, it was hardly worth counting on help from the British, which was really serious. They themselves could hardly hold on for a long time. But Stalin also remembered something else: in 1940-1941 the British held on not only at the expense of their indomitable will, but also largely thanks to American help.


It was for the sake of Britain's help overseas that they decided to organize large-scale deliveries of weapons and equipment to Foggy Albion without entering the war, as F.D. Roosevelt had promised in his third presidential election. Not the most complicated scheme, bypassing the notorious act of neutrality, was in demand shortly after the 1940 campaign, when France fell, and the 300-strong British Expeditionary Army barely managed to escape from the encirclement near Dunkirk.


Under the program called "Lend-Lease", which combined the concepts of "lend" and "lease", a special federal law was created, which was adopted only on March 11, 1941. However, the program actually started working much earlier: American business believed Roosevelt to be ahead of the curve.

Large-scale lending to its own production from the state, which did not hesitate to get into unimaginable debts for this, also began even before the adoption of the Lend-Lease Law. Entrepreneurs had enough by-laws and decisions coming directly from the White House.

It was under lend-lease that the US military industry was very quickly promoted. And it was Lend-Lease that helped the United States, who was sufficiently prepared to enter the war in December 1941, after the Japanese attack on the US Navy base in Pearl Harbor.

Let's be considered glory after victory


However, Stalin in the summer of that same 1941, judging by all the documents and memoirs of his contemporaries, did not have complete confidence that the USSR would fall under the American aid program. Moscow well remembered how Great Britain and France evaded the idea of ​​jointly confronting Hitler after the Anschluss and on the eve of the invasion of Czechoslovakia, and in fact had no idea what to expect from the United States in such a situation.

The assessments of the prospects for US relations with a new potential ally in the person of the USSR in the press and in the American establishment are quite characteristic. We must not forget that even President Roosevelt himself did not have full confidence that he would still have to enter the war.

For newspapermen, the strongest argument in favor of the need to deal with the Nazis was the sinking of the American steamer "Robin Moore" on May 21, 1941. The Germans sent the steamer to the bottom without first taking measures to ensure the safety of passengers and crew and not paying any attention to the fact that the submarine commander knew about the American ownership of the steamer.

Characteristically, this was recognized by the Germans themselves, for some reason confident that this is how they stimulate the isolationists from the United States to impose neutrality on Roosevelt. The situation of the First World War was repeated, when the Germans actually asked for themselves, sinking the Lusitania.

The only difference is that by that time both France and Russia were fighting with the Kaiser's army, and now the Germans had already pushed the French into Vichy, and the Russians did not really want to get into the fight. However, I had to. The campaign of the German army to the East was almost unanimously regarded in the American press as just another link in the chain of quite expected events.

But the majority of politicians have cast aside any doubts that it is necessary to continue to "protect the lives of American guys." However, even in the summer of 1941, even surrounded by Roosevelt, it was quite pragmatic, and, in fact, cynically weighed how long Red Russia could hold out against Hitler's military machine: three months or even less.

Many newspapers then, not without sarcasm, quoted Hitler's minister Ribbentrop, who was sure that "Stalin's Russia will disappear from the world map in eight weeks." Nevertheless, Time magazine, in its June 30 editorial entitled “How long will Russia hold out,” felt it necessary to write:

[quote] The question of whether the battle for Russia will be the most important battle in stories humanity, it's not the German soldiers who decide. The answer to it depends on the Russians. [/ Quote]
The main thing that pleased almost everyone in the United States was that the country received another necessary pause in order to continue preparing. However, even this approach did not embarrass President Roosevelt, who immediately began to strongly insist on expanding the Lend-Lease program in favor of Russia.

How could it be otherwise, if Lend-Lease extended to everyone who "acts in the interests of the United States"? In addition to Britain, the Americans helped the Greeks, helped the Yugoslavs. A delegation, in which Harry Hopkins, at that time the personal representative of President Roosevelt, played a key role, went to Moscow with offers of assistance.


I. Stalin and G. Hopkins, Moscow, Kremlin, August 1941

Much has been written about this visit, which took place at the turn of July and August 1941, but nevertheless the author plans to supplement the memoirs of contemporaries and documentary publications with a separate essay. Here we will restrict ourselves to a statement of the fact: after three days of negotiations, Stalin was given to understand that America would do everything in order to give Russia the maximum possible.

The Soviet leadership, which felt very depressed in connection with the beginning of the second phase of the German offensive, the loss of Smolensk and the real threat of the loss of Kiev, received a kind of psychological doping. Maxim Litvinov, who had not yet returned to the post of Deputy People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs and was present at the talks as an interpreter, did not hide his joy after the third meeting: "Now we will win the war!"

A start has been made - if not actually, then legally. And already on August 11, 1941, the first convoy with cargo from the USA and Great Britain arrived at the port of Arkhangelsk, and without any resistance from the Kriegsmarine submarines.


In 1963, Victory Marshal Georgy Zhukov, who was in disgrace, admitted in one of the private conversations that came under the KGB listening:

[quote] Now they say that the allies never helped us ... But it cannot be denied that the Americans drove so many materials to us, without which we could not form our reserves and could not continue the war ... We did not have explosives, gunpowder. There was nothing to equip rifle cartridges. The Americans really helped us out with gunpowder and explosives. And how much steel sheet they drove to us! How could we quickly set up production tanksif not for American steel aid? And now they present things in such a way that we had all of this in abundance. ”[/ I]

Let's be honest with ourselves


Victory in the hardest winter battle near Moscow became possible even before the really large-scale US-British military deliveries to the USSR began. The psychological effect of her was simply colossal.

Within the country, it was not just a matter of war to a victorious end, but also not least of the fact that in 1941 the "Kutuzov" option "with the abandonment of Moscow" for the sake of saving Russia was simply impossible.

But abroad, many realized that Hitler's Stalinist Russia, it seems, was too tough. However, the contribution of the allies, albeit not the most direct one, already in the next great victory of the Red Army, Stalingrad, is really difficult to overestimate.

Both in Moscow and around the world then they realized that Stalingrad marked the beginning of a radical change not only on the Soviet-German front, but throughout the entire world war. Only after Stalingrad did the prospect of the imminent opening of the Second Front in Europe become really real.


In conclusion, it should be recalled that a stable tradition of underestimating allied aid under this program has developed in Soviet historiography. This approach was most likely influenced by the Cold War factor, although supplies from the West helped, among other things, to the post-war revival of the Soviet economy.

The beginning was laid already in the first post-war publications in serious scientific journals and in the big press. In the Soviet State Planning Committee, with the help of fairly simple manipulations with numbers, they promptly deduced an estimate of the scale of Western aid at 4% compared to domestic production.

This figure was also found in the official work "The Military Economy of the USSR during the Patriotic War" by the head of the State Planning Commission and member of the Politburo Nikolai Voznesensky, who was soon repressed in the "Leningrad case". The book was published with a delay of more than 30 years, only in 1984, just between detente and perestroika, when the positive attitude towards the comrades-in-arms in the fight against Hitlerism was not very welcomed.

In the same 1984, "A Brief History of the Great Patriotic War" was published, which was an extract from the 6-volume officialdom, in which a much more objective assessment of the allied aid was given. In a short version, the case was limited to this, we admit, by no means a neutral passage:

[Quote] During the war, the USSR really received some types of weapons under Lend-Lease, as well as machinery, equipment, materials important for the national economy, in particular, steam locomotives, fuel, communications, various types of non-ferrous metals and chemicals. For example, the delivery of 401 vehicles to the USA and Great Britain was a significant help. However, in general, this assistance was not in any way significant and could not have a decisive influence on the course of the Great Patriotic War. [/ Quote]
The fact that, in addition to military equipment, weapons and ammunition, the allies supplied our country with a huge amount of non-military materials, and most importantly, food, which removed the problem of hunger for the army and for a significant part of the rear, was practically not taken into account. And in statistics it was not always taken into account.

Yes, in the first weeks of the war, the Soviet leadership could not count on any real help from the allies. However, the very fact that it will be, even later than was necessary for the Red Army, played a role in the fact that it was able to withstand in 1941 and especially in 1942.
Author:
Photos used:
svyazepoh.ru, driver.ru, historian of law firms, magazine "LIFE"
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  1. mat-vey
    mat-vey 11 September 2020 05: 26
    +1
    However, the very fact that it will be, even later than was necessary for the Red Army, played a role in the fact that it was able to withstand in 1941 and especially in 1942. The author considers Mongolia as an ally? The help of Mongolia near Moscow has already helped to survive - sheepskin coats, felt boots and food in winter are no less important than weapons ... especially such a winter as it was in 1941-1942.
    1. tlauicol
      tlauicol 11 September 2020 05: 47
      12
      one echelon arrived at 41m in October (15 thousand winter sets), at 42m two. 15 thousand short fur coats near Moscow is good, but even generals and colonels will not be enough.
      9 echelons of gifts and funds for 50 tanks and 12 aircraft - this will not be enough for a day of war. And Mongolia sold everything else in the most difficult time for the USSR. It's high time to write about this, and not engage in myth-making
      1. mat-vey
        mat-vey 11 September 2020 05: 49
        +8
        Quote: Tlauicol
        but even generals and colonels won't have enough.

        Strange, but I had enough for both of my grandfathers - one in a tank in the 1st Guards, the other with a communication coil had something to crawl in the snow in ... and all from Mongolia ...
        1. tlauicol
          tlauicol 11 September 2020 06: 17
          +6
          My grandfather was also wounded near Moscow in the Mongolian law. But she was not donated, but sold
          1. mat-vey
            mat-vey 11 September 2020 06: 22
            +5
            In September 1941, a Central Commission was formed under the government of the MPR, similar commissions were created in every aimag of the country. Their tasks included organizing work to provide assistance to the Soviet Red Army, fighting against the fascist invaders. A massive wave of donations to aid funds for the Red Army began throughout Mongolia. Many ordinary Mongolians, workers and pastoralists, literally carried the last of their modest supplies. After all, the population of the Mongolian People's Republic did not have a high standard of living anyway. At the call of the government of the MPR, brigades for the procurement of furs and meat were created in the aimags. Warm clothes and meat products were sent to the Soviet Union - for transfer to the fighting units of the Red Army. Mongolian workers worked and after the end of the shift, cattle breeders transferred meat and wool. That is, all representatives of the working people of Mongolia made a feasible contribution to collecting aid for the fighting Red Army
            1. Zug
              Zug 12 September 2020 14: 49
              +3
              Generally, Honor and Glory to the Mongolian People! It was hard for them without all this, but they still helped, dragged everything to the collection points ... Great people, and not only of course the Mongols, but also everyone who did this, HELPED WHAT WE COULD .. ...
          2. mat-vey
            mat-vey 11 September 2020 06: 23
            +4
            In October, 1941 from Mongolia sent the first echelon formed by the citizens of the country with gifts to the soldiers of the Red Army. He was carrying 15 thousands of sets of winter uniforms, about three thousand individual gift packages for a total of 1,8 million tugriks. In addition, the State Bank of the USSR received 587 thousand tugriks in cash for expenditure needs. In the first three years of the war, eight echelons were sent from Mongolia to the Soviet Union. They delivered food, uniforms and other necessary items for a total of 25,3 million tugriks. The last ninth echelon of 127 carriages was shipped at the start of 1945. Here is an exemplary list of deliveries delivered by only one of the echelons - in November 1942 G.: short fur coats - 30 115 units; felt boots - 30 500 pairs; fur mittens - 31 257 pairs; fur vests - 31 090; soldier belts - 33 300 pcs .; woolen sweatshirts - 2 290 pcs .; fur blankets - 2 011; berry jam - 12 954 kg; carcasses of gazelle - 26 758 pcs .; meat - kg 316 000; individual parcels - 22 176; Sausage - 84 800 kg; oil - 92 000 kg. (Semenov A.F., Dashtseren B. Squadron “Mongolian Arat.” - M., Voenizdat, 1971).
            1. tlauicol
              tlauicol 11 September 2020 07: 10
              +8
              This is what I wrote to you: 9 echelons of gifts for 4 years of war. ON the day of the fighting. Why are you repeating this to me?
              Now read the entire book you are citing and find out how much a Mongolian horse cost, for example, and many more interesting things. All basic supplies are not even lend-lease, this is a tough trade at the most difficult time for friends
              1. mat-vey
                mat-vey 11 September 2020 07: 17
                +3
                Quote: Tlauicol
                Now read the entire book you are citing,

