Military Review

Post-war anti-tank artillery. 85 mm PTS D-44

19
The 44 mm D-85 anti-tank gun was designed at the design bureau of Plant No. 9 (Uralmash). This gun can hit Tanks, armored personnel carriers, self-propelled artillery pieces, as well as other enemy armored vehicles. It can also be used for firing on armored caps, embrasures of wood and long-term points, destruction of manpower and firepower located behind light shelters or outside shelters.

The constructive layout of the gun had a classical scheme: the barrel and bolt superimposed on the carriage.

Post-war anti-tank artillery. 85 mm PTS D-44



The barrel is a monoblock pipe having a two-chamber muzzle brake, couplings and breech holders. Gun carriage includes: anti-recoil devices, a balancing mechanism, a cradle, guidance mechanisms, an upper machine, a lower machine has a cushioning, wheels, beds, aiming devices and shield cover.

An active muzzle brake, which is a massive hollow cylinder, is screwed onto the muzzle of the barrel. The windows (holes) are made on its generatrix. Copier wedge semi-automatic shutter is designed to lock the barrel, the shot. To make the first shot, the shutter opens manually, later, after each shot, the shutter opens automatically. The cradle is a cylindrical cast oboymennogo type, with the roll forward and roll back guides the trunk. The composition of the recoil device includes pnvmatichesky knurled and hydraulic recoil brake. The cradle is fastened by welding the holder with sockets in which the pins are used to connect with the upper machine. The frame (upper machine) serves as the basis for the swinging part of the gun. Nitrogen or air is pumped into the balancing mechanism. The normal pressure of nitrogen (air) in the balancing mechanism: when the swinging part is fixed in a traveling manner from 54 to 64 kgf / cm2; at the highest elevation angle which is 35 ° from 50 to 60 kgf / cm2. The balancing mechanism to create a hydraulic lock is poured 0,5 liters of spun AU oil. In the balancing mechanism, the pressure is regulated by a compensator when the air temperature varies from -20 ° to + 20 ° С.

The balancing mechanism with a compensator is filled with spun AU oil (0,6 liters). On the swinging part, on the left, there are screw guidance mechanisms (swivel and lifting), shield cover and balancing mechanism. On the supporting shield, which is rigidly fastened to the lower folding, rear and front armor plates and frame, was placed the rotating part of the gun. On the shield are mounted torsion suspension suspension system. The combat axis is made up of two straight semiaxes. Reinforced wheels from GAZ-AA, had tires GK. SD-44 hollow sliding beds have openers at the ends. They are pivotally connected to the carrying shield.




Normal rollback length:
- full charge from 580 to 660 millimeters;
- on a reduced charge from 515 to 610 millimeters;
- the maximum length of the rollback is 675 millimeters (marked “Stop”).

For direct fire and from closed positions, the D-44 anti-tank gun is equipped with a С71-7 sight, an OP1-7, OP2-7, OP4-7, OP4-7 optical sight. Also, the APN3-7 or the APN-2 night sights can be used. On the gun, the mechanical С71-7 should be permanently fixed; panorama removed and stored in a regular box.

The rate of fire of the D-44 anti-tank cannon: at an angle of + 20 degrees with correction of aiming, it is 15 rounds per minute; at an angle of 0 degrees - 11-13 shots per minute; 20 maximum rate of fire - 22 shot per minute.

For firing, art-shots of unitary loading are used, having various projectiles: sub-caliber armor-piercing, cumulative fragmentation and high-explosive fragmentation.

Ammunition to the anti-tank gun D-44:

Shoots RO-367 and RO-365K consist of a steel solid body fragmentation projectile 0-365K, brain fuse, steel (brass) of the sleeve, in its point of bottom portion screwed capsule sleeve HF-4, and gunpowder warhead (RO-365K has a complete and UO-367 reduced charge).
UO-367А consists of a 0-367А projectile (solid-body splitting steel cast iron), a head fuse, a steel (brass) sleeve, a KV-4 capsule sleeve screwed into the bottom point and a combat reduced powder charge.
UBR-365K consists of BR-365K projectile (ostrogolovogo armor-tracer), MD-8 fuse having a tracer screwed into point bottom, steel (brass) of the sleeve, capsule sleeve HF-4 screwed into a point of the bottom part and the powder combat full charge.
UBR-365 consists of BR-365 projectile (thick-headed armor-tracer with a ballistic tip), fuse MD-7 equipped tracer screwed into point bottom, steel (brass) of the sleeve, capsule sleeve HF-4 screwed into a point of its bottom portion and complete combat powder charge.
UBR-367P consists of a BR-367P projectile (an armor-piercing-tracer subcaliber with a ballistic tip), a tracer is screwed into the point of the projectile, a steel (brass) sleeve, a capsule sleeve KV-4 is screwed into the point of the ground part of the projectile, a capsule sleeve KV-XNUMX is screwed into the point of the ground part of the projectile, a combat sleeve KV-XNUMX is screwed into the point of the ground part of the projectile, a combat sleeve KV-XNUMX is screwed into the point of the ground part of the projectile, a combat sleeve KV-XNUMX is screwed into the point of the ground part of the projectile;
UBR-365P and UBR-367PK consist of a tracer sub-caliber projectile BR-365P, the tracer is screwed into the point of its bottom part, a steel (brass) sleeve, the capsule sleeve KV-4 is screwed into the point of its bottom part, a powder charge.
UBR-365P from a shot UBR-367PK differs only in the design of the charge.
UBK1 has a cumulative non-rotating BK2 projectile with a tracer No. 9 and a main fuse HPV-1, a steel or brass sleeve, a capsule sleeve of the KV-4 brand screwed into its point, a military igniter and charge, placed in a sleeve, and a line of nautical accessories and 4
UBK1M from the shot UBK1 differs only in that BK2M, which, has a copper cumulative funnel instead of steel.
UD-367 has a D-367 smoke steel projectile, a KTM-2 head fuse screwed into a point of its head part, a steel (brass) sleeve, a KV-4 capsule sleeve is screwed into a point of its bottom part, the combat reduced powder charge.
The HUD1 having a full charge and the HUD2 reduced charge in contrast to the UD-367 are equipped with a KTM-1-U fuse.
The shot The PBR-367 with the PBR-367 projectile has the same device as the shot with the armor-piercing shells. FGP-367 does not have a fuse and is not equipped with an explosive.

