Military Review

Development of surveillance, reconnaissance and target designation systems for infantry

53

Safran Electronics & Defense has an expanded portfolio of targeting devices. The JIM UC model is one of those based on an uncooled thermosensitive element


Asymmetric conflict, combined with urban terrain and appropriate warfare rules, has increased the need for both direct and indirect fire precision. Accuracy is determined by all links in the chain of destruction and the first link is undoubtedly the identification and capture of the target.

Initially, portable target designation systems, capable of capturing a target and sending its coordinates to the executive system, were available only to special forces or special targets reconnaissance calculations. Now this is far from the case, conventional units are equipped with manual chain reconnaissance devices, the most advanced armies deploy these devices down to platoon level. Typically, such systems have day and night channels, a GPS positioning system, a magnetic compass with digital display and an eye-safe laser rangefinder. Additional features and tools can be added, such as video recording, photography, laser designator, and an astronomical compass in case of GPS signal failure.

The dismounted units undoubtedly attach great importance to the weight of all components of their equipment without exception, and therefore the manufacturers are making considerable efforts to reduce it. In observation, detection and target designation devices, the thermal or night channel is one of the key subsystems. Today, there are two main options available - cooled and uncooled arrays of sensitive elements or microbolometers operating in the mid-wave infrared region of the spectrum (3-5 μm) and in the long-wavelength infrared region of the spectrum (8-14 μm), respectively. The range of action is definitely higher for cooled sensors, which, however, need a heavy cooling device with high power consumption and a few minutes to cool down, whereas uncooled matrices do not have this problem, they are activated in just a few seconds.



Thermal imaging systems use two different Lynred microbolometers. Microbolometer 640x480 VGA measuring 16,5x16,5 mm and pitch 12 microns (photo above) and microbolometer 24x24 mm with pitch 17 microns

In Europe, one of the key players in this area is Lynred, formed in mid-2019 through the merger of Sofradir and its subsidiary ULIS. The company has made significant progress in reducing the size of both cooled and uncooled dies. According to Lynred, "the transition to a new generation is currently underway, with cooled dies with 15 µm pitch and uncooled dies with 17 µm pitch being replaced by new dies with a smaller pitch, 10 µm and 12 µm, respectively." This allows, at the same resolution, to reduce the size of the matrix and, as a result, to reduce the weight of one of the heaviest components of a handheld target reconnaissance device - the lens. The optical glass lenses used in the lens, as well as the frame they fit into, are relatively heavy. The lens diameter is determined by the focal length, as well as by the size of the sensor, the larger the latter, the larger the image field that the lens must create, and the larger the lens size. In addition, one should not forget that sooner or later the laws of physics will get in the way of decreasing the step. According to Lynred, the pitch of 12 μm achieved in LWIR (near [long wave] IR) sensors may be the smallest, but in MWIR sensors (mid [medium wave] IR), a decrease to 5-6 μm. Obviously, the same is true for SWIR type sensors (far [short-wave] IR spectrum) operating in the 0,7-2,5 µm range, which, however, are not yet used in products of the class of devices considered in this article.

In addition to reducing the size of matrices in cooled sensors, we are seeing another direction of development. Raising the operating temperature of the sensors reduces energy consumption as well as cooling times with a positive effect on availability. High Operating Temperature (HOT) matrices use new technologies that require higher temperatures than 80-90 ° Kelvin for standard sensors. Lynred offers a low power mercury cadmium telluride sensor that operates at 110 ° K, which saves more than 10% energy, while FLIR has developed a Type 2 Superlattice (T2SL) solution that operates at 120 ° K. However, it is already clear that typical HOT sensors will have to operate at temperatures from 130 to 160 ° K; technologies are being developed to achieve this.


The Swiss company Safran-Vectronix AG developed a very lightweight system by adding an uncooled heat-sensitive sensor to its Moskito device, which was originally based on a luminance tube. The new device received the designation Moskito TI

Significantly, lower power consumption can result in smaller battery sizes, as the power source is another “heavy” component in a handheld optoelectronic system. Specialty lithium-ion batteries have a higher specific energy, which allows them to be lighter and lighter than standard commercial batteries. However, some customers prefer the second solution, usually based on AA-size elements available anywhere in the world. In the past two years, the specific energy of lithium-ion cells has increased by 25%, from 200 to 255 Wh / kg. However, according to leading battery manufacturers, this technology is close to depleting its potential. New solutions are being developed, for example, lithium-sulfur modules providing about 400 Wh / kg. However, to take full advantage of this new technology, there are a number of hurdles to overcome, such as degradation at low temperatures, low (double-digit) charge cycles, and manufacturing problems for these batteries. In this case, do not forget about another important factor - cost. As beautiful and wonderful as a particular model is, its high cost can become an obstacle to deployment in the military.

