Military Review

American anti-aircraft machine guns

67

Since the advent of military airplanes, machine guns have become one of the most effective means of dealing with them. At first, these were standard infantry models, used from standard machines or handicraft devices for anti-aircraft fire. As the altitude and flight speed of combat aircraft, as well as their security, increased, specially designed multi-barreled and large-caliber anti-aircraft machine-gun mounts were adopted, into the ammunition of which armor-piercing incendiary and tracer incendiary cartridges were specially introduced to increase the effectiveness of firing at air targets. This approach fully applied to the American anti-aircraft machine guns, created in the interwar period and during the Second World War.


The first American machine gun used for firing at air targets was the Colt-Browning M1895. it weapondesigned by John Browning was purchased by the American fleet in 1896. At the same time, the 6 mm Lee Navy cartridge was used in the fleet, and the 6-30 Krag cartridge was used in the army. Subsequently, the machine gun was converted for 40 × 7,62 mm ammunition (63-30 Springfield).

American anti-aircraft machine guns

American soldiers with a Colt-Browning M1895 machine gun

В history The machine gun entered service as the first model of an automatic weapon adopted for service, which implements the principle of removing powder gases. Thanks to the use of air cooling of the barrel, the machine gun turned out to be relatively light. The mass of the machine gun with a tripod machine was 45,5 kg. Food was carried out from a canvas tape for 100 and 250 rounds. The rate of fire was 420-450 rds / min.


Late version of the Colt-Browning M1895 machine gun

Due to the fact that the Colt-Browning M1895 machine gun had a relatively small mass, during the First World War, they were armed with combat aircraft. Back in 1910, the American Colonel Davidson made an attempt to create an anti-aircraft self-propelled installation, having mounted two machine guns on the chassis of a Cadillac G passenger car, capable of firing at air targets.


The installation was named Balloon Destroers. Two such machines were built, but the military department showed no interest in the project. Subsequently, some of the Colt-Browning M1895 machine guns were adapted for anti-aircraft fire. To do this, they were installed on machines with an elongated rack and equipped with anti-aircraft sights.


Italian soldiers with a Colt-Browning M1895 machine gun, adapted for anti-aircraft firing

However, the Colt machine gun was never popular in the US Army. This was due to the fact that, due to the design features, the weapon in the position had to be raised high enough above the ground. In addition, the air-cooled barrel quickly overheated, making the machine gun unable to compete with the water-cooled Maxim. In this regard, by the end of the 1920s, the US armed forces abandoned the Colt-Browning M1895 machine gun.

Much more widespread in the American army was the Browning M1917 machine gun, which was put into service shortly before the end of the First World War. This weapon chambered for 7,62 × 63 mm, created by John Browning in collaboration with Colt, was an analogue of the Maxim machine gun, but had a simpler design.


Machine gun Browning M1917

In general, this machine gun, in terms of efficiency and reliability, fully met the requirements for it. In the late 1930s, based on operating experience, the machine gun was modernized, after which it received the designation M1917A1. In 1926, the production of machine guns with a sight began, which allowed effective firing at both ground and air targets. The standard tripod machine provided a vertical aiming angle sufficient for anti-aircraft fire.

The weight of the machine gun in the combat position on the machine was 47 kg. The capacity of the tape is 250 rounds. Rate of fire - 600 rounds / min. Thanks to the water cooling, the M1917A1 could conduct intense fire for a long time. In addition to the infantry tripod mount, machine guns were mounted on armored vehicles, on anti-aircraft turrets. During the war years, as part of the provision of military assistance, the M1917A1 were supplied to the allies in the anti-Hitler coalition and were used throughout the war, including as anti-aircraft.


Browning M1917A1 machine gun in anti-aircraft firing position

Due to the fact that the American army during World War II fought almost all the time under an umbrella from a fighter cover, and air defense units had a sufficient number of 12,7-mm machine-gun mounts, 37-40-mm anti-aircraft guns and 90-mm anti-aircraft guns, infantry machine guns Browning M1917A1 did not play a decisive role in the fight against the air enemy. However, this machine gun was widespread in the armed forces of the United States and allied countries, and therefore the machine gun crews probably have shot down German, Italian and Japanese combat aircraft.


As mentioned earlier, the Browning M1917A1 machine gun was very reliable and, thanks to the water-cooled barrel, could conduct intense fire for a long time. But after the end of the First World War, it became clear that this machine gun does not meet modern requirements in terms of the ability to carry over long distances and mobility on the battlefield. As a result, a modification of the Browning M1919 machine gun in the M1919A4 version with a lightweight M2 tripod machine was adopted. It was this machine gun that became the main weapon of the American troops during the Second World War. Possessing a relatively light weight, the М1919А4 machine gun in the infantry served as a company and battalion fire support, which proved to be a weapon of high reliability.


Machine gun Browning М1919А4 on the M2 machine

The main difference between the M1919A4 and the M1917A1 was the use of a massive air-cooled barrel, enclosed in a perforated casing. A quick replacement of the barrel in combat conditions was not provided, since after each change of the barrel, the machine gun needed to adjust the gap between the breech of the barrel and the shutter mirror. In addition, the machine gun received a new low-profile M2 machine, which had simplified (compared to the M1917 machine) guidance mechanisms and significantly less weight. The weight of the Browning М1919А4 machine gun together with the machine was 20,5 kg. Rate of fire - 400-450 rds / min. Food was carried out from a tape for 250 rounds.


Although the standard M2 infantry machine did not allow firing with high elevation angles, the M1919A4 machine gun was very often used as an anti-aircraft gun, for which it was mounted on various turrets and specially created machines. Anti-aircraft machine guns of this type were standardly equipped with many American Tanks and armored vehicles.


The carriers of the machine gun were often also light off-road vehicles Willys MB. Such vehicles with machine-gun armament were used for reconnaissance and patrol services, escorting transport convoys, guarding headquarters and important rear facilities. The machine gun, mounted on a swivel with equal convenience, could be used for firing at ground and air targets.

After the end of World War II, the М1919А4 machine gun became very widespread, and in a number of countries, despite its advanced age, it is still used today.

Although American heavy machine guns chambered for rifle cartridges were generally in line with world standards, in the second half of the 1930s it became clear that larger caliber weapons were required to effectively combat front-line bombers and attack aircraft. The use of metal in the design of aircraft, the protection of fuel tanks and their pressurization with neutral gas, as well as the introduction of bulletproof glass and other elements of armor protection led to the fact that the damaging effect of rifle-caliber bullets when firing at combat aircraft decreased sharply. In addition, it was highly desirable to increase the effective firing range at fast-moving air targets. As you know, machine guns firing with rifle cartridges, this figure did not exceed 500 m.

In this regard, in a number of countries in the pre-war period, machine guns of 12,7-15 mm caliber were created. In the United States, the niche of large-caliber machine guns designed to combat light armored vehicles, aviation, manpower and destruction of light field fortifications were taken by the very successful 12,7 mm Browning .50 Caliber Machine Gun, better known as Browning M2.