                I read, read, and for a long time and more than once ... and about the fact that the Mongols themselves, due to the fact that almost everyone in the USSR was sent hunger, read the same ...
                1. Cherry Nine
                  Cherry Nine 11 September 2020 07: 26
                  +1
                  Quote: mat-vey
                  about the fact that the Mongols themselves, due to the fact that almost everyone in the USSR was sent hunger

                  Some strange approach. Let's start with who was Comrade Marshal Choibalsan? Mongol or Communist?
                  1. mat-vey
                    mat-vey 11 September 2020 07: 29
                    +7
                    Quote: Cherry Nine
                    Some kind of weird approach.

                    What's strange? That the Mongols supplied meat as the US stew?
                    1. Cherry Nine
                      Cherry Nine 11 September 2020 07: 45
                      -3
                      Since counting "aid" to Mongolia is almost like counting "aid" to Kyrgyzstan. Take an interest in the biography of the enemy of the people of Frinovsky in relation to Mongol affairs.
                      1. mat-vey
                        mat-vey 11 September 2020 07: 48
                        +1
                        Quote: Cherry Nine
                        Since counting "aid" to Mongolia is almost like counting "aid" to Kyrgyzstan

                        And what is the connection? Or was there nothing? No gold, no tugriks, no wool? Are you so mysterious?
                      2. Cherry Nine
                        Cherry Nine 11 September 2020 07: 56
                        +4
                        Connection?
                        The connection is that if you can afford to shoot the heads of "states" on Kommunarka (Anandyn Amar) (People's Leader of the LPR, Mr. Plotnitsky, says hello), then the help of such a "state" is not exactly the same as help Roosevelt, whom, after all, Lavrenty Palych did not have the opportunity to shoot.
                      3. mat-vey
                        mat-vey 11 September 2020 07: 58
                        0
                        Ah-ah-ah ... bloody commies again ...
                      4. Cherry Nine
                        Cherry Nine 11 September 2020 08: 00
                        +4
                        What does their bloodiness have to do with it? The point is that Mongolia in the 40s is a little bit not a state. So she did not provide any such "help". I did what they said.
                      5. mat-vey
                        mat-vey 11 September 2020 08: 01
                        -1
                        Quote: Cherry Nine
                        What does their bloodiness have to do with it?

                        What does it have to do with
                        Quote: Cherry Nine
                        if you can afford to shoot the heads of "states" on Kommunarka (Anandin Amar)
                      6. Cherry Nine
                        Cherry Nine 11 September 2020 08: 10
                        +1
                        Despite the fact that the idea of ​​giving something to the USSR was invented and dragged through the Congress by Roosevelt. Or he could not have done this: in November 41, the United States is formally neutral, the Soviet-German war does not concern them a single millimeter. At the same time, Comrade Marshal Choibalsan had much less opportunity to be capricious: there is a lot of space on Kommunarka.

                        It is strange, it seems that everyone knows that near Khalkin Gol, on the border of the Mongolian People's Republic and Manzhou Guo, for some reason the Red Army fought the Japanese for some reason. But no, they continue to pretend that there was some kind of Mongolia, which is to the Soviet people with all its heart.
                      7. mat-vey
                        mat-vey 11 September 2020 08: 13
                        +1
                        Quote: Cherry Nine
                        Strange, it seems like everyone knows

                        Indeed, it has long been known that Roosevelt and Choibalsan said about Lend-Lease about helping Mongolia - basically the same idea - we will not help the Russians, we will be next in line ...
                      8. Cherry Nine
                        Cherry Nine 11 September 2020 08: 22
                        +4
                        )))
                        Nobody asked Choibosalan about this, and Roosevelt never said that. Even Stettinius was not saying this, but something completely different.
                      9. mat-vey
                        mat-vey 11 September 2020 08: 23
                        +3
                        Quote: Cherry Nine
                        and Roosevelt never said that.

                        It’s strange - you’re so smart and haven’t heard "about the hose for the neighbor" ...
                      10. Cherry Nine
                        Cherry Nine 11 September 2020 08: 36
                        +2
                        1. The neighbor was, let me remind you, Britain, not the USSR.
                        2. The hose for the neighbor is the beginning of the conversation. When it came to providing Britain with property from the mob-reserve left over from WWI. When Congress generally agreed, it suddenly became clear that it was not about providing WWI junk with a return, but about direct financing of the European war from the American budget.
                      11. mat-vey
                        mat-vey 11 September 2020 08: 40
                        +3
                        Quote: Cherry Nine
                        Let me remind you that the neighbor was Britain, not the USSR.

                        But by November, the USSR became ... And the Mongols in October ...
                      12. Alexey RA
                        Alexey RA 11 September 2020 16: 35
                        +2
                        Quote: Cherry Nine
                        When Congress as a whole agreed, it suddenly became clear that it was not about providing WWI junk with a return, but about direct financing of the European war from the American budget.

                        It's just that FDR liked to interpret laws very broadly. For example, he will have "military surplus" and "obsolete weapons" with brand new B-17s, freshly made for the US Army - which this army never saw. smile
                      13. Liam
                        Liam 11 September 2020 16: 38
                        -1
                        Quote: Alexey RA
                        brand new B-17s, freshly made for the US Army - which this army never saw

                        Where did the B-17 go?
                      14. Alexey RA
                        Alexey RA 11 September 2020 17: 37
                        +2
                        Quote: Liam
                        Where did the B-17 go?

                        To Britain. Moreover, FDR's plans were even more sinister (for the army) - at the end of October 1940 he wanted to transfer to Britain all the B-17s produced, as well as possibly B-25s with B-26s:
                        At the meeting yesterday of Secretary Morgenthau, Judge Patterson, General Brett and Major Lyon, the Secretary of the Treasury announced that as a result of a conversation with the President on Monday it had been decided that every other B-17 complete with all equipment including bomb sight would be turned over to the British. ... ... ... Furthermore that at a later date every other B-25 and B-26 would probably be turned over to the British.
                        © General Arnold

                        The volume of US supplies to Britain can be estimated by the "big confiscation" after the "Day of Shame": then the USAAF was transferred to the aircraft destined for Britain. Due to British orders for four-engined engines, the number of these machines in the USAAF has practically doubled.
                      15. Liam
                        Liam 11 September 2020 18: 09
                        -2
                        Quote: Alexey RA
                        To Britain

                        In 1941 Britain delivered 20 B-17s out of 200 built
                      16. Alexey RA
                        Alexey RA 11 September 2020 18: 27
                        0
                        Quote: Liam
                        In 1941 Britain delivered 20 B-17s out of 200 built

                        Ahem ... until November 30, 1941, only 155 B-17s were produced. 53 of them (Models A and B) were built before FDR started pumping Britain with technology. But Model C had to be shared - 20 for RAF, 18 for USAAC.
                      17. Liam
                        Liam 11 September 2020 18: 39
                        -2
                        The proportions will not impress. 10% of the produced or so. And according to your previous post, the impression was that everything that was produced went to the WB, and the American army did not see them in the eyes.
                        At the time of Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor on Dec. 7, 1941, the Air Corps had fewer than 200 B-17s in the inventory.

                        https://web.archive.org/web/20071218105244/http://www.afa.org/magazine/Oct2004/1004fort.asp
                      18. Alexey RA
                        Alexey RA 12 September 2020 09: 55
                        0
                        Quote: Liam
                        At the time of Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor on Dec. 7, 1941, the Air Corps had fewer than 200 B-17s in the inventory.

                        Uh-huh ... only with the release numbers it does not beat a little. On November 30.11.1941, XNUMX, USAAC was transferred to:
                        V-17 / V-17A: 14 pcs.
                        V-17V: 39 pcs.
                        V-17S: 18 pcs.
                        B-17D: 42 pcs.
                        B-17E: 42 pcs.
                        Total: 155 pieces

                        PS As for doubling the number of USAAC four-engined engines after the confiscation of British orders, I got excited. fool Their number has increased total 1,5 times - the USA confiscated 75 Liberator II, which became their LB-30. The British managed to receive 26 vehicles ordered earlier.
                      19. Liam
                        Liam 12 September 2020 09: 59
                        -3
                        We are talking about the B-17, as it were)
              2. Liam
                Liam 11 September 2020 18: 29
                -1
                Quote: Alexey RA
                At the meeting yesterday of Secretary Morgenthau, Judge Patterson, General Brett and Major Lyon, the Secretary of the Treasury announced that as a result of a conversation with the President on Monday it had been decided that every other B-17 complete with all equipment including bomb sight would be turned over to the British. ... ... ... Furthermore that at a later date every other B-25 and B-26 would probably be turned over to the British.



                In mid-June, however, the defeat in France having gravely jeopardized Britain, Mr. Roosevelt raised the question of transferring to the British as many as twelve of the Flying Fortress (B-17) planes. To this there was prompt and spirited objection from the Army, General Marshall reporting the "unanimous opinion of the War Department officers concerned, that it would be seriously prejudicial to our own defensive situation to release any of these ships." The President accepted this judgment at the time, but two months later, in response to further British pressure, he authorized release of five of the Fortresses.

                Not much
          3. Cherry Nine
            Cherry Nine 11 September 2020 17: 06
            -2
            FDR's creativity in interpreting the acts of Congress (or, for example, its extraordinary luck with the appointment of 5 judges of the Supreme Court for one presidential term (36-40)) did not delight everyone in the United States. In this case, immediately after swearing not to get involved in the European war in the 1940 elections, he just got into it, his own.
          4. Liam
            Liam 11 September 2020 17: 18
            -1
            Quote: Cherry Nine
            not everyone in the USA delighted

            What is good about the United States is learning from its mistakes. Therefore, as soon as the 22nd amendment appeared
            Quote: Cherry Nine
            in the 1940 elections

            Voters in 44 supported this, so this decision should hardly be listed as Abuse
          5. Cherry Nine
            Cherry Nine 11 September 2020 17: 31
            -3
            From 40 to 44, Japan, Germany, Italy, Romania, Bulgaria, Hungary, Croatia, Albania and Thailand managed to attack the United States. As you understand, those Americans who were able to find Albania on the map did not listen to anything else.
            When we're done with this, Albanian will only be spoken in hell

            The record for New Zealand, which declared war on Finland on 12.07.1941/42/XNUMX, staggered but held out. Interrupted the attack of Albania, perhaps, the Iroquois, who attacked the Reich in June XNUMX.