The market for surveillance, reconnaissance and target designation systems is constantly evolving, following in the wake of customers' needs: there is an intense struggle with weight, resolution is increasing, their functionality is expanding, various subsystems are added, for example, long-range laser pointers. Although the need for sighting systems is growing around the world, Asia is considered one of the most promising markets, where large investments will be made in the next 3-5 years in the modernization of soldiers' equipment. This article is not intended to replace a complete catalog, it only describes the latest products in this area, to facilitate comparison, the main data are summarized in tables.


The Sophie-XF / VGA is one of the most powerful systems in the Thales opto-coupler portfolio. Based on a cooled microbolometer, this system features image stabilization and fire correction functions.

Safran Electronics & Defense and its Swiss subsidiary Safran-Vectronix AG offer several systems with cooled and uncooled sensors. Safran has developed the JIM product line, the top product of which is the JIM HR chilled unit, while the uncooled unit is designated JIM UC. Sagem designers have also created a lightweight and compact, easy-to-use JIM Compact system. A modular long-range system that easily integrates into a digital architecture hit the market in 2016. The device, the matrix of which takes 3 minutes to cool, has a detection range of a person and a vehicle of more than 7 km and 10 km, respectively. Night and day color TV channels have the same field of view, wide 13,5 ° and narrow 4,5 °. The third channel is based on a low-light camera with a wide 6,2 ° field of view and a narrow 4,5 ° field of view. The device has a built-in laser rangefinder with a range of 12 km. The JIM Compact device is equipped with continuous electronic magnification 1x-4x, image stabilization modes, multi-mode image alignment, as well as “laser spot observation” (the ability to observe a laser spot with a thermal imaging camera when the target is illuminated with a laser designator). Compared to previous systems, its weight and volume have been reduced by at least 40%, this result is also achieved by reducing the weight of the battery in half while maintaining the operating time. Recently, another optional mode has been added, called TELD (Tireur d'Elite Longue Distance - long range sniper). TELD, developed in collaboration with the French command of the special operations forces, measures the distance to the target and according to the firing table based on the type weapons and ammunition calculates the amendments, displaying them on the display. According to Safran, the TELD device increases the probability of hitting a moving target on the first shot from 20% to 90% (results for 10 shots fired by trainee snipers at a target moving at 8 km / h from a distance of 400 meters). An existing JIM Compact can be easily retrofitted with TELD via software upgrade. In addition to the ability to capture and store photos and videos, the JIM Compact has analog and digital video output and can optionally be equipped with wireless Bluetooth and Wi-Fi.

Development of surveillance, reconnaissance and target designation systems for infantry

Uncooled device Recon V UL (Ultra Light) from FLIR, its thermal imaging channel is based on the latest 540x480 matrix with a pitch of 12 microns of its own design

The Moskito, developed by Safran-Vectronix AG, is arguably the smallest and lightest device for 5/3 surveillance and positioning. It boasts a 5x daytime optical channel and a 10x nighttime channel based on the Photonis XR-6 image intensifier, and its laser rangefinder can measure distances up to 6,25 km. In order to achieve a higher level system, Vectronix replaced the brightness amplification channel with an uncooled thermal channel, giving birth to the Moskito TI instrument. It features a 12x daylight optical channel and a CMOS low-light channel, both with a 1 ° field of view, while the thermal channel has a XNUMX ° field of view. A GPS receiver as well as an eye-safe Class XNUMX laser pointer are optional.

The JIM Compact system is in service with 12 NATO countries, the last order for it came from Denmark in October 2019. Two months later, the Swiss army signed a contract for the supply of over 1000 JIM Compact and Moskito TI multifunctional systems.


The multifunctional uncooled Sophie-MF bio-eyepiece guarantees machine detection at a distance of over 10 km