Anti-aircraft machine gun Browning M1921

This weapon was created in 1932 on the basis of the 12,7 mm Browning M1921 machine gun. In turn, the design of the large-caliber M1921 largely repeated the M1917, which used rifle caliber cartridges. The new 12,7 mm ammunition was also obtained by proportionally increasing the American 7,62 mm rifle cartridge to the Springfield M1903 rifle. This, in fact, a mobilization technical solution turned out to be extremely successful.

The 12,7 × 99 mm cartridge, also known as the 50 BMG, was almost twice as effective as the 7,62 × 63 mm rifle cartridge in terms of effective fire range. An M1 armor-piercing bullet weighing 48,6 g had an initial velocity of 808 m / s and at a distance of 500 m, when hit at a right angle, it could pierce a 16-mm armor plate.

However, in the 1920s, the command of the American army did not see the need for a multi-purpose heavy machine gun, and for this reason, the release of the Browning M1921A1 modification was only started in 1930.


The machine gun was mounted on a tripod machine. Thanks to water cooling, he could conduct a fairly long fire with a rate of fire of 550-600 rds / min. The mass of the machine gun on the machine was 54,8 kg, and the casing must be filled with water before firing, which did not make the weapon lighter. The accessory kit for the large-caliber machine gun included a hand-held water pump for pumping coolant in the casing.

Nevertheless, the M1921A1 machine gun received recognition in the army and navy and was produced in single and twin versions. 12,7 mm machine guns were used on tripod field machines and pedestal mounts. In 1933, the 12,7 mm machine gun was upgraded, and an air-cooled barrel modification appeared.


The water-cooled machine gun was used mainly to combat enemy aircraft, and the air-cooled machine gun was used as a universal one.


Water-cooled anti-aircraft guns were a fairly powerful means of near-field air defense. However, the use of this effective anti-aircraft weapon in a portable version was difficult due to its excessive weight.


On the decks of warships and coastal defense facilities, the M46 coaxial machine gun with water cooling was widely used. To prevent the boiling of the coolant during prolonged shooting, a hand pump was provided for each barrel, connected to the casing by reinforced hoses.

Subsequently, in order to avoid overheating for the infantry version, a barrel with thicker walls was developed, so the infantry machine gun received the designation Browning Machine Gun, Cal. .50, M2HB, Flexible - 0,5-inch Browning machine gun, model М2НВ with a heavy barrel, or abbreviated М2НВ. In 1938, the M2NV received a longer barrel, due to the abandonment of water cooling, the body weight of the machine gun decreased to 38 kg. Rate of fire 480-550 rds / min. In this form, this weapon is practically unchanged to this day.


A shooter with an M2NV machine gun in a position for anti-aircraft firing

By the time the United States entered the war, 12,7-mm "Browning" of various modifications had firmly occupied their niche in the army and navy. Army units preferred air-cooled machine guns. However, the troops had a lot of water-cooled machine guns, which mainly covered stationary objects.


Twin 12,7 mm water-cooled anti-aircraft guns were also installed on trucks. Such improvised SPAAGs were used during the fighting in North Africa and Italy.


The troops prepared for the Normandy landings mainly had 50 caliber M2NV machine guns with a heavy air-cooled barrel. To increase mobility, they were often mounted on light jeeps and armored personnel carriers.


However, to provide air defense of field airfields and other stationary objects, paired installations of M2NV machine guns were sometimes used. The mass of such a 12,7-mm anti-aircraft twin in a combat position together with a turret was about 100 kg. In this connection, aiming the paired installation at the target required significant physical effort.


However, for all their merits, 12,7 mm machine guns did not provide the required density of anti-aircraft fire when firing at fast-moving air targets. In addition, the anti-aircraft unit armed with single-barreled ZPUs, taking into account the provision of each calculation with a separate vehicle, turned out to be too cumbersome. In this regard, the command of the ground forces expressed a desire to receive a multi-barreled self-propelled anti-aircraft gun with mechanized aiming of weapons at a target. The first specialized vehicle designed to repel enemy aircraft attacks was the ZSU based on the M2 tractor. The tractor was equipped with a Bendix aviation turret with two large-caliber machine guns. However, the M13 anti-aircraft self-propelled gun on the chassis of the M3 half-track armored personnel carrier, armed with a coaxial 12,7 mm Maxson M33 machine gun, became more viable.


ZSU M13

The mass of the ZSU M13 in the combat position was 8,7 tons. The crew was 5 people. Armor 6-13 mm thick provided protection against rifle caliber bullets and shrapnel. Carburetor engine with 147 hp could accelerate the car on the highway to 70 km / h. The power reserve is up to 300 km.

In general, the M13 anti-aircraft self-propelled gun has proven itself positively. In the period from March to November 1943, 1103 vehicles were produced. But based on the combat experience of the WL Maxson Corporation, it was proposed to create a quad ZSU.

In 1943, production of the M45 Quadmount began. The weight of the installation in the firing position was 1087 kg. The effective firing range at air targets is about 1000 m. The rate of fire is 2300 rounds per minute. The capacity of the cartridge boxes on the installation is 800 rounds. The general ammunition load is 2000 rounds. The targeting of the installation was carried out by electric drives powered by a gasoline generator. Two lead-acid storage batteries served as a backup power source. The targeting drive motors were powerful, capable of withstanding the heaviest loads. Thanks to the electric drives, the installation had a guidance speed of up to 60 degrees per second.

This ZPU was installed on various chassis. But the most common base for self-propelled anti-aircraft guns were the M3 and M5 wheeled-tracked armored personnel carriers. ZSU on the M3 armored personnel carrier chassis is known as M16, and on the basis of M5 - M17. The M16 anti-aircraft self-propelled gun was mainly used by the US armed forces, and the M17 ZSU was supplied to the allies. In terms of the main characteristics and the level of security, the ZSU M16 and M17 were equivalent. The mobility of the ZSU M16 in comparison with the M13 has practically not changed. But due to the mass, which increased to 9,7 tons, the maximum speed and power reserve slightly decreased.


ZSU M16

Serial production of the ZSU M16 began in June 1943, by the end of the war, 2877 self-propelled anti-aircraft guns were delivered. In the M16, 628 ZSU M13 were also converted. More than 300 self-propelled guns, which received the unofficial designation M16B, were obtained by installing the M45 Quadmount quad machine-gun mount on the chassis of the M2 armored transporter-tractor.


In addition to self-propelled anti-aircraft guns, the American army used the towed quad mounts M51 and M55. ZPU M55 was mainly intended for air defense of stationary objects.


Towed ZPU М51

At the firing position, to make the installation more stable, special supports were lowered to the ground from each corner of the trailer. The trailer also housed batteries for the anti-aircraft gun power supply and a charger for them.


ZPU M55 on a single-axle trailer was developed in the interests of paratroopers. Since 1947, for the towed version of the M45 Quadmount anti-aircraft gun, a unified M20 trailer was used, in which the wheel drive was separated in the firing position, and it was hung out on jacks.


