Military Review

Shale gas of Ukraine. Burisma and company

36
Shale gas of Ukraine. Burisma and company
Large gas fields in Ukraine


Sometimes, in order to better understand everything that is happening, it is very useful to get to the bottom of the root cause. Let's try to rewind the chronicle of the events taking place in the South-East of Ukraine and assess the state of affairs from the point of view of the authorities who made the decision to extract shale gas.

Recall that in the early 2010s, a “shale revolution” took place in the technology of hydrocarbon production, which made it possible to develop shale deposits on an industrial scale. If we describe the mining process in a simplified way, it looks like this. A deep hole is drilled vertically, and then its direction is bent at an angle to the surface of the earth. Then, under high pressure, hundreds of tons of a special liquid mixture, which includes acids and various active reagents, is driven into the well. This leads to hydraulic fracturing of formations with the release of shale gas, which rises to the surface and is collected by special equipment. This method is considered relatively cheap for the extraction of gas from depleted rocks, but it is also considered the most "barbaric" because of the contamination of groundwater with hazardous reagents, soil poisoning and violation of the entire ecology in the developed areas. All life around perishes, the earth turns into a "lunar surface".

In the US, the documentary "GasLand", which showed the consequences of the disastrous shale gas production, caused a lot of noise. A wave of popular protests against the extraction of gas in this way swept around the world, but only a few European countries managed to ban it. The "shale revolution" has not spared Ukraine either. Actually, such a decision of the "square", at first glance, seems logical. According to the company JSC "Ukrgasvydobuvannya", their gas fields are depleted by more than 80%, they were even compared with squeezed lemon. And then there is also the volume of gas production due to natural decline is reduced by more than 1,5 billion cubic meters per year.

On the one hand, own production means both the economic security of the country and the refusal to purchase gas abroad, and in a successful scenario, even the possibility of exporting its own gas to Europe. But on the other hand, it is a disregard for their own population living in the territories planned for the extraction of shale gas, and the selfish desire of the temporary workers in power to break the jackpot on the sale of everything that can still be sold.

According to the reports of the well-known scandalous publications in the press, the Burisma company, back in 2010-2011, it received licenses for exploration and production at the Rakitnyanskoye and Niklovitskoye fields in the Lviv region. At the same time, Royal Dutch Shell conducted its hydrogeological research in Krasnolimansky and Aleksandrovsky districts of Donetsk region. Exploration results appear to be encouraging. And in the same 2011, the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine approves the holding of an unprecedented scale tender with the conclusion of an agreement under the PSA scheme (production sharing agreement) for the production of hydrocarbons within section Yuzovskaya (territory of Kharkiv and Donetsk regions) and section Oleskaya (Lviv and Ivano-Frankivsk regions). To view these documents, follow the links.

The reserves of the Yuzovskaya site (area of ​​7,886 thousand sq. Km) were estimated at 3,6 trillion. cubic meters. They contain natural shale gas, central basin gas, methane, oil and condensate.

But the development of these fields requires a lot of money, and in 2012 NJSC Nadra Ukrainy is holding a competition to attract foreign investors. The tender for the development of the Yuzovskaya area was won by the Dutch-British company Royal Dutch Shell, and the American company Chevron at the Oleskaya area. Investors were granted a special permit for the full use of the subsoil of the site (with the restriction of drilling in depth up to 10 km) for a period of 50 years and with the right to extend this period almost forever. The text of this agreement is kept secret.

In January 2013, deputies of the Kharkiv and Donetsk regional councils, most of them members of the Party of Regions, presumably under pressure from “above”, approved an agreement on the production of shale gas at the Yuzovsky block and the division of the extracted raw materials between the state company Nadra Ukraine and Shell companies and Nadra Yuzovskaya ". The shares of the latter, in turn, were divided between the state-owned company "Nadra Ukraine" and one-day companies, whose management included persons close to the incumbent President Yanukovych and Prime Minister Azarov.