Thales has developed a complete line of handheld sighting systems called the Sophie, ranging from the cooled Sophie-XF / VGA to the uncooled Sophie MR. The newest system in the Sophie Ultima family was shown at Eurosatory 2018. The aim of the development was to reduce weight, increase range, readiness for joint combat operations, improved modularity and scalability. The four-in-one system is based on a cooled MWIR range sensor and weighs close to uncooled systems. The detection range is 12 and 8 km for a person and a machine, respectively, and the recognition and identification ranges are 4,5 km and 8,5 km and 2,3 and 4,5 km. Cooling time has been reduced to just 3 minutes, almost half the time of previous systems. The thermal imaging channel has an optical magnification giving a continuous field of view from 20 ° to 2 °. In addition to the typical daytime color TV channel, one of two new key elements is the integration of an optical channel with a 7x35 lens and a 26 ° field of view, which provides the best picture in terms of color and lighting; thermal fusion mode is also available. As for the color TV channel, it allows recording video images from the thermal imaging channel, it is also possible to record on a removable micro-SD card. The eye-safe laser rangefinder has a maximum range of 8 km. Sophie Ultima is equipped with GPS system with civil access code C / A (Coarse Acquisition) and NMEA protocol for connection with other systems. Also available are USB2, Bluetooth, WiFi, Ethernet and RS232 interfaces. The Sophie Ultima is equipped with Image Stabilization, Autofocus and Ultra High Resolution modes. The device has a high level of modularity and can accept additional plug-and-play items. On the left side of the device, you can install such modules as, for example, a SWIR camera, a laser pointer, an astrocompass, a telecamera with a zoom, a communication module of the LTE (Long-Term Evolution) standard, allowing you to adapt the system to the task ahead.


On the left side of the Sophie Ultima device, additional modules can be installed in order to maximize the adaptation of the device to the performance of a combat mission

No announcements have been made for this new product since the day it was shown, but according to information obtained at Eurosatory 2018, Thales was supposed to deliver or is close to delivering the first systems to the French Directorate of Armaments. The company has begun developing a new system from the Sophie line, another manual targeting system is planned to be called Sophie Optima. It will be equipped with an uncooled 1280x1024 microbolometer with a dual field of view of 10 ° or 20 °, operating in the range of 8-12 microns. Abandoning the continuous magnification and cooling machine will further reduce the weight, although, of course, the detection and identification ranges will decrease.


The British company Thermoteknix has developed the TiCAM 1000C targeting and positioning eyepiece. Based on the same design, the company also ships the TiCAM 1000B without the daytime CCD color channel. All systems comply with the MIL-STD standard and are classified as military export systems. The company employs approximately 25 engineers who are responsible for all electronics, software and mechanical design. Its products use a variety of uncooled long-wave infrared sensors as well as its own patented shutterless technology. Production of the TiCAM 1000C began in 2018 and since then Thermoteknix has achieved significant commercial success in South Africa, Europe, Asia and the Middle East, although exact customer information is not available at this time. Both TiCAM 1000B and C models are equipped with a visible or “invisible” laser marker, a video and photo recorder, and a standard 75 mm lens with an 8,3 ° x 6,2 ° field of view with a range of 2900 meters at night. An alternative 60mm lens with a 10,4 ° x 7,8 ° field of view and a 2350 meter human detection distance can be installed, reducing weight by about 100 grams. A lens with a diameter of 100 mm is also available, the detection distance of a person in this case is increased to 3900 meters, and the field of view is reduced to 6,2 ° x 4,7 °. The TiCAM 1000C can be integrated with optional triangulation and projectile drop location modes for fire control and artillery support, as well as pre-planning. In addition to direct front-end support for battle management software, Thermoteknix has developed its own ConnectIR Android application that allows images from TiCAM thermal and daytime cameras and target location data to be transferred to connected cellular, Wi-Fi or Bluetooth devices. This application allows users to exchange data without the cost or complexity inherent in a fully deployed battle management system or communications infrastructure. According to available information, the British company intended to showcase its successful TiCAM line, as well as other additional accessories to it at Eurosatory 2020, but the coronavirus prevented.


The Finnish company Senop, part of the Patria Group, has developed two uncooled systems, Lisa and Lilly. The latter has an optical daytime channel, the image from which can be recorded thanks to a translucent prism

The Finnish company Senop, part of the Patria Group, has two uncooled monocular targeting systems named Lisa and Lilly in its portfolio. The first has two daytime channels, one based on a color CCD camera with a 2,9 ° x 2,3 ° field of view, and the second optical one with 4,6x magnification provides an optimal daytime image; thermal imaging channel with a field of view of 6,2 ° x 3,8 ° features digital zoom. The Class 1 laser rangefinder has a range of 6 km, which corresponds to the maximum detection range of vehicles, while a human detection range is 3 km. The Lisa is equipped with a USB connector, video output, RS232 connector and Bluetooth wireless protocol. The Lilly model is lighter and smaller, has an optical daytime channel with a magnification of 5x and a field of view of 8,0 ° x 5,9 °, the same characteristics as the thermal imaging channel. Thanks to the translucent prism, the optical image is split into two, one sees the user's eye, and its copy is a high-resolution daytime camera used to capture video and photos. With one direct vision optical channel, no energy is required. It is possible to combine images of two daytime channels, live and television. The range of the laser rangefinder is the same as that of the Lisa; however, an optional rangefinder with a range of 15 km is offered. The detection ranges are somewhat reduced and amount to 5 km and 2 km, respectively. The Lilly system is equipped with an eye-safe laser pointer and communicates over the same channels as the Lisa with the addition of Ethernet and WLAN.


