Military Review

Three unusual machines of the twentieth century

45

In the world of automatic rifle weapons sometimes quite unusual models come across. Features of their design and appearance distinguish them from other machines. But the most unusual, as a rule, are machines that never got into mass production.


Perhaps the most productive years for the creation of "strange" machines were the 1960s - 1970s. At the height of the Cold War, the military departments of many countries were interested in finding the most effective solutions for creating rapid-fire and powerful automatic weapons. In turn, the designers, wishing to satisfy the demands of the military, offered more and more extravagant ideas.

For example, back in 1963-1965, the Soviet designer Nikolai Mikhailovich Afanasyev developed a very interesting prototype of the TKB-011 assault rifle (Tula Design Bureau). It was one of the first machines with a bullpup layout, in which the trigger is pulled forward and is located in front of the magazine and the firing mechanism. This arrangement made it possible to shorten the length of the weapon without the need to shorten the barrel length and the associated decrease in accuracy and accuracy of fire.

In one of the articles published in the American magazine The National Interest, the TKB-011 submachine gun and another Soviet submachine gun, the TKB-022 designed by German Korobov, were compared to "alien weapons", focusing on their unusual appearance. But even more interesting is the TKB-1046 assault rifle.

TKB-1046


The development of the TKB-0146 assault rifle was carried out under the guidance of the famous designer Igor Yakovlevich Stechkin, which is why he received the unofficial name "Stechkin assault rifle". The weapon was developed for participation in the "Abakan" competition, announced by the USSR Ministry of Defense in 1978 to determine the most effective assault rifle with better performance compared to the assault rifles already in service with the Soviet Army.


Like TKB-011 and TKB-022, TKB-0146 was assembled according to the bullpup principle, and the automatic action in this weapon was based on the removal of powder gases from the bore through the side hole. In the machine, the principle of a displaced recoil impulse was implemented with a stationary magazine using a two-stage cartridge feed from the magazine to the chamber.

But the most impressive feature of the TKB-0146 assault rifle was, of course, the ability to fire almost 2 rounds in automatic mode. By the way, it was the excessive consumption of cartridges that became one of the reasons why TKB-0146 was still rejected and did not enter mass production.

H&R SPIW assault rifle


American designer David Dardik is better known to us for his "pistol revolvers". However, his company, which produced hybrids of pistols and revolvers, did not last long. But in the early 1960s. David Dardik decided to participate in a program to develop automatic weapons with an increased rate of fire, bullet speed and accuracy of fire.



As a result, in 1964, David Dardik introduced the H&R SPIW assault rifle. It was equipped with a three-shot underbarrel grenade launcher with a revolving feed. Naturally, Dardik reproduced in the new weapon the drum feeding system used in Dardick pistols. The machine gun had three barrels, it was loaded with cartridges with a plastic sleeve. Bullets flew at speeds up to 1400 m / s. Automatic fire had a rate of 500 rounds per minute.

The H&R SPIW assault rifle fired volleys from three barrels, which made it possible to increase the accuracy of fire without the need to complicate the design of the weapon. But this solution looked beautiful only on paper: in reality, the accuracy of fire was lower than that of competitors' machines, the machine itself was twice as heavy as prescribed by the terms of the competition, and its safety for the shooter left many questions. As a result, the machine gun was not allowed to the main part of the tests, and the contract with Dardik was terminated.



Automatic rifle G11


Naturally, the FRG also conducted its own developments in the field of automatic weapons during the Cold War. Heckler & Koch, together with Dynamit Nobel AG, during the 1970s and early 1990s. worked on a project for an automatic rifle G11. As a result, in the early 1980s. a machine gun appeared in a plastic case resembling a trapezoid, where the protruding parts were only a fire control handle and an optical sight.

The G11 assault rifle worked according to the bullpup scheme, fired with a caseless cartridge, the magazine was located above the barrel. The G11 used a fire monitor, that is, the barrel, magazine and breech were mounted on the same base.

