Military Review

What was ill in Russia in the XNUMXth century: data on the provincial zemstvo hospital of the military department

36

Today, the medical theme prevails on the air - for obvious reasons.


The world is in a waiting stage - will the coronavirus pandemic decline or a second wave will appear. The discussion of the medical topic is also connected with the work on the vaccine. The first vaccine against the new infection was created, as you know, in Russia and was named "Sputnik V". It is planned that vaccination will begin in the Russian Federation in the near future.

In connection with today's events in the world of medicine, it is worth paying attention to historical component of the treatment of patients in our country. In particular, questions about what ailments the inhabitants of Russia suffered many decades ago, what diagnoses the doctors of that time made to patients, may cause some interest.

Consider a unique document as an example. This is a list of the 70s of the XIX century. The official title of the document reads as follows: "Statement of the state of patients in the Voronezh provincial zemstvo hospital of the military department in the period from December 1, 1872 to December 1, 1873" The material contains photocopies of this document.

The list of the Voronezh Museum of Local Lore contains a table with the following data: the name of the diseases (adopted at that time), how many patients were, how many arrived, how many recovered, how many died.

Attention is drawn to the three most common diseases at that time in the Voronezh province among the patients of the said zemstvo hospital. In the first place in terms of the number of arrivals is intermittent fever (197 patients). At the same time, the number of recoveries from this disease in the clinic is 194. Not a single death of patients with this diagnosis has been recorded.

Common diagnoses include various types of fever. Voronezh doctors of the second half of the 146th century describe them as catarrhal, gastric and rheumatic fevers. Part of this classification includes ailments that are today associated with pneumonia (although there are separate statistics specifically for pneumonia). XNUMX patients arrived. The mortality rate for these diseases in the hospital is zero.

In third place in terms of prevalence are venereal diseases. Voronezh hospital indicators - 102 admissions during the year. Died - one person.

Attention is also drawn to the fact that already at that time in Russia the diagnosis of cancer was highlighted. The statement lists five diagnosed cases and three patients who died.



Deaths in the Voronezh hospital were recorded in 1872-1873 for such diagnosed diseases as tetanus (4 cases out of 15 patients admitted), tuberculosis (modern tuberculosis) - 23 out of 33 patients admitted, typhus - six deaths with 37 patients admitted, named the then doctors "inflammation of the brain and its membranes" - 100% mortality: 3 out of 3, various types of paralysis - 4 deaths with 15 patients admitted.

Overall figures for the year in the hospital: 987 recovered with 1073 admissions.

Author:
Photos used:
"Military Review" (exposition of the Voronezh Museum of Local Lore)
36 comments
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  1. BAI
    BAI 8 September 2020 09: 42 New
    +9
    "A" is said. Issued source material - statistics. And where is "B"? Those. where are the conclusions? What was the article written for?
    1. Svarog
      Svarog 8 September 2020 10: 00 New
      +8
      Quote: BAI
      And where is "B"? Those. where are the conclusions?

      There is probably only one conclusion, the diagnosis has made great progress since then, and thanks to vaccinations and a higher standard of living, many diseases have disappeared, well, or have almost disappeared.
      1. The leader of the Redskins
        The leader of the Redskins 8 September 2020 10: 02 New
        -2
        And the people were healthier ...
      2. dzvero
        dzvero 8 September 2020 10: 27 New
        +3
        where are the conclusions?

        In terms of mortality, infectious diseases are sharply behind oncology and diseases of the cardiovascular system.
    2. Volodin
      8 September 2020 10: 02 New
      15
      Quote: BAI
      And where is "B"? Those. where are the conclusions? What was the article written for?

      This is a historical reference - with specific documentary data. Anyone can draw their own conclusions. The material does not pretend to analytics, it is posted in the "History" section.
    3. Doctor
      Doctor 8 September 2020 11: 59 New
      -2
      "A" is said. Issued source material - statistics. And where is "B"? Those. where are the conclusions? What was the article written for?


      In the first place in terms of the number of arrivals is intermittent fever (197 patients) ... Not a single death of patients with this diagnosis was recorded.

      We consider fever for intoxication.
      Previously, everyone recovered, now the mortality rate with sepsis is 20%.
      Conclusion: they used to treat better.

      Part of this classification includes ailments that are today associated with pneumonia (although there are separate statistics specifically for pneumonia). 146 patients arrived. The mortality rate for these diseases in the hospital is zero.

      Now 5% die of pneumonia.
      Conclusion: they used to treat better.

      In third place in terms of prevalence are venereal diseases. Voronezh hospital indicators - 102 admissions during the year. Died - one person.

      If AIDS is now considered a sexually transmitted disease, it used to be better.

      Attention is also drawn to the fact that already at that time in Russia the diagnosis of cancer was highlighted. The statement lists five diagnosed cases and three patients who died.

      It's about the same now.

      various types of paralysis - 4 deaths with 15 patients admitted.

      Now also 25% of strokes.

      The total in-hospital mortality is now 6%, it used to be 8.
      We learned how to prevent typhus and tetanus.