ZPU M45 Quadmount on the unified M20 trailer

Quadruple Maxson Mounts have proven to be a powerful means of dealing with air targets. Although by the time the Second Front was opened, the Americans had air supremacy, in a number of cases the 12,7-mm ZPU had a very significant impact on the course of hostilities. So, in March 1945, during the "Operation Lumberjack" calculations of the M45 Quadmount successfully repelled attacks by German aircraft on the strategically important bridge over the Rhine in the city of Remagen.

Until the moment when the bridge collapsed under the blows of German bombs, American divisions crossed over to the western bank, and sappers managed to establish temporary pontoon crossings. In total, according to American sources, the Luftwaffe used 248 combat aircraft in air raids, of which approximately 30% were shot down by anti-aircraft cover.


In addition to the air enemy, 12,7-mm quad mounts in some cases were successfully used against lightly armored targets and enemy manpower, earning the nickname "Meat grinder". In the course of street battles, ZSU M16 proved to be very effective against German infantry entrenched in attics and upper floors of buildings.

During the fighting in Korea, the ZSU M16 proved to be in great demand. Relatively light half-tracked armored personnel carriers, protected from small arms bullets, could climb slopes that were inaccessible to tanks.


The firepower of the 12,7-mm Maxson Mount at a distance of up to 1 km made it possible to mow down the advancing North Korean and Chinese infantry in a short time. Towed installations were used to guard headquarters, warehouses, airfields and other important stationary facilities.


Due to the high demand for the M16 ZSU during the hostilities on the Korean Peninsula, and another 1200 M3 armored personnel carriers were converted into self-propelled M16A1 units. In 1954, based on combat experience, some of these vehicles were upgraded to the M16A2 level. During the modernization, additional rear doors were cut on the vehicles for the landing of the crew and troops, and the power of the generator and the onboard ammunition were also increased. Service ZSU M16 in the US military continued until the mid-1960s. They were written off after the abandonment of the M3 half-track armored personnel carriers and the transition to the M113 tracked armored personnel carriers with light alloy armor.


Although in 1967, the US Army adopted a 20-mm M163 Vulcan SPAAG based on the M113 armored personnel carrier, this did not lead to an immediate abandonment of the M45 Quadmount towed ZPU. Quadruple 12,7 mm machine gun mounts were installed in the back of a 2,5 ton M35 or a 5 ton M54 truck.


During the war in Southeast Asia, trucks with a ZPU M45 Quadmount were used to escort transport convoys. The 12,7 mm mounts with a high fire density could quickly sweep the jungle with machine-gun bursts. Such installations were also used to defend military bases. Sometimes, for zeroing, a rifle caliber machine gun was additionally attached to the ZPU.


South Korean calculation of the ZPU M45 Quadmount firing at a ground target

At present, 12,7 mm machine gun mounts cannot be considered a modern air defense system. However, they are still in service in a number of countries. It is reliably known that the M45 Quadmount ZPU until recently was operated in Turkey, Taiwan and South Korea. In the South Korean army, they are permanently located at defense strongholds near the demilitarized zone and are mainly intended for firing at ground targets.
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  1. The leader of the Redskins
    The leader of the Redskins 5 September 2020 06: 01 New
    15
    Thank you author. And I refreshed my old knowledge, and learned something new)))
    1. Kote Pan Kokhanka
      Kote Pan Kokhanka 5 September 2020 07: 19 New
      15
      I join !!!
      Sergey thank you very much !!! I recently started reading about heavy cruisers of the United States, so the article was in the subject !!!
      Sincerely, Vlad !!!
      1. Bongo
        5 September 2020 08: 30 New
        38
        Guys, thanks for the kind words! drinks This publication, like the previous one, was written in Crimea. In between hang-gliding, kayaking and gliding, and exploring the seabed with a mask and fins. However, Olya grumbled that I even spent too much time in Koktebel at the laptop, including on the Military Review.
        Today the rest ends and I fly to my place in the Far East. You have to spend a day on the road. crying
        Py.Sy. I would also like to thank for the hospitality and delicious pilaf of the Crimean warrant officer of the Ministry of Emergency Situations Volodya Glazunov known on the site as the Crimean partisan. good
        1. Aaron Zawi
          Aaron Zawi 5 September 2020 08: 50 New
          12
          Quote: Bongo
          Guys, thanks for the kind words! drinks This publication, like the previous one, was written in Crimea. In between hang-gliding, kayaking and gliding, and exploring the seabed with a mask and fins. However, Olya grumbled that I even spent too much time in Koktebel at the laptop, including on the Military Review.
          Today the rest ends and I fly to my place in the Far East. You have to spend a day on the road. crying
          Py.Sy. I would also like to thank for the hospitality and delicious pilaf of the Crimean warrant officer of the Ministry of Emergency Situations Volodya Glazunov known on the site as the Crimean partisan. good

          You describe your vacation beautifully, sir. good
          1. Bongo
            5 September 2020 08: 55 New
            17
            Quote: Aaron Zawi
            You describe your vacation beautifully, sir.

            Unfortunately, all good things come to an end ... request
        2. Mister X
          Mister X 6 September 2020 10: 38 New
          +2
          hi Sergey, thank you for the interesting article!
          Question about self-propelled memory, and towed ZPU M51.
          What was their max. angle of rotation?

          Judging by the photo, the sides prevented the installations from turning 360 degrees.
          Right?


          1. Bongo
            6 September 2020 14: 57 New
            +4
            Quote: Mister X
            Sergey, thank you for the interesting article!
            Question about self-propelled memory, and towed ZPU M51.
            What was their max. angle of rotation?

            Judging by the photo, the sides prevented the installations from turning 360 degrees.
            Right?

            Michael, hello!
            All four American ZPUs provided circular fire.
  2. Catfish
    Catfish 5 September 2020 08: 46 New
    11
    Great article! good I didn't even expect it to be so interesting. Many thanks to Sergey. smile
    1. Bongo
      5 September 2020 08: 54 New
      20
      Quote: Sea Cat
      Great article! good I didn't even expect it to be so interesting. Many thanks to Sergey. smile

      Konstantin, thank you for your kind words! God knows I tried. But in fairness, I must admit that this review should have been made more detailed and split into several parts. Alas, almost the main obstacle for this was the wide assortment and relative availability of fairly high-quality drinks in Koktebel stores. request
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 5 September 2020 09: 58 New
        +8
        Oh, those drinks ... wink How many juicy opportunities because of them were missed in their youth on the same shores of the Black Sea. request Even taking into account the fact that in the seventies and eighties their assortment was significantly Already, we still had enough with interest. drinks As the famous song sang: "... well, what about the girls? And then the girls ..." laughing drinks
        1. Bongo
          5 September 2020 20: 28 New
          +9
          Quote: Sea Cat
          Oh, these drinks ... wink How many spicy opportunities because of them were missed in their youth on the same shores of the Black Sea. request Even considering the fact that in the seventies and eighties their assortment was significantly Already, we still had enough with interest. drinks As it was sung in the famous song: "... well, what about the girls? And then the girls ..."