            However, in 40 the situation was, sorry, somewhat different.
          6. Liam
            Liam 11 September 2020 18: 11
            0
            Quote: Cherry Nine
            However, in 40

            The task of the politician is to anticipate and prepare. You can do whatever you like to the FDR, but the United States could not stay away from that war anyway.
          7. Cherry Nine
            Cherry Nine 11 September 2020 20: 37
            0
            You see, getting ready for war is one thing. To get into it a month after the inauguration, although I was told exactly the opposite to voters, is a little different.
          8. Liam
            Liam 11 September 2020 21: 37
            0
            Did he promise the Americans not to supply military aid to anyone?
          9. mat-vey
            mat-vey 13 September 2020 14: 12
            0
            Quote: Liam
            Did he promise the Americans not to supply military aid to anyone?

            So lend-lease is the opportunity to participate (influence), but not get involved.
  2. Doctor
    Doctor 11 September 2020 10: 57
    +3
    Despite the fact that the idea of ​​giving the USSR something was invented and dragged through the Congress by Roosevelt. Or he could not have done this: in November 41, the United States is formally neutral, the Soviet-German war does not concern them a single millimeter.

    Not. The Americans were ready to help on the fourth day of the war.

    FROM THE TELEGRAM OF THE AMBASSADOR OF THE USSR TO THE USA KAUMANSKY TO THE PEOPLE'S COMMISSARY OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS OF THE USSR
    26th of June 1941
    Today, June 26, I was at Welles' evening ...
    Welles answered me the following: “The American government
    considers the USSR a victim of unprovoked, unjustified aggression ...

    Therefore, in accordance with the statements already made by the president, the American government assures the Soviet government that it ready to provide this struggle with all possible support within the limits determined by the production capabilities of the United States and its most pressing needs ...

    The American government is now unable to say anything for sure about the types and amount of assistance until the Soviet government has specifically stated its wishes. The sooner and more accurately the Soviet government announces this, the better, for there is much work to be done to coordinate these needs with the Anglo-American program.
    However, already now the American government can assure the Soviet government that all applications will be reviewed by the US government immediately and friendly". [...]
    K. Umansky
    WUA RF. f. 059, op. 1, p. 345, d. 2363, l. 243-251.
    Publ .: Soviet-American relations ... - T. I. - S. 45-46.
  3. Cherry Nine
    Cherry Nine 11 September 2020 11: 10
    0
    Quote: Arzt
    The Americans were ready to help on the fourth day of the war.

    The Americans were ready to help even before the war, at least Roosevelt.

    But the question was discussed, what is the difference between Roosevelt's position and Choibalsan's position.
  4. Alf
    Alf 11 September 2020 11: 04
    +4
    Quote: Cherry Nine
    It's strange, it seems like everyone knows that near Khalkin Gol, on the border of the Mongolian People's Republic and Manzhou Guo, for some reason the Red Army fought with the Japanese for some reason

    Didn't the Mongolian People's Republic army fight?
    Vika, of course, is lying, but 2 cavalry divisions of the Mongolian People's Republic of 2260 people indicate, and the Mongolian armored division points to BA-6.
  5. Cherry Nine
    Cherry Nine 11 September 2020 11: 07
    -2
    Quote: Alf
    2 cavalry divisions of the Mongolian People's Republic of 2260 people indicate

    Oh yeah.
  6. Alf
    Alf 11 September 2020 11: 15
    +5
    Quote: Cherry Nine
    Quote: Alf
    2 cavalry divisions of the Mongolian People's Republic of 2260 people indicate

    Oh yeah.

    According to the 1989 census, there were about 2 million people in the country. According to the data for 1982 - about 1,5 million people. In 1951 - about 0,77 million people. According to the 1918 census, 648 thousand people lived in Mongolia, of which about 100 thousand were Chinese.

    They sent everything they could to the front, especially considering the size of the Mongolian People's Republic. In addition, even a fact, then the population of the Mongolian People's Republic was nomadic, and actually illiterate. The point is to drive the crowd of inept people to war?
  7. Cherry Nine
    Cherry Nine 11 September 2020 11: 23
    0
    Quote: Alf
    The point is to drive the crowd of inept people to war?

    No

    The point was that the Kwantung Army was fighting from the side of Manchukuo, and the Red Army from the Mongolian People's Republic. Accordingly, the question arose that there is Mongolia decided in the sense of helping the USSR during the Second World War, having on its territory not only the Red Army, but also the NKVD.
  8. Alf
    Alf 11 September 2020 11: 26
    +2
    Quote: Cherry Nine
    but also the NKVD.

    Again about the bloody gebnya ... Do you have 100500 innocent shot in the family?
    Quote: Cherry Nine
    and from the side of the Mongolian People's Republic - the Red Army.

    From the side of the MPR, the army of the MPR also fought, how many there were.
  9. Cherry Nine
    Cherry Nine 11 September 2020 11: 31
    -1
    Quote: Alf
    Again about the bloody gebnya ... Do you have 100500 innocent shot in the family?

    With regard to the Mongolian People's Republic, it is more interesting how many people were shot in their families.
    Quote: Alf
    From the side of the MPR, the army of the MPR also fought, how many

    I was not going to argue that the Mongolian Basmachis were sacked. I argued that they didn't make any decisions.
  10. Alf
    Alf 11 September 2020 11: 33
    +3
    Quote: Cherry Nine
    I was not going to argue that the Mongolian Basmachis were sacked. I argued that they didn't make any decisions.

    No need to wag, did the Mongols fight? They fought. What other questions?
    But the NKVD still won't let you sleep ... Why would that be?
  11. hohol95
    hohol95 11 September 2020 14: 31
    +3
    Accordingly, the question arose of what Mongolia was solving there in terms of helping the USSR during the Second World War, having on its territory not only the Red Army, but also the NKVD units.

    A counter question - what was decided by Iceland occupied by British and later American troops in 1940?
  12. Cherry Nine
    Cherry Nine 11 September 2020 15: 33
    +2
    Iceland? Didn't decide anything, it was occupied, as you rightly noted. Likewise, let's say, Iran.

    Is someone talking about helping Iceland and her contribution to victory? Compares this contribution to the US contribution?
  13. hohol95
    hohol95 11 September 2020 23: 06
    0
    Not the same as Iran! Were there many German adherents in Iceland and were the government thinking about joining the Third Reich?
  14. Cherry Nine
    Cherry Nine 12 September 2020 09: 54
    +3
    Quote: hohol95
    Were there many German adherents in Iceland and were the government thinking about joining the Third Reich?

    It depends on how much they drink. Icelanders are peculiar people.

    Where are you leading? Is it good that the neutral of the United States occupies the neutral of Iceland? Of course not. But Iceland has completely settled all its claims.
  15. Alf
    Alf 11 September 2020 12: 25
    +2
    Quote: Alf
    Quote: Cherry Nine
    It's strange, it seems like everyone knows that near Khalkin Gol, on the border of the Mongolian People's Republic and Manzhou Guo, for some reason the Red Army fought with the Japanese for some reason

    Didn't the Mongolian People's Republic army fight?
    Vika, of course, is lying, but 2 cavalry divisions of the Mongolian People's Republic of 2260 people indicate, and the Mongolian armored division points to BA-6.

    Interestingly, the minusator can refute the participation of the Mongolian People's Republic troops in repelling the invasion of the Japanese Empire's troops into the Mongolian People's Republic?
  • VIP
    VIP 11 September 2020 18: 07
    +1
    Rather: Mongol, revolutionary, and then party affiliation
  • Alf
    Alf 11 September 2020 11: 06
    +1
    Quote: Tlauicol
    All basic supplies are not even lend-lease, this is a tough trade at the most difficult time for friends

    That's right, they traded. But with an interesting condition - payment after the war and IF YOU WISH.
    1. tlauicol
      tlauicol 11 September 2020 11: 57
      0
      Quote: Alf
      Quote: Tlauicol
      All basic supplies are not even lend-lease, this is a tough trade at the most difficult time for friends

      That's right, they traded. But with an interesting condition - payment after the war and IF YOU WISH.

      yes Well, proof for the cake, please
  • antivirus
    antivirus 11 September 2020 20: 45
    0
    and Chelyaba and others sold tanks, counted in rubles, gave funds
  • Free wind
    Free wind 11 September 2020 17: 53
    0
    How many gazelles can be filled, these gazelles, after all, are running around like crazy. In China, for hunting them is the death penalty now.
  • figwam
    figwam 11 September 2020 06: 51
    +6
    Mogolia alone supplied as much meat as the United States of stew.
    A huge part of the Lend-Lease was received by Britain, not the USSR.

    1. Cherry Nine
      Cherry Nine 11 September 2020 07: 32
      -5
      Quote: figvam
      Britain received a huge part of Lend-Lease

      What a news. It turns out that Land Lees was for Britain and was thinking who would have thought.
      Quote: Stas157
      Western aid to the USSR amounted to ~ 4-5% of the USSR GDP.

      )))
      It was these percentages that separated the Red Army from the level of the Chinese army.
      1. figwam
        figwam 11 September 2020 08: 34
        +6
        Quote: Cherry Nine
        What a news. It turns out that Land Lees was for Britain and was thinking who would have thought.

        What's the difference for whom it was invented? Who fought? The USSR alone fought with Hitler's Europe.
        1. Cherry Nine
          Cherry Nine 11 September 2020 08: 39
          +1
          Quote: figvam
          The USSR alone fought against Hitler's Europe.

          )))
          OK. The USSR fought alone with Hitler's Europe. And the States did not care about Hitler's Europe as a whole.

          However, nevertheless, they helped the USSR.
          1. figwam
            figwam 11 September 2020 09: 02
            +4
            Quote: Cherry Nine
            And the States did not care about Hitler's Europe as a whole.

            Was it a joke?)
            1. Cherry Nine
              Cherry Nine 11 September 2020 11: 05
              -1
              Quote: figvam
              It must have been a joke

              Of course not.

              The USSR, as you correctly noted, fought alone. Well, let him fight, what could the Americans care about?
              1. figwam
                figwam 11 September 2020 13: 20
                +4
                In the event of the fall of the USSR, England would fall next, so the entire Lend-Lease went there, and after the United States would be left alone with the Hitlerite Reich from Britain to Japan. Not very bright prospects.
                1. Cherry Nine
                  Cherry Nine 11 September 2020 13: 44
                  -1
                  Quote: figvam
                  In the event of the fall of the USSR, England would fall next

                  Why would it suddenly? England did not fall, fighting alone in 40. The States did not help her too much then, and the USSR, frankly, did not interfere with the Reich. In 42, no matter how things were going in the East, everything was easier for Britain.
                  Quote: figvam
                  Reich from Britain to Japan.

                  What other Reich from Britain to Japan? Clarify the goals and objectives of Operation Barbarossa.
                  Quote: figvam
                  Not very bright prospects.

                  In the USSR, from Denmark to the Philippines, there is also little pleasant, but somehow they managed. Germany, on the whole Christian and on the whole capitalist, unlike the USSR, was nothing so hellish for the States. Trade space was in bulk.

                  By the way, with Britain and the Reich too.

