Military Review

Why didn't Germany attack Sweden?

86

Gothenburg in 1943. An unusually calm place


Despite the fact that during the Second World War, Sweden was surrounded on all sides by occupied and involved in the war countries, it surprisingly remained neutral. This Swedish neutrality, proclaimed by the Prime Minister of Sweden Per-Albin Hansson on September 1, 1939, has never received a clear explanation. It was perceived rather as a fact that had arisen by itself. Sweden's secretary of state for foreign affairs, Eric Boheman, attributed neutrality to a combination of Swedish determination to resist invasion and the success of Swedish diplomacy.

However, the answer to this question sounds simple, but indecent: for lack of need. So Hitler decided. There were good reasons for this decision.

Deficit of coal and oil


When planning a war in Europe, the Germans very carefully assessed the position of each country that was or could be in the sphere of their military plans. Various statistics were collected, conclusions were drawn about how strong a particular country is, whether it can fight and whether there is something to profit from. Of course, Sweden also became the object of close attention - if only because Swedish iron ore made up a very significant part of the raw materials for the German iron and steel industry. Of course, they could not bypass such an important issue, which was given the greatest attention to the point that Hermann Goering, personally authorized for the four-year plan, was engaged in the extraction of ore and the smelting of pig iron and steel.

The RGVA funds (f. 1458, op. 44, d. 13) preserved the report "Die wehrwirtschaftliche Lage Schwedens", compiled in 1938 by the Reichsamt für wehrwirtschaftliche Planung, which assessed the military and economic potential Sweden for the coming war.

It is interesting to note that in this report the Soviet attack on Sweden with the aim of capturing or bombing the main Swedish iron ore basin in Kirunavar in the north of the country was taken as the main version of a probable war.


The mine on Mount Kirunavara was distinguished by sophisticated mining technology and high mechanization

Why they thought so, the report did not say. There were probably some reasons for this point of view, but the Germans were interested in whether Sweden would withstand a possible war or not. It was important. The document bore the infrequent stamp “Geheim! Reichssache! " That is, the case was of imperial importance.

What did the Germans learn from their analysis?

First, Sweden, in principle, can feed itself. 596 thousand tons of wheat, 353 thousand tons of rye, 200 thousand tons of barley, 1826 thousand tons of potatoes and 4553 thousand tons of sugar and fodder beets, as well as 1238 thousand tons of oats (oats were usually used as fodder for horses and livestock, but in Sweden it was used for food) mainly covered the country's needs for agricultural products without significant imports.

But the industry was very bad in Sweden.

Secondly, in 1936 Sweden mined 11 million tons of iron ore with an iron content of 7 million tons, of which only 8% was melted domestically. In 1936, it produced 687 thousand tons of pig iron, of which it consumed 662 thousand tons. Steel smelting - 240 thousand tons, import - 204 thousand tons, consumption - 392 thousand tons. Steel sheet production - 116 thousand tons, import - 137 thousand tons, consumption - 249 thousand tons. Total for steel Sweden covered its needs with its production by 61,2% (p. 78). Although Sweden produced machine-building products worth 279 million kroons, imported 77 million, exported 92 million and consumed 264 million kroons, its engineering industry was supplied with raw materials for 40% of imported steel and 60% for imports of rolled steel.

Thirdly, in 1936, Sweden had 173,2 thousand cars and 44,3 thousand motorcycles, 2272 ships with a total tonnage of 1595 thousand brt (of which 45% consumed oil), the consumption of oil products reached 975 thousand tons. All this was covered by imports: 70 thousand tons of crude oil, 939 thousand tons of oil products. There were only 2 thousand tons of benzene from our own fuel production. The country had the only Nynäshamn oil refinery in the Stockholm region, which had a capacity of 60 thousand tons per year and covered 7% of the consumption of petroleum products.

Fourth, here you can add data from the work of the Swedish researcher stories Swedish imports of coal (Olsson S.-O. German Coal and Swedish Fuel 1939-1945. Göteborg, 1975): in 1937, Sweden produced 461 thousand tons of coal (similar in quality to brown coal) and imported 8,4 million tons of imported quality coal. In 1939, production amounted to 444 thousand tons, and import amounted to 8,2 million tons.

Or in more detail - by the nature of the fuel in the coal equivalent.

Own production in 1937:
Coal - 360 thousand tons.
Firewood - 3620 thousand tons.
Charcoal - 340 thousand tons.
Peat - 15 thousand tons.
In total - 4353 thousand tons.

Import:
Coal - 6200 thousand tons.
Coke - 2230 thousand tons.
Petroleum products - 800 thousand tons.
Paraffin - 160 thousand tons.
Oil and dark oil products - 710 thousand tons.
Total - 10100 thousand tons.

Total fuel consumption of all types is 14435 thousand tons (Olsson, p. 246).

The Swedish data differ somewhat from the German data, which can be explained by the incompleteness of the statistical data available to German researchers in 1938, but the picture is the same. Sweden covered 29,8% of fuel consumption with its own production. This despite the fact that they burned a lot of firewood: 26 million cubic meters. feet, or 736,2 thousand cubic meters.

The Germans made a completely unambiguous conclusion from all this: "Deficit of coal and oil is of decisive military-economic importance" (p. 74).

The German militarists could not continue. A country completely without oil and with clearly insufficient coal production and very little steel smelting could not fight. Various endeavors like development tank L-60 (282 vehicles were delivered to the Hungarian army, 497 vehicles of various modifications were delivered to the Swedish army), could not compensate for the general weakness of the Swedish economy.

Therefore, there could be no talk of any war, especially with Germany. Germany did not need to fight with Sweden, since the German fleet could well block the main Swedish ports located in the southern part of the country, mainly on the Baltic Sea coast. Then it was only necessary to wait for the economic collapse.

But the Germans did not even do that. Interestingly, already during the war, in January-June 1940, Sweden received 130 thousand tons of coke from Great Britain, 103 thousand tons from the Netherlands, and from Germany - 480 thousand tons (Olsson, p. 84), that is, to trade with both the warring parties were not prohibited. Only from April 9, 1940, when the blockade of the Skaggerak Strait was established, did the Swedes completely switch to German coal and coke.