However, the test results of the new automatic rifle did not suit the military. She showed her unreliability, the incredible complexity of the mechanism, the cartridges turned out to be overly fragile. As a result, the Bundeswehr never accepted the new rifle for service, and its project was gradually phased out and forgotten.
Author:
Photos used:
Wikipedia / Bojoe; https://pikabu.ru; Avdajprl
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  1. cost
    cost 8 September 2020 17: 00 New
    14
    Caseless cartridge of 4,7 × 33 mm, final version.
    1. Catfish
      Catfish 8 September 2020 17: 57 New
      +7
      Hello, Dmitry. hi About the Stechkin machine gun. I may have misunderstood something, but can you decipher the author's phrase for me:
      In the machine, the principle of a displaced recoil impulse was implemented with a stationary magazine using a two-stage cartridge feed from the magazine to the chamber.
      I mean "stationary store", what did he mean by that? No, I remember that Lewis and Degtyar had their disks spinning, but here it seems to be a simple sector magazine.
      1. cost
        cost 8 September 2020 19: 47 New
        +8
        Constantine, my compliments hi
        First, the cartridge is removed by the bolt carrier rammer and fed to the intermediate feeder-tray, after which the bolt feeds the cartridge from the feeder-tray into the chamber, and the rammer of the bolt carrier - the next cartridge to the feeder-tray
        And more boring:
        When firing in the shifted recoil impulse mode (position of the fire mode translator "2"), the first shot is fired by pricking the primer with a drummer when the trigger is applied to it. After the shot with the beginning of the rollback of the moving parts (barrel and receiver), the spent sleeve is removed from the chamber and fed into the sleeve by means of a lever reflector on the bolt carrier, the bolt carrier has time to feed the second cartridge from the feeder-tray and through a special protrusion act on the drummer - the second occurs shot. After which the moving parts come to the rear position - the shooter receives a recoil impulse from two shots. When moving forward, the bolt with a special protrusion pushes the sleeve out of the receiver casing outward through the sleeve ejection window located on the right above the fire control handle (this also eliminates the problem of ejection of spent cartridges when firing from the left hand and gas pollution in the area of ​​the shooter's face). The cartridge case ejection window and the reloading handle cutout are covered with spring-loaded covers. When firing in bursts at the usual pace and single shots, the primer is pierced each time with the trigger. Fuse-translator of fire modes is installed on the left side of the receiver housing, has 3 positions - "P" (fuse is on), "O-A" (single or automatic fire, the choice is made by the degree of pressure on the trigger), "2" (fire with cutoff for 2 shots at a high rate of fire).
        1. cost
          cost 8 September 2020 19: 50 New
          +6
          There seems to be a simple sector shop.

          exactly: - a carob magazine with a capacity of 30 rounds, similar to the magazine of the AK-74 assault rifle.
          Initially, it was planned to feed from a high-capacity store, four-row for 60 rounds, but it was not possible to achieve its effective operation in time
        2. Catfish
          Catfish 8 September 2020 19: 52 New
          +1
          Thank you, Dmitry, this is clear. But I'm talking about a "stationary store", to be honest, I have never met anything shooting with a movable store. I mean purely automatic (or semi) weapons.
          1. Pereira
            Pereira 8 September 2020 20: 56 New
            +3
            There are systems with a movable magazine.
            For example, the Brad M37 machine gun.
            1. Catfish
              Catfish 8 September 2020 21: 29 New
              +2
              This is not a store, but a cassette.