                  Yes, the peoples of Eastern Europe would have had a hard time. But I hope you will not convince me that the Americans were concerned about this.
    2. CTABEP
      CTABEP 11 September 2020 12: 24
      +8
      This plate does not show:
      a) explosives.
      b) gunpowder
      c) gasoline, incl. aviation
      d) aluminum
      Add that and everything becomes clear. If you remove half of the explosives and gunpowder supplied by lnd-lease, the magnificent work of artillery of the 1944-1945 model, alas, will not work. And the planes will not fly, because there is nothing, and the production of the T-34 will have to be reduced, because there will be trouble with the engines, there is no aluminum. But no, we count rifles and pistols, as well as ready-made shells that went to the supplied equipment as a set.
    3. Free wind
      Free wind 11 September 2020 13: 57
      +2
      And were there automatic machines in America? Thomson is kind of PP. They did not understand the cars, many were supplied as car sets, they wrote down that ours. There are many inconsistencies with Lend-Lease, when the Americans sent a batch of about 3000 bazookas for testing, ours apparently just threw them away. The Germans, having captured 20 of them in Africa, realized that the thing was good, made panzershrek.
      1. Alexey RA
        Alexey RA 11 September 2020 16: 43
        +3
        Quote: Free Wind
        There are many inconsistencies with Lend-Lease, when the Americans sent a batch of about 3000 bazookas for testing, ours apparently just threw them away.

        Not thrown out. We received the first batch, EMNIP, in 1942, tested it, were unpleasantly surprised - and handed it over to warehouses, gradually using it in training units.

        Mikhail Svirin claims that there was a GAU order categorically prohibiting the transfer of bazookas to the troops, based on the results of military tests, which showed a high probability of injury to personnel.

        Military trials were carried out near Kursk, both soldiers of the calculation were injured.
        © from Hansa
        1. Free wind
          Free wind 11 September 2020 17: 41
          -1
          Interestingly, the Americans, the Germans, the Japanese used it, everyone liked it, but it didn't work with us? Certainly not an RPG, but not with a bottle of gasoline against a tank.
          1. Alexey RA
            Alexey RA 11 September 2020 18: 03
            +5
            Quote: Free Wind
            Interestingly, the Americans, the Germans, the Japanese used it, everyone liked it, but it didn't work with us?

            So early samples of RPGs (and we, judging by the delivery time, we got just such) did not like anyone. The difference is that those countries that have produced RPGs have continuously improved their design, eliminating the shortcomings. And we got ready-made, but not the best quality, tested it - and decided that we didn't care for such happiness, we'd better write something more necessary in the supply table instead.
  • Tavrik
    Tavrik 13 September 2020 20: 59
    0
    And in the summer of 42, 17 convoys had already passed. Yes, the infamous PQ-17 is exactly the serial number. Have you misled anything?
  • Kote Pan Kokhanka
    Kote Pan Kokhanka 11 September 2020 05: 47
    +8
    I subscribe to Matvey’s commentary, although I would also like to note the help to the Tuvans, who joined the Union in 1944, but joined the fight against the enemy since 1941 !!!
    Sincerely, good day to all!
    1. Free wind
      Free wind 11 September 2020 13: 38
      0
      When Hitler was told that Tuva had declared war, he was surprised, and where it was, then they searched the globe, but they did not find it. The anecdote is more likely of course.
  • Stas157
    Stas157 11 September 2020 05: 57
    +7
    Again passion for Lend-Lease))

    When discussing this issue, one should bear in mind these points. The real volumes of Lend-Lease began only in 43. That is, after the turn of the war in our favor. Western aid to the USSR amounted to ~ 4-5% of the USSR GDP.

    ... Georgy Zhukov, in one of the private conversations that came under the KGB wiretap, admitted:

    It is also known Zhukov's statement that WWII we would be in any the case won, even without Western help.

    The issue of international assistance in a world war is not entirely correct. Since the whole world is at war. The USA and Great Britain helped us. And to Hitler all of Europe.
    1. mat-vey
      mat-vey 11 September 2020 05: 58
      +6
      Quote: Stas157
      Again passion for Lend-Lease))

      But what about without it).
    2. Far B
      Far B 11 September 2020 06: 13
      +7
      But holding this as an argument is somehow not good at all:
      Stalin found it necessary to tell American President Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Churchill that "without American products the war would be lost."
      Well, Stalin could not puff his pipe and throw down to Roosevelt or Churchill: "Who is he, uh? Come on, dasvidanya, we will decide everything without you." Fortunately, Soso's grandfather was too good a diplomat for such madness.
      1. mat-vey
        mat-vey 11 September 2020 06: 18
        +4
        Quote: Dalny V
        Fortunately, Soso's grandfather was too good a diplomat for such madness.

        Yes, and he still did not find a time machine ... "without American products, the war would be lost" - this is in 1943 ...
    3. Ramzaj99
      Ramzaj99 11 September 2020 09: 19
      -6
      Quote: Stas157
      Again passion for Lend-Lease))

      When discussing this issue, one should bear in mind these points. The real volumes of Lend-Lease began only in 43. That is, after the turn of the war in our favor. Western aid to the USSR amounted to ~ 4-5% of the USSR GDP.

      Yes, the articles seem to be paid for.
      I myself dealt with this topic, so I see bad trends.
      More and more lies on this topic, and arrogant.
      In the last article it was written that the volumes of Lend-Lease were comparable to domestic production, although in fact they were from 3 to 5%.
      More and more lies about the DECISIVE American contribution to the war.
      About the imaginary FREE OF CHARGE, although the whole war was shipped in the opposite direction and in general for the debts on "free" paid only recently.
      I understand when the Americans say that they won everyone themselves, they have all the wars only on TV for them, it's like another episode of the series, but when the American victory is announced here, where EVERYONE fought, where the children stood behind the machines producing cartridges for the front, where in EVERY someone died in the family, it's just incredible ...
    4. kalibr
      kalibr 11 September 2020 14: 09
      -1
      Quote: Stas157
      The help of the West of the USSR was ~ 4-5% of the GDP of the USSR.

      Who told you that? Don't you want 50%?
      1. Stas157
        Stas157 11 September 2020 17: 02
        +3
        Quote: kalibr
        Who told you that? Don't you want 50%?

        And you about 50%? This is certainly not a gate!

        In your opinion, is the chairman of the USSR State Planning Committee an authoritative source, or do you have an even more authoritative source?

        . In 1948 year Chairman of the State Planning Committee of the USSR Nikolai Voznesensky In his work “The War Economy of the USSR during the Patriotic War, he wrote:“ If we compare the size of allied deliveries of industrial goods to the USSR with the size of industrial output at socialist enterprises in the USSR for the same period, it turns out that the share of these supplies in relation to domestic production in the war economy period will be only about 4%».
        1. Cherry Nine
          Cherry Nine 11 September 2020 17: 42
          0
          Quote: Stas157
          In your opinion, the chairman of the USSR State Planning Commission is an authoritative source

          Voznesensky, an enemy of the people, was shot in 1950. So no, his slander about the Soviet system is not accepted.
          1. Stas157
            Stas157 12 September 2020 06: 28
            +2
            Quote: Cherry Nine
            Then no

            Your school banter here does not impress anyone. If you so want to scratch your tongue on the fence, then you are on another forum.
            1. Cherry Nine
              Cherry Nine 12 September 2020 10: 01
              0
              Quote: Stas157
              If you so want to scratch your tongue on the fence, then you are on another forum.

              1. Engineer
                Engineer 12 September 2020 15: 06
                +1
                Before you fenced with a rapier, and now you wave a shovel. What happened?
                1. Cherry Nine
                  Cherry Nine 12 September 2020 21: 24
                  +2
                  )))

                  I have a hard time accepting it when cannibalists teach me good manners. And, in addition, they present Soviet professional liars as an authoritative source.
                  1. Engineer
                    Engineer 12 September 2020 22: 11
                    0
                    There is no former grace in this, but on the other hand, having SUCH number of limbs, you can simultaneously hold a rapier and a shovel and much more
                    See you on the weapons branches, for the degeneration of inselaffen will not discuss itself. hi
  • Free wind
    Free wind 11 September 2020 09: 29
    +4
    Mongolia In the 20s and 30s, he issued large loans, Mongolia worked them off during the war, there was not much of a smell of selflessness there. do not repeat someone else's stories.
  • Aleksandr1971
    Aleksandr1971 11 September 2020 09: 52
    +6
    The author of the article substantiates the importance of Land Lease for the USSR. But no one argues with that.

    However, if you get acquainted with the lend-lease delivery schedule by month, it is obvious that the mass delivery began in the second half of 1943. So, in November 1941, about 3 thousand tons were delivered. From May 1942, 70-80 thousand tons were supplied. And from July 1943 - 200 - 300 thousand tons per month.

    Therefore, without the Land-Lease, the USSR would not have lost anyway.
  • aries2200
    aries2200 11 September 2020 12: 26
    -4
    Tuva and Mongolia gave more than states of clothing and food
    1. kalibr
      kalibr 11 September 2020 14: 12
      0
      Raw meat with bones. It must be transported frozen, cut, bones thrown away, cooked. Moreover, it deteriorates. Then "shrinkage, shrinkage, leakage" - that's half of the meat and no. The USA supplied canned stew. Delicious, fast, convenient, and boneless!
      1. hohol95
        hohol95 11 September 2020 14: 36
        -1
        The USA supplied canned stew. Delicious, fast, convenient, and boneless!

        And hands do not get dirty when stealing and selling floors in the markets is more convenient!
        And there is no need to tinker with bones ...
        1. kalibr
          kalibr 11 September 2020 14: 37
          -3
          Quote: hohol95
          And hands do not get dirty when stealing and selling floors in the markets is more convenient!
          And there is no need to tinker with bones ...

          Exactly! Remember "Four Tankmen ..." how the cook stole the stew there ...
          1. hohol95
            hohol95 11 September 2020 14: 58
            +1
            My barefoot childhood is long gone and for this I need to watch this series!
            From the relatively fresh series about the war and the work of cooks at the front - Berlin Hare. And then I looked a little. They constantly wanted to send the horse to the cauldron. And not to cook a dish of dandelions ...
            1. VIP
              VIP 11 September 2020 19: 55
              +1
              I agree that our childhood is over, but finding time to review a good one is not a problem now: a phone to help.
              I have long paid attention to all modern crap, looked: "Matchmakers", "Interns" or some other "female snot" on YouTube and watch films which
              1. hohol95
                hohol95 11 September 2020 23: 08
                0
                There is no time for films yet. An unemployed person has no time for films!
          2. hohol95
            hohol95 11 September 2020 15: 02
            0
            I remember all sinned with "honey-smeared palms." In one of the works, to obtain eggs from the robbed population, the Germans changed 1 liter of gasoline for 10 eggs.
  • bubalik
    bubalik 11 September 2020 13: 40
    +4
    Mongolia's help near Moscow has already helped to survive - sheepskin coats
    ,,, well, let's remember Iran then. They also wore sheepskin coats.
  • parusnik
    parusnik 11 September 2020 06: 34
    +7
    According to the recollections of the same G.K. Zhukov during the battle of Moscow, Stalin distributed tanks and guns almost piece by piece, raked out all the arsenals ... So what was the US assistance during this period ..
    1. mat-vey
      mat-vey 11 September 2020 06: 42
      +5
      Quote: parusnik
      Stalin distributed tanks and guns almost piece by piece, and raked out all the arsenals ..