The Swedes had nowhere to go


Sweden, like other continental neutrals such as Switzerland and Spain, retained their status mainly due to the agreement with Hitler. This agreement, of course, was. Its main content boiled down to the fact that Sweden is not at war, but trades with Germany and her allies with all her might on a wide range of imports and exports, not just coal and iron ore.

The reasons for the Swedish compliance on the Swedish side were, of course, in the understanding that they would not stand up to Germany completely, they would quickly be defeated and occupied. Therefore, the policy of the Swedish government was to buy off Germany, although measures were taken to increase the army, train soldiers and officers, and build fortifications until the adoption of a five-year defense plan in June 1942. On the German side, Hitler had a better plan than a direct invasion of Sweden. The occupation of Norway was still an important part of solving Germany's military-economic problems. Before the war, the main part of Swedish iron ore went through the Norwegian Narvik - 5530 thousand tons in 1936; the rest of the Swedish ports in the Gulf of Bothnia: Luleå - 1600 thousand tons, Gälve - 500 thousand tons, Ukselosund - 1900 thousand tons. The ore went to the German port of Emden (3074 thousand tons), as well as to Rotterdam (3858 thousand tons), from where the ore was delivered up the Rhine to the Ruhr metallurgical plants.


German raid on Narvik, June 1, 1940, eight days before the Allied evacuation

Narvik was a very important port for Germany, of true strategic importance. Capturing and holding it was supposed to ensure the supply of Swedish ore to Germany, as well as prevent the British, using Narvik as a base, to land in Norway and capture the bulk of the Swedish iron ore. A report from the Imperial Office of Defense Planning for Sweden said that without Swedish and Norwegian iron ore, Germany would be able to use only 40% of its metallurgical capacity. The occupation of Norway solved this problem.

However, since Norway is occupied and the German fleet controls the Norwegian coast of the North Sea and the entrance to the Skaggerak Strait, then Sweden is completely cut off from the outside world, for navigation it has only the Baltic Sea, that is, in essence, Germany, and it is forced to follow the fairway of German military-economic policy.

Therefore, Hitler decided to leave everything as it is. All the same, the Swedes have nowhere to go, and their policy of neutrality at any cost was even beneficial, since it saved Germany from the need to allocate occupation troops for Sweden.
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  1. cost
    cost 2 September 2020 05: 54 New
    +7
    Agree with the Author
    If the Germans attacked the Swedes, then they could have a serious deficit in the mentioned ore. As a result, the production of weapons could suffer. Nothing would prevent the Swedes from blowing up their own mines, which would take a long time to restore.
    Hitler could not afford this. He was already late almost everywhere.
    1. Basil50
      Basil50 2 September 2020 07: 19 New
      +9
      What are YOU. The Swedes fit into the German economy, buying from the British-Americans what the Germans need.
      The author described what happened, but forgot to mention that the king of Sweden wore a badge of a member of the Nazi party and after all, not only the king was a Nazi.
      And today in Sweden the ideas of the Nazis are very popular.
      1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
        Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 2 September 2020 10: 35 New
        +1
        Quote: Vasily50
        that the king of Sweden wore a Nazi party badge

        Are you serious? Was Gustav the 5th a member of the NSDAP? Where did you read such nonsense?
        Here is the daddy of the current wife of King Charles on the 16th Walter Sommerlat - yes, he was a member of the party.
      2. bandabas
        bandabas 2 September 2020 17: 33 New
        +9
        And the Czechs fit in best of all.
      3. Sergey Sfiedu
        Sergey Sfiedu Today, 19: 58 New
        0
        The Swedes handed over the FAU-2 that fell on their territory to the British.
    2. Mavrikiy
      Mavrikiy 2 September 2020 07: 34 New
      -15
      Quote: Rich
      If the Germans attacked the Swedes, then they could have a serious deficit in the mentioned ore. As a result, the production of weapons could suffer. Nothing would prevent the Swedes from blowing up their own mines, which would take a long time to restore.

      Fantasy. 1. Iron ore is not mined in mines. 2. In Europe, it is not customary to blow up private property so that the enemy does not get it. France, Norway, Balkans. 3. All this has already happened in WWI.
      1. cost
        cost 2 September 2020 08: 10 New
        11
        Fantasy.
        1. Iron ore is not mined in mines

        belay Come on. They are mined, and how, even to this day in Russia


        2. In Europe, it is not accepted to blow up private property, so that the enemy does not get it

        Of course you know better whether it is accepted or not, but Albert Speer: in his "Memoirs" he writes:
        "... the Swedes have warned us about the mining of their Bergslagen iron ore mines (Eisenerz-Bergwerk Bergslagen), and that in case of aggression they will be put out of action .."
        Speer A. Memories. / Translated from it. - Smolensk: Rusich; Moscow: Progress, 1997
        1. cost
          cost 2 September 2020 08: 32 New
          16
          Mavrikiy: Fantasy. Iron ore is not mined in mines.

          And the men still do not know about it (c) smile
          a photo drift of the largest ore mine in the Urals "Yuzhnaya-2"
        2. wehr
          2 September 2020 11: 33 New
          -3
          No need to insist if you don't know for sure.
          In addition, Bergslagen is the center of Sweden, quite far from northern Kiruna, where most of the iron ore was mined.
          1. cost
            cost 2 September 2020 11: 57 New
            +8
            No need to insist if you don't know for sure

            And let me ask you, what do I insist on? And if you can be more specific yes
            I do not insist on anything, but write my thoughts, discussing your article
            I wrote that the Swedes warned the Nazis about mining, and with reference to a source, mining and metallurgical production in Bergslagen. Or is it not so? So give proof otherwise smile
            In addition, Bergslagen is the center of Sweden, quite far from northern Kiruna, where most of the iron ore was mined.

            that is, the center of mining and metallurgy in the region of Svealand, in your opinion, is already kind of like Swedish and is not considered? belay Great!
            Or maybe you will also argue that iron ore is not mined in mines? smile
            1. wehr
              2 September 2020 12: 04 New
              -5
              About the fact that in Bergslagen ore was mined in the mines. I don’t know exactly, so I don’t presume to say. And I do not advise you to assert without accurate data.
              And there is nothing to throw a tantrum.
              1. cost
                cost 2 September 2020 12: 43 New
                +9
                About the fact that in Bergslagen ore was mined in the mines. I don’t know exactly, so I don’t presume to say. And I do not advise you to assert without accurate data.

