Military Review

30th Anniversary of the "500 Days" Program: Unsuccessful Attempt to Reform the Soviet Economy

121
30th Anniversary of the "500 Days" Program: Unsuccessful Attempt to Reform the Soviet Economy

These days marks the 30th anniversary of the famous "500 Days" program. It was at this time that a group of Soviet economists was going to lay down a set of measures for the transition to a market economy.


What was the essence of the "500 days" program


The creation of the program was supported by both Mikhail Gorbachev and Boris Yeltsin. It was on their behalf that the working group was formed. Grigory Yavlinsky became the "face" of the group: the "500 days" program launched the political career of a previously little-known young economist. Since July 14, 1990, Yavlinsky served as Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the RSFSR - not bad for a 38-year-old man at that time.

However, although rumor at that time attributed the authorship of the program to the future leader of Yabloko, in reality a whole team was working on it, and academician Stanislav Shatalin played a key role, in addition to Yavlinsky. It was he who was assured by Gorbachev of his support for the program of market reforms in the USSR. In addition to Shatalin and Yavlinsky, Evgeny Yasin, Sergey Aleksashenko, Boris Fedorov, Andrey Vavilov, Mikhail Zadornov and a number of other economists participated in the development of the program.


One of the authors of the program, Grigory Yavlinsky, became a prominent Russian politician in the 1990s - 2000s.


On September 1, 1990, the "500 days" program was prepared and approved by the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR, after which it was submitted for consideration to the Supreme Soviet of the USSR. The program itself was proposed to be implemented in four stages. During the first 100 days, privatization of housing, land, small enterprises and corporatization of plants and factories were to be carried out. Then, at the second stage, within 150 days, it was necessary to liberalize prices, at the third 150-day stage - to stabilize the market and, finally, at the fourth stage - to begin the rise of the domestic economy. In words, everything is easy. But in fact ...

The main idea of ​​the program was to preserve the republics within the Union under new conditions, gradual liberalization of prices and markets, consistent and reasonable privatization through corporatization, etc. That is, it was a very soft and progressive version of reforms, since there were still chances for a “soft »Entering the market. The first 500 days of the program were to lay the foundations for a market economy,

- wrote in his memoirs one of the authors of the program and subsequently Deputy Prime Minister of the Russian government, the late Boris Fyodorov.

Pros and cons of the program


The undoubted advantage of the program was that it proposed economic transformations on the scale of the entire Soviet space, that is, there was no talk of a possible collapse of the USSR, and the authors of the program hoped to transform the economies of all Union republics.

Shatalin and his team proposed to first carry out privatization and form an owner class, and then liberalize prices, which, according to their calculations, would lead to lower prices due to growing competition between sellers. But, as you know, the country took a different path: Yegor Gaidar, on the contrary, first "let go of prices", which led to their colossal growth.

It is another matter that by the time the program was being written, the Soviet Union, both politically and economically, was already in a situation of the deepest crisis. Centrifugal tendencies prevailed in the union republics, the economy experienced a decline - 2% in 1990 and already 9% in 1991. In addition, the authors of the program, being theoretical economists and not practitioners, believed in the possibility of its implementation without taking into account the key factors that distinguished the political and social reality of the late USSR.

Direct opposition to the implementation of the program was provided by Nikolai Ryzhkov, then the chairman of the Council of Ministers of the RSFSR. He demanded the implementation of his own program, which implied a combination of elements of a market and planned economy. Ryzhkov defended his program very actively and, as a result, threatened Gorbachev with resignation.

As a result, Gorbachev decided to create a commission that would combine the two programs. And this turned out to be fatal both for Ryzhkov's program and for the 500 Days program: first, in October 1990, Grigory Yavlinsky resigned, then in December Ryzhkov had a heart attack and Gorbachev removed him from the post of head of the Soviet government on January 14, 1991 ...

Some of the provisions of the program, however, were implemented later, after the collapse of the Soviet Union. In post-Soviet Russia, both price liberalization and property privatization were carried out. Only everything was done not gradually, but abruptly, without a transition period, which led to very sad consequences for the Russian economy, and many of these consequences, including the consequences of privatization, our country, as they say, is still raking up.
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  1. aszzz888
    aszzz888 8 September 2020 10: 48 New
    10
    the "500 Days" program launched the political career of a previously little-known young economist.
    Yes, there was someone to ruin Russia, then the USSR. yavlo was one of them. angry
    1. Finches
      Finches 8 September 2020 10: 52 New
      10
      The word "reform" is absolutely inappropriate here - to finish off the Soviet economy! So the question was not even raised - to finish off and plunder in the interests of the Anglo-Saxons and their hirelings, such as Chubais, Gaidar and the corrupt clique!
    2. Grandfather
      Grandfather 8 September 2020 10: 56 New
      +9
      Quote: aszzz888
      the "500 Days" program launched the political career of a previously little-known young economist.
      Yes, there was someone to ruin Russia, then the USSR. yavlo was one of them. angry

      There are plenty of such "miscarriages", and some of them are still in the "cage".
      1. The leader of the Redskins
        The leader of the Redskins 8 September 2020 11: 06 New
        +8
        Even though I was a young man then, I remember very well how the economy became more feverish.
        For us, it is simple ordinary people, highly intelligent phrases were "to the light bulb", but my parents remember price surges and bare shelves in stores with a shudder. Try to feed your family.
        1. Temples
          Temples 8 September 2020 11: 31 New
          -14
          The Communists dismembered Russia.
          Divided into parts.

          If accountants are engaged in the reform of the state, then do not expect anything good.

          This is how impotent one had to be in order to entrust the country to accountants.

          Of course, the accountant will cut into pieces and grab as much as he can carry.

          And then even the grass does not grow.

          The communists still do not understand that it is necessary not to divide, but to restore the central power.

          Abolish any division based on nationality.

          It was necessary to muster up the courage and return to the Imperial system of regional division of the country.

          To avoid destruction.

          But the communists wanted money.

          And they put a bolt on the country and on the people.
          1. Svarog
            Svarog 8 September 2020 12: 03 New
            15
            The Communists dismembered Russia.
            Divided into parts.