Betrayed and sold


By their decision, the deputies of the southeastern regions of Ukraine actually betrayed the voters, their neighbors and friends, giving up four and a half million people of the Donbass population for the extraction of shale gas along with the land of their small homeland. And already in early 2013, the people, outraged by the plans to extract shale gas in their region, took to the streets. Protest performances took place in Slavyansk, which is located in the very center of the Yuzovskaya area, as well as in Mariupol, Kramatorsk, Donetsk, Kharkov, Izyum. The protesters demanded to declare a moratorium on shale gas extraction, as this threatens the destruction of arable land in the Donetsk region, dehydration of already scarce water sources, pollution of underground aquifers and the Seversky Donets River. They offered the authorities to hear, before it is too late, the position of the people, to stop the expansion of Shell and, through a referendum, return the issue of production to the legal channel. But even then, the authorities did not give a damn about the people, nature protection zones and the environment. (A video of the protests is posted at the end of the article.)


Shale gas protests map

Shale gas was planned to be produced in Krasnolimansky, Aleksandrovsky, Slavyansky, Konstantinovsky, Artemovsky, Dobropolsky, Yasinovatsky districts of Donetsk region. The territory planned for gas production includes the coniferous Krasny Liman and the resort town of Svyatogorsk with its national natural park “Svyati Gori”. Sanatoriums and tourist centers of Svyatogorsk, former pioneer camps, passed into the private hands of famous Ukrainian businessmen, everything fell under the distribution.

Map of Yuzovskaya Square sites (click to view).

The reserves of the western Oleskoye field (6,324 thousand sq. Km) were estimated at 3 trillion. cubic meters. And, despite the harsh criticism of Ukrainian politicians and environmentalists, in November 2013, the American Chevron Corporation (Chevron Ukraine BV) and Nadra Oleskaya also signed an agreement on the production of hydrocarbons at the Oleskaya block (Lvov and Ivano-Frankivsk regions).

And then, as we remember, events developed in a dramatic way. The government of Yanukovych and Azarov has discredited itself in the eyes of the people. And the people went to peaceful protests, having every right to do so. But on November 30, 2013, the protests in Kiev took on a sharp anti-government character, which in February 2014 led to a change of power in the country by a “group of persons” pursuing completely different goals. Another wave of Anti-Maidan rallies swept through the cities of South-East Ukraine. The people were shocked by the new course of the Ukrainian government, and in March 2014, following a referendum, Crimea joined Russia. In April, the Donetsk People's Republic was proclaimed. And blood poured ...

On May 2, 2014, in Odessa, radical nationalists drove the participants of the Anti-Maidan into the House of Trade Unions and set them on fire. And on May 9, 2014, in Mariupol, the Armed Forces of Ukraine, which entered the city, brutally shot and burned the local police, which refused to obey the orders of the Kiev authorities, barricading themselves in the building of the Ministry of Internal Affairs.


The burning building of the Ministry of Internal Affairs in Mariupol. May 9, 2014

In June 2014, heavy fighting was already going on, and the militia had to leave Slavyansk. In July 2014 there was aviation catastrophe. A Malaysian passenger Boeing 777 was shot down in a war zone in the east of the Donetsk region. In August of the same year, the famous "Ilovaisk pot" slammed shut, into which the Armed Forces of Ukraine fell.

Against the backdrop of the events of hot August 2014, Royal Dutch Shell announced the suspension of work on the Yuzovskaya area due to the ongoing hostilities, as well as due to the disappointing results of geological exploration.

And in December 2014, Chevron unilaterally withdrew from the project for the development of the Oleskaya area, explaining the decision by the fact that the Ministry of Finance of Ukraine did not fulfill its obligations to bring the regulations in line with the current legislation in time.

Both of these companies hoped that at the beginning of 2015 the first gas would flow from the wells they had drilled, but a farce major intervened and they left.

The new Ukrainian regime that came to power managed to take control of the territories given to investors by force. By shelling and destroying the houses of civilians, they managed to partially drive out the indigenous population from this land. However, they failed to suppress the protest moods and armed resistance of Donbass.

“I would say that in this case, the regime that came to power after the coup d'état in Kiev is using military action against its own residents for economic reasons. They are determined to benefit from the contracts signed by the previous government. "
,
- says Nebojsa Malic, an American journalist of Serbian origin.

"Dry" wells


But not only the hostilities influenced the decision of the largest oil and gas companies to curtail work in Ukraine. There were other reasons as well. Until now, the reserves of Ukrainian shale gas were considered only “predicted”. To determine the real reserves, it was necessary to invest a lot of money and carry out a lot of geological exploration work. The first two prospecting wells drilled by Shell in the Kharkiv region (Belyaevskaya-400 in the Pervomaisky district and Novo-Mechebilovskaya-100 in the Bliznyukovsky district) turned out to be "dry" and did not produce industrial gas inflow.

