Military Review

Combat aircraft. Not Messerschmitt, but similar

32

This plane can serve as an illustration of two things at once. The first is that the risk sometimes justifies the result, and the second is that there is nothing wrong with borrowing if you do it wisely.


Our hero is the fruit of the work of two "offices" related to aviation, but ... However, judge for yourself. The first is the Japanese Air Transport Corporation (JAT), which was founded by the Japanese government in 1928, uniting the Japanese Air Transport Institute and two other small companies under the flag of ... the Ministry of Communications!

The supposedly civilian carrier of the Ministry of Communications of Japan was nevertheless based on a completely self-contained military airbase in Tachikawa and began with completely free transportation for the army during the invasion of Manchuria in 1931.

But, in addition to transportation, JAT was engaged in studying the global aviation market in order to purchase patents, licenses and aircraft. That is, the ears of the intelligence, of course, stuck out, but not very much.

As a result of the activities of JAT and similar structures, Japan suddenly appeared in the circle of aircraft manufacturers. Of course, it was very difficult for the Japanese to compete with European and American manufacturers, but some models of combat aircraft turned out to be quite at the world level of the 30s of the last century.

Bombers Mitsubishi G3M, Nakajima B5M, Nakajima Ki-21, fighters Mitsubishi A5M and Nakajima Ki-27 were really up to par.

The second component was the Kawasaki company. This is a rather strange alliance, because Kawasaki was known as a manufacturer of railway equipment and marine engines. But since it is not prohibited by law to try yourself in other industries, given that the Japanese government was happy to invest in the development of aviation, the Kawasaki decided that they could try.

Since the Ki-10 in 1927 from "Kawasaki" turned out to be decent bombers, the company was admitted to the pie.


And this is what happened as a result of the creative union of intelligence, which trained data on European aircraft and railway workers who dreamed of aircraft.

And this is what happened. Anticipating or planning massive annexations in Southeast Asia and the Pacific Ocean, the Japanese military department decided that an aircraft with a longer range and survivability than a single-engine fighter would be very useful for both the army and the fleet.

Reconnaissance, having carefully examined everything that was happening in the aviation world of that time, issued three recommendations in terms of samples for study: the French Potez P.630, the German Messerschmitt Bf.110 and the Dutch Fokker G.1.


Fokker G.1

Combat aircraft. Not Messerschmitt, but similar
Potez P.630


Bf.110e-1

On the basis of these models, requirements were developed for a promising Japanese, as they would say now, twin-engine fighter and a competition assignment for manufacturing firms.

In general, three companies were invited to participate in the competition, Mitsubishi, Nakajima and Kawasaki. The first two ultimately refused to participate, Mitsubishi had something to do, and Nakajima simply had no experience in building such aircraft.

Having exhaled, in "Kawasaki" at the end of 1937 they signed an agreement with the military department and rushed to work. The project was extensively redesigned and named Ki-45. Taking into account the work on the Ki-38 aircraft project and taking into account the data of foreign machines, we formulated the following technical task:

- maximum speed: 540 km / h at 3500 m;
- practical ceiling: 2000-5000 m;
- flight duration: 4 hours 30 minutes at a cruising speed of 350 km / h plus 30 minutes of combat at a speed close to maximum;
- engines: two 9-cylinder radial Nakajima Ha-20b;
- armament: two cannons for firing forward and one movable machine gun to protect the rear hemisphere.

In general, more from Potet than from Fokker and Messerschmitt.

The most difficult thing for the Kawasaki engineers was the complete lack of experience in creating high-speed twin-engine aircraft with retractable landing gear. However, less than a year later, the designers have already presented a detailed plan of the aircraft.

And in early 1939, the first Ki-45 fighter began to be tested. In general, as the case when if you really need, then everything is possible.


Initially, the fighter was equipped with the specified engines from Nakajima Ha-20b, which, in fact, were licensed Bristol Mercury, developing 820 hp. at 3 m and 900 hp on takeoff.

Not the best, far from the best option, since the motors were not ideal for aerodynamics and power. The screws were wooden, three-bladed, without variable pitch. In general, quite archaic.