      But when the lend-lease really started, some of the enterprises under construction and operating were reoriented to the production of "peaceful products" - "the war will end and sowing will have to be done."
    2. Cartalon
      Cartalon 11 September 2020 10: 24
      -1
      Given that the United States did not participate in this period and the war, what was it supposed to be?
    3. CTABEP
      CTABEP 11 September 2020 13: 00
      +7
      Probably, it is better to distribute the planes by the piece, having 700 Lend-Lease planes received in 1941, than not having them. Applications for lend-lease, if my memory serves me correctly, were made by the Soviet side, so tanks, for example, went only in 1942 (of course, 2000 units are not very many, just an average monthly release for this year, but in absolute numbers these are tanks for 12 tank hulls of the 1943 model). Well, they didn't send artillery - but they did send in much more needed gunpowder and explosives in our case.
      1. Alexey RA
        Alexey RA 11 September 2020 16: 48
        +4
        Quote: CTABEP
        Applications for Lend-Lease, if my memory serves me right, were made by the Soviet side, so tanks, for example, went only in 1942

        Seriously?
        Here is a photo "from the other side":
        © 15.11.1941/XNUMX/XNUMX German Pz.II tanks drive past the Soviet Valentine’s Mk.III tank that was lined up near the Istra River.
        And here is our photo:

        Soviet tank English production "Valentine II" in ambush during the battle for Moscow. The photo was published in the newspaper “Krasnaya Zvezda” No. 275 of 22 in November 1941. The article “To the battle in British tanks” was published on the issue. It described the division of Captain Frost. Stepan Samoilovich Moroz, commander of the 137 tank battalion, killed 7 on December 1941. Most likely, this photo was taken exactly at the location of the 137 tank battalion.
        © Waralbum
        1. CTABEP
          CTABEP 12 September 2020 08: 13
          0
          Yes, my mistake, the British tanks were already in the fall. Thanks for the amendment.
    4. kalibr
      kalibr 11 September 2020 14: 14
      +1
      Alexey, what a short memory you have. But I cited a photo from Pravda for November 41, where there were both Hurricanes and Matilda tanks ... And there it was written about them ...
      1. Alexey Z
        Alexey Z 12 September 2020 17: 56
        0
        This is not a lend-lease
        1. kalibr
          kalibr 12 September 2020 18: 32
          +1
          What was it then?
          1. Alf
            Alf 13 September 2020 00: 39
            +2
            Quote: kalibr
            What was it then?

            Supplies for despicable metal. At the beginning of the 42nd Edinburgh could not carry gold for a lend-lease.
            1. kalibr
              kalibr 13 September 2020 06: 13
              +1
              Obviously so. Sale and purchase also took place. In my opinion, I even wrote about this, as well as about the very first convoys of 1941. But it was a long time ago. This is why I always recommend starting with historiography. Who did what before you ...
  • The leader of the Redskins
    The leader of the Redskins 11 September 2020 06: 57
    +2
    Thank you for the article.
    Quite by chance, I recently learned that under the "Lend Lease" program, how many millions were delivered in the USSR ... BUTTONS!
    Yes, our such buttons, with a star, a sickle and a hammer, only on the back of the letter in Latin - New York or Chicago)
    1. mat-vey
      mat-vey 11 September 2020 07: 12
      +7
      Quote: Leader of the Redskins
      Yes, our such buttons, with a star, a sickle and a hammer, only on the back of the letter in Latin - New York or Chicago)

      "Let's not bother readers with a detailed description of the military uniform of the Red Army - a tunic, riding breeches, an overcoat, wadded trousers, a quilted jacket ... Take my word for it - more than 30 buttons were required for each soldier's uniform. During the four years of the war, 29 people were mobilized. during this period, 574 people were wearing uniforms (taking into account those who had already served at the beginning of the war) .900 billion 34 million 476 thousand buttons were required to outfit the people going to the front. : buttons are an expendable material, they tend to at least just come off. And this is also a feat, an economic feat. And these figures - they also show the entire global nature of the war in which we won the Victory. " - from open spaces ..
    2. figwam
      figwam 11 September 2020 08: 41
      +1
      Quote: Leader of the Redskins
      in the USSR it was delivered how many millions there ... BUTTONS!

      That would be enough for a couple of divisions.
      1. The leader of the Redskins
        The leader of the Redskins 11 September 2020 10: 44
        +6
        Looked especially for you:
        257 million buttons ...
        Maybe all the same for several armies ... Or fronts?
        If you believe the post above, then every fifth button is American.
    3. kalibr
      kalibr 11 September 2020 14: 16
      +1
      And also officer's cloth, 15 million pairs of soldier's boots and soutache for uniforms!
      In general, before writing an article, the author should ALWAYS get acquainted with the historiography of the problem, that is, who, what, and how they wrote before him. And sources ... Where is Truth from June 11, 1944?
    4. hohol95
      hohol95 11 September 2020 14: 37
      +1
      And in the Russo-Japanese War, they bought cartridges in the German Empire ...
  • Woodman
    Woodman 11 September 2020 08: 00
    0
    Let's be honest with ourselves
    Not a single article about Borodino was published on the anniversary, but then about Yeltsin, then about Lend-Lease ...
    In conclusion, one cannot but recall
    that the West in every possible way belittles the role of the USSR in the war, equates communism with Nazism and does not torment conscience ... And we remember everything about Lend-Lease ... And not about delaying the opening of the "second front" ...
    1. Cherry Nine
      Cherry Nine 11 September 2020 08: 15
      0
      Quote: Lesovik
      And not about dragging out the opening of the "second front" ...

      The second front against Germany was opened by Hitler on June 22, 1941. What do you dislike about "dragging out" this question?
    2. kalibr
      kalibr 11 September 2020 14: 16
      0
      Quote: Lesovik
      Not a single article about Borodino was published on the anniversary

      It turned out 2 ... not enough for you?
      1. Woodman
        Woodman 11 September 2020 14: 29
        +1
        Quote: kalibr
        It turned out 2 ... not enough for you?

        Strange ... After your words, I began to search - I found it. This one: Battle of Borodino: numbers and numbers again. And it seems that I start entering the site from the "new on the site" section. Eh, there is no excuse for me. I will assume that this is the machinations of the State Department. Throw off the link to the second, if not difficult.
        1. kalibr
          kalibr 11 September 2020 14: 30
          0
          The second is written and will be released either tomorrow or Sunday.
          1. Woodman
            Woodman 11 September 2020 14: 38
            +1
            Clear. Nevertheless, even the first one came out late. Remembered too late? Although the article is interesting, it cannot be taken away. I'll go read the comments, I hope they won't disappoint either.
            1. kalibr
              kalibr 11 September 2020 14: 50
              0
              It's not late. Articles are written in advance. But there is a priority. They are checked and edited. They are not let out of the wheels. And then it's not so easy to write them ...
              1. Woodman
                Woodman 11 September 2020 14: 54
                0
                Quote: kalibr
                But there is a priority. They are checked and edited. They are not let out of the wheels. And then it's not so easy to write them.

                I know. I have, so to speak, some experience in both writing and publishing. Not so extensive - more a hobby than a living. But the saying "the road is a spoon for dinner" is still closer to me than "better late than never."
  • thinker
    thinker 11 September 2020 08: 03
    +5
    a stable tradition of underestimating allied aid has developed
    Well, you don't need to break your forehead in bows of gratitude
    During the war years, the USSR received goods totaling about eleven billion dollars. Great Britain - thirty billion.
    1. Cherry Nine
      Cherry Nine 11 September 2020 08: 20
      -5
      Quote: thinker
      Great Britain - thirty billion.

      Great Britain gave a lot in return. Including radars, atomic bomb, jet engines. Still, scientifically and technically, it was the N1 country at that time. And what did the Soviet Union give?
      1. Ramzaj99
        Ramzaj99 11 September 2020 09: 28
        +1
        Quote: Cherry Nine
        And what did the Soviet Union give?

        Yes, you got insolent at the end)))
        While they were deciding: - to fight, not to fight, and they were trying to measure themselves, the Soviet Union at that time smashed the fascist hordes, paying for it with millions of lives !!!
        1. Cherry Nine
          Cherry Nine 11 September 2020 13: 58
          -3
          Quote: Ramzaj99
          at this time he smashed the fascist hordes,

          And what do the Americans care about that?
      2. Stas157
        Stas157 11 September 2020 09: 37
        +7
        Quote: Cherry Nine
        And what did the Soviet Union give?

        I just won the war and hoisted the flag over Berlin.

        What sacrifices this was given, I will not write. The person asking this question is hardly interested.
        1. Cherry Nine
          Cherry Nine 11 September 2020 14: 01
          -2
          Quote: Stas157
          What sacrifices it was given, I will not write

          And what for the Americans, what are the victims? Have you heard Truman's comment on this issue?
          Quote: Stas157
          Just won the war and hoisted the flag over Berlin

          Is it good or bad for the Americans? Have you heard that the Berlin offensive was pushed forward by Stalin? What do you think, in connection with what?

          Let me remind you that we are discussing how the Land Lease was useful to the Americans.
        2. 2 Level Advisor
          2 Level Advisor 11 September 2020 20: 06
          +1
          those. Your conclusion is lend-lease .. well .. in short nafig the USSR and was not needed for nothing, right? we're here about lend-lease and its necessity, and not who won, we argue .. who won and so I think everyone understands ..
      3. Krasnodar
        Krasnodar 11 September 2020 10: 32
        +5
        Quote: Cherry Nine
        Quote: thinker
        Great Britain - thirty billion.

        Great Britain gave a lot in return. Including radars, atomic bomb, jet engines. Still, scientifically and technically, it was the N1 country at that time. And what did the Soviet Union give?

        More than 80% of Wehrmacht losses
        1. Cherry Nine
          Cherry Nine 11 September 2020 11: 00
          -2
          Quote: Krasnodar
          More than 80% of Wehrmacht losses

          And what is the benefit of this for the Americans?
          1. Alf
            Alf 11 September 2020 20: 41
            0
            Quote: Cherry Nine
            Quote: Krasnodar
            More than 80% of Wehrmacht losses

            And what is the benefit of this for the Americans?

            And with whom in Europe and Italy did the Americans fight? With the Chinese or the recalcitrant zusul?
      4. antivirus
        antivirus 11 September 2020 21: 01
        0
        And what did the Soviet Union give?
        - POINT OF SUPPORT AND LEVER OF IMPACT ON AXIS COUNTRIES

        WELL, MAYS STILL pouches, like the Ethiopians. more than that, the peasants of the Central Russian plain could not do anything. and nines were not painted correctly, and the Volga was poorly assembled.



        yes, also the space ships can no longer do - everything went from those pouches
    2. Blacksmith 55
      Blacksmith 55 11 September 2020 11: 49
      0
      Thinker. You write that the USSR received about 11 billion.
      In the chart: Lend-lease for the USSR (in the article itself) there is a figure
      11. I immediately found this figure too small. I don't know who drew up the schedule, we need to be more careful in such matters.
  • Cyril G ...
    Cyril G ... 11 September 2020 08: 08
    +6
    Yes, in the first weeks of the war, the Soviet leadership could not count on any real help from the allies.