          The girl who is 10 years younger than me is her own. wink Although, of course, going to Koktebel with your legal wife is like bringing firewood to the forest. request For reasons beyond my control, my departure is delayed by several days. So, I'm still in Crimea.
          1. Catfish
            Catfish 5 September 2020 20: 41 New
            +6
            So, I'm still in Crimea.

            Happy man! I haven’t been at sea in many years. And, yes, when I was already running along B. Morskaya and Chersonesos in Sevastopol, then I brought my girlfriend, who is now a wife, there. Everything has its time. By the way, on the ancient Chersonesos behind the Minna "sausage" in the Quarantine Bay there was an access to the catacombs with a passage right under the Vladimir Cathedral. Haven't you been there? I don't know how it is now and what, the last time we were there in the early nineties. Now the museum and police personnel have changed a long time ago, but then everything was simple.
            1. Bongo
              5 September 2020 20: 45 New
              +6
              I was in Chersonesos in 2016. I got great pleasure from visiting, the entrance to the territory of the museum complex is free.
              1. Catfish
                Catfish 5 September 2020 21: 12 New
                +6
                Eh, you ought to meet someone from the museum there, see and learn much more than what is written in the literature. There we climbed under the water all the littoral accessible for air balloon equipment, from Akhtiarka to Strelka, where there was no admission in Soviet times, there was a lot of interesting things there, we went to the WFD from the ACC under the auxiliary flag. It's probably easier now.
                Yes, there, at an ancient excavation site, archaeological girls once dug up an FG-42, without a bayonet and a magazine, with a decayed butt, but otherwise it is in perfect order and this is next to the antique shards, that was a laugh. I took a nail file from them and cleaned a little machine for it, then they took it to the Black Sea Fleet Museum, but that was without me, the vacation was over by that time.
  3. merkava-2bet
    merkava-2bet 5 September 2020 10: 05 New
    +7
    Thank you Sergey, and also Olga for muttering at you, otherwise you would have forgotten about us on the southern coast of Crimea, thank you.
  4. voyaka uh
    voyaka uh 5 September 2020 12: 53 New
    10
    I had a chance to shoot from Browning 0.5, which is M2.
    A very reliable and accurate system. He has a single mode for sighting.
    We fired on exercises through the gorge - about a kilometer. For the purpose of canned food
    cans laid out in a square. From the bed. After all the twists at sighting
    (the officer did the zeroing - he taught me), I fired several single shots.
    It was seen how the bullet with the tracer exactly lay between the cans. And the second, third - there.
    The ballistics are amazing. Then, already during the exercise, I smashed the banks in bursts. am laughing
    Already in the dark. Tracers, sparks ... Nice!
    But - a hell of a job to carry this machine gun. negative Even disassembled into three parts.
    It is very "cast iron".
    1. merkava-2bet
      merkava-2bet 5 September 2020 13: 25 New
      13
      Not shit, it's not accurate, because of the automation with a short barrel stroke, he himself shot many thousands and not only at the ranges, he started with Operation Defensive Wall in 2002, when we were forbidden to use a 105 mm tank gun on the Merkava-2Bet Meshupar, then we used a 0,5-inch (12,7 mm) nad-gun machine gun, it is good up to 400 meters, less dispersion and more energy for punching reinforced concrete with baboons.
      1. Bongo
        5 September 2020 20: 18 New
        +7
        Quote: merkava-2bet
        Not shit, it's not accurate, because of the automation with a short barrel stroke, he himself shot many thousands and not only at the ranges, he started with Operation Defensive Wall in 2002, when we were forbidden to use a 105 mm tank gun on the Merkava-2Bet Meshupar, then we used a 0,5-inch (12,7 mm) nad-gun machine gun, it is good up to 400 meters, less dispersion and more energy for punching reinforced concrete with baboons.

        Andrei, hello!
        Much depends on the specific barrel, in addition, the accuracy of a sighting machine gun mounted above a tank gun is clearly worse than that of a machine gun mounted on a machine or a turret.
        1. merkava-2bet
          merkava-2bet 5 September 2020 23: 26 New
          +6
          No Sergey, on the contrary, the accuracy is higher, since the machine gun goes through the LMS, that is, the BV has a firmware for a 12,7 mm machine gun.
          blue circle buttons.
          The barrel of a machine gun floats, bends during firing, and the "short barrel stroke" automation itself does not contribute to accuracy, as well as the effect of weather conditions on the barrel, but it is above the gun and without a thermal cover like a gun.
          1. Bongo
            6 September 2020 15: 00 New
            +3
            Quote: merkava-2bet
            No Sergey, on the contrary, the accuracy is higher, since the machine gun goes through the LMS, that is, the BV has a firmware for a 12,7 mm machine gun.

            Perhaps you were shooting too hard with it? It is known that the 12,7 mm M2 machine gun was used as a sniper weapon in some cases when an optical sight was installed on it.
  5. Narak-zempo
    Narak-zempo 5 September 2020 13: 51 New
    +3
    We greatly lacked such installations in the troops.
    Even ordinary DShKs entered the infantry drop by drop.
    And after the war, a ZPU with Vladimirov's machine guns was fired - obviously with a delay.
    1. Catfish
      Catfish 5 September 2020 14: 59 New
      +5
      Vladimirov is good! I fired two barrels from the ZPUshka at rockets with a parachute - it is easy to aim, it hits accurately, shooting is a pleasure.
      1. Narak-zempo
        Narak-zempo 5 September 2020 15: 04 New
        +2
        Quote: Sea Cat
        Vladimirov is good! I fired two barrels from the ZPUshka at rockets with a parachute - it is easy to aim, it hits accurately, shooting is a pleasure.

        It would be very appropriate for a year so in 1942.
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 5 September 2020 15: 28 New
          0
          So who's to blame that he wasn't there then. They thought, apparently, that the DShK would be enough, and other priorities were, so to speak, more urgent.
          1. Aviator_
            Aviator_ 5 September 2020 16: 30 New
            +5
            DShK chronically lacked almost the entire war. Probably difficult to manufacture. I read it in the memoirs of sailors-cutters - at the Black Sea Fleet they removed the DShK from the boat that came from the combat exit and put it on the next one leaving on a mission.
            1. Catfish
              Catfish 5 September 2020 16: 53 New
              +5
              Again, priorities. We didn't even have armored personnel carriers, absolutely. Tanks were driving. The Germans (baters) released them in the hundreds (with the help of the Czechs), and the Americans in the thousands without anyone else's help.
              The whole question was in industrial capacity, all countries drove what the army needed more. Except for the Americans, they drove everything and felt no tension in anything. This is, in general, to the question of the advantages of different systems of society. And the war here is an elementary "litmus test", it's ridiculous to even imagine that the Yankees experienced problems with the supply of the M2HB machine gun. With all due respect to what our industry did during the war.
              But everything is obvious and it is pointless to argue.
              1. Aviator_
                Aviator_ 5 September 2020 17: 07 New
                +7
                to the question of the advantages of different systems of the structure of society.