And in Poland, neighboring Ukraine, out of 68 drilled wells, not a single one produced shale gas in industrial volumes. Experts believe that the Polish and Ukrainian subsoil is a single geological formation. Therefore, oil and gas giants Chevron, ExxonMobil and Royal Dutch Shell have all together closed their shale projects in Poland. In addition, the markets saw a drop in oil quotations, to which the price of gas is also tied. A stalemate has developed in Ukraine: the amounts from the sale of the produced gas will not be able to cover the costs invested in its production.

In addition, the Verkhovna Rada raised the rent for gas production from 20 to 70%, which also negatively affected the profitability of production and shocked private producers. Some companies, such as the British company JKX, are now suing the state.

The peculiarities of business in Ukrainian is when the terms of the transaction are constantly changed by the Ukrainian side after the signing of agreements. All foreign companies attracted to Ukraine by generous promises must be ready for this. After a sharp drop in gas prices on the market, Ukrgasvydobuvannya partially froze new well drilling projects concluded with foreign companies. And the companies that imported their drilling equipment to Ukraine thought about leaving the country or reoriented to private gas producers.


"Now the goal is not cubic meters, but to reduce risks when drilling new fields and increase the likelihood of successful drilling,"

- said Andrey Favorov, head of Naftogaz Ukraine.

Experts predicted that American companies or banks are unlikely to finance shale projects in Ukraine unless the US government itself provides the funds. They looked into the water!

“Of course, the best way to demonstrate your altruism, humanism and commitment to the free market is to criticize the country's corruption, then sponsor a coup that topple the government accused of corruption, and then appoint the sons and friends of American officials to the boards of directors of companies with interests in this country. ... This, of course, is completely legal and very honest. "
,
- American journalist Neboisha Malich sneers.

Burisma


And so it happened that Burisma appeared from the teams of the “second division” to the final. Its website says:

“Burisma Group is the largest private gas production group in Ukraine. The company is the only vertically integrated holding in the country engaged in exploration, production, service and sale of hydrocarbons. "

It is clear that the largest, because the company was able to get licenses for the development of fields in three oil and gas basins of Ukraine: Carpathian, Dnieper-Donetsk and Azov-Kuban.

The "ascent to Olympus" began in 2008, when Burisma Holdings acquired two subsidiaries of the American Sunrise Energy Resources (LLC "Esko-Pivnich" and LLC "Pari"), which since 2004 had permission to develop Ukrainian oil and gas fields. "Esko-Pivnich" - Karaykozivskoe field, Rakitnyanskaya and Roganskaya areas (Kharkiv region), and "Pari" - Niklovitsky deposits of Peremyshlyanskaya and Chukvinskaya areas, (Lviv region), Pilipovskoye field (Ivano-Frankivsk region) and Sheremetyevskoye deposits ( Chernivtsi region).

In 2010, Burisma, having received 5 exploration licenses, drilled its first 8 wells at the Rakitnyanskoye and Niklovitskoye (Lviv region) fields. According to 2015 reports, Burisma drilled 63 wells, and in 2019 there were already 154.

Note that in May 2014, Robert Hunter Biden, the son of US Vice President Joe Biden, joined the board of directors of the Burisma oil and gas holding company, and the company plans to produce shale gas in Ukraine. After leaving the scene of Chevron and Shell, the Biden family, apparently, decided to realize their little gesheft. The United States supported the reforms of the Yatsenyuk government, which, at the request of the IMF, from April 1, 2015, increased the gas tariff for all categories of consumers by an average of 280%. Naturally, the profitability of gas production has also increased. Later, daddy himself, Joe Biden, flew to Kiev, who declared in the Verkhovna Rada that Washington supports the Ukrainian authorities "in the face of humiliating threats." But his "technical assistance package" consisted mostly of recommendations for more efficient energy use and shale gas production from Ukrainian fields.