The landing gear was retracted into the nacelles, but this was done by hand. Moreover, the gondolas were made so that the wheels protruded slightly outward. On the one hand, it was not very good in terms of aerodynamics, on the other hand, it provided some additional opportunity for the aircraft to survive during an emergency landing.

The highlight of the plane with a minus sign was the separation of the cockpit and the gunner-radio operator with the main fuel tank. Even if the tank was sealed, it was not the best design for a combat aircraft.

Armament consisted of a 20 mm No-3 cannon and two 7,7 mm machine guns. Machine guns were located in the upper part of the nose, and the cannon was in the lower right part of the fuselage. The radio operator was operating a movable 7,7 mm machine gun.


Tests have shown that the landing gear retraction mechanism has become a source of constant problems, the engines had to be changed to something more modern, and the rear machine gun is completely useless at high speeds.

By the end of 1939, the maximum test speed was 480 km / h at an altitude of 4000 m. The chassis received an electric drive for the harvesting mechanism, the machine gun was replaced with a 7,92-mm licensed copy of Rheinmetall.

And in April 1940, at the initiative of the army command, an experiment was carried out to install engines from the "Nakajima" Ha-25. The second attempt, installation of engines from "Mitsubishi" Na-102 with a capacity of 1050 hp, led to the expected results. The management saw the plane they wanted to have.

The flight data was the same as with the Nakajima engine, but the reliability of the Mitsubishi engines caused more optimism.

And the brainchild of "Kawasaki" was adopted as an army two-seat fighter Type 2 Model A "Toryu" ("Dragon Slayer"), short designation Ki-45 Kai-a.


In early August 1942, following the completion of the army's flight test program, the Toryu entered service with units based in New Guinea and mainland China.

At that time, the Japanese aviation secured complete air superiority, and the Toryu was used mainly as an attack aircraft. The aircraft showed itself to be very agile and maneuverable for a twin-engine aircraft, but as an adversary to single-engine fighters it was not at all suitable.

As a long-range fighter, the Toryu was about as good as the Bf.110. That is, the range was, but everything else (speed, maneuver) was not. It is clear that it is conditional, and depending on who to fight with.

However, the American P-38 Lightning suffered from the more maneuverable Toryu. They would suffer even more if the weapons were up to par. But the No-3 gun was not at all rapid-fire and “forgave” the Americans. And two machine guns of rifle caliber are not the most dangerous for heavy aircraft.

As soon as the Ki-45 KAI was hired, Kawasaki began working on the next model. It was supposed to be a more advanced aircraft with a pair of engines from Mitsubishi Na-112-II with a capacity of 1 hp. Perhaps it would have been an even more serious aircraft, but the command ordered otherwise and put the designers for the design of a single-seat aircraft based on the Ki-500. The project was named Ki-45, it was built, tested, but did not go into production (unfortunately for the Japanese).

The second interesting and practically separate modification of the Toryu was the Ki-45 Kai-b, an assault version of the aircraft.
The very first applications of the "Toryu" showed the frank weakness of the 20-mm cannon when firing at both air and ground targets. But the short-term use of the Ki-45 as an attack aircraft in New Guinea is only half the battle. Immediately in the battles with American and British heavy bombers, it turned out that the two 7,7-mm machine guns and a cannon with a terrifyingly low rate of fire for Wellington or B-17 had nothing. The weight of the salvo is too small to disable such an aircraft. Quadruple Vickers and large-caliber Browning shredded Japanese planes with ease.

Therefore, with absolutely graceful spontaneity, Japanese engineers experimentally equipped several Ki-45 37-mm aircraft tank gun Type 98. The cannon was placed in the nose, in a suspended gondola, and it was loaded by a radio operator from his cockpit. In general, the Kamasutra is still in the air, but nonetheless.


It is clear that the combat rate of fire was 1-2 rounds per minute, it was hardly possible to make more than one shot in one run, but the 37-mm projectile is a weighty argument in the dispute in the same B-17.