    In the first most terrible year and a half. In fact, we stopped the Germans practically without the help of the Anglo-American allies. And the growth of supplies increased on an increasing basis in the period 1943-1945 ...
    In general, the numbers are all there.
    1. Alf
      Alf 11 September 2020 11: 18
      +4
      Quote: Cyril G ...
      In the first most terrible year and a half.

      Especially if we recall the stoppage of convoys at the most critical time for the USSR in the early to mid-42, when everything was hanging by a thread.
      1. Free wind
        Free wind 11 September 2020 11: 34
        +4
        Northern convoys stopped. And they went through Iran and the Far East.
    2. Free wind
      Free wind 11 September 2020 11: 39
      +2
      To begin with, a fleet had to be created, but to build a shipyard, recruit and train workers, recruit teams, it's not a matter of one day. When everything was organized, the ships were made one piece a day, then everything started spinning.
  • Andrey VOV
    Andrey VOV 11 September 2020 08: 33
    +4
    Of course, I apologize, but how long can you constantly procrastinate on the same topics? Here please, again about helping our allies ... if you look like this, then there will be a dozen articles on this topic, Shpakovsky alone has more than one ... something new and interesting? for today all the numbers are known to everyone almost to the last nail ... by God, the lines of V.S. Vysotsky immediately come to mind:
    "Maybe it's better about the reactor?
    About your favorite lunar tractor ... "
  • alstr
    alstr 11 September 2020 08: 51
    0
    In general, it is necessary to talk not only about Lend-Lease, but in general about the supplies of the Allied countries to the USSR.
    The funniest thing is that a significant part of materials, equipment and other non-military materials were supplied ... for gold. And in the same '41, mainly deliveries took place .... paid for in gold on orders from the end of 40s to the beginning of 41. They just didn’t delay them now.
    Also gold of the cruiser Edinburgh from the same opera - payment for supplies in excess of Lend-Lease
    1. bubalik
      bubalik 11 September 2020 09: 20
      +5
      In general, it is necessary to talk not only about Lend-Lease, but in general about the supplies of the Allied countries to the USSR.
      ,,, the US accounts for 82% of all shipments.
      1. cost
        cost 11 September 2020 11: 58
        +1
        Lend-Lease (from the English lend - to lend and lease [liːs] - to lease, rent) is a state program under which the United States of America supplied its allies in World War II with ammunition, equipment, food, medical equipment and medicines , strategic raw materials, including petroleum products. The main clients of the USA are the countries of the British Commonwealth of Nations and the USSR.
        The concept of this program gave the President of the United States the authority to assist any country whose defense was deemed vital to his country.
        Lend-Lease Act (English Lend Lease Act) full name - "Act to Promote the Defense of the United States", (Eng. An Act to Promote the Defense of the United States) adopted by the US Congress on March 11, 1941 year, provided the following conditions:
        property transferred under Lend-Lease property remaining after the end of the war and suitable for civilian purposes will be paid in full or in part on the basis of long-term loans provided by the United States (mainly interest-free loans);
        if the American side is interested, not destroyed and not lost equipment and equipment must be returned after the war in the United States

        Initially, the countries of the British Empire and China were involved in the Lend-Lease program. Since November 1941, the USSR joined the program, and by the end of the war, almost all of the US allies had become its participants. In 1942, the United States signed another agreement with Great Britain, Australia, New Zealand and Free France, the so-called. "Reverse" Lend-Lease. According to him, the allies already provided the US army with goods, services and transport services, their military bases
        On August 21, 1945, President Truman announced the end of the Lend-Lease program, but Britain and China continued to receive goods on the basis of cash and loans.
    2. Alf
      Alf 11 September 2020 11: 36
      +2
      Quote: alstr
      And in the same year 41, there were mainly deliveries .... paid in gold for orders from the end of 40-beginning of 41.

      For gold, deliveries were paid for until December 41, after which everything went free, with a return. And where is here
      a significant part of materials, equipment and other non-military materials
      ? Compare the scale.
      1. Cyril G ...
        Cyril G ... 11 September 2020 12: 02
        +2
        Quote: Alf
        For gold, deliveries were paid for until December 41, after which everything went free, with a return. And where is here


        Within the framework of the Lend-Lease program, there were also counter deliveries from the USSR of a number of materials.
        1. Alf
          Alf 11 September 2020 12: 05
          +2
          Quote: Cyril G ...
          Quote: Alf
          For gold, deliveries were paid for until December 41, after which everything went free, with a return. And where is here


          Within the framework of the Lend-Lease program, there were also counter deliveries from the USSR of a number of materials.

          By the way, some "tovarischi" try not to mention this and even forget about it.
          1. Cherry Nine
            Cherry Nine 11 September 2020 12: 19
            0
            Quote: Alf
            By the way, some "tovarischi" try not to mention this and even forget about it.

            )))
            We remember very well.
            According to the US President Harry Truman's Report to Congress, as of September 2, 1945, the reverse lend-lease from the USSR was $ 2. Including articles:

            Facilities and Equipment - $ 56
            Testing, Reconditioning etc. of Defense Articles - $ 2
  • Olgovich
    Olgovich 11 September 2020 09: 00
    +7
    Military truth
    Stalin found it necessary to tell American President Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Churchill that "without American products the war would be lost."
    .

    And the post-war conjunctive lie:
    this aid was not in any way significant and in no way could have a decisive influence on the course of the Great Patriotic War.


    Not to mention the fact that every third shot was fired with amers' gunpowder. we must remember that a huge amount of food from the United States saved many people from starvation in the USSR, where in the rear there was a terrible famine with swelling and even starvation death.

    The help was significant and it must be admitted
    1. cost
      cost 11 September 2020 12: 03
      +5
      every third shot was fired with amers' gunpowder

      The United States supplied 2 million 13 thousand tons of aviation gasoline (together with the allies - 2 million 586 thousand tons) - almost 2/3 of the fuel used during the war by Soviet aviation. In addition to finished aviation gasoline, oil refining equipment was supplied for its production on the territory of the USSR, and the volume of these supplies was such that its own annual production of aviation gasoline increased from 110 tons in 000 to 1941 tons in 1
      1. Foul skeptic
        Foul skeptic 11 September 2020 14: 59
        +3
        almost 2/3 of the fuel used by Soviet aviation during the war years.

        Dmitry, hello. This sentence "does not beat" with a sign from your next message.
        1. cost
          cost 11 September 2020 15: 35
          0
          Hello Timur. hi
          Thanks for the amendment. My mistake, I had to write not "almost 2/3 of the fuel" but "more than half" of the fuel.
          1. Foul skeptic
            Foul skeptic 11 September 2020 15: 48
            0
            a - "more than half" of the fuel.

            This would be the second mistake))
            Aviation used gasoline and our production and Lend-Lease. That is, 4700 + 2586 = 7286 thousand tons. Hence the share of Lend-Lease - 35%. Slightly more than 1/3.

            PS here we both proceeded from the assumption that all the indicated gasoline was used during the war. I believe it can be considered true with a large share. Otherwise, it turns out that aviation used only 2586: 2/3 = 3879 thousand tons, which would be covered by its own production (4700) even taking into account the gradual increase in production from minimum to maximum.
            1. cost
              cost 11 September 2020 16: 14
              +1
              If we count at the end of 1944, when the USSR's own annual production of aviation gasoline increased to 1 tons, thanks to the same lend-lens supplies of NPOs to the USSR, then there is a healthy grain of truth in your calculations, but we must not forget that the war did not last only one 670.
              Aviation gasoline has been supplied to the USSR since 1941, when its own annual production of aviation gasoline was only 110 tons. So, in my opinion, it would be more correct to adhere to the official 000%
              Best regards
              Dmitriy
              1. Foul skeptic
                Foul skeptic 11 September 2020 16: 27
                +1
                The table shows the share of Lend-Lease from production, not the share of consumption. It confuses people all the time.
                2586/4700 = 55% - share of production
                2586 / (4700 + 2586) = 35% - share of consumption
                in the figure 4700, and so a gradual increase from 110 thousand tons to 1 670 thousand tons (since 4700 <4 * 1670 (6680)
              2. antivirus
                antivirus 11 September 2020 21: 13
                +1
                out of place

                20 years ago, father: Very calm, (mother) is not happy with Victory Day. apparently there was no such hunger in the village. like in our city. and radio. was not imbued with the tension of the struggle
                - I was hungry throughout the war. hunger. (from 7 to 11 years old. the child grew up)
                there was no American stew in peat extraction
            2. Cherry Nine
              Cherry Nine 11 September 2020 16: 22
              +3
              Quote: Nefarious skeptic
              Hence the share of Lend-Lease - 35%. Slightly more than 1/3.

              Gasoline produced by adding American high-octane to Soviet gas is recorded as Soviet.
              1. Foul skeptic
                Foul skeptic 11 September 2020 16: 28
                +2
                I would be grateful if you could indicate where you can get acquainted with such accounting nuances.
                1. Cherry Nine
                  Cherry Nine 11 September 2020 16: 58
                  +3
                  Suppose here
                  http://www.hist.msu.ru/Labs/Ecohist/OB11/USSR/kostornichenko.html
                  1. Foul skeptic
                    Foul skeptic 11 September 2020 17: 46
                    0
                    Thank. I had to read this article. It says something that no one argues with anyway - by adding high-octane to low-octane, you can get an intermediate digestible result. The question was just being asked differently, wasn't it?
                    For example, I can only assert that the high-octane Soviet, obtained from the low-octane Soviet B-70 with the help of American antiknock agents (487,5 thousand tons of alkyl gasoline, 198,2 thousand tons of isooctane, 28,6 thousand tons of hydropolymer, 12,5, 11,5 thousand tons of a mixture of isooctane and isopentane, 7,1 thousand tons of kumen, 2 thousand tons of isopentane, 1,7 thousand tons of neohexane and 9 thousand tons of xylidine.) Was indeed counted as Soviet. But antiknock agents went according to the "chemical" column, and not the "fuel" one (except for alkyl gasoline, it seems). And we made the P-XNUMX ourselves.
                    Here, in general, it was necessary to start by editing the numbers that Dmitry brought from Wikipedia
                    Delivery from the USA. Source Report on War Aid Furnished by the United States to the USSR June 22, 1941 - September 20, 1945.
                    aviation gasoline with an octane rating above 99 - 590 thousand 434 tons, from 87 to 99 - 122 thousand 415 tons, up to 87 - 19 thousand 690 tons
                    Deliveries from Britain. Source Jones RH The Roads to Russia. University of Oklahoma Press. 1969
                    aviation gasoline with an octane rating above 99 - 572 thousand 979 tons, from 87 to 99 - 14 thousand 719 tons
                    In total - 1 million 197 thousand 587 tons, including 558 thousand 428 tons with an octane number above 99
                    Consumption by Soviet aviation. Source V. V. Nikitin "Fuel to the front"
                    "During the war years, the Red Army consumed more than 4 million 481 thousand tons of aviation gasoline, including high-octane 2 million 998 thousand tons."
                    1. Cherry Nine
                      Cherry Nine 12 September 2020 10: 12
                      +3
                      Quote: Nefarious skeptic
                      aviation gasoline with an octane rating above 99 - 590 thousand 434 tons

                      Quote: Nefarious skeptic
                      aviation gasoline with an octane rating above 99 - 572 thousand 979 tons

                      Quote: Nefarious skeptic
                      In total - ... 558 thousand 428 tons with an octane number above 99

                      Ask the store to replace the calculator.
                      Quote: Nefarious skeptic
                      aviation gasoline, including high-octane 2 million 998 thousand tons

                      What octane number did the Soviet high-octane gasoline have?
                      Quote: Nefarious skeptic
                      really counted as Soviet. But antiknock agents went according to the "chemical" column, and not the "fuel" one.