                Well, in the conditions of the USSR after the Civil War, any capitalist state would simply collapse. This, perhaps, is the advantage of socialism. In just a few years, entire industries were created in our country. I read that in 1936, on ships going with equipment to Spain, for the first time radio communication was worked out over such distances.
                1. Catfish
                  Catfish 5 September 2020 17: 36 New
                  -4
                  With regard to the Civil War, let's not. Here, as they say, "what they fought for ... and so on." In the States at one time, there was also a Civil War, but, somehow, the collapse was not noticeable. France, with its Huguenots, has not moved away from this either, so what? I do not think that in the absence of a "proletarian revolution," industrial-design Russia stood still. For the sake of interest, take a look at the program for the reconstruction of the navy, the construction of a plant for the production of Madsen machine guns (now the plant named after Degtyarev), the projects of Porokhovshchikov's armored vehicles, the aircraft of Sikorsky, Anatra - all this was slammed by the fucking revolution led by ... not I will list, you yourself know that the great leader was also a prodigy.
                  PS Just in case: I have never been an anti-Semite and I simply despise idiots of this kind, but ... history has no subjunctive mood and ... what happened was what happened. smile
                  1. Aviator_
                    Aviator_ 5 September 2020 19: 52 New
                    +8
                    I do not think that in the absence of a "proletarian revolution," industrial-design Russia stood still. For the sake of interest, take a look at the program for rebuilding the navy, at the construction of a plant for the production of Madsen machine guns (now the Degtyarev plant), at projects ...

                    Konstantin, there were projects. But! There is a fact - when the country (RI) needed large-caliber guns for coastal batteries and new ships, which began to be built according to the 1909 program, for this they began to build in Tsaritsyn частный artillery plant. At the same time (before WWII) the state-owned artillery plant in Motovilikha (Perm) worked part-time, and the hard workers fed from their gardens. Read this in the memoirs of Academician A.N. Krylov, a shipbuilder. So prototypes - maybe, but a series - it's unlikely. This plant was completed under the hated Bolsheviks in 1925, called "Barricades". Now again it drags out a miserable existence, it's good that it is somewhat better than the Volgograd tractor or Moscow ZIL (former AMO). So, under the RI, our industry did not shine, Russia would never be allowed to the level of a world power. I'm not talking about our then aircraft construction, which was based entirely on foreign engines.
                    1. Catfish
                      Catfish 5 September 2020 20: 52 New
                      -3
                      Sergei, there were not only projects, planes of both Anatra and Sikorsky flew, but "Ilya Muromets" also participated in battles with the Germans. And Madsen's plant would have established the production of machine guns, if the artisanal left-handedness was not carried away, the same with the project of "All-terrain vehicle", it was not up to him when "brother against brother" went. And about the hulls of battle cruisers already ready on the stocks, probably, it's not even worth talking about.
                      And, by the way, I have no hatred for the Bolsheviks, my deceased papa is one of those "old Bolsheviks" - what the hell was it when it was possible to prove:
                      "Stands on three whales!" - and bit his finger as evidence. "(c)
                      So I don’t need the Bolsheviks, I’m personally familiar. laughing
                      1. Aviator_
                        Aviator_ 6 September 2020 07: 07 New
                        +5
                        Once again: what engines did Ilya Muromets fly? Whose power plant was on the Novik destroyers? There was no self-sufficient economy in Ingushetia, and it was not foreseen in principle under capitalism. And a private factory for the production of weapons for cruisers was a washing machine for laundering budget money. Did you need these cruisers without guns? Look at the recollections of Count Ignatiev, "50 years in the ranks," how he bought weapons and aircraft engines in France during WWI. So the "mastery" not because of the good life "levorius" carried away, this "mastery" saved the country.
                      2. Narak-zempo
                        Narak-zempo 6 September 2020 12: 22 New
                        +3
                        Quote: Sea Cat
                        if the mastery of levorius was not carried away

                        You confuse cause and effect.
                        The revolution is not the cause of the collapse of the state, everything is strictly the opposite.
                      3. Alexey RA
                        Alexey RA 6 September 2020 18: 53 New
                        +5
                        Quote: Sea Cat
                        Sergei, there were not only projects, planes of both Anatra and Sikorsky flew, but "Ilya Muromets" also participated in battles with the Germans.

                        Everything would be fine ... but, unfortunately, it was too little and too late. Remember what was the problem with the same “Maxims”? In the entire Empire, there was no other plant besides the Tula one, which could provide the required precision in the manufacture of parts. And no matter how Tula expanded, even 2700 machine guns per month were unattainable for her. And the rate for 1917 required at least 38 thousand "Maxims".
                        Quote: Sea Cat
                        And Madsen's plant would have established the production of machine guns, if the artisanal left-handedness was not carried away

                        In a year? I am plagued by vague doubts that with the Kovrov handicraft it would be possible to establish mass production before the summer of 1918.
                        It was assumed that by February 1 1917, 3 of the main production buildings would be built in Kovrov, but these plans were unrealistic. Anticipating that the construction process of the main (large) building “A” would be delayed, in 1916, the decision was made to build a temporary (small) wooden building “B”. This building was built in the 2,5 month, and in November, 1916 began to place equipment in it, in total, more than 200 machines, workbenches and assembly sections. Two diesel generators of Swedish production were installed to drive the machines. A part of the equipment needed for the plant was purchased in the USA through the Russian Committee. The construction of building A was completed only in 1918.

                        On August 12, 1917, the transfer to the military of the first 4 submachine guns, equipped with spare barrels, began. Although acceptance tests of Madsen's machine guns of Kovrov production were unsuccessful, a start was made. At the same time, at that time, the production itself bore all the features of handicraft. For example, the tool shop at the plant in Kovrov was not created, since they counted on the supply of tools and patterns from Denmark. Finally, by December 1917, the preparation of the drawings was completed here and the release of two serial batches - 50 and 300 new machine guns - began.

                        Quote: Sea Cat
                        And about the hulls of battle cruisers already ready on the stocks, probably, it's not even worth talking about.

                        That's right, not worth it. Because their completion turned out to be impossible due to the lack of main battery guns (OSZ thwarted all the deadlines), as well as a number of critical parts ordered before the war in Germany - for example, support balls for the shoulder straps of the main battery turrets.
                    2. Alexey RA
                      Alexey RA 6 September 2020 18: 40 New
                      +5
                      Quote: Aviator_
                      There is a fact - when the country (RI) needed large-caliber guns for coastal batteries and new ships, which they began to build according to the 1909 program, a private artillery plant was erected in Tsaritsyn for this. At the same time (before WWII) the state-owned artillery plant in Motovilikha (Perm) worked part-time, and the hard workers fed from their gardens.