Basic data:
The initial speed of the fragmentation grenade (with a reduced charge) - 655 m / s;
The initial velocity of the fragmentation grenade (with a full charge) - 793 m / s;
The initial speed of the armor piercing tracer is 800 m / s;
The initial speed of the subscaliber armor piercing tracer is 1050 m / s;
Mass full charge - 2,6 kilogram;
Mass reduced charge - 1,5 kilogram;
Mass fragmentation projectile - 9,54 kilogram;
The mass of the armor-piercing tracer - 9,2 or 9,34 kilogram;
Sub-caliber armor-piercing-tracer shell - 4,99 kilogram;
The mass of the shot having a high-explosive fragmentation projectile - 16,3 kilogram;
The mass of a shot having an armor-piercing tracer - 15,68 kilogram;
The mass of a shot having a subscale armor-piercing tracer - 15,68 kilogram;
The maximum pressure of powder gases is 2550 kgf / cm;
The largest table range is 15820 meters.

In service of a separate anti-tank artillery battalion of a motorized rifle or tank regiment (two anti-tank artillery batteries consisting of two fire platoons) 6 units per battery (in the 12 division).



Ammunition standardized with CD-44.

The standard means of anti-tank gun is GAZ-66 or GAZ-63.
Transportation speed:
- off-road - 15 km / h.
- on country roads and cobbled roads - 35 km / h;
- on asphalt roads - 60 km / h.

The D-44 PTP can be transported by air in An-12, Il-76, An-22 military transport planes.

For rolling on the positions manually, under the trunk part of the gun, they substitute a special roller fixed in the stowed position and carried on the beds.

Technical characteristics of the anti-tank gun D-44:
Caliber - 85 millimeters;
Barrel length - 4685 millimeters (55 gauges);
The length of the rifled portion of the barrel - 3496 millimeters (41 gauges);
The number of grooves - 24;
The volume of the charging chamber in fragmentation projectile 0-365K - 3.94 dm3;
The height of the line of fire - 825 mm;
Vertical guidance angle - -7 ° + 35 °;
The angle of guidance on the horizon - 54 °;
System length - 8340 millimeters;
The height of the line of fire - 825 millimeters;
Width - 1680 millimeters;
Height - 1420 millimeters;
Clearance - 350 millimeters;
Track width - 1434 millimeters;
Weight in the fighting position - 1725 kilogram;
Barrel with bolt - 718 kilogram;
Shutter - 31,6 kilogram;
Swinging part - 920 kilogram;
Rolling parts (barrel with wheel chocks and bolt) - 785 kilogram;
Cradles - 99 kilogram;
Recoil brakes assembled - 42 kilogram;
Assembled nagatnika - 32 kilogram;
Balancing mechanism - 13 kilogram;
Assembled top machine - 71 kilogram;
Assembled shield cover - 83 kilogram;
Assembled bottom machine - 133 kilogram;
The hopper roller - 12,3 kilogram;
Wheels (with a nave) - 81 kilogram;
Chassis (wheels, suspension and combat axle) - 222 kilogram;
Launch assembled - 972 kilogram:
Ski installation - 170 kilogram;
Translation from combat to marching position - 1 minute;
Target rate of fire guns - 10-15 shots per minute;
The maximum rate of fire guns - 20 shots per minute;
Transportation speed on good roads - 60 km / h;
Transportation speed on cobbled pavement - 35 km / h;
Off-road transportation speed - 15 km / h.
Calculation - 5 people.
19 comments
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  1. borisst64
    borisst64 8 August 2012 10: 59
    +3
    Cumulative - fragmentation shell? Something new!
    1. leon-iv
      leon-iv 8 August 2012 11: 27
      +2
      No matter how it is used for a long time. The residual energy from the formation of a cumulative jet goes to the defeat of manpower by fragments of the hull.
      1. Eugene
        Eugene 8 August 2012 11: 44
        +1
        Is it still in service? With which tanks with such a caliber to fight?
        1. Kars
          Kars 8 August 2012 13: 48
          +2
          On board with almost everyone. In the Balkan war, the T-34-85 fought, and even knocked out the T-55
          1. Eugene
            Eugene 8 August 2012 13: 58
            +1
            Andrei, I’m talking about frontal armor, it’s clear about the side, as in the MTO, but does the Bushmaster in the MTO take abrams, is it anti-tank?
            1. Kars
              Kars 8 August 2012 14: 02
              +2
              Quote: Eugene
              but bushmaster