            The communists made the USSR a great empire with advanced economics and science. And those who broke up are not communists, they are shape-shifters, opportunists and traitors ..
            1. Motorist
              Motorist 8 September 2020 22: 39 New
              -2
              Quote: Svarog
              The communists made the USSR a great empire

              The Communists were at most 5%. It was just people who did it.
              1. Svarog
                Svarog 8 September 2020 23: 35 New
                +3
                Quote: Motorist
                Quote: Svarog
                The communists made the USSR a great empire

                The Communists were at most 5%. It was just people who did it.

                Naturally ... but under the leadership of the Communists.
                1. Motorist
                  Motorist 8 September 2020 23: 44 New
                  -3
                  Quote: Svarog
                  under the leadership of the communists

                  Under the leadership of, say, the eSERs or the Mensheviks, it would be the same - progress is difficult to stop, you can only slow down, as in the 90s.
      2. Svarog
        Svarog 8 September 2020 12: 00 New
        11
        Quote: Dead Day
        Quote: aszzz888
        the "500 Days" program launched the political career of a previously little-known young economist.
        Yes, there was someone to ruin Russia, then the USSR. yavlo was one of them. angry

        There are plenty of such "miscarriages", and some of them are still in the "cage".

        Yes, almost everything is at the trough .. All these reformers are needed by the court so that the future generation understands that this is not a joke or a toy, this is the fate of millions of people, which they exchanged for the sake of their own greed, stupid ambitions, and maybe betrayal and work to the Western intelligence services .. Why is nobody puzzled by this question?
        I am convinced that as long as we, people who make responsible decisions, are not responsible for the consequences, nothing good will happen. Under Stalin, the country rushed forward only thanks to responsibility, regardless of ranks and titles. What do we see now?
  2. Doccor18
    Doccor18 8 September 2020 10: 50 New
    10
    program "500 days". It was at this time that a group of Soviet economists was going to lay down a set of measures for the transition to a market economy.

    A set of measures to destroy the world's second economic power.
    1. Doctor
      Doctor 8 September 2020 11: 03 New
      11
      It was just necessary to allow small business and trade, legalize the sale of agricultural products from private households, like the NEP, and leave the system-forming ones in the hands of the state.
      1. Doccor18
        Doccor18 8 September 2020 11: 08 New
        +7
        All this was needed to solve economic problems and strengthen the state. And no one was going to strengthen it, the task was the opposite ...
      2. gatamelata
        gatamelata 8 September 2020 11: 12 New
        -8
        Well, in general, then all this was already allowed.
        NEP started in 1987.
        But unfortunately or fortunately, no 100 or 500 days of the collapsing economy of the USSR helped.
        The pipe stopped bringing money, inside candy wrappers, all the leaders of the socialist countries and a bunch of blacks pull the last juices from impoverished Russia.
        1. tatra
          tatra 8 September 2020 11: 22 New
          +7
          But what then, when oil prices fell 4 times in 2008, the poor raw material economy of the Russian enemies of the USSR did not collapse, and the socio-economic system did not change "by itself"?
          1. Rubi0
            Rubi0 8 September 2020 11: 53 New
            +1
            Well, this is obvious, they give everything on credit from enemies and gnaw out these loans, they don't pay for military bases, but on the contrary, they take tribute, it's better to keep silent about the use of military-industrial complex products altogether, they still sell warehouses
          2. gatamelata
            gatamelata 8 September 2020 12: 00 New
            -9
            Patamu that the fall time was very short. The USSR (and then Russia) from the beginning of 80 for the Afghan company began to lose money from the pipe, from 85 to 2000 when the galley slave came to power, it lost and lost everything.
            And the Negro in Angola also wants to eat and wants a Mercedes and a tank, and then he will start building socialism.
          3. Vadim237
            Vadim237 8 September 2020 16: 33 New
            0
            Because the Russian economy in 2008 was open and market - in contrast to the planned and closed market, the USSR had.
        2. Vasilenko Vladimir
          Vasilenko Vladimir 8 September 2020 12: 41 New
          -1
          Quote: gatamelata
          all the leaders of the socialist countries and a bunch of blacks pull the last juices from impoverished Russia

          this poor country paid decent pensions, it was REALLY free education, medicine, a huge army
          now it is not, money is not, but nraod a beggar
          1. gatamelata
            gatamelata 8 September 2020 12: 48 New
            -1
            Why did this mighty army and 30 million brave communists not defend their great USSR with their breasts?
            1. Vadim237
              Vadim237 8 September 2020 16: 31 New
              +2
              Because most of them really didn't care about the USSR.
      3. frog
        frog 8 September 2020 11: 43 New
        13
        So small businesses were allowed. Do you remember cooperatives? Only for some reason the overwhelming majority of them engaged in trade and procurement activities. And by no means by the production of something .... Because in that planning-distribution system it is absolutely not clear where the production cooperatives will take raw materials from.
        As for products from private households .... do you seriously believe that they could feed the country ???? Not to mention the fact that supplying food production from these farms ..... It's not even a problem, it's ..... Moderators won't allow you to say wink
        It was impossible to save that USSR without serious structural changes. And the one who was saved would not be quite the country that we lost. Although, perhaps, it is better than the one that is now ..... Just there was no people or desire for this. And those who had the desire, built a real that we know ...
        1. paul3390
          paul3390 8 September 2020 12: 09 New
          +4
          It was just necessary to return to the Stalinist model of the economy. As proven to be extremely effective.
          1. frog
            frog 8 September 2020 12: 33 New
            0
            Can you do without the mantras on duty? Not to mention the fact that during the times of the aforementioned economy, all sorts of ... excesses happened for statements criticizing the leadership ...
            1. paul3390
              paul3390 8 September 2020 12: 43 New
              +2
              Aren't enough brains to comprehend the mantra? Che is not clear - the essence of the Stalinist model is painted clearly, its achievements are obvious. Or you, liberals, in the name of Comrade Stalin, is beginning to squash like demons from holy water?
              1. frog
                frog 8 September 2020 12: 51 New
                0
                Mantras, monsieur, are not comprehended. That's why they are mantras.
                As for the essence of the model and other things, I could suggest a fuss about the materiel, but I won't, it's pointless ...
                For reference: by no means everyone is delighted on behalf of Koba, not necessarily the exclusively mentioned liberals. And with all the advantages of the mobilization economy and the management system, it works rather poorly when there is no war. Which is real and proved. But what's up to you?
                1. paul3390
                  paul3390 8 September 2020 17: 39 New
                  +2
                  Ahrenet .. That is - all the highest post-war achievements do not count ?? One of the two superpowers on the planet - like the result of a shitty economy ?? Truly - the liberals have only the coccygeal brain ...
                  1. frog
                    frog 8 September 2020 19: 08 New
                    -1
                    Indeed, the Stalinists have no knowledge of the Russian language and the ability to converse. and why should they, because you can just slap your opponent. There is one caveat ..... Why did you, dear one, decide that in that very economy you will be on horseback, so to speak? On horseback there will be the same as now. For they - can and want. And they do. And you (like many others) are used chi in the form of sleepers (if BAM), chi in the form of piles (if LBC). And they will pack the required amount to achieve the Great Goal. And finally, albeit in vain, of course))), it was then that thousands were packed "for spikelets", but the same Zaltsman was just transferred to another job. Which confirms the simple thesis that even under Kobe nothing will shine for you ...
                    1. paul3390
                      paul3390 8 September 2020 19: 19 New
                      +1
                      Some toads must be slapped .. So that liberal crap is not carried to the masses.
                      1. frog
                        frog 8 September 2020 19: 39 New
                        0
                        Which proves the a priori cool of the Stalinists. So many years have passed - but nothing has changed repeat
        2. Doctor
          Doctor 8 September 2020 12: 15 New
          +2
          As for products from private households .... do you seriously think that they could feed the country ???? Not to mention the fact that supplying food production from these farms ..... It's not even a problem, it's ..... Moderators will not allow you to say wink