Thermoteknix has developed the TiCAM 1000 family, with the TiCAM 1000C as its flagship product.

The German company Jenoptik has developed a multifunctional thermal imager Nixus Bird, which, in addition to the uncooled night channel, has a direct view optical channel with a magnification of 7x and an optical aperture of 40 mm. The original system boasts a night channel with an 11 ° x 8 ° field of view, which can detect vehicles at a distance of 5 km. In the mid-2010s, the company decided to begin production of a long-range variant, after which the Nyxus Bird device became available in MR and LR variants. The latter has a lens with a longer focal length and a narrower field of view of 7 ° x 5 °, which can detect vehicles at a distance of more than 7 km.


The Engerek 8 reconnaissance and targeting device of the Turkish company Transvaro uses a cooled HEOT sensor developed by FLIR, which reduces power consumption and cooling time

One of the latest additions to the hand-held designator category has arrived in Turkey. Transvaro has unveiled the Engerek 8, which uses a 640x512 MWIR FPA cooled detector, FLIR's latest development based on T2SL technology with 15 μm pitch. 15x optical zoom allows continuous adjustment of the field of view from 2,04 ° x 1,63 ° to 20,16 ° x 16,9 °, 8x electronic zoom is also available. The daytime channel is based on a 1920x1080 color camera with a 30x magnification, its field of view varies from 2,84 ° x 2,27 ° to 27,86 ° x 22,44 °. Transvaro claims a detection range of over 8,5 km for growth targets and 21 km for typical NATO standard targets measuring 2,3x2,3 meters and corresponding identification ranges of 1,4 and 3,5 km. The laser rangefinder has a range of over 10 km for NATO standard targets. The built-in internal memory of the Engerek 8 system allows you to record up to 4 hours of video in MP4 / AVI formats, as well as photos in jpg format.


The Israeli company Elbit Systems offers one refrigerated and one uncooled system. The first of them, Coral-CR, is equipped with a thermal imaging channel with continuous magnification and a field of view from 2,5 ° x 2 ° to 12,5 ° x 10 °, the day channel has a wide field of view of 10 °, and a narrow one - 2,5 °. The detection range of living targets is 5 km and 11 km of vehicles. The significantly lighter Mini Coral features a 6 ° x 4,5 ° fixed lens for day and night channels and a 2,5 km laser rangefinder; the detection ranges of the device are 4,8 km for cars and 3 km for people. Both systems are equipped with a day / night blending mode.


Israeli company Elbit Systems developed the Coral family, which includes the Coral-CR cooled system (pictured) and the Mini Coral uncooled system.

Although the US military is close to getting the Leonardo DRS's new Joint Effects Targeting System (JETS) for special forces, numerous companies are not idle, periodically introducing new manual surveillance and reconnaissance systems. The US Marine Corps recently signed two contracts with Northrop Grumman and Elbit Systems of America to develop prototypes for the Next Generation Handheld Targeting System. BAE Systems has developed the HAMMER (Handheld Azimuth Measuring, Marking, Electro-optic imaging & Ranging) device, which includes an astronomical compass for accurate positioning even in the absence of a signal GPS.


The American company FUR has developed an uncooled Recon V system operating in the MWIR range

The latest developments from FLIR are the cooled Recon V and the uncooled Recon V Ultra Lite. The thermal imaging channel has a magnification of 10x and a changing field of view from 20 ° x 15 ° to 2 ° x 1,5 °, the Recon V model has a built-in electronic stabilization system. Not all the characteristics of the device are available, although the range of the laser rangefinder is 10 km. The Recon V is hot swappable, meaning batteries can be changed without shutting down the system. Internal memory can store up to 1000 images. The Recon V Ultra Lite model is based on the latest 640x480 FPA matrix with a pitch of 12 microns of its own design and, as a result, the system is compact and relatively lightweight, while the daytime channel has a resolution of 5 megapixels. Super-wide 12,2 ° x 6,9 ° field of view, 6 ° x 3,3 ° wide field of view and 4,5 ° x 1,6 ° narrow field of view are available in thermal imaging channel, 6 ° x 3,3 ° field of view and 3 ° x 1,7 ° are available in the day channel. The range of a laser rangefinder operating at a wavelength of 850 nm exceeds 10 km. The Recon V Ultra Lite has built-in digital video output, as well as Wi-Fi, Bluetooth and NFC wireless connectivity.
Author:
53 comments
Ad

The site "Voennoye Obozreniye" is looking for authors for the news section. Requirements for applicants: literacy, responsibility, efficiency, inexhaustible creative energy, experience in copywriting or journalism, the ability to quickly analyze text and check facts, write concisely and interestingly. The work is paid. Contact: [email protected]

Information
Dear reader, to leave comments on the publication, you must to register.