      Otherwise, nothing has changed in 150 years. laughing

      Although yes, I forgot. We have introduced an OMS policy! wassat
      1. Undecim
        Undecim 8 September 2020 13: 10 New
        10
        Your conclusions, to put it mildly, are far from reality.
        We consider fever for intoxication.
        Intermittent fever is malaria, which has nothing to do with sepsis.
        In fever, all diseases accompanied by high fever were recorded. Of the 149 patients with fever, two died. What types of fever these two were sick with is unknown, possibly pneumonia.
        To mold the current AIDS to the statistics of the century before last is to press the hunchback against the wall.
        So before drawing conclusions, you need to familiarize yourself with the question.
        1. Doctor
          Doctor 8 September 2020 13: 46 New
          +2
          To mold the current AIDS to the statistics of the century before last is to press the hunchback against the wall.

          Is it transmitted sexually? Transmitted. So venereal!

          1. antivirus
            antivirus 8 September 2020 20: 25 New
            -1
            about ceilings and floorboards-HOWEVER DID NOT GET INTO HOSPITALS AND WITHOUT CALLING A DOCTOR TREATED-DIE-RECOVERED ????????
            Where are the statistics about the bad 21st century and the good 19?

            number of doctors (units) per 100000 inhabitants ????????????????????????
            HOW THE EBN TREATED - WE HAVE GREAT MEDICINE WITH THE ATTRACTION OF FOREIGN LIGHTS.
            who treated Vankov in 1996 (they did Yeltsin's operation)? - statistics in 1996 and 187ххг?
            1. Doctor
              Doctor 9 September 2020 00: 14 New
              -4

              0
              about ceilings and floorboards-HOWEVER DID NOT GET INTO HOSPITALS AND WITHOUT CALLING A DOCTOR TREATED-DIE-RECOVERED ????????
              Where are the statistics about the bad 21st century and the good 19?

              number of doctors (units) per 100000 inhabitants ????????????????????????
              HOW THE EBN TREATED - WE HAVE GREAT MEDICINE WITH THE ATTRACTION OF FOREIGN LIGHTS.
              who treated Vankov in 1996 (they did Yeltsin's operation)? - statistics in 1996 and 187ххг?

              No, not like that.
              There was Anton Palych Chekhov, he treated. He knew everyone personally, they came to him, he to them. He knew everything about their sores, was friends with them, boozed, in short, was a member of everyone's family. Family doctor. hi

              After the revolution, private traders were dispersed everywhere, and collective farms were made. The medical collective farm was named POLYCLINIC! A collective farm is a collective farm, the quality is known. Depersonalized. Palych said: "Come in Fedya", in the clinic they say: "Come in sick." am

              Rebuilt. The collective farms were dispersed. They also wanted in medicine, but the toad crushed, how could every doctor's house be like Melikhovo ?! Nakosya, take a bite!
              You go to the collective farm! angry
        2. Doctor
          Doctor 8 September 2020 13: 53 New
          -4
          Intermittent fever is malaria, which has nothing to do with sepsis.

          I understand intermittent, which means changing during the day. So the temperature always changes during the day, with any intoxication.
          1. Undecim
            Undecim 8 September 2020 14: 05 New
            +5
            Are you applying for discoveries in medicine or can't you without trolling? Open any medical reference book and read on health, although Avicena from you clearly will not work. All the best.
        3. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 8 September 2020 21: 00 New
          0
          possibly pneumonia.
          Viktor Nikolaevich, with bacterial pneumonia, "fever", that is, high body temperature, is not observed. Trust my experience.
          1. Undecim
            Undecim 8 September 2020 22: 21 New
            +3
            I am not a pulmonologist, but I think you are mistaken, as they suffer mainly from bacterial pneumonia.
            Viruses, fungi, protozoa are less common as pathogens.
            And community-acquired pneumonia can proceed without fever, but it's even worse.
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 8 September 2020 22: 48 New
              +1
              No, I'm not mistaken. Bacterial pneumonia is characterized precisely by the fact that in the initial stages (about a week) it is very difficult to distinguish it from acute respiratory infections.
              1. Undecim
                Undecim 8 September 2020 23: 02 New
                +3
                The development of community-acquired pneumonia may be preceded by symptoms of acute respiratory infections, but this is not a typical case. Pneumococcal penvmonia begins acutely, with high fever, chest pain. Legionella is generally characterized by diarrhea and neurological symptoms.
                Both of these pneumonias are bacterial. But mycoplasma - here muscle and headaches, symptoms of upper respiratory tract damage, as in acute respiratory infections. But mycoplasmas are microorganisms that occupy an intermediate position between viruses and bacteria.
                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 8 September 2020 23: 23 New
                  +1
                  But mycoplasmas are microorganisms that occupy an intermediate position between viruses and bacteria.
                  Quite right! And this is very interesting!
                  1. Undecim
                    Undecim 8 September 2020 23: 30 New
                    +3
                    And this is very interesting!
                    Perhaps, but microbiology never interested me.
                    1. 3x3zsave
                      3x3zsave 8 September 2020 23: 52 New
                      0
                      It's your right! But microbiology has already, in the history of the annals, changed the vectors of development of European history a couple of times.
                      1. Undecim
                        Undecim 8 September 2020 23: 55 New
                        +2
                        Even despite the strong influence of microbes on the course of world history, I do not like them.
                      2. 3x3zsave
                        3x3zsave 9 September 2020 00: 03 New
                        0
                        "What to do, Faust?" (C)
                      3. Undecim
                        Undecim 9 September 2020 00: 04 New
                        +2
                        All that ... you ... the reasonable is bored:
                        Another from laziness, one from deeds;
                        Who believes, who has lost faith;
                        He didn’t have time to enjoy,
                        He enjoyed through measure,
                        And everyone yawns and lives
                        And the coffin is waiting for you all, yawning.
                        Yawn and you.
                        The site robot even censors verse.
              2. Doctor
                Doctor 9 September 2020 00: 21 New
                0
                But mycoplasmas are microorganisms that occupy an intermediate position between viruses and bacteria.
                Quite right! And this is very interesting!