                      That is, the Soviet aviation gasoline hung on the Lend Lease almost completely.
            3. Olgovich
              Olgovich 12 September 2020 07: 07
              +1
              Quote: Nefarious skeptic
              Aviation used gasoline and our production and Lend-Lease. That is, 4700 + 2586 = 7286 thousand tons. Hence the share of Lend-Lease - 35%. Slightly more than 1/3.


              Not so: 1483 thousand tons were supplied from the USA, Britain and Canada light gasoline fractions. From light gasoline fractions as a result of reforming, gasoline is produced, the yield of which is approximately 80%. Thus, from 1483 thousand tons of fractions, 1186 thousand tons of gasoline... The USSR included them in ... its own production, which, as we see, is not the case. Subtract them from 4700.

              In addition, imported gasolines are used in the production of Soviet gasolines:
              imported from abroad aviation gasoline and high-octane components were largely included in the Soviet production of aviation gasolines SM Lisichkin. Essays on the development of the oil industry in the USSR. M., 1958
      2. VIP
        VIP 11 September 2020 20: 15
        +3
        "almost 2/3 of fuel" every extra liter of fuel - the life of a soldier is saved.
    2. cost
      cost 11 September 2020 12: 07
      +7
      The help was significant and it must be admitted

      Comparative data on the role of Lend-Lease in providing the Soviet economy with certain types of materials and food during the war
    3. Cyril G ...
      Cyril G ... 11 September 2020 12: 09
      +3
      Quote: Olgovich
      The help was significant and it must be admitted


      Significant. But the Germans were stopped in 1941-1942 with minimal help from the Allies.
      1. Olgovich
        Olgovich 12 September 2020 07: 15
        +1
        Quote: Cyril G ...
        Significant. But the Germans were stopped in 1941-1942 with minimal help from the Allies.

        1942 is almost 30% of lend-lease deliveries.
        in 1941 in summer the scarcest gasoline was supplied for 80 million dollars - at the request of Stalin
        1. Cyril G ...
          Cyril G ... 12 September 2020 07: 21
          +1
          Quote: Olgovich
          in the summer of 1941, the scarcest gasoline was supplied for 80 million dollars - at the request of Stalin

          Stalin is spelled with a capital letter for a proper name, if we at least talk about the Russian language. Secondly, this is not Lend-Lease from the word at all

          this is almost 30% of lend-lease supplies.

          Why do you think so.
          1. Olgovich
            Olgovich 12 September 2020 08: 54
            0
            Quote: Cyril G ...
            Stalin is spelled with a capital letter for a proper name, if we at least talk about the Russian language

            If we are talking about the Russian language, then the commas before the IBO and AT LEAST (and after at least) should be.
            Quote: Cyril G ...
            Secondly, this is not Lend-Lease from the word at all

            this is almost 30% of lend-lease supplies.

            Why do you think so.

            From statistics
            1. Cyril G ...
              Cyril G ... 12 September 2020 09: 03
              +2
              Quote: Olgovich
              From statistics

              Statistics say something completely different ...

              Quote: Olgovich
              should stand.

              This is stupid, but it shows your real level as a person. Fighting the dead in THIS WAY clearly does not paint you.
              1. Olgovich
                Olgovich 12 September 2020 09: 26
                +1
                Quote: Cyril G ...
                This is stupid, впрочем it shows your real level as a person.

                It is foolish not to know that introductory words are separated by commas ("however" - including), as well as before "how" it is put
                Quote: Cyril G ...
                Fighting the dead in THIS WAY clearly does not paint you.

                Where did you ... see the "fight"?
                Quote: Cyril G ...
                Statistics say something completely different ...
                .
                Speaking about the role of Lend-Lease in the victory of the USSR, we should not forget about two more points. First, the vast majority of machinery, equipment and materials were supplied to the USSR in 1943-1945. That is, after the turning point in the course of the war. For example, in 1941, under Lend-Lease, goods worth about $ 100 million were delivered, which was less than 1% of the total supply. In 1942 this percentage amounted to 27,6... Thus, more than 70% of lend-lease deliveries fell on 1943-1945
    4. 2 Level Advisor
      2 Level Advisor 11 September 2020 20: 10
      +3
      and everyone forgets about the means of communication, 2/3 of which were foreign, and of our remaining 1/3 of the spare parts produced by 2/3 were lend-lease .. and BEFORE THE END OF THE WAR! How much would we fight without communication?
  • Free wind
    Free wind 11 September 2020 10: 01
    +4
    To start Lend Lease, the Americans needed to create a fleet and recruit teams, teams were recruited from people already aged, the young were already in the army. Likewise, goods need to be produced, not much time has passed since the depression. The amers did not have tanks, they created from scratch. The British are also under pressure with tanks. Food, except for stew, was appreciated, milk powder, egg powder, very nutritious and high-calorie foods. the Americans would, if they landed in Europe, they would be rolled into a pancake, the Germans outnumbered the British and the Americans in the quality of the tanks, plus the Italians were in full swing. The British in Africa either followed the Germans or ran away from the Germans. In any case, our ancestors held out and won.
  • Undecim
    Undecim 11 September 2020 10: 40
    11
    Quote: mat-vey
    The author considers Mongolia as an ally? The help of Mongolia near Moscow has already helped to survive - sheepskin coats, felt boots and food in winter are no less important than weapons ... especially such a winter as it was in 1941-1942.

    Already, it would seem, the issue of Lend-Lease has been studied and described from all sides, there are a lot of documents in the public domain, but as soon as an article about Lend-Lease appears somewhere, there is a "group of comrades" right there, with exclamations "Forgotten about Mongolia" and "Everything has been paid for with pure gold."
    Maybe the author should write a similar article about the Soviet-Mongolian "Lend-Lease" and about the fact that the Mongolian economy, thanks to supplies to the USSR, developed in the same way as the American one.
    For information (from Mongolian and Soviet sources).
    From 1941 to 1945, Mongolian workers donated 32528 horses to the USSR. During the same time, Mongolia sold 413000 (according to other sources, 437000) horses to the USSR.
    In total, the volume of gratuitous aid from Mongolian workers to the Soviet people amounted to 53.5 million tugriks (the figure is 65 million), or approximately 86 rubles.
    During the same time, the volume of gratuitous aid from the USSR to Mongolia, mainly in the form of military equipment and industrial equipment, which themselves were in short supply, amounted to 100 rubles.
    In 1941-1945 Mongolia sold goods to the USSR for 590 million tugriks. Due to this, the number of food industry enterprises over these years has increased 000 times, the volume of production - 000 times. By 17,5, Mongolia's food industry accounted for 28 percent of the country's total industrial output.
    In 1941, industrial products manufactured in Mongolia accounted for 4% of the country's total trade, and in 1945 - 30%.

    No one has ever denied that Mongolia provided all possible assistance to the Soviet Union, partly shifting its economy to a war footing. But the USSR also continued to participate in the development of the economy and the armed forces of the Mongolian People's Republic, moreover, in serious volumes.
    1. bubalik
      bubalik 11 September 2020 14: 08
      +2
      During the same time, Mongolia sold 413000 (according to other sources, 437000) horses to the USSR.

  • 1536
    1536 11 September 2020 11: 35
    +4
    The USSR joined the American aid program in November 1941. Probably, for this it was necessary to hold a parade on Red Square in honor of the 24th anniversary of the October Revolution, so that the Americans would understand that their help would not fall into the hands of the Germans and would be useful first of all to themselves.
    So, November 1941! For six months the USSR has been waging a one-on-one war with Germany and the rest of Europe. Already occupied Belarus, Ukraine, several regions of the RSFSR, the Germans in the Tula region, Kaluga fell. France lost the war in 1940, if I am not mistaken, in 3 months. In 2 weeks Poland, despite the heroic resistance of the military, became the General Government of the Third Reich, and there is no need to talk about the rest. On December 11, 1941, Hitler declared war on the United States. Japan attacked the United States four days earlier. The main deliveries to the USSR via Lend-Lease began at the end of December 1941, when the Germans had already been driven back from Moscow. Britain, drained of blood by the naval blockade, nevertheless was able to transfer several tanks in the fall of 1941. These tanks fought near Moscow. Thanks to the British for that!
    Yes, the help from the United States and allies has been tremendous. But ... appreciated! And no one denies it. Nevertheless, if in June 1941 the allies had come out as a single coalition, including an economic one, against Nazi Germany, the war would have been different, it is possible that the Germans would not have reached Moscow and Stalingrad, so many Soviet people would not have died. ...
    As for Marshal G.K. Zhukov, it is known that his "Memories and Reflections" underwent several editions, and I think if General Zhukov were asked about the American "Land Lease" in September-October 1941, he would have answered the interviewers like a soldier.
    1. kalibr
      kalibr 11 September 2020 14: 46
      -2
      When did the first Dervish convoy come to the USSR?
      1. 1536
        1536 11 September 2020 14: 53
        +3
        The Dervish convoy you are talking about, dear, was English and arrived in Arkhangelsk on August 31, 1941, if you did not know. Land Lease is an American state aid program, and this is what the article is about. By the way, I spoke about the British tanks that fought near Moscow.
        1. kalibr
          kalibr 11 September 2020 14: 55
          -3
          It is very good that you know this. Now look at my articles on Lend-Lease on the same site - Shpakovsky Vyacheslav "Pravda" About Lend-Lease "(and there will be others), but start with this one.
          1. 1536
            1536 11 September 2020 15: 12
            +4
            No, dear Vyacheslav, I will not read anything of yours. Authors of all kinds write about Land-Lease at monthly intervals. What do you want to prove to someone? That without this help from the United States and Britain, the USSR would not have won the war? I think I would have won, perhaps I would have fought longer, but the outcome would have been the same. If you, on the contrary, strive to say that we did not need their help, no, this is not so. I really needed it. And thanks to them for helping us and not for Hitler. This topic is ungrateful if viewed from the standpoint of common sense. And if you want to learn something more deeply, go to the archives, read foreign sources, draw conclusions. But even then, hardly any "truth" will be all-embracing, excluding controversy. Although there is nothing to argue about. The national economy of the USSR withstood the blow of Germany and during 1941 the Red Army managed to stabilize the front, preventing the Germans from destroying the state, its industry and agriculture. This is the truth. Everything else is the ambition and incomprehensible desire of a part of modern authors to stir up the past, in which, on the one hand, they do not understand anything, but on the other, are they trying to return it or what? We already had Bush's legs.
            1. VIP
              VIP 11 September 2020 18: 19
              +1
              Molotov also said that without Lend-Lease we would have won, but we would have fought for 2 years longer. How many would have died? I am not an impressionable Astra, but it also sneaks me when I think about the number of dead
    2. Cyril G ...
      Cyril G ... 12 September 2020 09: 06
      +1
      Quote: 1536
      Yes, the help from the United States and allies has been tremendous. But ... appreciated! And no one denies it. Nevertheless, if in June 1941 the allies had come out as a single coalition, including an economic one, against Nazi Germany, the war would have been different, it is possible that the Germans would not have reached Moscow and Stalingrad, so many Soviet people would not have died. ...