I have an account? Sign in

  1. Mavrikiy
    Mavrikiy 6 September 2020 05: 58 New
    -3
    The performance is definitely higher for cooled sensors, which, however, require a heavy cooling device with high power consumption and a few minutes to cool down, whereas uncooled matrices do not have this problem, they are activated in just a few seconds.
    It looks like an atomic battery is needed and more than one. repeat PB must be covered with an electronic warfare cap. And let them send signals.
    1. Bar1
      Bar1 8 September 2020 18: 30 New
      +1
      ours are not, or what? What are these Putin and Shoigu doing there?
      1. yehat2
        yehat2 25 September 2020 13: 59 New
        0
        they finance nanochubays.
        there is no more money for anything.
  2. rocket757
    rocket757 6 September 2020 05: 58 New
    +1
    Cool!
    All branches of the military are becoming extremely high-tech.
    So soon the tactics of the subunits will be "calculated" by tactical computers .... the officers can be completely without brains!
    The main thing is technical equipment and the same high-tech intelligence!
    What kind of art of battle, war, soulless machines will count and command everything!
    1. carstorm 11
      carstorm 11 6 September 2020 06: 19 New
      +2
      this is unlikely. there everything is according to templates and the commander can and should think outside the box. pump and trust your intuition.
      1. rocket757
        rocket757 6 September 2020 06: 33 New
        +1
        Schazh z z adepts of the AI ​​sect will wake up and begin to read odes to their deity!
        Vera, she is such a thing, no doubt, only one, the most correct point of view !!!
        1. carstorm 11
          carstorm 11 6 September 2020 07: 33 New
          +1
          well, you can understand them. this is the future. but no matter how the AI ​​develops, it will never be able to intuitively make decisions. I really love hockey. here is Ovechkin. look at him on the landing. he doesn't do a lot of beautiful feints or masterful strokes. but he is an elite sniper because it is on intuition that he takes exactly those places on the site from where he gets to where he needs to go. meter in any direction and will not hit. but he is where you need to be. or remember how the bus comes to the stop and you manage among the crowd to take the place where the doors will open and you will go in first))) these are of course oak examples, but quite explaining everything for yourself)
      2. SovAr238A
        SovAr238A 6 September 2020 13: 35 New
        +3
        Quote: carstorm 11
        this is unlikely. there everything is according to templates and the commander can and should think outside the box. pump and trust your intuition.

        Are the textbooks on tactics hammered into VU for years - these are not templates?
        Any action on the battlefield is calculated.
        Or a person over the past 50 years, and becomes a template.
        Just more or less repeatable.
        But almost all actions can be predicted if all possible options are calculated ...
        But people manage to calculate the actions of other people ...
        They do not guess, namely, calculate, according to the analysis of all surrounding factors and the situation in the complex.
        1. rocket757
          rocket757 6 September 2020 13: 44 New
          +2
          Quote: SovAr238A
          Are textbooks on tactics hammered into VU for years - these are not templates

          Is it NEW TEXTBOOKS, CHARTERS, is written by someone who always follows a textbook and templates ???
          Suvorov, Ushakov, Nelson and many other outstanding generals won by textbooks, by templates ???
          That's why they became outstanding, winners, because they acted outside the box !!!! And then they or from them wrote new textbooks !!!
          There are no boundaries of knowledge and perfection for a creative person !!!
          1. My doctor
            My doctor 6 September 2020 15: 57 New
            +3
            Quote: rocket757
            That is why they became outstanding winners, because they acted outside the box !!!

            I, as an AI adept, will say. That just the AI ​​and thinks by human standards is very unpredictable. In games with a clear set of formal rules, opposing AI is pointless. Another conversation when it comes to recreating the internal display of the external world by artificial intelligence, in fact, about consciousness. Here it is really not even clear how far or close we are from the target.
            1. rocket757
              rocket757 6 September 2020 16: 09 New
              +2
              It is difficult to judge what is not just NOT, even agreed, one precise description is NOT.
              Whether you want it or not, you will have to wait for the creation of something that the majority will accept, admit, it is HE. AI!
              This is a normal way of development of human consciousness, the time will come, suitable conditions will develop, logical changes will take place!
              In the meantime, confusion and controversy ... mostly empty.
              Truth, it will appear, but later.
            2. Momotomba
              Momotomba 7 September 2020 11: 15 New
              0
              Quote: MyVrach
              AI and thinks in human terms is very unpredictable

              Kasparov seemed to be the first to play with the AI ​​and lost, because AI moves were unpredictable and incomprehensible to humans.
              But what if at some point in the battle the AI ​​decides that it just needs to sacrifice a company, a platoon ... but at least one person ?? Who will then explain to the family that it was so necessary? AI is unlikely to be able to ...
              1. My doctor
                My doctor 8 September 2020 22: 02 New
                0
                Quote: Momotomba
                Kasparov seemed to be the first to play with the AI ​​and lost, because AI moves were unpredictable and incomprehensible to humans.