          In vain you appeal to the moderators.
          Believe it or not, the personalities are still feeding.

          So, in the gross harvest for 2018 in the country as a whole, households accounted for 68% or more than 15 million tons. Industrial production left 32%, or just over 7 million tons, with almost 3 million of them coming from farms.

          And at the same time, unlike any agricultural holding such as Miratorg, they are PROFITABLE.
          1. frog
            frog 8 September 2020 12: 31 New
            -1
            In vain you appeal to the moderators.

            How can I tell you .... The rules are laid down to observe)) And what could be said would have broken them somewhat wink
            So, in the gross harvest for 2018 in the country as a whole, households accounted for 68% or more than 15 million tons. Industrial production left 32%, or just over 7 million tons, with almost 3 million of them coming from farms.

            But do not tell me - million tons of WHAT?
            A person does not live by potatoes alone, no matter how much some (including the management) want this))) Apparently, this wonderful vegetable in various Magnets, Pyaterochki and other centers - just from private farms ...
            The fact that you can get a lot of profit from personal farms - I didn’t argue. He said that they would not be able to FEED the country. And, by the way, about potatoes .... Seed material is imported, for the most part .... Not to mention .... slight doubts about the numbers .... I don't really like statistics, a funny tool in our conditions wink Not to mention the fact that calculating the volume of potatoes on personal plots ... An exciting task repeat
            1. Doctor
              Doctor 8 September 2020 12: 54 New
              -1
              But do not tell me - million tons of WHAT?

              I apologize for the incorrect quote.
              Potatoes, of course. And other vegetables too.
              This has always been the case in the days of the USSR too, you simply were not interested in this issue.
              Any private trader tore a collective farm for profitability, like a heating pad.

              Just like now any grandmother tears up an agricultural holding. She planted 5 buckets, dug 20 buckets. Profit 400%, like in drugs. laughing
              Costs - electricity for watering, poisoning for Colorada a couple of times. Plus your legs and arms.

              And Miratorg puffs up, hires managers, hooks video cameras to combines, so that the combine operators do not run to pee and is still in the red.
              It does not work that the snout does not get into the state feeding trough.
              1. frog
                frog 8 September 2020 13: 11 New
                0
                You don't have to apologize for the quote, I’m so))) Moreover, there was exactly Solánum tuberósum)))
                But what about "it has always been" and other things - sorry. This has always been the case in a country that did not care about its own agriculture. When, through an oversight, suddenly formed various characters like Khudenko and others, then they already tore "any attendants". And as a heating pad or something else - it's the tenth thing.
                To discuss miratorgi - sorry, not to me. Bo and the topic is kind of like about a scoop and the meaning of discussing the current time ??))
                As for the interest in that question - here you are not entirely right. I was simply interested in them from a slightly different point of view. And I came to the conclusion that gardeners are good, but alas, the whole country will not be fed. Of course, if, when running this very country, you include the brains for the sounded classes, and not for "building communism in a single apartment"
            2. Doctor
              Doctor 8 September 2020 13: 17 New
              +1
              I don't really like statistics, a funny tool in our conditions wink Not to mention the fact that calculating the volume of potatoes on personal plots ...... An exciting task feel


              This fact has long been known and inconvenient in Soviet times (and even now).
              Private farms made collective farms only on the way.

              https://www.agroxxi.ru/gazeta-zaschita-rastenii/zrast/kartofel-v-rossii-ot-importa-do-samoobespechenija.html

              And now for grain too. Farmers, without any help from the state, go out to profit, while feeding themselves, local, regional parasites and Moscow generals.
              Agrofirms in the reports seem to be in positive territory, but at the same time they do not show irrecoverable loans for fixed assets, which amount to profit for five years.