This masterpiece was named Ki-45 Kai-b and was sent to fight with everything from aircraft to small ships.

What could be said about the effectiveness of such an artillery system? During the First World War, this was normal. After 30 years - somehow not very much. Yes, a tank gun with a powerful shell - it looks good. Different sources name different ammunition, some - 37x133R, others - 37x165R. The first ammunition is just from the Type 98 tank gun, and the second is from the more powerful Type 96 anti-tank gun, on the basis of which the tank gun was created. I think that tank ammunition was still used.

Yes, a weaker ammunition was used in the tank gun, but it was also enough to solve tasks of destroying targets at a distance of up to 1500 m. The main thing is to hit, but here the problems began, because the pilot had to be just a sniper to hit the target with one projectile.

The whole problem is that at first the Japanese had such pilots.

As production grew, the aircraft became increasingly visible to allies in Southeast Asia and Dutch East India. The plane even received its own name from the allies in the identifiers - Nick.


At first, the Ki-45 Kai was taken for a licensed copy of the French Pote P.630 or the German Bf.110. However, over time, we figured out that this is a purely Japanese design. One Ki-45 Kai was filmed in the fall of 1943 at an airfield in New Guinea.

And in battles "Toryu" proved to be a very good tool. Patrol boats and submarines of the allies especially got from him. A very well maneuverable aircraft has established itself as a B-24 interceptor. At that time, only one Allied aircraft, the P-38, could accompany the B-24. But the Lightning was no match for the more agile, albeit inferiorly armed Ki-45.


Then the allies began to fly at night.

This became a problem at first.

Then Ki-45 tried on the role of a night fighter. The radar station was not installed on it due to their absence. The only difference between the Ki-45 Kai-s and a conventional fighter was its enhanced armament. The 7,7 mm machine guns were replaced by the 103 mm No-12,7. A pair of such machine guns could be installed at an "forward-up" angle, as the Germans did.

The manually-loaded cannon was replaced by the 203 mm No-37 automatic cannon with 16 rounds of ammunition. The 12,7 mm machine guns were removed, and the No-203 was installed instead. The 20mm cannon at the bottom of the fuselage was retained, which gave a very good salvo. Over time, the number of shells increased, first to 18, and then to 25.


On the Ki-45 Kai-d interceptor version, the 20mm No-3 cannon was removed from under the fuselage, but a pair of 20mm No-5 inclined cannons appeared behind the cockpit for forward-upward firing. A defensive machine gun on a night fighter was considered unnecessary, so it was usually dismantled.


It was on such an aircraft that the most famous Japanese specialist in "flying fortresses", Isam Kasside, flew, on whose account there were 26 downed bombers, of which seven were B-29.

The latest version, the Ki-45 Kai-e, was a real night fighter equipped with radar (when the Dempa hyoteki airborne radar, working name Taki-2, appeared). The radar was mounted on the "Toryu" in the bow and in front was covered with a transparent fairing. The radar equipment weighed almost a ton, which made it necessary to dismantle almost all the weapons. The aircraft was supposed to be used as a gunner for normally armed fighters.

Real work for the Ki-45 began in 1944, when B-29s began bombing directly into Japanese territory. June 15, 1944 was the first use of "Toryu" against the B-29 at night. The Americans lost 6 bombers that night. The Japanese, however, reported 11 shot down, but that's normal.

From all corners of the empire began to collect "Toryu" to protect the Japanese islands. In general, it so happened that, apart from the Ki-45 and the naval interceptor, there was no one to meet the Americans at night, J1N "Gekko". And they met, and quite effectively.

The 4th Sentai, in which the chief night ace Isamu Kassida served, had 158 downed bombers by the end of the war. Even if you split it in half, as the Japanese reports deserved, you still get a very impressive figure of 79 “fortresses”. More than worthy for a night unit the size of our air regiment.

In general, the Toryu contributed as much as possible to repelling American attacks on the islands. And the plane was a very important link in the defense of Japan.