                This is not AI, but a program of algorithms and in addition the computational power of a supercomputer. In fact, Kasparov played directly with the programmers. Closer to AI are programs based on machine learning algorithms. As an example of AlphaGo.
                1. Momotomba
                  Momotomba 9 September 2020 19: 16 New
                  0
                  Quote: MyVrach
                  This is not AI, but a program of algorithms and in addition the computational power of a supercomputer. In fact, Kasparov played directly with the programmers. Closer to AI are programs based on machine learning algorithms. As an example of AlphaGo.

                  I may be wrong, but the super-program that beat Kasparov was loaded with "100-500" chess games, but the machine made a move on the basis of which. Isn't it a MACHINE LEARNING ALGORITHM? Based on the experience gained, perform actions in a different environment.
                  1. My doctor
                    My doctor 9 September 2020 19: 53 New
                    0
                    first google search result
                    AlphaZero learned how to play chess in four hours, and then defeated Stockfish ...
                    AlphaZero has only implemented the rules of chess, not the strategies and algorithms of the game. The program learned all this by itself. If earlier all chess programs memorized the moves made by people, then the new generation of intelligence acquires all the skills by playing with itself.
                    1. Momotomba
                      Momotomba 9 September 2020 21: 19 New
                      0
                      Self-study is great! I have no doubt that in a number of areas AI with such abilities is needed. The question is ethical. Should you trust the lives of AI people?
                      1. My doctor
                        My doctor 10 September 2020 20: 00 New
                        0
                        Quote: Momotomba
                        Self-study is great! I have no doubt that in a number of areas AI with such abilities is needed. The question is ethical. Should you trust the lives of AI people?

                        They have been doing this for a long time. As an example:
                        The car is being driven by autopilot and an abnormal emergency has arisen on the road. On the way were, for example, a woman with a child. And in order to avoid a collision, the car needs to roll and crash into the wall, as a result of which the passenger will die. What should AI do?
                      2. Momotomba
                        Momotomba 11 September 2020 06: 53 New
                        0
                        Quote: MyVrach
                        What should AI do?

                        Start slowing down for a start. request
                      3. My doctor
                        My doctor 11 September 2020 18: 28 New
                        0
                        Quote: Momotomba
                        Start slowing down for a start.

                        belay clear
                      4. Momotomba
                        Momotomba 11 September 2020 18: 56 New
                        0
                        Do you have a more specific answer to your question?
  3. Lopatov
    Lopatov 6 September 2020 18: 47 New
    +3
    Quote: SovAr238A
    Are the textbooks on tactics hammered into VU for years - these are not templates?

    No.
    The toolkit is given there.

    If a textbook for a painter describes how to priming canvas and other technologies, this does not mean that AI can create a picture equal to "Girl with Peaches"
  • yehat2
    yehat2 25 September 2020 14: 01 New
    0
    without knowing a cloud of patterns, the commander will not be able to show any sane initiative.
    It will be either too pathetic or too long. So you need both templates and a smart
  • The leader of the Redskins
    The leader of the Redskins 6 September 2020 06: 59 New
    +1
    I do not know.
    I read and felt like a dinosaur, how high-tech everything has become.
    1. rocket757
      rocket757 6 September 2020 07: 31 New
      +1
      Everything is changing in the army, it's logical, progress!
      It also changes in everyday life, in industry.
      That which is near, passes by itself, we are used to it! And we are already far from the army and sometimes the new items we learn about are perceived as a revelation! This is normal, this is natural.
    2. cat Rusich
      cat Rusich 6 September 2020 23: 18 New
      +1
      Nazarius, crocodiles appeared 83,5 million years ago in the Late Cretaceous period - they survived the dinosaurs and today in Africa it is necessary to cross the river very carefully. Flies were before dinosaurs, they survived dinosaurs ... they will survive humans. All "high technologies" work only in an organized structure. As an example - with the help of the observation system - "smart binoculars" - the exact coordinates of the location of a group of enemy soldiers were obtained - reconnaissance transmits the coordinates to the "headquarters" ... and this is all - there is no ammunition, then there is no order, then the coordinates are where- then they got lost in the "headquarters" ...
      1. psiho117
        psiho117 7 September 2020 20: 16 New
        0
        Quote: cat Rusich
        As an example - using the observation system - "smart binoculars" - the exact coordinates of the location of a group of enemy soldiers were obtained - reconnaissance transmits the coordinates to the "headquarters" ...