              Imagine, you are given 1000 hectares of land for free, and 100 lamas of a non-repayable loan for machinery and seed grain. You don't show it, you start counting from zero. And at the same time they manage to screw everything up in 7-8 years. Menager ...
              1. frog
                frog 8 September 2020 13: 25 New
                0
                Yes, I read this article, read it .... That's just where the given figures come from - alas .... I'm not saying that the newspaper or you are lying, not at all. It's just that when there is a figure, but where does it come from - the vegetable knows (sorry), somehow the doubt begins to gnaw ...
        3. Serg65
          Serg65 8 September 2020 13: 00 New
          -5
          Quote: frog
          the overwhelming majority of them were engaged in trade and procurement activities. And by no means the production of something

          Soviet millionaire Tarasov, earned his first capital from a dating agency at a washing machine repair shop!
          1. frog
            frog 8 September 2020 13: 16 New
            +1
            Tarasov gained fame in the USSR and abroad as a legal Soviet millionaire, who, according to the decision of the Tekhnika cooperative he headed, in January 1989 was given a salary of 3 million rubles from the profits of this cooperative, which, in fact, was not a salary, but received cash for the implementation of the commercial and production activities of the cooperative. This was due to the fact that the Ministry of Justice made a proposal to allow cooperatives to spend no more than 100 rubles in cash per day on their activities.

            At the same time, a criminal case was initiated against Tarasov under Article 93.3 "Theft on an especially large scale." The maximum punishment under this article was the death penalty. Which forced him to emigrate to London in early 1991. And the cooperative has essentially collapsed.

            In general, he was a funny character. He didn't let the Marked one sell the island, but the kush was not bad, as many as 28 watermelons of greenery))) Of course, according to rumors wink
            1. Serg65
              Serg65 8 September 2020 13: 24 New
              -6
              Quote: frog
              It goes without saying

              Yes, there were such rumors, but not Tarasov and even more so Gorbachev did not refute or confirm these rumors ...
              Quote: frog
              funny character was

              The Tekhnika cooperative was probably the first in the USSR to use software computer technologies! It was Tarasov who pulled Veselov out of oblivion, Zhenya later became one of the leading experts at Microsoft.
              1. frog
                frog 8 September 2020 14: 24 New
                0
                Mmmm ...... Let's just say, about both "Technique" and Tarasov himself, you can say a lot .... Various .... But I would not make either an icon or a standard from them. IMHO, of course. Ordinary huckster, no more. Not bad, not good. And it was not at all in the absence of hucksters that the problems of the Union rested ...
                1. Serg65
                  Serg65 8 September 2020 14: 49 New
                  -5
                  Not icons, let alone a standard of them and did not work out ... the same Tarasov died practically in poverty and quite young ...
      4. Sotskiy
        Sotskiy 8 September 2020 11: 48 New
        +9
        Quote: Arzt
        It was just necessary to allow small business and trade, to legalize the sale of agricultural products from personal households, like the NEP

        You propose to do what Gorbachev did.
        34 years ago, Mikhail Gorbachev breathed life into the main slogan of the NEP times "Get rich!"
        On November 19, 1986, the USSR Law "On Individual Labor Activity" was adopted, which legalized the private entrepreneurial initiative of Soviet citizens.

        What the proclaimed individualism and "entrepreneurial" initiative have led to, we see from the current state of the Russian economy and the social stratification of the country's population.
        1. Doctor
          Doctor 8 September 2020 12: 31 New
          0
          What the proclaimed individualism and "entrepreneurial" initiative have led to, we see from the current state of the Russian economy and the social stratification of the country's population.

          I see. When I go to Auchan.
          “Shops” of the Gorbachev era, and even earlier, I don't even want to remember.
          1. frog
            frog 8 September 2020 12: 37 New
            0
            Only "Auchan" is somehow not domestic at all. Not to mention the fact that when the owners tried to sort it out a little with some .... mmmm ...... theft in it (of course, in the domestic segment), with an invited ...... expert, some trouble happened ......
            1. Doctor
              Doctor 8 September 2020 13: 11 New
              +1
              Only "Auchan" is somehow not domestic at all.

              Well take Magnet, what's the difference. The question is in principle.
              I have already given an example here, I will repeat it again.

              Moscow (!) Pub of the times of developed socialism.



              Moscow pub of the times of decaying capitalism.

              1. frog
                frog 8 September 2020 13: 18 New
                +1
                There really is no difference, both sell, mostly imports. Directly or indirectly. That is - pennies still leave the country. Are you a patriot ???
                1. Doctor
                  Doctor 8 September 2020 13: 29 New
                  0
                  There really is no difference, both sell, mostly imports. Directly or indirectly. That is - pennies still leave the country. Are you a patriot ???

                  Pennies yes, they go. This is bad.
                  But the beer bar level ...
                  1. frog
                    frog 8 September 2020 14: 26 New
                    0
                    Let's just say that beer bars didn't really excite me then. Now - and even more so. Here, as with a hundred varieties of sausages. A hundred - there are sausages - no. And again, this was not the problem. Although in this, too, and it was much closer))) Who cares for a man of the problem of modernization of production, the efficiency of capital investments, continuously falling labor productivity, etc., etc. But there is no sausage and beer - too repeat
        2. Vadim237
          Vadim237 8 September 2020 13: 19 New
          +1
          We can see what the proclaimed individualism and "entrepreneurial" initiative have led to in the current state of the Russian economy and the social stratification of the country's population. "To freedom of movement, action and choice - who used them, he lives normally, who has not used here, sorry, to each his own. the bus moving along the fabulous road of equality, striving to reach that very socialist utopian society in which there is no envy of greed, all resources for everyone are endless and everything always blooms and smells - crashed at full speed into the reinforced concrete wall of harsh reality where everyone is for himself where the laws of fairy tales do not work " All are equal in everything, everything belongs to everyone "and the laws of nature man is a wolf man is a wolf limited resources and territory and all this will have to fight constantly. The communist experiment was a failure from the very beginning, since the nature of man and its laws determining life can not be removed or bypassed what level of human development food did not reach.
      5. Svarog
        Svarog 8 September 2020 12: 07 New
        +2
        Quote: Arzt
        It was just necessary to allow small business and trade, legalize the sale of agricultural products from private households, like the NEP, and leave the system-forming ones in the hands of the state.

        I, too, have the same opinion, but the goal of the "elite" sold to the West was to rob the country for their own good ..
        And on the good, such transformations were needed, but they had to begin with the cleaning of the apparatus, which at that time had already set a course for plundering the country.
  3. Siberian 66
    Siberian 66 8 September 2020 10: 55 New
    +6
    A great man would stand at the head of the USSR, a great power, but not that spotty perversion, everything would be different.
    1. Doccor18
      Doccor18 8 September 2020 11: 05 New
      +5
      A great man would stand at the head of the USSR, a great power, but not that spotty perversion, everything would be different.