              This is also not a store, but a cassette, although here at least the cartridges are covered from outside influences.
              1. Pereira
                Pereira 8 September 2020 22: 30 New
                +2
                I don't see any fundamental difference.
          2. Bad_gr
            Bad_gr 8 September 2020 23: 28 New
            +1
            Quote: Sea Cat
            But I'm talking about a "stationary store"

            If I am not confused, one of our assault rifles (Nikonov?) Had a magazine on a frame that shifted during a shot. They made it fix this mess. The store became motionless, but some nuances appeared: in order to send a cartridge into the barrel, you need to pull the shutter 2 times.
            1. AUL
              AUL 9 September 2020 10: 55 New
              0
              The G11 assault rifle worked according to the bullpup scheme, fired a caseless cartridge, the store was placed above the barrel.
              Is this a bullpup scheme?
      2. Ingenegr
        Ingenegr 10 September 2020 10: 00 New
        +1
        I will answer instead of the author.
        The fact is that at the same time as TKB-0146, an AS machine developed by G.N. Nikonov, also made according to the scheme with a recoil pulse offset. So this sample had a magazine movable in the longitudinal direction.
  2. cost
    cost 8 September 2020 17: 05 New
    11
    The G11 assault rifle worked according to the bullpup scheme, fired with a caseless cartridge, the magazine was placed under the barrel.

    in this case a box magazine for 45 or 50 rounds of 4,7 × 33 mm
    but there were other options:
    HK LMG (modification of the G11 in the "light machine gun" version) with a magazine for 300 rounds in the butt
  3. tolancop
    tolancop 8 September 2020 17: 30 New
    +6
    About nothing. Rubbish. I did not even try to approach the disclosure of the topic of the car. The whole point of the material: "But there were such things ...". And that's all, by and large. Some kind of graphomania ...
    1. kalibr
      kalibr 8 September 2020 18: 04 New
      -4
      Stop reading this ... I just came out with an article on the Rondashi shields. Everything is detailed and the photos are excellent!
      1. Tank hard
        Tank hard 8 September 2020 18: 29 New
        10
        Quote: kalibr
        Stop reading this ... I just came out with an article on the Rondashi shields. Everything is detailed and the photos are excellent!

        It looks like an unfair advertisement for your product. wink Like, don't buy his condensed milk, because mine is sweeter. repeat
        1. kalibr
          kalibr 8 September 2020 18: 50 New
          +3
          But, Daniel, the "product" is good!
          1. Tank hard
            Tank hard 8 September 2020 18: 52 New
            +2
            Quote: kalibr
            But, Daniel, the "product" is good!

            Perhaps I will not argue. hi
            1. kalibr
              kalibr 8 September 2020 19: 33 New
              +2
              Quote: Tank Hard
              I will not argue.

              Why argue, daragoy? See for yourself, however ...
              1. cost
                cost 8 September 2020 20: 01 New
                +7
                fellow Where is it given? How many in one hand? Who is last? I'm on my way!!!

                Tank Hard, kalibr Respect to both of you good
                with a sense of humor, you are all right - much fun good
      2. The leader of the Redskins
        The leader of the Redskins 8 September 2020 18: 37 New
        +3
        Already noted)))
  4. edmed
    edmed 8 September 2020 17: 33 New
    0
    Quote: Rich
    HK LMG (modification of the G11 in the "light machine gun" version) with a magazine for 300 rounds in the butt

    And ititian life, how to live with it, not like fighting what
  5. Catfish
    Catfish 8 September 2020 18: 00 New
    +6
    Regarding Heckler and Koch: it is not surprising that the rifle was not adopted with such a mechanism.

    And outwardly, it seems to be nothing ...
    1. Tank hard
      Tank hard 8 September 2020 18: 37 New
      +3
      Quote: Sea Cat
      Regarding Heckler and Koch: it is not surprising that the rifle was not adopted with such a mechanism.

      There is also an opinion that the reunification of the FRG and the GDR into a single state prevented the "bringing to mind" of this rifle. And this process was very costly and this project of Heckler und Koch with "dynamite" was shelved. "Money ... money ... request
    2. Mister X
      Mister X 9 September 2020 20: 29 New
      +2
      Quote: Sea Cat
      with such a mechanism, the rifle was not accepted for service.

      hi
      Yes, the mechanism of the G11 is like an alarm clock wink
      Another drawback is the length of the 45-round magazine and the difficulty of replacing it.
      By the way, the store is mounted above the barrel, and not one: 1 worker + 2 spare (total 135 rounds).
      Incomplete disassembly video
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 9 September 2020 20: 46 New
        +1
        Yes, the mechanism of the G11 is like an alarm clock wink