                Cool laughing So about the Falun mine, the entire 2nd world mine, which regularly supplied copper to the Nazis and closed only in 1992 from exhaustion, you hear for the first time? belay
                So here to you, as an author writing about Sweden, I inform you - Falun (Swedish Falun) is the administrative center of the Dalarna county of the Bergslagen region in Sweden yes
                a photo... Falun Copper Mine

                Incidentally, it was the Falun copper mine that for many years served as the basis for Sweden's economic prosperity, allowing it to become a leading European power in the 2001th century. In XNUMX, both the city and the former copper mine were declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. yes
                And there is nothing to throw a tantrum.

                Yes, God be with you, what a hysteria? Don't flatter yourself. It would be better to read some literature about Sweden before writing an article
                1. wehr
                  2 September 2020 12: 46 New
                  -6
                  A hysterical man looks ridiculous. You have it: you rush here at everyone without the slightest reason.

                  In the context of my article, it did not matter at all how the Swedes mined ore: by quarries or mines, and I did not consider copper mining at all.
                  1. Kronos
                    Kronos 2 September 2020 13: 29 New
                    11
                    So you will hysteria - you put forward the thesis, then you refuted you, you started throwing accusations.
                    1. wehr
                      2 September 2020 14: 45 New
                      -4
                      Can't you read? In this thread, I had only one thesis: if you don't know for sure, don't assert.
                      If it is "refuted", then congratulations on breaking the bottom.
      2. Alexander Kopelevich
        Alexander Kopelevich 28 September 2020 22: 29 New
        0
        I was in Kiruna, and I saw - I don’t know where how, but it’s in the mines there that they mine. even the city is going to be moved due to the threat of failure
    3. Andrey Zhdanov-Nedilko
      Andrey Zhdanov-Nedilko 2 September 2020 13: 59 New
      +1
      Well, not so late everywhere! ...
  2. apro
    apro 2 September 2020 05: 57 New
    +4
    The occupation of Norway was still an important part of solving the military-economic problems of Germany.

    I do not agree here. The capture of Norway was planned by the Angles. And this is a preventive measure. It somewhat worsened the situation of the 3rd Reich. The expansion of the front. The diversion of resources for the protection and occupation of a not very simple region.
    The author's point of view on the Swedes is understandable. But after calculating what the occupation and holding of the Swedes would cost, they washed their hands. Moreover, the Swedes fulfilled their economic obligations to the Nazis. Without the Swedish ore, the blitzkrieg clearly stalled.
    1. Mavrikiy
      Mavrikiy 2 September 2020 07: 54 New
      -5
      Quote: apro
      . without the Swedish ore, the blitzkrieg clearly stalled.
      Swedish ore has nothing to do with the blitzkrieg. At the time of the opening of hostilities, you can create a reserve, and a blitzkrieg - a quick war will pick it up. The fact that a blitzkrieg can turn into a trench war is quite another ...
      During the war, the Germans received mines from the defeated, although not as rich as the Swedish. Yes, and the allies could have planted something, but the logistics .....
  3. cost
    cost 2 September 2020 06: 18 New
    15
    But there is another explanation as to why Germany did not attack Sweden.
    According to the memoirs of Albert Speer:
    Basically, we developed a plan for the invasion of Scandinavia, involving the occupation of Sweden. But the time has come for consultations with the heads of the German armed forces. Accordingly, this also affected Goering as Reich Minister of Aviation.
    So, he was not happy with this idea. The reasons for the disagreement were as follows:
    “Goering had too close ties with Sweden .. It was in this country that he spent time in exile when he had to leave Germany after the Beer Putsch.” His first wife and many of his business partners lived there. Goering promised his Swedish friends immense support as long as they send iron ore to Germany, their neutrality will remain unshakable.
    They say that Goering went to Hitler, who said that his (Reich Minister of Aviation) honor might suffer if Germany attacked Sweden, since he had promised to preserve Swedish neutrality. Goering vowed to resign from all his posts if Hitler did not renounce his occupation of Sweden. the latter agreed, and the Swedes continued to grow rich from the sale of iron ore. I do not know whether this is true or not, but I heard stories that Goering boastfully told the Fuehrer: "It takes 6 months to occupy Norway, 2 weeks for Denmark, and just one phone call is enough to take Sweden." The bottom line was that the royal family of this country, the officer corps and the police were one hundred percent pro-Nazi. It was enough to call them to agree to everything. "

    And more from his memoirs:
    "On the eve of the war, Germany's demand for iron ore was 10 million tons annually. Sweden accounted for 9 million tons of this raw material."
  4. parusnik
    parusnik 2 September 2020 06: 30 New
    +9
    And the point? Sweden as a "neutral" showed itself well during WWI, supplying Germany with iron ore and not only ... And the country's leadership was pro-Nazi ...
    1. The leader of the Redskins
      The leader of the Redskins 2 September 2020 06: 58 New
      +9
      And during World War II, every fourth bearing on the Messerschmitt was Swedish.
      1. Lexus
        Lexus 2 September 2020 13: 07 New
        12
        The Swedes, in general, and the British in bearings, and not only, did not refuse. "Both yours and ours" (C) A kind of actual hotbed of "tolerance". By God, it is significant that they were chasing after them, including the "gays" of the Fleet, then, His Majesty. It turns out to be some kind of indecent "double penetration story". bully
        110. Breaking through the blockade "Gay Viking", England, 1942
        The project is based on the MGB-501 case.