      It's not even Gorbachov's business. There would be another "patriot". Everything rolled into the abyss since the day of Stalin's death. The impunity and irremovability of bureaucrats, under Khrushchev and after him, slowly led to the death of the world's only Great Just State.
      1. tatra
        tatra 8 September 2020 11: 10 New
        -2
        None of the enemies of the USSR Gorbachev, who excuse the benefactor from responsibility, is NOT able to prove how without him the USSR could have been destroyed, and states were created on its territory in which all the enemies of the USSR "are better now than in the USSR", not because you did at least something better for the country and the people, but because you got a lot of things at the expense of the work of others, at the expense of your country and people.
  4. Trapp1st
    Trapp1st 8 September 2020 10: 56 New
    +4
    unsuccessful attempt to reform the Soviet economy
    Why unsuccessful? OOOVery successful, but for those who started it all. Moreover, even after 30 years, no one has been punished, and still with smart faces, eyes are callous.
  5. tatra
    tatra 8 September 2020 10: 57 New
    -3
    From the endless "reforms" of the enemies of the communists, starting with their anti-Soviet Perestroika, there is always only one harm and loss to the country and the people.
  6. Andrey VOV
    Andrey VOV 8 September 2020 11: 01 New
    +4
    Wait, wasn't Ryzhkov at that time the chairman of the government of the USSR? In the RSFSR, in my opinion, was Silaev?
  7. Sergey Averchenkov
    Sergey Averchenkov 8 September 2020 11: 01 New
    +5
    Mikhail Gorbach and Boris Yeltsin are utter rats. Not for nothing one lives in Germany and the other is dead. I'm not even ashamed to say that he is dead.
    1. tatra
      tatra 8 September 2020 11: 18 New
      0
      And one of the main qualities of the enemies of the USSR on the territory of the USSR is their mental inclination to betrayal, and the complete absence of a sense of gratitude. Here, Gorbachev and Yeltsin betrayed the communists, who believed them, and the enemies of the USSR betrayed these benefactors, thanks to whom they got this life, in which they crucify for 30 years, like all of them "and now it is better than in the USSR", threw them to us, supporters of the USSR "and they are not ours, they are your communists."
      1. Serg65
        Serg65 8 September 2020 13: 04 New
        -4
        Quote: tatra
        one of the main qualities of the enemies of the USSR on the territory of the USSR is their mental inclination to betrayal, and the complete absence of a sense of gratitude

        And then for some reason I remembered the first traitors - Beria and Malenkov ...
        1. tatra
          tatra 8 September 2020 13: 06 New
          -5
          And I remembered that whenever I write about the enemies of the communists, they "turn the arrows" to the communists. Where can these nonentities defend the country and the people, if they are not even able to defend themselves?
          1. Serg65
            Serg65 8 September 2020 13: 09 New
            -2
            Quote: tatra
            they "switch arrows" to the communists

            laughing and why translate arrows, if it was the communists and destroyed the USSR !!! Or was there a lot of partisanship in the USSR?
            1. tatra
              tatra 8 September 2020 13: 18 New
              -5
              Ha, that is, it was the communists who created YOUR evil anti-Soviet-Russophobic "independence", in which you celebrate the dismemberment of the USSR every year under the spell "we won our freedom and independence"?
              1. Serg65
                Serg65 8 September 2020 13: 34 New
                -3
                Quote: tatra
                that is, it was the communists who created YOUR evil anti-Soviet-Russophobic "independence"

                Of course they are ... or Marcians ??? Communist Gaidar is the son of a prominent and famous political worker, communist Chubais is the son of a high-ranking political worker, communist Yavlinsky is the son of a communist, an honorary employee of the USSR Ministry of Internal Affairs, Hero of Socialist Labor, communist Travkin, Hero of the Soviet Union, communist Grachev ....... more communists to list ?
                1. tatra
                  tatra 8 September 2020 13: 42 New
                  -4
                  HA again. So what, then, the enemies of the communists rage against the communists if they created your "independence-self", in which they gave you this life, in which for 30 years you "foaming at the mouth" prove to the supporters of the communists, like all of you "and now it's better than under the communists "?
                  1. Serg65
                    Serg65 8 September 2020 14: 02 New
                    -4
                    Quote: tatra
                    under which for 30 years you "foaming at the mouth" have been proving to the supporters of the communists, as to all of you, "and now it is better than under the communists"?

                    Yes, I personally do not care ... as there is in the classic ... Whites blow out and rob, red blow out and rob ... so what a difference to us peasants! wink
                2. Polymer
                  Polymer 8 September 2020 20: 17 New
                  -3
                  Quote: Serg65
                  further to list the communists?

                  So far you have listed the "members of the KPSS", not the communists. For some, such a division is convention, rhetoric. For others, the difference is fundamental.
                  1. Serg65
                    Serg65 9 September 2020 08: 25 New
                    -4
                    Quote: Polymer
                    So far you have listed the "members of the KPSS", not the communists.

                    what Communists and the CPSU, completely different substances? However! And who do you think is a communist? For example Voroshilov Kliment Efremovich ... is he a communist?
                    1. Polymer
                      Polymer 9 September 2020 13: 33 New
                      0
                      Quote: Serg65
                      And who do you think is a communist?