        Yes, it is difficult to find a more precise definition, it is enough to add a little sand and that's it. smile
        1. Mister X
          Mister X 9 September 2020 22: 39 New
          +2
          Quote: Sea Cat
          just add a little sand and that's it

          Probably enough and soot: do not clean the weapon after shooting
          1. Catfish
            Catfish 9 September 2020 23: 11 New
            0
            In short, they need to fight in a vacuum and in the complete absence of the enemy.
            1. Mister X
              Mister X 10 September 2020 08: 09 New
              +3
              Quote: Sea Cat
              they need to fight in a vacuum and in the complete absence of the enemy

              Agree, the Germans are by no means stupid people.
              The G3 rifle and PP MP5 are proof of that.

              I repeat: perhaps the G11 was ahead of its time.
              As a demonstrator of ideas, the product has proven its performance.
              Development is difficult.
              And testing and revision is no less difficult and expensive.
              Remember how miserable the first muskets, tanks, etc. look now.
              The G11 has where to move: towards simplifying the design, changing the ammunition, replacing the magazine from 45 to 30 rounds, abandoning the 2 and 3 magazines above the barrel.
              By the way, the G11 was originally conceived as a 3-barrel wink

              I would not be surprised if it turns out that the FN P90 used solutions from the G11.
              Does the location of the magazine above the receiver and the principle of feeding cartridges resemble anything?

    3. gross kaput
      gross kaput 12 September 2020 09: 50 New
      +1
      Well, actually accepted wink But the mass release really did not have time to deploy.
  6. Operator
    Operator 8 September 2020 20: 07 New
    +4
    The G11 firing unit came to its extreme rear position only after a burst of three shots was fired, after which a total recoil impulse acted on the shooter, exceeding in magnitude the impulse of the cartridge 7,62x51 mm (the video is available on the Internet). The arrow, along with the weapon, was blown out of the aiming line - in the event of a miss, the next round required a lot of time to find a target and re-aim.

    Plus the super-complexity of the movable firing unit (barrel, cartridge feed mechanism with a 90-degree turn, horizontally located magazine) - the so-called. cuckoo clock, wedging from minimal soot and dust pollution.

    Plus caseless cartridges that ignite spontaneously in the barrel when fired in automatic mode.

    As a result, the only batch of 1000 rifles at an exorbitant price in 1990 was handed over to the FRG border guards with instructions to shoot only single ones, and then silently put into the warehouse.
    1. mat-vey
      mat-vey 9 September 2020 06: 17 New
      +2
      Quote: Operator
      Plus caseless cartridges that ignite spontaneously in the barrel when fired in automatic mode.

      There were also problems with moisture resistance - they got soaked ... At first they tried to solve something, but then they scored on it too .. well, in general ..
      Quote: Operator
      As a result, the only batch of 1000 rifles at an exorbitant price in 1990 was handed over to the FRG border guards with instructions to shoot only single ones, and then silently put into the warehouse.
      1. Svateev
        Svateev 10 September 2020 14: 43 New
        0
        Plus, the store moves with the movable unit back and forth, and as the cartridges are spent, the mass and momentum of this entire economy changes, and the center of mass of the entire machine shifts. How to maintain the departure angle is an unanswered question.
        Therefore, initially such a design is unpromising.
  7. Peter is not the first
    Peter is not the first 8 September 2020 21: 45 New
    +1
    But the most impressive feature of the TKB-0146 assault rifle was, of course, the ability to fire almost 2 rounds in automatic mode.

    And after 2 thousand shots, the machine gun should be thrown away?
    Is it really difficult to add that this is a rate of fire: 2 thousand rounds per minute, which is even more than that of the MG42 and MG34 machine guns.
    1. Bad_gr
      Bad_gr 8 September 2020 23: 34 New
      +4
      Quote: Peter is not the first
      And after 2 thousand shots, the machine gun should be thrown away?
      Is it really difficult to add that this is a rate of fire: 2 thousand rounds per minute, which is even more than that of the MG42 and MG34 machine guns.