                Average peasant !? Grayness. Nothing interesting.
                The bacteria are cooler. But also a woman.
                Better to be a virus. All bow their heads and prostrate themselves! The virus sounds proudly!
  • The comment was deleted.
  • Krasnodar
    Krasnodar 8 September 2020 09: 45 New
    +2
    The foundations of experimental, laboratory oncology were laid by the Russians (animals were inoculated with a varcoma), they also developed the method of removing tumors of the esophagus accepted in Europe.
  • sergo1914
    sergo1914 8 September 2020 10: 10 New
    10
    Hmm ... There are only seven hard drinking. There was no disinfection culture.
  • Undecim
    Undecim 8 September 2020 10: 29 New
    +4
    intermittent fever
    This is not a disease, it is a symptom of a disease - malaria - manifested by the correct change of high or very high and normal body temperature with daily fluctuations of 3-4 ° C.
  • Doctor
    Doctor 8 September 2020 10: 38 New
    -8
    Overall figures for the year in the hospital: 987 recovered with 1073 admissions.

    The mortality rate was 8%, now it is 6.
    That's all that modern medicine has achieved. laughing
    1. ee2100
      ee2100 8 September 2020 11: 06 New
      +1
      Not entirely correct remark.
  • Knell wardenheart
    Knell wardenheart 8 September 2020 12: 36 New
    +7
    Oh, what was the handwriting then .. and after all these are doctors, MEDIKI, CARL!
  • Disorder
    Disorder 8 September 2020 14: 50 New
    +3
    Overall figures for the year in the hospital: 987 recovered with 1073 admissions.

    "Received". These are the ones who made it to the hospital. And how were those who were ill “at home” taken into account, or who could not be taken?
    1. Volodin
      8 September 2020 16: 34 New
      +1
      Quote: Trouble
      And how were those who were ill “at home” taken into account, or who could not be taken?

      I am afraid that there were no statistics of sick (sick) at home, let alone in 1872, and today it really does not exist. In the material, as you understand, we are talking about a specific example - with a specific hospital.
      1. Foul skeptic
        Foul skeptic 8 September 2020 17: 26 New
        +2
        Alex, welcome.
        Patients who are ill at home, for obvious reasons, could not be reflected in the statistics. But the number of visits to a medical institution was recorded. And senior doctors of the zemstvo hospitals indicated this figure in their annual reports. Also, by county, it was prescribed how many people were refused treatment with a breakdown due to refusal:
        1) Do not require treatment
        2) Terminally or chronically ill
        3) There are no documents
        4) Mentally unhealthy
        5) Lack of free seats.
        For those who wish to familiarize themselves with the maintenance of reports by zemstvo medicine, I can advise you to find such a document on the network
      2. Disorder
        Disorder 9 September 2020 01: 08 New
        +1
        And what is the meaning of this particular example? In the statistics - with what illness they often got to the hospital.
        To get sick "at home" now and then are two big differences, you can't call an ambulance, God forbid a paramedic will be nearby.
  • Doccor18
    Doccor18 8 September 2020 16: 54 New
    +1
    In 1904, the world's first laboratory was created in Russia by the famous Russian doctor Albert Braunstein, which helped to study tumor strains. At the same time, the first hospital specializing in the treatment of cancer patients was opened in the country. Today this clinic is known as the P. A. Herzen Moscow Oncological Institute.

    I never cease to be amazed at Russian medicine. It developed and develops in spite of internal cataclysms, persecutions, low salaries, it develops at the world level and continues to give the world brilliant solutions and brilliant doctors.
    1. Cetron
      Cetron 8 September 2020 17: 55 New
      +2
      A doctor is not a profession, a doctor is a vocation, just like a teacher (teacher).
  • VIP
    VIP 9 September 2020 07: 02 New
    +1
    Quote: ee2100
    Not entirely correct remark.

    For him, the main thing is that then they treated better, and the rest