        95 T displacement
        the total power of the three diesels is 3000 liters. with., speed 20-23 knots.
        Maximum length 35,69 m, width 6,18 m, deepening bow / stern 1,14 / 1,3 m.
        It took 45-50 tons of cargo into the holds and was armed with two 20-mm machine guns and four machine guns.
        A total of five units were built:
        Hopewell, Nonsuch, Gay Viking, Gay Corsair and Master Standfast.
        Photos and performance characteristics are taken from the "Marine Collection" of the "Modelist-Constructor" magazine

        Here is a little more detailed, however, in English)

        It is not surprising that the “progressive” family of “free morals” is called “Swedish” and not otherwise. lol
    2. Far B
      Far B 2 September 2020 07: 15 New
      0
      Sweden in relation to Germany at that time period is like Tabaki's jackal in relation to Sherkhan. Sherkhan didn't eat his Tabaki either - so, mutuzit occasionally)))
      And the country's leadership was pro-Nazi
      Yes, there is not only the leadership, but also the population quite well ... It is enough to read Astrid Lindgren's diaries. Although Carlson and Peppy, she still turned out gorgeous)
    3. Kronos
      Kronos 2 September 2020 13: 31 New
      +2
      Well, it was just trade, it is stupid to blame them for it.
    4. Alf
      Alf 2 September 2020 19: 33 New
      +3
      Quote: parusnik
      And the point? Sweden as a "neutral" showed itself well during WWI, supplying Germany with iron ore and not only ... And the country's leadership was pro-Nazi ...

      And an additional country in the form of a pre-field is also, as it were, beneficial for defense from the west.
  5. cost
    cost 2 September 2020 06: 30 New
    +9
    Here is an interesting video on this topic.
    1. ee2100
      ee2100 2 September 2020 10: 07 New
      +1
      The announcer reads "howbies." (2.43) Accent on "and". Sounds like "pigeons" is funny!
  6. Olgovich
    Olgovich 2 September 2020 06: 53 New
    +2
    Sweden, like other continental neutrals such as Switzerland and Spain, retained their status mainly due to the agreement with Hitler. This agreement, of course, was. Its main content boiled down to the fact that Sweden is not at war, but trades with Germany and her allies with all her might on a wide range of imports and exports, not just coal and iron ore.

    Landing countries to secure financial and trade relations between the Nazis and the rest of the world.

    for that and saved
    1. cost
      cost 2 September 2020 13: 13 New
      +3
      According to the updated data of Milward and Jaeger, the average dependence of Germany on the Swedish iron ore, taking into account its content, was in 1940-1943. 32%, and in 1944 - only 17,4%. Even at the end of such an acute, in terms of the blockade and shortage of raw materials, period like the "strange war", by June 1, 1940, the German reserves of mined ore (taking into account its iron content), pig iron, steel and scrap exceeded the entire Swedish supply of the specified period by 87%; the aggregate production of Austria, the "protectorate" of the Czech Republic and Moravia and Poland (its part subsequently captured by the Germans) reached in 1938-1939. 43% of Swedish imports to Germany during the "strange war". It turns out that the lion's share of the Swedish deliveries in 1940 came in the period after the victory over France. Thus, for the needs of the "blitzkrieg" the German military economy did not depend on Sweden with its delivery. With regard to the needs of a long, all-out war, Jaeger in particular showed the latent possibilities of ferrous metallurgy in the Reich and the German-controlled countries of Europe and the large volume of German metal exports in the middle of the war. The Reich really needed Swedish supplies, but after the capture of Lorraine and Luxembourg, German dependence on them sharply weakened in terms of the possibility of their replacement. In any case, reliable sources - secret reports of the Minister of Armaments A. Speer and the association of German iron producers for 1943 - say that with appropriate efforts, the Reich, even after the loss of Krivoy Rog, could do without the Scandinavian iron ore supplies, thus reducing steel production only by 7-10%.
      Thus, Milward and Jaeger, apparently, are right in their polemic with Karlbum: the Nazis' dependence on Swedish ore supplies and interest in them were not as great as it was assumed until now. It follows that the most important argument for the Reich in the matter of Sweden's "neutrality" was still the need for a "Laying Country to ensure the financial and trade relations of the Nazis with the rest of the world." as points out Olgovich
  7. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
    Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 2 September 2020 09: 31 New
    +3
    On June 14, 1943, the Swedish envoy to the USSR S.Sederblum told Stalin and Molotov on behalf of his government:
    “... Sweden is well aware that if it still remains out of the war, it is only thanks to the military successes of the USSR. Sweden is sincerely grateful to the Soviet government for this and speaks directly about it "
  8. north 2
    north 2 2 September 2020 11: 08 New
    -1
    Not only Sweden, but also America fit well into the German economy. For example, American soldiers from the allied armies who entered Germany as troops of the Second Front were
    surprised by the number of new FORD vehicles in Germany. It turns out that Ford all
    war ordered Germany cars. Delivered even when America opened the Second Front
    against Germany. This was not only because Roosevelt feared that if the Ford factories reduced production, they would have to lay off thousands of workers, there would be assembly lines and a surge in unemployment and strikes would begin, but also because Ford was one of the theorists of eugenics. That is, Ford was one of Hitler's teachers in theories of racial segregation. And Ford's portrait hung throughout the war in Hitler's office.
    So Hitler understood perfectly well who and how would serve him and how and who would fit into the German economy. Sweden is like this, and America is like this ... And if, God forbid, the Soviet Union would have fallen, then America, oh, as with Hitler
    would find a common language ...
    1. Cherry Nine
      Cherry Nine 2 September 2020 11: 56 New
      +3
      Quote: north 2
      It turns out that Ford all
      war ruled Germany cars

      This, of course, is a lie.
      Quote: north 2
      surprised by the number of new FORD cars in Germany

      And this is a lie.
      Quote: north 2
      Roosevelt feared that if the Ford factories reduced their production, they would have to lay off thousands of workers,

      And this is ordinary illiteracy. When the United States entered the war, all civilian automobile production was stopped by the government and shifted to military flights. Chrysler made Bofors, Ford B-24s, GM naval aircraft, self-propelled guns, what not.
      Quote: north 2
      Ford was one of the theorists