      More precisely: 2000 rounds per minute for the first 2 shots, then it is reduced to the usual rate of fire. This was in the terms of reference. Therefore, the reason for the rejection of this machine because of its high rate of fire is not true.
  8. Observer2014
    Observer2014 8 September 2020 22: 33 New
    -3
    Automatic rifle G11 -From childhood I considered and still consider it the most interesting of the unusual designs of rifles yes
    1. cat Rusich
      cat Rusich 8 September 2020 23: 30 New
      +3
      AG-026, underwater machine gun - 5,56mm caliber, arrow-shaped bullet.
      ag-026 underwater machine gun
    2. Trapp1st
      Trapp1st 9 September 2020 12: 32 New
      0
      Since childhood I have considered and still consider it the most interesting
      Awesome product, but certainly not for the military.
  9. Bad_gr
    Bad_gr 8 September 2020 23: 39 New
    0
    In my opinion, TKB-1046 looks quite ergonomic outwardly. They would be released in a small batch, for the specialists to indulge. Suddenly I would have liked it for performing some tasks.
    1. cat Rusich
      cat Rusich 11 September 2020 00: 12 New
      0
      Vladimir, If you "indulge" - then you can try Korobov's Automatic Machine ...
      TKB-022
      TKB-022
      TKB-408
      TKB-408 - Suddenly I would have liked ...
      1. cat Rusich
        cat Rusich 11 September 2020 00: 18 New
        0
        Quote: cat Rusich
        Suddenly I would have liked ...
        TKB-059
        Three-barreled bul-pap from Korobov
  10. Mister X
    Mister X 9 September 2020 07: 57 New
    +2
    She showed her unreliability, the incredible complexity of the mechanism, the cartridges turned out to be overly fragile.
    Author: Ilya Polonsky (about HK G11)


    I'm not sure if that was the case.
    It is believed that the G11 appeared before its time.

    The complex (HK G11 rifle + cartridge) participated in the Advanced Combat Rifle competition (USA), where it was highly appreciated.
    A batch of 1 units was sent for testing to the armed forces of the FRG.
    At the same time, the process of German reunification was taking place, which required huge expenses.
    They gave up on the new rifle.
    Moreover, the caseless cartridge did not meet NATO standards.
    From the 1970s to the 1990s, Heckler & Koch invested almost all of their money into the development of the G11 project.
    The lack of orders led the company to the brink of bankruptcy.
    The company was saved by its sale to the British (Royal Ordnance).
    HK stayed afloat thanks to an order for the modernization of the British SA80 rifle.
    In 2002 the company was bought back by the Germans.

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  • deddem
    deddem 9 September 2020 09: 28 New
    +1
    Quote: Mister X
    She showed her unreliability, the incredible complexity of the mechanism, the cartridges turned out to be overly fragile.
    Author: Ilya Polonsky (about HK G11)


    Not sure if this was the case


    In any case, until now, even cartridges with a plastic sleeve can not bring to acceptable reliability in terms of self-ignition in bursts of fire.
    What can we say about the "naked" cartridges G11

    And at one time, Heckler's competitor in the ACR competition, Steyr, got burned on the same.

    But in computer toys, the machine looks very attractive, yes :))
    1. Mister X
      Mister X 11 September 2020 00: 04 New
      0
      Quote: deddem
      But in computer toys, the machine looks very attractive, yes :))

      Your truth!
      I spied in COD and with G11 :)
  • Paramon Pictures
    Paramon Pictures 5 November 2020 07: 58 New
    0
    If you marry the stock with the barrel, then, in my opinion, the aiming will increase, the size will decrease, eh?
  • aversun
    aversun 14 November 2020 11: 52 New
    0
    For some reason, the author does not say that the G11 rifle also uses the principle of an offset recoil impulse, and before the shutter reaches the extreme position, three shots are fired, and not two, as TKB-0146, because no need to throw away the spent cartridge case.