                      For example, one of my friends. He was a party organizer at the mine. When perestroika began, he was one of the first to guess where all this would lead. Once, at a meeting in the regional committee, he stood up and bluntly stated that he did not agree with the new course of the party, that this would lead, in his opinion, to the collapse of the CPSU itself, and then the country. Then he put his party card on the table and left.
                      Then, after the collapse, he worked in the trade union - he continued, to the best of his ability, to protect the interests of the workers. Here he is - a communist. Unfortunately, those in the CPSU were in the minority at the beginning of perestroika.
                      For comparison, can everyone who regularly attend church be called true believers with complete confidence? I know that not all of them. So it was with the "members of the CPSU." A party card was needed for a career, that is why they joined the party, and not at all because they were communists by conviction.
                      1. Serg65
                        Serg65 9 September 2020 13: 44 New
                        -5
                        Quote: Polymer
                        For example, one friend of mine

                        In my opinion, I have already heard this story from a friend under a different nickname, but the same Sergey laughing wink
                        And we, Sergey, have already discussed this topic!
                        Quote: Polymer
                        Was a party organizer at the mine

                        And why did he not put his ticket on the table six years earlier, or did he not notice that the management of the mine closed the overfulfillment of the plan with frank additions? Interesting, isn't it Sergey? Or maybe the Donetsk miners were special and didn’t deal with postscripts, but I didn’t understand the man's name? Although the miners' movement of legalized postscripts originated at the Tsentralnaya-Irmino mine in the Luhansk region and probably by some miracle bypassed the Donetsk mines? Well, if so, then I sincerely apologize !!
                      2. Polymer
                        Polymer 9 September 2020 15: 15 New
                        -1
                        Quote: Serg65
                        And we, Sergey, have already discussed this topic!

                        No, it never happened. And to the Donetsk mines, neither I, nor the comrade I told about, have nothing to do with it. So go by.
                        I met him later than the events described, already in the 90s, and then, in the XNUMXs, we worked at the same plant. True, there he was no longer involved in social activities, he worked as a shop manager.
                      3. Polymer
                        Polymer 9 September 2020 15: 24 New
                        0
                        Yes, I don't find a connection between the postscripts and the work of the party organizer.
                      4. Serg65
                        Serg65 11 September 2020 08: 34 New
                        -4
                        Quote: Polymer
                        I can't find a connection between the postscripts and the work of the Party organizer.

                        This is because you, in your youth, do not understand the role of the party organizer in the life of a Soviet enterprise!
                      5. Polymer
                        Polymer 11 September 2020 08: 52 New
                        0
                        Quote: Serg65
                        It's because you don't understand in your youth

                        So ... and how much older are you than me, are you our knowledgeable?
                      6. Serg65
                        Serg65 11 September 2020 10: 54 New
                        -2
                        As much as I have a real idea of ​​the role of the party in the economic life of the USSR! wink
                      7. Polymer
                        Polymer 11 September 2020 15: 19 New
                        0
                        That is, you do not know, but you undertake to judge either about my place of residence or about my age. These are the same and all your "knowledge" - either it's just your personal opinion, or slander.
                      8. Serg65
                        Serg65 15 September 2020 10: 19 New
                        0
                        My friend Sergei, a man who lived consciously, i.e. who has already served in the SA or graduated from a university and started working at Soviet enterprises will never ask a question ..
                        Quote: Polymer
                        I can't find a connection between the postscripts and the work of the Party organizer.

                        If the party is our leader, then what is the use of such a party organizer who does not know how the plant breathes? The party organizer is responsible for fulfilling the production plan on a par with the director and knows perfectly well how his ward director dodges to fulfill the plan! Implementation of the plan often overlapped with criminal liability, but the "conscience" of the communist and the implementation of the plan is much higher than the conventions of the USSR Criminal Code.
                      9. Polymer
                        Polymer 15 September 2020 16: 54 New
                        0
                        Quote: Serg65
                        If the party is our leader, then what is the use of such a party organizer who does not know how the plant breathes?

                        The 1977 constitution, of course, contributed a lot to the bifurcation of power through its Article 6. Then the party nomenclature and bred in huge numbers. However, in the charter of the CPSU there is still no direct instruction to "knock" on the heads of enterprises. The responsibility for the implementation of the plan lay with the director, and the party organizer was only responsible for discussing his personality and, accordingly, the effectiveness of his work - at party meetings. At this point, who both understood and performed their duties.
                        Unfortunately, you still have not understood the difference between the communists and the nomenklatura. I have already said that at the time of the beginning of perestroika, the latter were in the majority in the CPSU. But I will never call them communists.
                        Well, for the record: the Karaganda coal basin did not need to be registered, since it could produce much more coal than the State Planning Committee required of it. The quality of this coal, of course, is much lower than that of Donetsk, but there were no problems with the number of problems.
                      10. Serg65
                        Serg65 16 September 2020 11: 56 New
                        -3
                        Quote: Polymer
                        Unfortunately, you still have not understood the difference between the communists and the nomenklatura.

                        Well, how can I really, for three years boiled in this kitchen, being a Komsomol organizer uch. company, and then the ship! recourse
                        Quote: Polymer
                        I have already said that the latter at the time of the beginning of perestroika were the majority in the CPSU

                        They were in the majority even under Stalin! The 20th Congress is a striking example of this!
                        Quote: Polymer
                        Well, for your reference

                        The Karaganda basin gave more of a plan, because there was still a super-plan, an additional plan, a five-year plan in three years, communist subbotniks to help the starving peoples of Africa, a Stakhanov watch in honor of the "taking of the Bastille"!
                        Quote: Polymer
                        nevertheless, there is no direct instruction in the CPSU charter to "knock" on the heads of enterprises.

                        The CPSU Charter is just a piece of paper compared to the directives of the CCP and the General Department of the CPSU Central Committee !!!!
  • Barnabas
    Barnabas 8 September 2020 12: 04 New
    +2
    As far as I know, Gorbachev now lives in one of the elite dachas near Moscow, he is guarded. And people from "Echo of Moscow" go there to talk and take interviews.
    That is, he does not live in Germany, he lives here.
  • Vadim237
    Vadim237 8 September 2020 12: 56 New
    -3
    Be others instead of Gorbachev and Yeltsin - the dumping of the USSR into a crisis with a further collapse and transition to the market was inevitable, since the beginning of this process started back in the 60s and in the 80s the USSR budget was very well hit by many events with leadership and politics that were not related.
  • askort154
    askort154 8 September 2020 11: 04 New
    +5
    Since then, "reform" has become a household word. Like, you want to ruin the finished present - carry out a reform.
    And since there were dozens of "reformers", it was not difficult for them to destroy a huge country. Especially,
    that they had very interested "consultants and mentors" from the USA. Something in the article did not mention itself
    close to the "family", unsinkable "reformer" - Chubais. negative
    1. tihonmarine
      tihonmarine 8 September 2020 11: 33 New
      +4
      Quote: askort154
      Since then, "reform" has become a household word.