      Yes, Ford Sr. was an unpleasant person. But not to that extent.
      Quote: north 2
      God forbid, the Soviet Union would have fallen

      Who, but the Soviet Union knew very well about the economic relations with the Reich.
      1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
        Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 2 September 2020 13: 56 New
        0
        Quote: Cherry Nine
        GM marine aircraft

        GM are nimble guys. On cooperation with the Nazis in 41-45, they were never caught. They withdrew their state from Opel in 1941 and declared their investment in Opel irretrievably lost, for which they received a tax break of $ 20 million from the Treasury.
        1. Cherry Nine
          Cherry Nine 2 September 2020 17: 07 New
          +3
          Quote: Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
          Collaborating with the Nazis in 41-45 they were never caught

          You see, the British fleet was more than actively opposed to cooperation with the Nazis after 39. The Americans did not supply products to Germany, but, naturally, they had assets there. So these figures are not exposing GM, but the world capitalist system. Yes, American companies had interests in Germany. Yes, they could and should have looked after the interests of their shareholders. Moreover, in 39-41 years, when their country was neutral.

          Likewise, the desire of the affected Jews, or rather the relatives of the injured Jews, to receive money from whom it does not matter for what, is not at all surprising.
          1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
            Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 2 September 2020 17: 49 New
            +1
            Quote: Cherry Nine
            Moreover, in 39-41 years, when their country was neutral.

            that's what we're talking about - all attempts to catch the titans of American industry (in particular, FMK and GM) in "working for the Reich" after Germany's declaration of war on the United States is bullshit and engagement. All these "portraits on the tables" and "orders" are chewing gum for the narrow-minded. Fordism was equally impressed by both Stalin and Hitler, and before WWII, in the conditions of depression, everyone actively traded with each other "in spite of ..".
    2. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
      Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 2 September 2020 12: 46 New
      +3
      Quote: north 2
      It turns out that Ford all
      war ordered Germany cars. Delivered even when America opened the Second Front
      against Germany.

      what nonsense?
      Roosevelt feared that if the Ford factories reduced their production, they would have to lay off thousands of workers, there would be assembly lines and a surge in unemployment and strikes would begin.

      where do you get this nonsense? From the swamp of depression Edsel Ford pulled military orders - the liberators,
      shermans and other military men. What is unemployment? Since 1942
      he practically did not produce civilian products.
      1. Undecim
        Undecim 2 September 2020 13: 12 New
        +6
        where do you get this nonsense?
        Believe it or not, he gets this from the Washington Post.
        1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
          Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 2 September 2020 13: 15 New
          0
          Quote: Undecim
          Believe it or not, he gets this from the Washington Post.


          I won't believe it, of course. Can you link to the source?
          1. Undecim
            Undecim 2 September 2020 13: 19 New
            +5
            https://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/national/daily/nov98/nazicars30.htm
            1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
              Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 2 September 2020 13: 32 New
              -1
              Well? Where exactly in the article is this nonsense about
              It turns out that Ford all
              war ordered Germany cars. Supplied even when America opened the Second Front against Germany
              ?
              1. Undecim
                Undecim 2 September 2020 13: 45 New
                +4
                Naturally, this is not in the article, since no one supplied cars from America to Germany.
                The article deals with Ford-Werke GmbH and the article, or, most likely, its rehash in some modern "monograph", clearly served as a source of inspiration for a certain north of the second.
                1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
                  Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 2 September 2020 13: 48 New
                  0
                  ooh, I get it)
                  Some kind of fantasy interpretation? I notice that such interpreters are the loudest whining about "rewriting history".
                  1. Undecim
                    Undecim 2 September 2020 14: 08 New
                    +4
                    If you are interested in the topic and speak English, find the book by Charles Higham. Trading With the Enemy, it should be online.
                    1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
                      Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 2 September 2020 15: 52 New
                      0
                      Hayem has been in translation for a long time. I read, read. Spoiled. Especially about the activities of Art. Oil. He jerks slightly about Spanish schemes.
                      1. Undecim
                        Undecim 2 September 2020 16: 22 New
                        +3
                        Spoiled. Especially about the activities of Art. Oil.
                        That's right, that "vorornenko". But many do not bother themselves with analysis. There are a lot of examples even here.
                      2. Cherry Nine
                        Cherry Nine 2 September 2020 17: 09 New
                        +2
                        Quote: Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
                        He jerks slightly about Spanish schemes.

                        )))
                        Hiam doesn't jerk. He just sings like a nightingale. Evening.
                      3. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
                        Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 2 September 2020 17: 54 New
                        0
                        Quote: Cherry Nine
                        He just sings like a nightingale. Evening.

                        I think I understand what you mean)
                        But then it doesn't "sing", but "rings".
          2. Cherry Nine
            Cherry Nine 2 September 2020 15: 43 New
            +4
            Quote: Undecim
            www.washingtonpost.com

            )))
            Yes you are right. People who are surprised by the position of the EP now, when the EP is being drowned for Marxism and pogroms, are simply not aware of the traditions of this publication. The EaP has been fighting capitalism as best it can for a very long time.

            And the article, of course, is a goofy leftist propaganda. Professional good people who are nothing heavier than a glass and, hmm, did not hold in their hands, climbed onto the pedestal of their impeccable moral purity and judge grandfathers from there.

            However, this is very pleasant, I admit it.
  • iouris
    iouris 2 September 2020 12: 36 New
    -3
    Quote: "All the same, the Swedes have nowhere to go, and their policy of neutrality at any cost was even beneficial, since it saved Germany from the need to allocate occupation troops for Sweden." End of quote.
    The author did not understand the question well. There are no neutral countries. Sweden is an anti-Russian state. An anti-Russian state cannot be neutral.
    It's not just about Swedish ore. The issue of the Swedish (actually transnational) concern SKF (Duropedia: AB SKF is a Swedish international engineering company, the world's largest (!!) bearing manufacturer, lubrication systems and mechatronics (headquartered in Gothenburg) produced high-tech products that were supplied to both Germany and the USA. There have been times when in the United States, due to interruptions in the supply of bearings from SKF, the production of bombers was idle. If the bearings were manufactured in Germany, the Allies could bomb the factories. In addition, financial and trade transactions were carried out in Sweden between the business circles of opponents. In addition, the Swedish aristocracy was very pro-German, but anti-Russian and anti-Soviet.
    Does the author know that Hermann Goering is the prototype for "Carlosson's baby"? Well, let him read it.
    In the meantime, the rating is "unsatisfactory".
    1. Cherry Nine
      Cherry Nine 2 September 2020 15: 49 New
      +5
      Quote: iouris
      Sweden is an anti-Russian state.