In April 2019, after scandalous publications in the media, and officially "after the expiration of his term", Hunter Biden resigns as a member of the Board of Directors of Burisma Group. But today there are two outstanding personalities on the Board of Directors of Burisma. Alexander Kwasniewski - President of the Republic of Poland in 1995-2005, under which the country changed course from socialism to democracy. Joseph Kofer Black - ex-head of the CIA's Anti-Terrorism Center in 1999-2002, for his service received the highest CIA award - the Medal of Merit in Intelligence. He is also the vice-chairman of the famous American PMC Blackwater Worldwide (now renamed Academi).

When Biden's son served on the Burisma Group's Board of Directors, there was a series of scandals and arrests. It turned out that in 2014-2016, the company, evading taxes in the amount of about one billion hryvnias, converted profits into fictitious expenses through shell companies. By decision of the Ukrainian court, Burisma was banned from the sale of produced gas and seized 46 wells in five regions. The case was hushed up, but companies close to the Biden family disappeared from it. And already in 2016 Burisma is increasing its Ukrainian investment portfolio by purchasing the KUB-Gas company from the Canadian Serinus Energy. In addition, Burisma has expanded its drilling fleet of 20 rigs with the most powerful SK 3000 rig. The emphasis is on the ability to drill wells to a depth of 10 m. Burisma is gradually increasing its gas production, which in 000 reached 2018 billion cubic meters. The company drills new wells with a depth of more than 1,08 meters and reconstructs old ones using hydraulic fracturing (hydraulic fracturing). But all these are very costly and time-consuming activities on the verge of risk.


Volumes of gas consumption, own production, import and storage (Ukraine)

Results


There would be no happiness, but misfortune helped ...

Due to the shutdown of a number of industries, Ukraine has begun to consume less gas in recent years. So, in 2014, the volume of own consumption amounted to 42,6 billion cubic meters, and by 2019 decreased to 29,8 billion cubic meters. But even today, despite all efforts, our own production accounts for a little more than half of our own consumption, and the missing volumes are replenished with imported gas. After the refusal to purchase Russian gas, a new trend emerged: Ukrainian UGS facilities offer their services for the temporary storage of European gas. Well, yes, we already know how "leaks" from storage facilities and other "unforeseen" extraction of foreign gas occur.

Here is a map on which I marked the territory of the Yuzovskoye gas field transferred to foreign companies and the border of the separation of forces in the Donbass. Judging by this map, the defenders of Slavyansk would not have had a chance to hold the city. Sooner or later they would have been kicked out of there, if not the Armed Forces of Ukraine, then the American PMCs. Now all this territory is the property of investors who will squeeze everything out of it, scoop out the bowels to the bottom, in order to return all invested millions with interest. The continuation of hostilities on the borders of the field will lead to a further exodus and reduction of the indigenous population. Now the motives of the US government's military assistance to Ukraine and Russia's reaction to everything that happen are becoming clear.


Map of the Yuzovskoye gas field and the line of demarcation of forces in the Donbass

"What about shale gas?" - you ask.

“Ukraine has started to produce gas by the fracking method,” said the head of Naftogaz, Andriy Kobolev, in November 2016. It was reported that "Ukrgasvydobuvannya" was the first to use "fracking" (eng. Fracking) on ​​a gas well. But later, the press service of Naftogaz hastened to reassure the population, saying that the production of "shale gas" is not planned. Most likely, it was about the reconstruction of an old well using hydraulic fracturing (hydraulic fracturing) to stimulate its efficiency. According to the reports of the Naftogaz company, since the fall of 2016, 464 hydraulic fracturing operations in 253 wells.

This year the company is carrying out hydraulic fracturing works in wells with a depth of more than 4000 meters.

What is the difference, you ask. In my opinion, this is practically the same thing, "only in profile." Simply the phrase "shale gas" is a taboo, which was replaced in the media by the words "fracking", "hydraulic fracturing" or the abbreviation "hydraulic fracturing". But the harm done to nature will not diminish from this.

In addition, some experts warn that the consequences of hydraulic fracturing are not fully understood and can cause micro-earthquakes that can disrupt the integrity of the disposal of nuclear waste in the South-East of Ukraine and lead to a large-scale disaster near the borders of Russia.
Lugansk and Donbass Sold to the States for Shale Gas? Comments of the Italian communist Giulietto Chiesa



Mariupol is against shale gas extraction. 1 February 2013



Rally in Kramatorsk against shale gas production



A protest rally against shale gas production (Kharkiv)



Slavyansk is against shale gas extraction. February 24.02.2013, XNUMX



Rally in Svyatogorsk

Author:
Photos used:
obs.in.ua, burisma-group.com, neftegaz.ru, ugv.com.ua
36 comments
Information
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must to register.