        Your example is rapidly becoming obsolete even at the current technological level, let alone the systems of tomorrow, which are now being tested.
        Now all technically developed countries are removing the item
        reconnaissance sends coordinates to headquarters
        and the subsequent lowering of the order to open fire by the authorities - until the order reaches the battery - the enemy is already bye-bye.
        In a network-centric war, the enemy group must be covered with the nearest available means of fire destruction, it is enough just to load the coordinates for the strike into the tactical network.

        And the war of tomorrow will be even more interesting: All units are connected in one network, what one sees - then everyone sees. Advanced algorithms process all information coming from soldiers / armored vehicles and automatically issue an order to open fire.
        As soon as an enemy is noticed, a blow immediately follows, which is automatically inflicted by an ACS, an automatic mortar, a loitering ammunition or a drone.
        1. cat Rusich
          cat Rusich 7 September 2020 20: 29 New
          0
          Dmitry, - "the war of tomorrow" - the commanders-in-chief of the warring parties sit down at the "battle table" - start a duel in the "strategic computer strategy" - the forces of the parties are loaded into the "strategy" and begin ... whoever won in the "strategy" is the WINNER ...
          1. psiho117
            psiho117 7 September 2020 20: 38 New
            0
            Quote: cat Rusich
            whoever won in "strategy" is the WINNER.

            Heh .. bully The winner is the one who arranges the disconnect to the enemy))
  • bk0010
    bk0010 6 September 2020 13: 19 New
    +1
    Quote: rocket757
    What kind of art of battle, war, soulless machines will count and command everything!
    And everything has been so long without cars: have you heard about the regulations?
    1. rocket757
      rocket757 6 September 2020 13: 47 New
      +1
      The charter is not an icon, it is not necessary to pray ... By the way, the charter changes when it gets old!
      By the way, CREATIVE, TALENTED PEOPLE change it, who understand the very essence of the subject, and do not flatten their foreheads on something solid in stupid faith!
      1. bk0010
        bk0010 6 September 2020 13: 55 New
        +3
        Quote: rocket757
        The charter is not an icon, it is not necessary to pray ... By the way, the charter changes when it gets old!
        Praying - no, obeying - yes. If you do not adhere to the charter and lose, you will be shot. If you do not lose, they will be punished, saying that acting under the charter you would have won more. The rear and the neighbors also act according to the charter, and they expect the same from you, they will ruin all plans for them. Why did I write all this: the military has long been acting according to templates and objecting if someone excels (intuition has application either at the platoon level or at the front level), so computerization will fundamentally change nothing, it will just be easier for headquarters to draw documents. In what way did Suvorov not act according to the charter?
        1. rocket757
          rocket757 6 September 2020 14: 24 New
          +2
          About Suvorov I won't tell you right away, I don't want to get confused ... but about Ushakov ??? He certainly REWRITED, one might say, the charters of the battleships of the ships and much more.
          Charter is a consequence of the analysis of the past war, the previous period, this is a guide to action, but ... in general, the topic is deeper than one might imagine.
          I'm not a theorist, I just have my own opinion, which is not necessarily correct ... that's all.
          1. bk0010
            bk0010 6 September 2020 14: 25 New
            +1
            Quote: rocket757
            He certainly REWRITED the statutes
            Exactly, I rewrote, not violated.
            1. rocket757
              rocket757 6 September 2020 14: 39 New
              +3
              I will not argue, although remember this illustrative episode from the film about Ushakov. If the filmmakers did not distort the events, then in the first episode of the battle with the Turks, he nevertheless violated the charter and disposition of the linear battle adopted then. But the winners are not judged and ... then there was an episode with Potemkin, when he CONFIRMED that Ushakov had already done so.
              Those. first the event that led to the victory, then the approval of the change in the charter by the superior commander.
              I can’t vouch for the accuracy and chronology, this is a FILM, but it makes me think!
              PS I was not a malicious violator of the charter, I consider it an IMPORTANT, NECESSARY condition for the normal functioning of the military, but I had to violate the charter, of necessity .... I did not have to serve in the Kremlin units, but very, very far from all that.
              1. Momotomba
                Momotomba 7 September 2020 11: 21 New
                +1
                Do not adhere to the Rule of the Yaki of the Blind Wall, for in it the orders and rules are written, but there are no times and cases!)
  • Hagen
    Hagen 6 September 2020 15: 15 New
    0
    Quote: rocket757
    So soon the tactics of the units will be "calculated" by tactical computers