      Anti-Soviet.
      Quote: iouris
      An anti-Russian state cannot be neutral.

      Naturally, the Swedes were not completely neutral in relation to the USSR - Swedish volunteers went to the Winter War. On the other hand, they also did not like what was happening in Denmark and Norway, so it was not easy for the poor Swedes from a moral point of view.
      In the morning at half past five, German troops crossed the Russian border ... So, the former allies are at war with each other, and poor Finland is on fire again. Germany claims that Russia has not at all fulfilled the terms of the treaty with Germany, but, on the contrary, is doing everything to harm it, while Russia claims the opposite, and that Germany attacked for no reason. Colossal armies face each other along the entire border from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Black Sea in the south. The future is one huge question mark. What will happen to Sweden? All Midsummer passes have been canceled. Steamers are standing at Furusund and waiting, some have turned around and left, because they cannot reach the port of destination. Large areas of the Baltic were mined by the Germans.

      The day was remarkably warm and sunny today. Sture came from the city on a completely overcrowded ship and had no idea about the war, because he had been sailing since 8 in the morning. But still, it was quite alarming. Only the grandmother is calm and says that "everything will be over soon." On the contrary, I think that everything is just beginning. It is strange that now you have to be for Germany. It will be difficult to be on the side of Germany and against Russia and on the side of England against Germany... One solid porridge
      1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
        Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 2 September 2020 16: 51 New
        +2
        October 1941. Letter from Gustav the 5th to Hitler:
        “My dear Reich Chancellor! I have a need to write openly to you on an issue that worries me and is of the greatest importance for me and my country. This is a Russian question. I believe this is of great importance for the future and you can find out about my view on the essence of this issue. After the First World War, I saw what a tremendous danger Bolshevism carries and continues to carry with it, not only for us in the North, but for the whole of Europe. Therefore, I want to express my warm gratitude for the fact that you decided to destroy this plague by all possible means. I congratulate you on the great successes already achieved.

        I also want to assure you that the majority of my people share my views on this issue, although this may not have found widespread enough expression. My activity will always be aimed at convincing all those who may still have doubts about the correctness of my views.

        I must ask you not to make this letter public, at least while the war is going on (for this would weaken my position and complicate my activities aimed at maintaining good relations with Germany), and I look forward to your understanding (I am sure that you understand what difficulties exist in the conditions of a constitutional monarchy). However, you can be sure that I will do everything to preserve the existing good relations between us.

        With heartfelt wishes, I remain faithful to you Gustav. "


        in German.
        According to paragraph 11 of the Constitution, the monarch has no right to such messages bypassing the government. Prime Minister Hansson, being a Socialist-Democratic Party, was, of course, categorically against this frank curtsy. But Gustav invited the German ambassador to the palace and read him a letter. The next day the letter was at the headquarters of the Fuhrer on the Eastern Front.
        1. Cherry Nine
          Cherry Nine 2 September 2020 17: 17 New
          +1
          Quote: Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
          Letter from Gustav the 5th to Hitler

          What's wrong there? The king expressed his personal opinion, which did not coincide with the opinion of the Swedish government. Why would he love the Bolsheviks, excuse me? He was a Russian admiral and in-law (by wife) of the Romanovs.

          You never know who wrote to whom. You can't remember everything.
          Dear Mr. Ribbentrop!
          I received your letter. Thank you sincerely for your confidence, as well as for the instructive analysis of recent events given in your letter.
          I agree with you that further improvement of relations between our states is quite possible, based on a solid basis for delimiting our interests for a long time.
          VM Molotov believes that he is in your debt and is obliged to give you a return visit to Berlin. Therefore, VM Molotov accepts your invitation. It remains to agree on the day of arrival in Berlin. VMMolotov considers the most convenient time for him to be November 10-12. If he also suits the German government, the question can be considered settled.
          I welcome your expressed desire to visit Moscow again to continue the exchange of views that began last year on issues of interest to our countries, and I hope that this will be done after Molotov's trip to Berlin.
          As for the joint discussion of some issues with the participation of the representatives of Japan and Italy, then, without opposing in principle such an idea, it seems to me that this issue should be subjected to preliminary discussion.
          Sincerely,
          ready to serve I. Stalin
          Moscow, October 21, 1940
      2. iouris
        iouris 2 September 2020 18: 20 New
        -4
        Quote: Cherry Nine
        Naturally, the Swedes were not completely neutral in relation to the USSR.

        You can't be a little pregnant. Thus, the claim that Sweden is a neutral state is false. But that's not the point. The main thing is that Sweden provided Germany with combat-ready tanks with the supply of its bearings. Very efficient. Thus, Sweden is an accomplice of the Nazis. At the same time, Sweden is an "accomplice" of the USA. Thanks to this neutrality, a special kind of "socialism" has been built in Sweden - "Swedish National Socialism with a human face".
        1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
          Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 2 September 2020 18: 43 New
          +1
          Quote: iouris
          Thus, the claim that Sweden is a neutral state is false.


          why's that? Was Sweden at war with the Axis or the Allies?
          Quote: iouris
          Thus, Sweden is an accomplice of the Nazis. At the same time, Sweden is an "accomplice" of the USA.