I have an account? Sign in

  1. Daniil Konovalenko
    Daniil Konovalenko 10 September 2020 15: 13 New
    0
    The author worked hard, thank you. But the topic is well-known. Much has been written and talked about in the media.
    1. Insurgent
      Insurgent 10 September 2020 15: 34 New
      0
      Lugansk and Donbass Sold to the States for Shale Gas?


      The question of an amateur who does not fully understand what Donbass is (Donetsk coal basin) and from which to which it extends.
      But Donbass is huge, it includes part of the Rostov region of the Russian Federation, the former Lugansk and Donetsk regions (now the LPR and DPR), and a part of the Dnipropetrovsk region of the ex-Ukraine, the so-called "Western Donbass" ...

      Lugansk, this is Donbass, part of it ...
      1. NKT
        NKT 10 September 2020 18: 21 New
        0
        You look at the map in the internet. On account of oil and gas fields, you can also find a map of the Pripyat-Donetsk oil and gas province. It contains the main HC deposits in Ukraine
  2. The eye of the crying
    The eye of the crying 10 September 2020 15: 16 New
    0
    Sooner or later they would have been knocked out of there, if not the Armed Forces of Ukraine, so the American PMCs


    Hiring PMCs for the sake of supplies, which may stupidly not exist?
    1. Egoza
      Egoza 10 September 2020 15: 31 New
      -1
      Quote: Eye of the Crying
      Hiring PMCs for the sake of supplies, which may stupidly not exist?

      There are reserves - there are no reserves, the main thing for them is to fit! The main thing is that the land has already been sold to them.
      1. The eye of the crying
        The eye of the crying 10 September 2020 15: 32 New
        0
        Quote: Egoza
        There are reserves - there are no reserves, the main thing for them is to fit!


        If "they" are transnational corporations, the main thing for them is profit.
    2. Lipchanin
      Lipchanin 10 September 2020 15: 57 New
      -1
      Quote: Eye of the Crying
      Sooner or later they would have been knocked out of there, if not the Armed Forces of Ukraine, so the American PMCs

      There is a PMC closer to the private PMC
      1. The eye of the crying
        The eye of the crying 10 September 2020 15: 58 New
        -1
        The fight for profits that may not be there is epic.
        1. Lipchanin
          Lipchanin 10 September 2020 16: 05 New
          -3
          The fact that not figs to climb where they were not invited
          1. The eye of the crying
            The eye of the crying 10 September 2020 16: 07 New
            0
            PMC is a commercial enterprise. His services are expensive. People who have money will not pay for "they were not invited anywhere". They need to recoup the costs.
            1. Lipchanin
              Lipchanin 10 September 2020 16: 11 New
              -1
              Well, they'll get it over the ears.As it happened more than once
    3. Nyrobsky
      Nyrobsky 10 September 2020 21: 26 New
      +2
      Quote: Eye of the Crying
      Sooner or later they would have been knocked out of there, if not the Armed Forces of Ukraine, so the American PMCs


      Hiring PMCs for the sake of supplies, which may stupidly not exist?

      Therefore, they did not bother with PMCs, but stupidly "hired" the Armed Forces of Ukraine with all sorts of goodwill, who, to the delight of the United States, are jackals at the expense of their own Ukrainian budget. They just throw up mattresses and kick them under their ass. yes
      1. The eye of the crying
        The eye of the crying 10 September 2020 21: 35 New
        -4
        Quote: Nyrobsky
        they did not bother with PMCs, but stupidly "hired" the Armed Forces of Ukraine with all sorts of goodwill