Naturally, like all normal Japanese aircraft, the Toryu was used by the kamikaze. Everything was simple here: two bombs of 250 kg each were suspended - and forward, on the last flight.

It is known for certain that the old destroyer "Dickerson", which at that time was used as a transport, near Okinawa in April 1945 sunk exactly two "Toryu".

One "Toryu" crashed into the bridge of the destroyer, destroying it with all the officers who were there. Almost simultaneously, the second Ki-45 crashed almost vertically into the ship's deck. The explosion almost broke the destroyer in half. 54 crew members of the ship, including the commander, died on the spot. The ship sank.

However, it should be noted that these were isolated cases of such use of the Ki-45. This aircraft was too valuable for the defense of Japan's skies. This is evidenced by the fact that the production of "Toryu" stopped only when Japan surrendered.

The total number of produced cars of this type of all variants was 1701 copies.


A number of Ki-45s of various modifications were exported to the United States and flew there by test pilots of the USAAF Air Technical Command.

The assessment was very peculiar.

The Toryu was recognized as a disgusting aircraft in almost everything related to ground affairs: poor brakes, free-turning rear wheel, very poor view during takeoff due to the high position of the nose.

But one had only to take the plane off the ground - and everything became just fine.

The plane took off at a speed of 137-145 km / h, the takeoff run was very small. At speeds over 480 km / h, the effort on the control stick became somewhat uncomfortable, but at the initial stage the climb was very easy and quick. The Americans were amazed at the aircraft's maneuverability.

The plane was easy to control, was obedient, disruptions were completely controlled.

American pilots did not like the tightness of the cockpit and poor visibility down and back.


The efforts of the Kawasaki designers to protect themselves did not go unnoticed. The tanks were protected, which is already an achievement for a Japanese aircraft. The pilot was protected by an armored backrest and an armored headrest 17 mm thick. The shop of the 37-mm gun No-203 was closed in front and behind with armor plates 13 mm thick. The radio operator was defended by faith in Mikado.

In general, it turned out to be a very unexpected plane. "Kawasaki" built a long-range escort fighter, and it turned out to be quite a decent night air defense fighter, which could well be used as an attack aircraft.

And, importantly, he fought until the end of the war, which turned out to be much steeper than the Pote P.630 and Messerschmitt Bf.110.


LTH: Ki-45 Kai-s:

Wingspan, m: 15,02.
Length, m: 11,00.
Height, m: 3,70.
Wing area m: 32,00.

Weight, kg:
- empty aircraft: 4 000;
- normal takeoff: 5 500.

Engine: 2 х "Mitsubishi" Hа-102 х 1080 hp
Maximum speed, km / h: 540.
Practical range, km: 2.
Maximum rate of climb, m / min: 715.
Practical ceiling, m: 10 000.
Crew, person: 2.

Armament:
- one 37 mm No-203 cannon (w / c 16 rounds) in the nose;
- one 20 mm gun No-3 (100 rounds in two 50-charge drums) in the ventral mount;
- one 7,92 mm Type 98 machine gun in the rear cockpit.
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  1. The leader of the Redskins
    The leader of the Redskins 2 September 2020 18: 08 New
    +4
    Thank. Interesting. Not a fan of the Japanese airport, but if I knew about the main types, then I hear about this for the first time.
    Separately impressed by the performance characteristics of the flight duration,
  2. NF68
    NF68 2 September 2020 18: 14 New
    +6
    - practical ceiling: 2000-5000 m;


    How is it even possible for an airplane to have a service ceiling of 2000-5000 meters?
    1. old_pferd
      old_pferd 2 September 2020 22: 38 New
      +6
      Crooked translation. Original Aircraft Profile 105. Rene J. Francillon. Kawasaki Ki-45 Toryu:
      operating altitudе - apparently should be translated as operating heights
  3. iouris
    iouris 2 September 2020 18: 24 New
    -3
    There is a lack of photographs of Pe-2, -3.
  4. Undecim
    Undecim 2 September 2020 18: 57 New
    13
    But, in addition to transportation, JAT was engaged in studying the global aviation market in order to purchase patents, licenses and aircraft. That is, the ears of the intelligence, of course, stuck out, but not very much.
    As a result of the activities of JAT and similar structures, Japan suddenly appeared in the circle of aircraft manufacturers.