          Yes, you will already decide who is whose accomplice. Neutrality does not rest on the stupid declaration "I am neutral!" is permanent diplomatic maneuvering and compromises. The Swedes did it.
          Quote: iouris
          Thanks to this neutrality, a special kind of "socialism" has been built in Sweden - "Swedish National Socialism with a human face".

          this is something new. Why didn't the Swedes please you? Did you slip a defective chair at IKEA?
          1. iouris
            iouris 2 September 2020 18: 52 New
            -3
            Are you a quality manager at IKEA? Don't play this meaningless game with me. I have no personal relationship with you. Argument, and visitors will evaluate the quality of your arguments and your logic.
            1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
              Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 2 September 2020 18: 59 New
              +1
              What arguments do you need for Sweden's neutrality?
              You will be able to argue your absurdity about "Swedish National Socialism with a human face"?
              1. iouris
                iouris 2 September 2020 19: 03 New
                -4
                I don't need your "arguments" in favor of Sweden's neutrality. Generally. I already know everything.
                1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
                  Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 2 September 2020 19: 06 New
                  +1
                  Quote: iouris
                  I already know everything.

                  okay, how about the second question, about the national social?
        2. Cherry Nine
          Cherry Nine 2 September 2020 18: 49 New
          +2
          Quote: iouris
          Sweden is a neutral state, false

          Sweden is a neutral state, since its Armed Forces did not participate in hostilities.
          Quote: iouris
          Sweden supplied its bearings

          This is the economic meaning of neutrality.
          Quote: iouris
          Sweden has built a special kind of "socialism" - "Swedish National Socialism with a human face".

          Envy silently.
          1. iouris
            iouris 2 September 2020 19: 01 New
            -2
            Quote: Cherry Nine
            Envy silently.

            To envy the Swedes? What do you know about their life?
            One of my grandfathers died at the Kursk Bulge, and another a little earlier, too, in the Kursk Region, and I remember that. I made my humble contribution to protecting the air border of the USSR from the encroachments of the impudent Swedes who worked for the Americans. Therefore, I can not calmly pass by attempts by intent or due to shallow knowledge of the issue to propagate false ideas.
            1. Cherry Nine
              Cherry Nine 2 September 2020 21: 45 New
              +5
              Quote: iouris
              What do you know about their life?

              A little that, a little that.
              Quote: iouris
              made his modest contribution to protecting the air border of the USSR from the encroachments of the impudent Swedes who worked for the Americans

              What has always amazed me about Americans is their restlessness. The entire USSR was surrounded by the accursed NATO, but no, it is imperative to harm it through the Swedes, just on principle.
              Quote: iouris
              made his modest contribution to protecting the air border of the USSR

              In the Baltic? Rust flew off your watch?
              1. Liam
                Liam 2 September 2020 21: 58 New
                +1
                Quote: Cherry Nine
                In the Baltic? Rust flew off your watch?

                )))))))))))))))
              2. iouris
                iouris 2 September 2020 22: 39 New
                -3
                Shoot down Rust was no problem. It was forbidden to shoot down Rust. They were waiting for him in Red Square. Chekists. And then the appointees, whom Gorby introduced to the headquarters of the country's air defense forces, brought him meals to his cell. However, I’m not for you, but for those who don’t know history.
                I don't know where you're fucking on the keys from, but you've crossed the moral line, an inverted six.
                1. Evgeny Goncharov (smoogg)
                  Evgeny Goncharov (smoogg) 3 September 2020 00: 44 New
                  -1
                  Moral boundaries are even thinner than air boundaries, it turns out, it's sad
            2. Oprichnik
              Oprichnik 15 September 2020 15: 13 New
              0
              Working at several international scientific and technical exhibitions "Powder Metallurgy" in Minsk, I communicated with the Swedes from the firm "Sandvik-Koromant" and others. So they all are sick with longing for the "greatness" of Sweden and anger and hatred towards Russia-USSR that "prevented Sweden from becoming great". Moreover, they said this both in a sober and drunk state - and what is on the mind of a sober, then a drunk on the tongue. And of course, the rehash of all Western propaganda about Russian tanks that tomorrow, or at least after tomorrow, will rush to the English Channel, Pyrenees and Gothenburg. The Swedes who came to the construction of the Metallurgical Plant in Zhlobin in 1983. spoke even more abruptly: "... The Russians must be stopped! ... The Russians are cultureless Asians! .... There is no freedom and democracy in Russia ... Russia oppresses other peoples ... the USSR wants to seize countries in Africa and Asia." I think enough. This is all from direct speech in a sober form. It is a pity that Peter1 did not level them up to the end.
  • Avior
    Avior 2 September 2020 12: 36 New
    +4
    (oats were commonly used as fodder for horses and livestock, but in Sweden they were eaten)

    Cap! They were eating oatmeal! smile
    1. wehr
      2 September 2020 12: 50 New
      0
      Yes, a million tons of oatmeal per year. Or about 157 kg per year per capita, or 400 grams per day. Tell me, could you eat that much oatmeal? laughing
      1. Alexey RA
        Alexey RA 2 September 2020 12: 52 New
        +3
        Quote: wehr
        Yes, a million tons of oatmeal per year. Or about 157 kg per year per capita, or 400 grams per day. Tell me, could you eat that much oatmeal? laughing

        Reminded ...
        -You're lying NATO face! A soldier cannot eat two bags of turnip a day!
      2. Avior
        Avior 2 September 2020 14: 54 New
        +2
        Me not. The Swedes didn't eat that much either. They ate it in a certain amount, what the horses did not eat, about a million tons of food in the article is not. Barrymore, perhaps, could, Sir Henry, I remember, could not see her.
        On the other hand, if there was nothing to eat, I would also eat.
        But you pointed out that oats were eaten in Sweden as something special. You somehow missed the fact that oats are eaten not only in Sweden.
        smile
        1. wehr
          2 September 2020 15: 13 New
          0
          This fact was noted in the note as particularly striking. The Germans were surprised by the volume of oats eaten by the Swedes.
          1. Avior
            Avior 2 September 2020 15: 37 New
            +4
            it is not visible from the text of your article
            and also 1238 thousand tons of oats (oats were usually used as fodder for horses and livestock, but in Sweden they were used for food)

            there is not a word that the Swedes ate exactly a million tons of oats.
            there is no surprise for the Germans.
            there is an explanation for the Russian reader that it turns out that people eat oatmeal, not just horses smile
        2. wehr
          3 September 2020 00: 54 New
          0
          The fact is that in other European countries oats were grown for fodder. Therefore, among grain crops, oats have always been on the periphery of crops, far behind the main grain crops: wheat and rye. But such that there were more oats than wheat and rye combined, I can’t remember anywhere else, and I am surprised to agree with the German statistics. They are strange, Swedes.
          The reasons can be very different: it yields well, does not spoil the soil, does not require a lot of fertilizers, and so on. Most likely, a large part of oats was milled and added to wheat or rye flour.
        3. ycuce234-san
          ycuce234-san 3 September 2020 19: 32 New
          +2
          The Swedes didn't eat that much either.