        I am glad that you at least do not spread the myths about blacks on the Abrams.
  3. businessv
    businessv 10 September 2020 15: 29 New
    -1
    Thanks to the author for the article! Fracking, or hydraulic fracturing, is just used to extract shale gas. As a rule, the well is filled with plain water, then a water hammer is applied and voi la! Reagents and unexpected compounds are generated by fracturing due to the fact that water is an unrivaled solvent.
    1. NKT
      NKT 10 September 2020 18: 32 New
      0
      Hydraulic fracturing is often used in oil and gas production. Everything depends on the type of collector. Shale has low permeability, which is why this method is used. Water and sand used to be used. Now they use gel (water and powder from legumes), chemical additives and proppant, which does not allow cracks to close. Chemical additives stabilize this gel, and then start the process of its disintegration.
  4. Lipchanin
    Lipchanin 10 September 2020 15: 53 New
    0
    Friends, I never found Yenakiyevo on the maps
    1. Insurgent
      Insurgent 10 September 2020 15: 57 New
      +3
      Quote: Lipchanin
      Friends, I never found Yenakiyevo on the maps

      So map, "so-and-so", general plan. There are a lot of things there - Torez, Shakhtersk, Zugres, Khartsizsk, Kirovsky and so on ...

      Here, enter the desired place in the search and get a more or less normal online map (both satellite and others): https://bestmaps.ru/
      1. Lipchanin
        Lipchanin 10 September 2020 16: 01 New
        0
        I lost 2 brothers in Yenakiyevo. The roofing felts died, I don't know what. I know the character, they did not stand aside
        1. Insurgent
          Insurgent 10 September 2020 16: 07 New
          +5
          Quote: Lipchanin
          I lost 2 brothers in Yenakiyevo. The roofing felts died, I don't know what. I know the character, they did not stand aside

          Give the data, contacts to me in a "personal". I have a former colleague in Enachka, also a few more, not far away in Gorlovka.
          I'll try to find it. Although a colleague from Yenakiyevo, you still need to find yourself. MTS numbers to Phoenix changed, and contacts - "bye-bye" ...
          But these are my problems. Therefore, if necessary, then write to the "PM".
          1. Lipchanin
            Lipchanin 10 September 2020 16: 15 New
            0
            My cell is dead. Mom's data. As soon as the connection will be, I will drop everything. They called my mom and me. Psle 14 years of silence
    2. Katran
      10 September 2020 17: 25 New
      +1
      Here, a bigger map, there is also Yenakiyevo
  5. tihonmarine
    tihonmarine 10 September 2020 15: 56 New
    +1
    They urodzhuvalu Mother Earth throughout the 20th century, but what is happening in the first 20 years of the new century, it's just madness. Not man, but capitalism destroys the living on the planet. The Earth cannot stand the 21st century.
  6. BAI
    BAI 10 September 2020 16: 03 New
    0
    1. The first map, where Crimea is Russian, from where? And whose data is on it (Russian or Ukrainian)? - Ie who recognized Crimea as Russian?
    2.
    The company is the only vertically integrated holding in the country engaged in exploration, production, service and sale of hydrocarbons. "

    So this is exactly what the European Union accuses Gazprom of (only transportation is missing).
    1. Alex Nevs
      Alex Nevs 11 September 2020 14: 51 New
      -1
      Those who recognized the bombing and disintegration-collapse of Yugoslavia, Libya .... outskirts (Lugansk) ...... further necessary?
  7. 1536
    1536 10 September 2020 16: 04 New
    +3
    Quote: businessv
    Thanks to the author for the article! Fracking, or hydraulic fracturing, is just used to extract shale gas. As a rule, the well is filled with plain water, then a water hammer is applied and voi la! Reagents and unexpected compounds are generated by fracturing due to the fact that water is an unrivaled solvent.

    Here is the opinion of the mining engineer P. Trapeznikov, as well as the Italian journalist J. Chiesa (2014):
    "Thanks to the" shale revolution "lobbied by the Obama administration, companies received permission to extract shale gas using poisonous chemicals. Because of this, the lands of some states of America pose a danger to the health of residents, there is a high risk of getting serious diseases of internal organs and skin. Pennsylvania is most affected. Louisiana and Texas. "
    And further: "The technology of shale extraction is simple at first glance: it is called the" fracturing method. "In more detail, up to 20 million liters of fracturing fluid is pumped into the well under pressure, which creates cracks in the shale rock. The composition of the fluid is a trade secret."
    Along with the advertising of pizza, it would be necessary to advertise this technology to one of our "kumunist". Why did he go so wrong?
    1. The eye of the crying
      The eye of the crying 10 September 2020 16: 11 New
      +2
      PIU does not need advertising. Russian companies are well aware of it and widely use it. Not only Russian, of course.
  8. Engineer
    Engineer 10 September 2020 18: 48 New
    +4
    According to Naftogaz reports, since the fall of 2016, 464 hydraulic fracturing operations have been carried out at 253 wells.