      The words "perestroika, reform, democrat, liberal" have become a common word - at best this is equated to "adherents of the State Department", at worst it is like being a collaborationist during the Second World War. But the essence does not change from this.
  • Alexfly
    Alexfly 8 September 2020 11: 13 New
    0
    This program was proposed, but it was not implemented at all, so you can not pour slop on Yavlinsky, but Yeltsin and his government, a la Chubais, Gaidar and other countries tilted in full ... The question is, where was the "Novichok" in that distant time?
    1. Blackmokona
      Blackmokona 8 September 2020 12: 36 New
      0
      The newcomer wore suitcases to Sobchak
    2. Horon
      Horon 8 September 2020 12: 42 New
      +1
      It was being realized, only these "non-theorists" faced the real laws of economics and threw everything to the side. It's hard to bake a chicken before it hatches! Or harness the horse behind the cart, which is what these talkers tried to do.
  • alex aircraft
    alex aircraft 8 September 2020 11: 15 New
    +4
    Clarification-Ryzhkov was the chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR and not the RSFSR.
  • sledak
    sledak 8 September 2020 11: 22 New
    +3
    [/ quote] But, as you know, the country took a different path: Yegor Gaidar, on the contrary, first "let go of prices", which led to their colossal growth. [Quote]

    As I understand it, Ryzhkov and the theorist Yavlinsky had a different procedure for carrying out reforms, but Gaidar did it his own way ... I also remember that terrible time ...
  • The eye of the crying
    The eye of the crying 8 September 2020 11: 23 New
    +2
    They didn't even try to implement "500 days", so there was no failure.
    1. passerby
      passerby 8 September 2020 17: 11 New
      -2
      Quote: Eye of the Crying
      They didn't even try to implement "500 days", so there was no failure.

      But in fairness, it should be noted that despite the fact that it was not implemented, if they still tried to implement it, it would have failed miserably, because it was initially delusional and over the years it became obvious to everyone who is more or less aware of economics ...
      1. The eye of the crying
        The eye of the crying 8 September 2020 17: 26 New
        0
        Quote: passerby
        if they still tried to implement it, then it would have failed miserably


        The opinion of "everyone who understands more or less" is, of course, very important, but the answer to the question of which would be better - Gaidar's program or Yavlinsky's program is more interesting. It's a shame we will never know.
        1. passerby
          passerby 8 September 2020 17: 57 New
          -3
          Quote: Eye of the Crying
          The opinion of "everyone who understands more or less" is, of course, very important, but the answer to the question of which would be better - Gaidar's program or Yavlinsky's program is more interesting. It's a shame we will never know.


          500 days would lead to exactly the same result as the Gaidar program. Gaidarovskaya, was more consistent, but the result would be the same for both. The liberalization of prices was envisaged by both programs, and this clearly entails the impoverishment of the population in the situation of total deficit that existed in the late USSR. Both of these programs were very late and were based on overly optimistic estimates.
          1. The eye of the crying
            The eye of the crying 8 September 2020 18: 02 New
            0
            Quote: passerby
            500 days would lead to exactly the same result as the Gaidar program


            It is a pity that we do not find out.
  • tihonmarine
    tihonmarine 8 September 2020 11: 24 New
    +3
    the "500 Days" program launched the political career of a previously little-known young economist.
    It is easier to call "the program how to sell Russia in 500 days", which the Democrats and the adherents of the State Department almost did.
  • Pavel57
    Pavel57 8 September 2020 11: 28 New
    -3
    Quote: Doccor18
    It's not even Gorbachov's business. There would be another "patriot". Everything rolled into the abyss since the day of Stalin's death. The impunity and irremovability of bureaucrats, under Khrushchev and after him, slowly led to the death of the world's only Great Just State.


    Stalin was an exception to this system. And a system built around one person will inevitably degrade, which we have witnessed and partly participants.
    1. tatra
      tatra 8 September 2020 11: 43 New
      -4
      Yes, you, enemies of the USSR, many times after the seizure of the republics of the USSR changed each other in the leadership of your "independence" - and the result is always the same - degradation, impoverishment of the country and the majority of the people, sharply increased mortality of the people compared to the USSR. And at the same time, you also have the audacity to criticize the work of the Soviet communists and their supporters, the results of whose work are like the moon to you.
  • voyaka uh
    voyaka uh 8 September 2020 11: 36 New
    +5
    500 days - 1.5 years is not enough, of course.
    It takes 50 years to move from the state economy to at least 10% of the state economy.
    And another 15 years, so that the private was about 75% and the state. 25%. Normal proportion.
    1. tatra
      tatra 8 September 2020 11: 49 New
      -1
      Come on, if the Bolsheviks arranged a transition period from capitalism to socialism for 8-9 years of NEP, then the enemies of the USSR, after the seizure of the USSR, like demoniacs, immediately rushed "come on, destroy, destroy everything Soviet", and imposed their "market economy" already from January 1992.
  • Sahalinets
    Sahalinets 8 September 2020 12: 02 New
    +7
    The ignorance of our reformers is even lazy to comment on. Carry out total privatization in a huge country in a year? What nonsense?
    These little people even never led the housing office, all education was reduced to the economics textbook for the first year.
    according to their calculations, it would lead to lower prices due to growing competition between sellers.