          They ate - in the form of oat butter (margarine and in bottles), alcohol and medical alcohol (there are almost no other cereals and technical potatoes), well, cereals, perhaps even sugar was made from it (starch in cereals - 90%). This is much cheaper than bringing food from somewhere and risking their loss.
          The main areas under oats are spread in areas with the most "Swedish" - with a temperate and humid climate, where it is sown in the spring, grain begins to germinate at 1-5 degrees Celsius - that is, there is snow in the shade and ravines.
          And rutabagas in bags per day, by the way, is not so difficult to throw in the average "Zoldaten" - it needs to be processed into food masterbatches, dietary fiber supplements, vitamins, sugar, ethanol, squeeze oil out of it, extract useful substances, etc. and then she will go with a bang; and raw - only horses in the army will like it.
  • north 2
    north 2 2 September 2020 15: 10 New
    -3
    to those who call me a liar for commenting on the supply of cars by Ford during the war and those who
    Do not believe that Ford for Hitler was teachers in the theories of eugenics, that Ford's books as a manual on racial segregation lay on Hitler's desk, and Ford's portrait hung on the wall of Hitler's office, so I recommend reading the following articles:
    Article in the Russian version of RT "The Dark Side of Henry Ford" dated 30.07.2018/XNUMX/XNUMX
    The article in "Arguments and Facts" "Ordiner of the Third Reich Henry Ford" is also dated 30.07. 2018.
    An article in the Russian service BBC NEWS "Beware of people! How the Nazis used eugenics" from 27.01.2015
    Jacob Rabiner's article "Americans Admired by Hitler".
    Then let's see which of us does not want to know history ...
    1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
      Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 2 September 2020 15: 41 New
      +2
      Quote: north 2
      Then let's see which of us does not want to know history ...

      why this pose of offended virtue?
      You were called a liar for the nonsense that the States de supplied trucks to the Reich even when they had already landed in Normandy. Everyone is well aware of the order, the portrait on the wall, and anti-Semitism. And without any superficial tabloid articles. And even more so RT. What do you want to prove?
    2. Cherry Nine
      Cherry Nine 2 September 2020 15: 50 New
      +3
      Excellent selection! No, I will not discuss with you on such sources, thank you.
  • NF68
    NF68 2 September 2020 16: 39 New
    0
    It made no sense for the Germans to attack Sweden. The Swedes did everything they could for Germany.
  • north 2
    north 2 2 September 2020 16: 44 New
    -2
    Quote: Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
    Quote: north 2
    Then let's see which of us does not want to know history ...

    why this pose of offended virtue?
    You were called a liar for the nonsense that the States de supplied trucks to the Reich even when they had already landed in Normandy. Everyone is well aware of the order, the portrait on the wall, and anti-Semitism. And without any superficial tabloid articles. And even more so RT. What do you want to prove?

    Ford factories in Germany operated until the very end of the war, because American soldiers from the Second Front were surprised that there were so many new FORD cars in Germany. And people-slaves worked in those factories, whom Hitler brought from Eastern Europe precisely according to the doctrine of eugenics, which Ford confessed. And in America then, too, racism flourished.
    The Americans and the British in Germany bombed everything they saw. And the Dresden Gallery and hundreds more
    objects. Not the Ford factories in Germany. They produced cars for the Germans until the end of the war.
    1. Undecim
      Undecim 2 September 2020 17: 15 New
      +3
      Vidas, you are breaking through the open door, waving your scanty knowledge, gleaned from tabloid leaflets. What are you trying to prove - that the automotive factories in Germany, formally owned by Ford Motor Company, General Motors and others, could have been stopped by their owners and not produce products? How?
    2. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
      Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 2 September 2020 18: 34 New
      +1
      Quote: north 2
      Ford factories in Germany operated until the very end of the war


      and so what? They operated, produced trucks and semi-gusli for the Wehrmacht. Why shouldn't they work if production is localized and the army needs trucks? And the French Ford in Poissy also worked for the Reich. Are you saying that the Detroit headquarters controlled the activities of Ford Werke throughout the war? You, my dear, generally wrote earlier that the Americans supplied cars to Germany until the end of the war.
  • v_bueff
    v_bueff 3 September 2020 09: 29 New
    -1
    Perhaps, closer to reality, those who organized the Second World War took place in Sweden and Switzerland?
    1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
      Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 3 September 2020 13: 19 New
      0
      Please elaborate on the idea of ​​how the Swedes unleashed World War II. Really curious.
  • Kostadinov
    Kostadinov 3 September 2020 14: 14 New
    0
    Own production in 1937:
    Coal - 360 thousand tons.
    Firewood - 3620 thousand tons.
    Charcoal - 340 thousand tons.
    Peat - 15 thousand tons.
    In total - 4353 thousand tons.

    Where is the electricity from the ECEC? This is also our own production. Firewood and charcoal could double or more.
    It is possible to beat and import electricity from Norway.
  • GTYCBJYTH2021
    GTYCBJYTH2021 3 September 2020 14: 27 New
    +1
    Firewood = so many tons ..... not cubes, but tons .....
  • Knell wardenheart
    Knell wardenheart 5 October 2020 15: 24 New
    0
    However, it is worth giving to Swedish diplomacy - and they drank milk and licked the foam, and did not shove it off the neck.