                      In general, everything was very interesting with Perm ...
                      The scandal ended in an attempt to take possession of the Perm plant by banking groups, which took upon themselves the deployment of heavy long-range guns planned by the government there. Having rejected the offer of the Russian-Asian Bank to lease the plant, the Council of Ministers did not even yield to pressure from the French firm Schneider, which also imposed its services. Only as a gesture of goodwill towards an ally, the proposal of this company to take over the organization of the large artillery department was accepted, but this participation was limited to a one-time order of equipment, and, moreover, furnished with such technical conditions that Schneider could not fulfill independently. In fact, the firm succeeded - only under pressure from the French government - to gain for itself the role of intermediary in the purchase of equipment from the British cannon factories, and its subsequent paid "permanent technical supervision" was not accepted. With the outbreak of World War II, the French firm found an opportunity to evade its obligations, which delayed the refurbishment.
                      But regardless of this step by Schneider, the construction of the department of long-range guns at the Perm plant had to be interrupted in September 1913 in order to increase the main caliber of naval guns from 14 to 16 inches. Construction stopped at the very beginning (ditches were dug, rubble stone for foundations, bricks, timber were prepared) and resumed only in the spring - summer of 1915, when 9,2 million rubles were allocated for the continuation of the work. (but this was not the end of the allocation either).
                      On the other hand, the Vickers company showed interest in the Perm plant, starting from 1913 to set up an enterprise of the same specialization in Tsaritsyn (Russkoe AO of Artillery Plants, RAO A3). The British competitor made an unsuccessful attempt to prohibit the establishment of production at the Perm plant of guns with a caliber of more than 14 dm, as well as the general expansion of state-owned cannon factories (Obukhovsky and St. Petersburg gun factories).
                      © Polikarpov. Russian military-industrial policy. 1914-1917. State tasks and private interests.

                      And the future Barricades plant is not just a private plant, but a Vickers plant. The same firm "Vickers", which was ordered 36 14 "/ 52 for" Izmail "- and which, unlike the NEZ, handed over 10 guns. Taking into account the fact that 14" / 52 were only the first swallow, 16 "and large-caliber land howitzers and mortars, the Empire had no other choice but to turn to the leaders in the production of large-caliber guns.
                    3. Alexey RA
                      Alexey RA 6 September 2020 18: 41 New
                      +3
                      In general, looking at the industry of the Empire, I want to howl like a wolf:
                      A significant obstacle to the development of the Izhevsk military complex was the lack of a railway connection with the general imperial road network. Having no access lines, the Izhevsk plant used river routes during the navigation period. The access road to the Golyany pier on the Kama is a 40-kilometer tract - in the summer during the rainy season, in the fall and spring, it became impassable. Traveling even in a light carriage this distance could take 18 hours, and the carriage of goods stopped.

                      And it is the only plant for the production of tool steel in marketable quantities and the head plant for the production of rifle barrels in the Empire.
                      For all artillery factories, the production of steel of the highest grades established at the Izhevsk plant was of great importance (according to a special method introduced since 1900 "almost simultaneously with the best Swedish factories and completely independently of them") - shield and spring, but especially instrumental. Such steel, using ferrosilicon, ferro-tungsten from Sweden, was manufactured in three Siemens crucible furnaces, producing up to 200 thousand poods per year; tool steel was absorbed mainly by the gun production in Izhevsk itself (170 thousand poods per year). "It is impossible to get more steel," the GAU asserted, "and even for an arms factory it is necessary to buy tool steel from abroad."

                      The role of the Izhevsk plant was such that it - of course, somewhat exaggerated - seemed to the TsVPK expert even "the only rifle plant in Russia, for Tula and Sestroretsk are not independent factories and serve only as an addition to Izhevsk." But in fact, the manufacture of rough barrels was concentrated in Izhevsk, and the production of rifles for the rest depended on their supply by this plant; during the war, the plant produced 52% of all Russian-made rifle barrels, 79% of machine-gun barrels. Of the small arms produced in Russia, Izhevsk accounted for 43 to 48%; rifle production in Izhevsk increased sixfold - from 82 thousand in 1914 to 313 thousand in 1915 and 505 thousand in 1916.
                      © Polikarpov
                  2. Narak-zempo
                    Narak-zempo 5 September 2020 20: 20 New
                    +8
                    Quote: Sea Cat
                    In the States at one time there was also a Civil War, but, somehow, the collapse was not noticeable

                    The civil war in the United States went on precisely to prevent collapse from happening, because it began with the secession of the southern states.
                    And also for what the development of the country will be - either an industrial power with such good chances to take a place in the core of the capitalist world-system, or a raw material appendage of the British textile industry (what this leads to can be seen in the example of Latin American countries, where in all civil wars the reactionary forces were winning).
                    Actually, our Civilian went for the same thing - to break out of the position of the agrarian semi-periphery.
                    Regarding the cost of the civil war - read for the general development how the "reconstruction" of the South took place.
                    And projects, you know, are good at implementation. Yes, Sikorsky did not take root under the new system, but there were personnel who were able to raise the aviation industry to a level comparable to the American one.
                    And some of those who remained so generally only under the Bolsheviks were able to realize their great projects, for example, Heinrich Graftio.
                    1. Catfish
                      Catfish 5 September 2020 20: 59 New
                      +1
                      Regarding the cost of the civil war - read for the general development how the "reconstruction" of the South took place.

                      For your own development, read a little about helicopters in general and Sikorsky in particular, when you do, then we'll talk about Graftio, which, by the way, I, like all normal people, have sincere respect for.
                      1. Aviator_
                        Aviator_ 6 September 2020 19: 37 New
                        +2
                        There are two types of literature about Sikorsky: the academic edition of the 80s. where it is said that he went broke twice in the United States (the Great Depression of 1929 and the crisis of 1939 when he was ruined by Consolidated). After that, he was allowed to deal with helicopters, which no one considered serious devices, and he brought them to mind, during WWII in Southeast Asia, they showed themselves well. After that, orders went, and by the Korean War he was ahead of the rest. This is one type of literature that is hardly cited. And the second kind - how ingenious he is, that he escaped from the USSR and turned overseas. This is now complete.
                      2. Catfish
                        Catfish 6 September 2020 21: 25 New
                        0
                        Literature - literature, whatever it may be. I am in fact judging.
                      3. Aviator_
                        Aviator_ 6 September 2020 22: 18 New
                        +1
                        In fact, it is that there, in the States, his half life was very, very savory because of capitalism. And now they don't write about it at all, that crises are an integral property of capitalism. Now this also applies to Russia. By the way, I recently learned that the general designer of the American B-29 vehicle is a Bulgarian by nationality. Generally amazing.
                      4. Catfish
                        Catfish 6 September 2020 22: 22 New
                        +1
                        And which of the talented people had it sweet? We have how many scientists in camps and "sharashkas" were sitting, also not sugar. Our Colt, Sam ale, also burned to zero, but rose. smile
                      5. Aviator_
                        Aviator_ 6 September 2020 22: 26 New
                        +2
                        It's not about the sweetness of life, it's about the possibilities of realization. By the way, "sharashka" is a purely American invention, I had in "Duel" (until it was closed) an article "America is the homeland of sharashki" about the creation of the Liberty aircraft engine in the USA in 1917. It turned out to be a good motor, before our M-11 was the main one in the USSR.
                      6. Catfish
                        Catfish 6 September 2020 22: 28 New
                        +2
                        There were also convicts there ?! Sergey, I just do not know, in a nutshell, tell me, pliz.
                      7. Aviator_
                        Aviator_ 7 September 2020 07: 59 New
                        +3
                        And we only have prisoners? We had only a number of leading comrades in prison who fell into this category out of thoughtlessness (it’s not fucking to be a member of the "workers' opposition" party — this refers to Professor Ramzin), or thanks to the care of colleagues who had previously written a denunciation. That week, scans of five denunciations were published on the internet, which were written by the now canonized S.P. Korolev. But for the misappropriation of funds, he still sat down. The main part of our workers sharashek - specialists in the barracks position, the fact that there are only ZK - this is from "Ogonyok" from the times of chief editor Korotich. And the amers had this: when the Americans decided to join WWI, they found out that they did not have a 400-horsepower aircraft engine. Then they put the engineers in the barracks position, and they developed this aircraft engine for them in six months. There were no prisoners in America in sharashkas, but we also had very few of them in sharashkas.
                      8. Catfish
                        Catfish 7 September 2020 08: 24 New
                        +2
                        Got it and thank you. hi
                2. Narak-zempo
                  Narak-zempo 7 September 2020 09: 27 New
                  +3
                  Quote: Sea Cat
                  We have how many scientists in camps and "sharashkas" were sitting, also not sugar.