    It's just ridiculous to read such nonsense now. They were terribly far from the real world, where it was profitable for the sellers to raise prices together. But that wasn't in their textbook for American freshmen.
  • Barnabas
    Barnabas 8 September 2020 12: 11 New
    +4
    Rather, not a "failed attempt to reform," but a "successful attempt to finish off" the Soviet economy.
  • Daniil Konovalenko
    Daniil Konovalenko 8 September 2020 12: 20 New
    +1
    ..That is typical, MSG did not come up with anything clever how to combine Ryzhkov's program and the 500 days program .. combine incompatible ..
  • iouris
    iouris 8 September 2020 12: 25 New
    +1
    There was no attempt. Yavlinsky cannot even reform himself. For possession of what classified information was he given "Yabloko"? Now it is a totalitarian sect "I" named after him.
  • 1536
    1536 8 September 2020 12: 26 New
    +3
    The most amazing thing is that people believed all these ... hmm, "economists" and "strong business executives", who were raised in the caves of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and the caverns of Soviet ministries and departments. The rest of the citizens with "the best education in the world" did not even have doubts that soon the fairy tale will tell, but it will not be done soon. No one remembered (and, perhaps, did not know) that the same Scheherazade told her tales for 1001 nights and nothing less.
    However, people believe in card cheaters, thimblers, thieves on trust. True, for the listed contingent, there are corresponding articles of the Criminal Code in all countries and self-respecting states, as well as correctional labor institutions, where they are trying to re-educate them with labor after their adventures. But, as it turned out, for "politicians" in Russia, or for those who managed to call themselves "politicians," there are no laws, either criminal, economic or purely human. And they continue to fool people until the next now final "zamorok" of the population. Some will not be in time, as human life is short. But their work will live on, like people's faith in miracles.
  • Vasilenko Vladimir
    Vasilenko Vladimir 8 September 2020 12: 29 New
    +1
    It was on their behalf that the working group was formed. Grigory Yavlinsky became the "face" of the group
    Yavlinsky absolutely illiterate economist, hence the consequences of reforms
  • Horon
    Horon 8 September 2020 12: 32 New
    +3
    100 days to privatize housing and businesses? These people did not even know what reality was, they were completely stupid or carried out someone's order. Their further rantings were from the same series. Such transformations require a working legislative base, a well-functioning control system, psychological and legal readiness of the population, economic readiness and social security. Osoyu, who wrote the "500 days" program, were as far from the real economy as a politician was from a broom. Now, in hindsight, many understand what a liquid and smelly puddle these individuals have led, but then many did not even understand what was happening. But if someone thinks that now such "magicians" will not work, then they are greatly mistaken! They will always, and will always hide their professional unsuitability behind pompous and circumstantial speeches.
    1. Polymer
      Polymer 8 September 2020 20: 43 New
      +2
      Quote: Horon
      were they completely stupid or were doing someone else's order

      Let me paraphrase a little: they fulfilled someone's order and were completely shameless.
    2. Ascold1901
      Ascold1901 8 September 2020 22: 20 New
      +1
      I wanted to write almost the same thing))) You are ahead)))) The idea itself is IDIOTIC.
      I would like to note that if the country has “... a working legislative base, a well-functioning control system, psychological and legal readiness of the population, economic readiness and social security.”, Then such a reform is not needed.
      1. Horon
        Horon 8 September 2020 22: 54 New
        +1
        And such issues cannot be resolved in 100 days, well if only these issues can be resolved in 3 years, and that is fraught with problems.
  • ufpb
    ufpb 8 September 2020 12: 32 New
    +2
    The "500 Days" program was crowned with success. The socialist system was successfully dismantled and replaced by the capitalist system (what is the "market" one in the ZhO PU?).
  • avdkrd
    avdkrd 8 September 2020 12: 40 New
    +2
    it was not an unsuccessful attempt at reform, but a completely successful program for the destruction of the USSR economy
  • Vadim237
    Vadim237 8 September 2020 12: 49 New
    0
    "500 days" Days of pure XXXXXX.
  • APASUS
    APASUS 8 September 2020 13: 01 New
    +1
    More than half of these "heroes" are still alive. But when they had to hang out on the gallows for what they had done, they turned out to be respected people.
  • CBR600
    CBR600 8 September 2020 13: 07 New
    -1
    Not comments, but vyser. Think about it, boots without a tower, a T-shirt wrapped in a panties!
    USSR, your Central Committee of the CPSU sold it back in 1977. Gaidar and Yeltsin finished the country's economy and its collapse. And who and what did they leave behind?
    What does Yavlinsky have to do with not implementing the program ?? Personally, I don't understand. However, you here ALL accuse him of plundering.
    Don't you understand that a welder is not an economist, and a surgeon is not a tanker? And the economy of the country should be dealt with by economists, not boots without a tower!
  • 7,62h54
    7,62h54 8 September 2020 13: 45 New
    0
    "No time to swing ... we still have a lot of work to do ... together ... well-being ...."
    1. Vadim237
      Vadim237 8 September 2020 16: 37 New
      0
      "There is no time to swing .." It's time for you to build a pump station.
      1. 7,62h54
        7,62h54 8 September 2020 18: 41 New
        +1
        Get your stash
  • Pavel57
    Pavel57 8 September 2020 14: 16 New
    +1
    Quote: voyaka uh
    500 days - 1.5 years is not enough, of course.
    It takes 50 years to move from the state economy to at least 10% of the state economy.
    And another 15 years, so that the private was about 75% and the state. 25%. Normal proportion.

    So the goal was to destroy, not reform.
  • orionvitt
    orionvitt 8 September 2020 15: 30 New
    0
    Shatalin and the team
    Nice surname, Shatalin. You don't have to go further. However, we remember everything perfectly. Burn them in hell. And this g .... yes (radish is a bad person), Yavlisky, is also running for the government, with his rotten epl. And after that, Russia is called a totalitarian state.
    1. Vadim237
      Vadim237 8 September 2020 16: 39 New
      -1
      Yavlinsky is no more as there is no USSR Yeltsin Gaidar and many others from the Central Committee of the CPSU of those who started all this - Calm down and forget.
  • Normal ok
    Normal ok 8 September 2020 23: 17 New
    -1
    Oh, I remember this divorce.
    "You need to hang these people,
    better ideas don't come "
    "Ballad then nails", my interpretation ...
    1. Iskazi
      Iskazi 9 September 2020 05: 36 New
      0
      by and large - very useful, and it's not too late, but there is no one ...
  • Iskazi
    Iskazi 9 September 2020 05: 34 New
    0
    A sad date ..., the most vivid example of the political prostitution of the then leadership and open treason of the power structures, But not by nightfall, the aforementioned Stalin voted against the surplus appropriation system, and until his death he officially had almost 15% in the USSR - NON-STATE SECTOR OF THE ECONOMY .. .. what to say 500 days ... - sheer stupidity.