    I suggest the author write an explanatory article about this. For purposes of comparison and determination of the magnitude of a disaster
    https://regnum.ru/news/2555578.html
    Hydraulic fracturing is a key technology for ensuring and intensifying oil production both in traditional reservoirs and in fields with hard-to-recover reserves. Hydraulic fracturing is an integral well stimulation process in the production of oil and gas from shale rocks. After hydraulic fracturing, the flow rate of the well, as a rule, sharply increases or the drawdown decreases significantly.
    In 2018, more than 10 thousand hydraulic fracturing operations were performed at Rosneft facilities,

    TEN THOUSAND breaks in one year alone !!!!!
    1. Guru
      Guru 12 September 2020 20: 25 New
      +1
      Yes, exactly 10 is an approximate amount, hydraulic fracturing (Hydro Fracturing) has been done since about 000s in almost all oil fields.
  9. Keyser soze
    Keyser soze 10 September 2020 19: 33 New
    +3
    Well, here, in Bulgaria, promising shale gas deposits were discovered, but civil society staged massive protests (according to your Maidan) and politicians were forced by law to prohibit extraction by fracking. Of course, leave it in the hands of the government, they would have ruined their country for money without blinking. And in general, why ruin the country when you can buy gas, whether cheap or expensive?
    1. Dizel200
      Dizel200 11 September 2020 10: 17 New
      +1
      May I ask? What is the country Bulgaria got so rich on?
      1. Keyser soze
        Keyser soze 11 September 2020 10: 30 New
        0
        can I ask? What is the country Bulgaria got so rich on?


        Of course you can - there is no need to be rich to buy gas. We've always done it. And it's not very smart to dirtiest a small and beautiful country because of the profits of international, greedy corporations.
        1. Dizel200
          Dizel200 11 September 2020 11: 24 New
          +2
          Well, if you want, you can not answer laughing
  10. Maks1995
    Maks1995 11 September 2020 09: 24 New
    0
    Everything is correct. And the article is correct, careful.
    There is only silence in it that since Gazprom slept through both the Shale Revolution and these shale deposits, the "green men" without insignia operated in the region both before and at the beginning of the separation of the republics (according to our own media).
    It is not clear what they did, where. And everyone saw them. And it began only later ...
  11. Guru
    Guru 12 September 2020 20: 21 New
    0
    From the article! -
    Then, under high pressure, hundreds of tons of a special liquid mixture, which includes acids and various active reagents, is driven into the well. This leads to hydraulic fracturing of formations with the release of shale gas, which rises to the surface and is collected by special equipment.

    Correction - The fluid is pumped under low (Relative to formation pressure) pressure.
    The liquid itself is very thick - akin to thick jelly. After that, a water hammer is performed, the ratio of pressure in the formation and water hammer is as follows: 100 atm - formation pressure, 750-800 - hydraulic shock. Gas is collected in places of water hammer from where it is collected and substituted outside - according to the principle of "Gaslift"
    1. NKT
      NKT 13 September 2020 09: 18 New
      +1
      The fluid is just pumped under a higher pressure than the fracture opening pressure otherwise, how do you create fracture systems in the formation at all? These same fracture systems increase the permeability and productivity of the well. Gas enters the bottomhole zone due to the depression created in the well. The gas lift principle is used in oil fields. Gas ones work in a natural mode.
  12. SovAr238A
    SovAr238A 12 September 2020 21: 47 New
    -1
    No matter how the author buries shale gas in Ukraine ...
    But ...
    I know dozens of Russian fracturing specialists who have been unemployed after leaving American companies such as Schlumberger, Hali Burton, Biker Hughes, Weatherford ...
    And who are now working in Ukraine.

    So what to do?
    Families need to be fed ...

    All our producers, all sorts of RN, GPN, Lukoil, do not own the equipment and experience of hydraulic fracturing, they cannot hire ...
    After all, for them all the hydraulic fracturing was previously done by others.