                  If the conversation turned to sharags and prisoners in general in the Soviet economy, then it is useful to recall the institution of private prisons in the United States.
                  If the goal of the state penitentiary system (at least in theory) is the punishment and re-education of the criminal, then any private company sets the primary goal of making a profit. In this case, from the prisoners. Thus, in the "country of the free and the homeland of the brave" a whole sector of the economy has grown, interested in the uninterrupted supply of prisoners. But this, of course, is different, nothing to do with the Gulag.
    2. hohol95
      hohol95 6 September 2020 23: 18 New
      +2
      For the sake of interest, take a look at the program for the reconstruction of the navy, the construction of a plant for the production of Madsen machine guns (now the plant named after Degtyarev), the projects of Porokhovshchikov's armored vehicles, the aircraft of Sikorsky, Anatra - all this was slammed by the fucking revolution led by ... not I will list, you yourself know that the great leader was also a prodigy.

      On television, a document was voiced in which it was said about the recovery from Prokhovshchikov of the money allocated to him for the construction of his "one-track brainchild"! He spent the money, but "zero exhaust"!
      And as for the plant for the production of light machine guns - before there was no time or desire to attend to? They made it to 1916!
      And let's not forget the rifle epics - we buy up "arisaki" from yesterday's enemies, then we place orders for the production of shells in warring France!
      And the need to remember orders for Russian cartridges issued to the Germans during the Russian-Japanese war !!! They got involved in the war and it turned out that the patron was dumb ... And we ourselves could not produce the required amount!
      1. Alexey RA
        Alexey RA 7 September 2020 09: 02 New
        +4
        Quote: hohol95
        And as for the plant for the production of light machine guns - before there was no time or desire to attend to? They made it to 1916!

        Uh-huh .. until the third year of the war. And this despite the fact that Madsen's submachine guns have been used in Russia since 1904.
        With cars, the same parsley came out: the state order for cars, under which they began to build new car plants, was also issued in 1916. As a result, the maximum that the industry could do was a screwdriver assembly from imported machine kits.
    3. cat Rusich
      cat Rusich 7 September 2020 00: 37 New
      +1
      Konstantin, about the Civil War in the United States - the Yankees walked through the South "like Mamai" - although there was no industry in the South and nothing was destroyed, but the fact that they were able to destroy the same was not a little. Then big $ was allocated for the reconstruction of the South. About the Bolsheviks - but Dneproges (it still supplies electricity), Magnitogorsk ... they built ... though agriculture was ruined.
  6. Doctor
    Doctor 5 September 2020 17: 50 New
    -4
    Well, in the conditions of the USSR after the Civil War, any capitalist state would simply collapse. This, perhaps, is the advantage of socialism.

    No one would press Russia if it remained capitalist.
    And vice versa, come now to power we have real communists, the third world is inevitable.
  • Alexey RA
    Alexey RA 6 September 2020 18: 04 New
    +6
    Quote: Sea Cat
    Except for the Americans, they drove everything and felt no tension in anything.

    *Looks thoughtfully for a 37-mm American anti-aircraft machine gun and a 28-mm American anti-aircraft machine gun. And on opupey with the introduction of the series "Erlikons" and "Bofors". Which together left the American navy and army in the most difficult year of the war without small-caliber anti-aircraft guns. The air defense of Yankee ships at that time was worse than even that of the USSR Navy, which is constantly being criticized in this regard. "Anti-aircraft howitzers" 127/25, station wagons 127/38, anti-aircraft guns 76/50 WWI and 0,5 "John Mosesovich - all that the fleet had. The area of ​​airborne torpedoes and bombs (for dive bombers) was in fact" bare ".
    Quote: Sea Cat
    This is, in general, to the question of the advantages of different systems of the structure of society.

    He-he-he ... American industry during the war was managed practically by Soviet methods. For example, the aircraft models that won the competition were scattered across all factories suitable for their production, including those that acted as their competitors at these competitions. However, collective farm - voluntary business: either you take an order for someone else's product, or you put your teeth on the shelf, because you won't get anything else.
  • Alexey RA
    Alexey RA 6 September 2020 18: 56 New
    +3
    Quote: Aviator_
    DShK chronically lacked almost the entire war. Probably difficult to manufacture.

    Judging by the number produced by 1945 (10 units) - not just complicated, but hellishly complicated.
    The most interesting thing is that during the same time the industry of the USSR was able to produce ten times more of the much more technically complex aircraft Berezin machine guns of the same caliber.
    1. Aviator_
      Aviator_ 6 September 2020 19: 39 New
      +1
      during the same time, the industry of the USSR was able to produce ten times more of the much more technically complex aircraft Berezin machine guns of the same caliber.

      Another customer, the Air Force could not be left without a large-caliber machine gun, and the fleet and ground troops would be killed somehow.
      1. Alexey RA
        Alexey RA 6 September 2020 19: 51 New
        +1
        Quote: Aviator_
        Another customer, the Air Force could not be left without a large-caliber machine gun, and the fleet and ground troops would be killed somehow.

        Um ... actually, one of the customers of the DShK was the NKVD. smile
        1. Aviator_
          Aviator_ 6 September 2020 20: 08 New
          +1
          one of the customers of the DShK was the NKVD.

          Why should they? For the air defense of your divisions?
          1. Alexey RA
            Alexey RA 7 September 2020 09: 04 New
            +2
            Quote: Aviator_
            Why should they? For the air defense of your divisions?

            1. Aviator_
              Aviator_ 7 September 2020 17: 25 New
              +2
              Oh, I forgot the sea border guards.
  • Alexey RA
    Alexey RA 6 September 2020 17: 51 New
    +2
    Quote: Narak-zempo
    It would be very appropriate for a year so in 1942.