              Actually, yes, as soon as feathered sabot shells entered his ammunition.
              and frontal armor is a separate issue --- the 105 mm L7 vet also doesn’t pierce the T-64's forehead, but its classification does not change.
              1. Eugene
                Eugene 8 August 2012 14: 09
                +2
                Andrey, I formulated the idea a little incorrectly, and it is like this: what for do you have an anti-tank gun in service that cannot penetrate modern enemy MBT into the forehead?
                1. Kars
                  Kars 8 August 2012 14: 12
                  0
                  Well, this question is easy to answer --- when it was adopted into service, it could penetrate the forehead of a modern enemy tank.
                  and there’s simply no reason to disarm, the work for it is and will be.
                  But in fact, the most powerful Soviet / Russian anti-aircraft gun Sprut also vryatli will pierce the forehead of modern NATO or China’s MBT. (Although its modernization potential has not been exhausted)
        2. DIMS
          DIMS 8 August 2012 14: 44
          0
          It is used as a substitute. And for direct fire and closed fire. Along with the ZIS-3 and M-30.

          VVshniki used in Chechnya.
  2. Forget
    Forget 8 August 2012 13: 24
    +3
    Rapper 1, target 101, infantry covered ..... runaway fire, so our commander shouted at training firing from cannons. I like guns!
    1. DIMS
      DIMS 8 August 2012 14: 52
      +1
      Shells were not very filthy?
      1. Forget
        Forget 8 August 2012 15: 23
        +1
        They were normal, first the warhead was laid, then gunpowder was laid.
        1. DIMS
          DIMS 8 August 2012 16: 18
          +2
          So you did not shoot with the D-44, there are unitary shells. And sometimes they are creepy, from the section "it is forbidden to shoot"

          Most likely you shot from something much larger caliber.
          1. wasjasibirjac
            wasjasibirjac 9 August 2012 04: 45
            0
            most likely - M-30 or D-30
  3. JackTheRipper
    JackTheRipper 8 August 2012 15: 18
    +1
    As for me, the time for such artillery has not yet passed ... Such a class (type) of artillery is needed.
  4. Prohor
    Prohor 8 August 2012 16: 15
    +1
    And in the rest of the world are towed anti-tank guns now in service?
  5. SlavaP
    SlavaP 9 August 2012 00: 10
    0
    Nice toy, still useful
  6. vylvyn
    vylvyn 9 August 2012 02: 42
    0
    Photos are cool. I read the comments and realized that the cannon was out of date. Opponent's MBT is already weak. Well, if it’s out of date, you can use the ZIS-3 with the same success. Efficiency is almost the same, but messing with it is easier.
  7. Bad_gr
    Bad_gr 9 August 2012 20: 46
    +1
    In my opinion, the towed anti-tank guns have outlived their own. And the tank sees the first shot of an anti-tank gun (and they are more or less big-eyed now, not like in the Second World War), whence an assassination attempt was made and the response from an armored fortress on an almost unprotected gun with personnel serving it does not take long .
    Toli case, Missile Antitank Complex: a couple of people launch a rocket and then immediately clog into any gap or even fade from a position.
    Or a self-propelled gun, such as "Sprut": a gun based on a tank, splinterproof armor around the gun and crew, a powerful engine to hide after firing, and in extreme cases, even quickly swim across the river.
    1. alex86
      alex86 9 August 2012 21: 42
      0
      The question, of course, is interesting. At first glance, the towed anti-tank missiles have become obsolete, but we have a strong point of view (and perhaps justifiably) that in the conditions of modern war there is a possibility when there will be no satellite communications or missile delivery to the anti-tank systems, and it will be necessary to shoot, and a simple iron cannon with a simple unitary ammunition in sufficient quantities will be an essential argument in a direct confrontation in a specific territory.
      1. Bad_gr
        Bad_gr 9 August 2012 22: 04
        -1
        Quote: alex86
        ............... no delivery of missiles to the ATGM,
        I wasn’t specifically interested, but I suppose that a one-time anti-tank missile will cost much less than an anti-tank gun, which means that their presence at the front is more likely (of course, if they don’t give out what is available from the warehouses).
        1. alex86
          alex86 10 August 2012 08: 24
          0
          It’s not a fact that it’s cheaper, but most importantly, there are already anti-tank weapons (including in warehouses), and the ammunition for them is the same, and it is inexpensive to teach (remember) to shoot from them, and the probability of damage to them is less - therefore, the presence of anti-tank artillery may not be the most effective, but more stable element of combat potential.