    At the same time, the strength of the means of counteraction (detection and suppression) of these systems also increases. Schwabe's recently announced detection and suppression of surveillance and targeting systems is an example. The whole question is, what is cheaper and can be more widely distributed among the troops? Or maybe it’s too early to write off open sights and old-fashioned ways of target reconnaissance by simple observation with the naked eye for scrap? After all, the proposed device will not only reveal the presence of observation of the object, but will determine the location of the reconnaissance group and can give target designation for its destruction. So each measure will find its own countermeasure, and the result of the fight can be reset to zero.
    1. rocket757
      rocket757 6 September 2020 15: 23 New
      +2
      This opposition will last forever.
      A man, a universal means of intelligence with a wide range of "reconnaissance means" as well as an analytical command center in itself.
      You can replace many of its functions with advanced technical means, but in aggregate ... so far there is not even talk about it!
  • Rostislav
    Rostislav 6 September 2020 11: 40 New
    +4
    And what is being done on this front? I did not see Russian manufacturers in the review, which is upsetting.
    1. IS-80_RVGK2
      IS-80_RVGK2 6 September 2020 13: 54 New
      +2
      We have camouflage robes and patriotism. So we will win!
    2. BAI
      BAI 6 September 2020 19: 36 New
      0
      Because we have it - "SS".
      1. psiho117
        psiho117 7 September 2020 20: 23 New
        0
        Quote: BAI
        Because we have it - "SS".

        Maximum - chipboard.
        And then - the civilian market is full of such rubbish. It is no different from the military - the same French matrices and Sino-Taiwanese electronics ...
        Somewhere, something like import substitution has been made (and even domestic sights have been promised to be made on the Armata) - but so far the results are not visible.
  • lucul
    lucul 6 September 2020 12: 29 New
    +1
    Initially, portable target designation systems capable of capturing a target and sending its coordinates to the executive system were available only to special forces or special target reconnaissance crews. Now this is far from the case, conventional units are equipped with manual chain reconnaissance devices, the most advanced armies deploy these devices down to platoon level.

    Just about, and we need to keep up in this field.
  • Zaurbek
    Zaurbek 6 September 2020 14: 29 New
    0
    Where are the companies from the Russian Federation located here? At what stage?
    1. BAI
      BAI 6 September 2020 19: 35 New
      0
      On the same (at least).
  • NF68
    NF68 6 September 2020 16: 31 New
    0
    I can imagine how much all this pleasure is worth.
    1. psiho117
      psiho117 7 September 2020 20: 36 New
      +1
      Here is a page with prices for hunting:
      https://opticstrade.com/teplovizionnye_pricely
      The Chinese are cheaper, the refineries and Daedalus are already much more expensive.
      "Shahin" was bought almost 6 years ago.
  • BAI
    BAI 6 September 2020 19: 34 New
    +1
    "If you see, then they see you." All these toys become an excellent target for the means of destruction of optical-electronic surveillance equipment operating in an automatic mode. And they are only suitable for fighting an enemy who is obviously technically lagging behind - i.e. against the partisans.
    1. Azimuth
      Azimuth 6 September 2020 21: 26 New
      0
      The system of counteraction from night devices needs to be developed. Germanium optics should glare well at night. The camouflage system has not been canceled. Active interference. False targets.
  • KSVK
    KSVK 6 September 2020 22: 43 New
    0
    Quote: BAI
    "If you see, then they see you." All these toys become an excellent target for the means of destruction of optical-electronic surveillance equipment operating in an automatic mode. And they are only suitable for fighting an enemy who is obviously technically lagging behind - i.e. against the partisans.

    You are not right. Basically, these devices work in a passive mode and do not "flicker". Active mode is the determination of the distance to the object. Then yes. But even then, it will not be possible to detect a short pulse of a laser invisible to the eye and immediately determine its location. But the "counter-sniper" devices glow in full growth. And, by the way, on some devices in the photo in the article, anti-glare hoods are clearly visible, which work well against "counter-sniper" systems.
  • KSVK
    KSVK 6 September 2020 22: 52 New
    0
    Quote: Zaurbek
    Where are the companies from the Russian Federation located here? At what stage?

    And not on any. We do not have our own microbolometers. None. Everything that we do is done on imported matrices. And they are under sanctions now. Although it seems like the Chinese have started to do something.
    The question is not so much about the thermal imager itself as such, but about creating a multifunctional device in one case. With all its electronics and GLONASS, which is either there or not. I am afraid that our troops will be able to receive such a device of OWN development VERY long time ago.