    Alas, the native industry thwarted all plans for the production of 14,5-mm ZPU even in 1944. Despite the fact that the curator of the program was the LPB.
    The case was examined at the level of the leadership of GAU, NK of arms and GKO. Uv. Andrey Ulanov in his LiveJournal posted enchanting correspondence on this issue.
    Deputy People's Commissar of Armament comrade By a letter dated 18.4.44, Ryabikov reported to Comrade Beria (copy - GAU) that a series of 14,5 Vladimirov machine guns with installations would be manufactured by factory number 2 by 1.7.44, about which the plant was given appropriate instructions.
    At present, plant No. 2 has not started to manufacture a series of machine guns, having lost 15 days in time, and the chief engineer of the plant number 2 informed me by letter dated 3.5. 44, No. 166/7, stating that the series of machine guns would not be produced by 1.7.44. and that it will only be manufactured by 1.8.44g.
    I forgive your instructions from the NKVooruzheniye on the production of a series of 2-mm Vladimirov machine guns by plant No. 14,5 with installations in strict accordance with the deadlines - 1.7.44g - about which Comrade Ryabikov reported comrade Beria on the basis of coordinating the issue with Marshal of Artillery Comrade Yakovlev
    © deputy. Chief of GAU, Lieutenant General of Artillery Xoxlov
    5 days have passed.
    The senior military representative of the GAU KA at the factory number 2 reported that the factory number 2 to the manufacture of a series of 14,5 mm machine guns Vladimirova did not start, having lost 20 days from the time of your order to manufacture a series of machine guns by July 1944, XNUMX, considering this work secondary.
    In addition, contrary to your report, comrade Beria, on the manufacture of a series of Vladimirov machine guns by July 1944, 2. (the deadline was agreed by you with the artillery marshal T. Yakovlev) the chief engineer of factory No. 2 informs me that the series cannot be made by factory No. 1 by June 1944, 1 and that it can only be expected by August 1944, XNUMX.
    © deputy. Chief of GAU, Lieutenant General of Artillery Xoxlov
    Another 20 days passed.
    By the decision of Comrade Beria dated April 14, 1944 according to the report of your deputy comrade Ryabikov on the timing of the manufacture of a series of 14,5 machine guns designed by Vladimirov, plant No. 2 was instructed to produce:
    By June 15, 1944 - 20 pcs. machine guns.
    By June 1, 1944 - 30 pcs. machine guns on anti-aircraft single installations
    From the repeated reports arriving to me, it follows that Plant No. 2 did not launch the manufacture of a series of Vladimirov machine guns at a pace that ensured the fulfillment of Comrade instructions. Beria on the timing of the delivery of the series to the Main Artillery Directorate.
    The relatively short deadlines for the manufacture of a series of 14,5 Vladimirov machine guns, approved by Comrade Beria, are dictated by the relevance of the issue.
    I ask for your instructions to the director of Plant No. 2 on taking effective measures to ensure the delivery of a series of Vladimirov's machine guns on time.
    Please inform me about your decisions.
    © Head of GAU KA, Marshal of Artillery Yakovlev

    Yakovlev, Ustinov and Beria agree on the timing of the release of the ZPU. After that, at plant No. 2, they decide that this is a secondary product, and the chief engineer postpones the deadline by his own will. And the whole head of GAU asks Ustinov to somehow influence the plant.
  • Bongo
    5 September 2020 21: 20 New
    +7
    Quote: Sea Cat
    I fired two barrels from the ZPUshka at rockets with a parachute - it is easy to aim, it hits accurately, shooting is a pleasure.

    It is interesting that the position of the zrdn in wartime and in the "special period" had to be covered with a 12,7-mm DShK machine gun. At the same time, until the mid-90s, 14,5-mm ZPU-4 were attached to radio technical battalions. Nothing, but the personnel were absolutely not trained to handle this weapon. And if the Vladimirov machine gun was disassembled incorrectly, one could easily be left without a finger.
    1. Catfish
      Catfish 5 September 2020 21: 40 New
      +5
      Yes, I didn't have to disassemble it, I just fired and only thanks to the good guy, the commander of the anti-aircraft battery, Captain Kolya Krikov.
  • Doctor
    Doctor 5 September 2020 17: 14 New
    +5
    I always believed that 12,7 is not enough for an anti-aircraft gun, but after the article, I think, it has its own niche even now.
    The same UAVs.

    Great article, thank you, save it to favorites. love
  • Pavel57
    Pavel57 5 September 2020 19: 42 New
    +1
    Nice retrospective. A machine gun with a barrel and pump is very modern.
    1. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 6 September 2020 19: 01 New
      +1
      Quote: Pavel57
      Nice retrospective. A machine gun with a barrel and pump is very modern.

      For air defense - the very thing. On the same "Tashkent", pomnitsa, on the last flight there was a big problem with overheating of the barrels of the ZA.
      A hand pump also makes sense - on ships, the Browning were the "last resort" in the sense that they could work even without power supply.
  • Bongo
    5 September 2020 20: 25 New
    +6
    Quote: Sea Cat
    Vladimirov is good! I fired two barrels from the ZPUshka at rockets with a parachute - it is easy to aim, it hits accurately, shooting is a pleasure.

    Until the recent past, 12,7-mm DShK were used to combat air targets at low altitudes and for self-defense. In my youth, I had a chance to shoot from this weapon. Just like your target was an illuminating rocket on a parachute. Frankly, the machine gun did not impress me. With a burst length of more than 3-4 shots, there were delays in firing. The accuracy was not high. In order to hit the target, it was required to shoot almost the entire box of 50 rounds.
    1. Catfish
      Catfish 5 September 2020 21: 49 New
      +5
      I fired from an anti-aircraft DShKM on a turret in the T-54 turret and I really liked the machine gun, they fired at a stationary target a hundred meters from the car, there were no delays. I dropped the entire tape, sawing down the posts on which the shield hung, and got off the tank like a drunk, well, almost. Very impressed. The only thing, of course, was that he had to cock it with his foot, no one had enough strength with his hands. smile
      1. Bongo
        5 September 2020 21: 55 New
        +7
        Quote: Sea Cat
        I fired from an anti-aircraft DShKM on a turret in the T-54 turret and I really liked the machine gun, they fired at a stationary target a hundred meters from the car, there were no delays. I dropped the entire tape, sawing down the posts on which the shield hung, and got off the tank like a drunk, well, almost. Very impressed. The only thing, of course, was that he had to cock it with his foot, no one had enough strength with his hands. smile

        It is possible that a lot depended on the condition of the weapon and how it was looked after. In our unit, no one really knew anti-aircraft machine guns. After the former deputy for armament resigned, the preparation of the calculations stopped. If we trained with Strela-2M MANPADS, then the machine guns were in the artillery depot almost all the time.
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 5 September 2020 22: 09 New
          +5
          So in our regiment it was the same, there were machine guns, they were licked on a park day, but they did not shoot. Well, we, sergeants, are the last three-year-olds, and raised a "riot", the war with the Chinese is not today or tomorrow, and the people are not taught the machine gun. Beginning The political department supported the "initiative from below" and the dream of the "idiots" to shoot from the DShK came true. And we didn’t have "Arrows" yet, we only heard "terrible" rumors about the BMP-1 and T-64, then they also issued secret documents for the "sixty-two. And we served in old men without any stabilizers.