      Quite right .. Do not forget, unlike other addressees of LL, after the war they demanded the return of supplies from us.
  • Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
    Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 11 September 2020 11: 48
    0
    ... when the Germans actually asked for it by sinking the Lusitania.

    Nonsense. Schwiger let Lucy sink on May 7, 1915. The States got into the Great War on April 17th. Something was asking for a long time.
    1. Alf
      Alf 11 September 2020 20: 52
      0
      Quote: Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
      ... when the Germans actually asked for it by sinking the Lusitania.

      Nonsense. Schwiger let Lucy sink on May 7, 1915. The States got into the Great War on April 17th. Something was asking for a long time.

      After the sinking of the Lusitania, the US government began to shake public opinion, and entered the war only in 1917, in order to have time to share the pie and not spend too much money in the form of blood. And then, the first division of the USA came to the Western Front only in October 17th, and to the Italian front in general in July 18th. As they say, eat the fish and not choke.
      1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
        Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 11 September 2020 21: 37
        -3
        ... As they say, eat the fish and not choke.

        R. La Follette said everything at the Senate debate on entering the war, there is nothing to add.
        1. Alf
          Alf 11 September 2020 21: 39
          0
          Quote: Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
          ... As they say, eat the fish and not choke.

          R. La Follette said everything at the Senate debate on entering the war, there is nothing to add.

          And what did he say? I really do not know. I'm not kidding, honestly, just say it.
  • Dmitry V.
    Dmitry V. 11 September 2020 13: 11
    +1
    1900 (1981) pcs of steam locomotives and 66 diesel-electric locomotives, 11 cars, 075 thousand metric tons of rails
    delivered under lend-lease from the USA - how much is it on a national scale? However, 2 years of pre-war production of steam locomotives, taking into account the loss of a part of the factories and switched to military production, that supported the logistics in the country in the most difficult years. And the peak of the supply of rails fell on 1944, which contributed to the restoration of tracks in the liberated territories and the rapid delivery of supplies for offensive operations (the shortage of rails was such that they dismantled all the secondary branches and rails on the construction of the BAM)
    almost half of the railroad rails used on Soviet railways during the war came from the United States
    https://kenigtiger.livejournal.com/1122877.html

    From the USA in 1941-1945 under Lend-Lease, machines and equipment for industry were supplied to the USSR for 607 million dollars (for example, the same carousel machines, for the manufacture of shoulder straps for T-34 towers - from the United States in one of the forum topics on the T-34 were discussed).
    This contributed to the growth of military production.
  • Tests
    Tests 11 September 2020 13: 14
    +4
    Dear site administrators, please correct the typo in the text! The first allied convoy arrived at the port of Arkhangelsk on August 31, 1941, not August 11.
    The English minelayer "Adventure" (HMS Adventure) with a cargo of depth charges and magnetic mines arrived in Arkhangelsk on July 31, 1941.
    Ramzaj99 (Roman) dear, the British submarines HMS Tigris and HMS Trident came to our aid in August 1941. They were based on Polyarny. The Germans were well drowned. And the pilots of the British Air Force in the Hurricanes contributed to the fact that the Germans did not take Murmansk in the fall of 1941. They were based at the Vaenga-1 airfield.
  • BAI
    BAI 11 September 2020 13: 23
    +8
    Stalin found it necessary to tell American President Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Churchill that "without American products, the war would be lost."

    Stalin said these words not to express gratitude to anyone. They are taken out of context.
    Valentin Berezhkov, who translated for Stalin at almost all conferences, just told about this:
    The Chief of the General Staff of England, General Alan Brooke, made a very strange toast. Stalin's reaction to the Briton's tactlessness is worth celebrating:
    Brooke rose from his seat and began to talk about which of the allies suffered in this war. He stated that the British suffered the most, that their losses exceeded those of any other people, that England fought longer and more than others and did more to win. An awkward silence fell in the hall. Most, of course, sensed the tactlessness of General Brook's speech. After all, everyone knew that the bulk of Hitler's troops were chained to the Soviet-German front ... Stalin darkened. He immediately got up and gave everyone a stern look. It seemed like a storm was about to break out. But he, pulling himself together, calmly said:
    - I want to say what, in the opinion of the Soviet side, President Roosevelt and the United States of America did for the victory. The main thing in this war is machines. The United States has proven that it can produce between 8 and 10 aircraft a month. England produces 3 aircraft monthly, mainly heavy bombers. Hence, the United States is a land of machines. These Lend-Lease vehicles help us win the war. For this I want to raise my toast ... [609]

    Those. Stalin laid siege to England and pitted the United States against it so that Britain and the United States would not unite against the USSR. This is a diplomatic war, not a glorification of someone.
    By the way, Lend-Lease cost us the encirclement of the Southwestern Front. When Harriman arrived in Moscow, Stalin pointed out to him the proposed front line for November 1, 1941. The deliveries depended on this (the United States will not deliver anything if they see that the recipient is defeated and will be defeated in the near future). On this front line Kiev was ours. Therefore, Stalin forbade leaving Kiev, having quarreled with Zhukov, which led to the well-known disaster.
    In addition to the toast at the Tehran conference, there is a message from Stalin to Churchill (personally to him alone):
    Here the question is pertinent: how to get out of this more than unfavorable situation? I think that there is only one way out of this situation: to create a second front somewhere in the Balkans or in France already this year, which could pull off 30-40 German divisions from the Eastern Front and at the same time provide the Soviet Union with 30 thousand tons of aluminum to early October and a monthly minimum aid of 400 aircraft and 500 tanks (small or medium).Without these two types of assistance, the Soviet Union will either be defeated or weakened to the point that it loses for a long time the ability to provide assistance to its allies by its active actions on the front of the fight against Hitlerism. I understand that Your Excellency will be saddened by this message. But what to do? Experience taught me to face reality, no matter how unpleasant, and not be afraid to tell the truth, no matter how undesirable [490].
    1. 1536
      1536 11 September 2020 15: 25
      0
      Great comment, thank you dear! Americans are always looking for profit in everything, they insure themselves against failures, therefore they usually win. But it is not for nothing that there is a saying in Russia: "Need for invention is cunning!" And the Americans can't understand this in any way, that's why they keep remembering Land-Lease for us all the time.
  • tacet
    tacet 11 September 2020 16: 05
    +4
    For 41 deliveries under LL accounted for 0,3% of the total amount of aid (and only for military purposes). In 42 - 14% (of which only half were for military purposes) The largest deliveries were in 43. This is when the USA believed in the victory of the USSR ... So everything is quite pragmatic. True, the same attitude (pragmatic) was in the opposite direction. From 43 the USSR requested industrial equipment and strategic resources (aluminum, etc.) for the supply (with an eye on the post-war)
    1. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 11 September 2020 16: 59
      +2
      Quote: tacet
      The largest deliveries were at 43, when the USA believed in the victory of the USSR.

      Rather, when the USSR, Great Britain and the United States "expanded" the main Lend-Lease routes. And then in the north, the next convoy met at the berths cargo from the previous one, in the Far East the cash tonnage of the Soviet merchant fleet could only raise a third of the traffic volume (and in fact, the FESCO collected almost everything that could go into the ocean), and in Iran, the British and Americans for a year and a half built normal roads from south to north (moreover, the British could not cope with this and in 1942 transferred everything to the Americans).
      Quote: tacet
      True, the same attitude (pragmatic) was in the opposite direction. From 43 the USSR requested industrial equipment and strategic resources (aluminum, etc.) for the supply (with an eye on the post-war)

      EMNIP, under the guise of equipment for the repair of diesel engines supplied by LL, we managed to deliver a set of equipment for a diesel plant. smile
  • Tests
    Tests 11 September 2020 16: 58
    0
    Vile skeptic (Timur), dear, if you find A.A. Matveychuk (Moscow) "High-octane Lend-Lease", I think it will be interesting for you. I read in the collection "Lend-Lease and Russia" edited by M.N. Supruna, Arkhangelsk, 2006 based on the materials of the conference "Lend-Lease and Globalization" p. 200 - 227.
  • VIP
    VIP 11 September 2020 17: 23
    +2
    Quote: Cherry Nine
    What does their bloodiness have to do with it? The point is that Mongolia in the 40s is a little bit not a state. So she did not provide any such "help". I did what they said.

    Then why the hell did they take our money?
    1. Cherry Nine
      Cherry Nine 11 September 2020 17: 44
      -2
      What's the problem? There is, for example, South Ossetia, which also willingly takes money. But I would begin to assess the relations of the Russian Federation with this territory as allied.
  • VIP
    VIP 11 September 2020 18: 09
    +1
    Quote: Liam
    Quote: Alexey RA
    brand new B-17s, freshly made for the US Army - which this army never saw

    Where did the B-17 go?

    Probably taken to the market?
  • Alexander Greene
    Alexander Greene 11 September 2020 18: 32
    +1
    At the Tehran Conference of 1943, when after the Battle of Kursk no one had any doubts about the coming victory, Stalin found it necessary to declare to the American President Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Churchill that "without American products the war would be lost."


    I wonder if there is a transcript with such words of I.V. Stalin? Or is it an invention of the author?
  • Aleks2000
    Aleks2000 11 September 2020 22: 52
    0
    The topics go around ...
    Literally 3-4 months ago there was an article with opposite conclusions.
    And 2 - that there was so much of it, it was filled up so that the floorings on the ground were made of aviation aluminum ...
  • ecolog
    ecolog 13 September 2020 00: 50
    0
    Why exactly rifle cartridges? And not TT-shnye? there were not enough centuries for shells - the technologies were worse than the German ones + the loss of factories. sheet steel and tanks ...
    I xs what Zhukov said there, but in 1963 we had a full-length Cold War. The USSR in Britain and the USA were also not particularly praised in those years. They were so zealous that the Americans' defense ministers tried to jump out of the window shouting "Russians are coming." But about 20 years ago there was a complete benevolence, because they needed us.
    So don't confuse academic history with propaganda. By the way, propaganda is not a dirty word. If you don’t do it, they’ll do it for you, you won’t wash yourself forever. The main thing is to yell louder and shut up your opponents. How many Czechs were there in '68 for the cause? people 20? and how much stench. And how many of ours died from their Hetzers and PZ-35-38 and other things produced under "terrible oppression"? I am generally silent about the Hungarians - these Hitler's accomplices got off too lightly, there had to be decimation. but this is the lyrics.
    Helping - helping. The British, by the way, were helped twice as much, and where are the British Stalingrad and Kursk? Everything is pragmatic and there is no place for lyrics. There is no sense in hushing up help - it was and was needed, without it they would have coped, but they would have lost more.
  • Tavrik
    Tavrik 13 September 2020 22: 07
    +2
    Quote: figvam
    The USSR alone fought against Hitler's Europe.

    When was that? The Kriegsmarine, based on the coast of France, the Luftwaffe and the air defense system there and in Germany, Rommel in Africa, what were they doing?
    In fact, Britain fought one on one with Hitler from the fall of France until 22.06.41.
  • aries2200
    aries2200 8 December 2020 16: 43
    0
    all this went for gold that Russia paid only in 2012 ..... business from the side of mattress covers and nothing more