    And from the first lines went the author's fantasy.
    The first aircraft plant in Japan, the Nakajima Aircraft Company, was founded in 1916 without the need for any intelligence ears, and the plant officially bought a license from the French to manufacture the Nieuport 24 and Nieuport-Delage NiD 29 C.1. and Hispano-Suiza engines and the British - Gloster Sparrowhawk aircraft and Bristol Jupiter engines.
    Mitsubishi Heavy Industries and Kawasaki Heavy Industries began producing aircraft in 1921, and they collaborated with both the French and the Germans, hiring German designers to create their own designs. In 1927, aircraft of its own design were already produced - Kawasaki Type 88, Kawanishi K-11.
    Since the Ki-10 in 1927 from "Kawasaki" turned out to be decent bombers, the company was admitted to the pie.
    In 1927, Kawasaki produced the Kawasaki Type 88 reconnaissance and light bomber.
    1. Undecim
      Undecim 2 September 2020 18: 59 New
      11
      The Kawasaki Ki-10 fighter was made in 1935.

      And in the photo in the article, a modification of 1938.
  5. Engineer
    Engineer 2 September 2020 18: 58 New
    12
    After this article, I became convinced that Skomorokhov deliberately introduces errors into articles or at least some of them.
    Judge for yourself, Roman faithfully copies Airwar until he reaches the Japanese ace
    The 4th Sentai, in which the chief night ace Isamu Kassida served, had 158 downed bombers by the end of the war.

    Where does this figure come from? If in the original article
    It was on this "Toryu" that Isamu Kashiide, the most effective of the surviving "Fortress killers", flew at the end of the war, who ended the war with 26 victories over the B-29 (according to American data, 7 reliably destroyed B-29s)

    And on Wikipedia
    After the war, Kashiide's claim of 26 B-29s and 7 Soviet fighters was disputed by other pilots and historians. A total of 7 B-29s and 2 Soviet I-16s is generally accepted as confirmed

    Whether this is a kind of protection against accusations of plagiarism, or a call to the reader for comments.

    Question for connoisseurs
    How did Toryu surpass Lightning in maneuverability? Usually they write that amer with horizontal maneuverability is in order thanks to hydraulic aileron boosters. The incident over Nis seems to confirm this.
    1. Comrade
      Comrade 2 September 2020 19: 14 New
      10
      Quote: Engineer
      After this article, I became convinced that Skomorokhov deliberately introduces errors into articles or at least some of them.

      A similar thought occurred to me today.
      One gets the impression that he deliberately writes nonsense to provoke readers to refute it. As a result, the author's imitation of incompetence leads to an increase in the number of visits to the topic and comments.
      The reception is simple, but effective.
      1. Engineer
        Engineer 2 September 2020 19: 37 New
        11
        Alas, effective.
        Article about Hippers 60 thousand views and over 100 comments in two days. Including exhaustive comments from a man who has more knowledge in his left heel than Roman.
        Copy-paste works, people read, the community discusses.
        Checkmate, spiteful critics))
    2. Undecim
      Undecim 2 September 2020 19: 52 New
      +6
      How did Toryu surpass Lightning in maneuverability?
      Only in dreams could the Ki-45 surpass the P-38 in maneuverability.
      The P-38s shot down the most Japanese aircraft.
      1. Engineer
        Engineer 2 September 2020 20: 01 New
        +5
        The source for airwar also talks about the superiority in maneuverability of the Japanese
        http://www.airwar.ru/enc/fww2/ki45.html
        However, in collisions with the P-38 at medium altitudes, Toryu demonstrated complete superiority in maneuverability over the American aircraft,

        I understand that the articles there are not monographs, but the resource is quite good in terms of the quality of the material.
        1. Undecim
          Undecim 2 September 2020 20: 22 New
          +4
          The original source of this statement is Aircraft Profile 105. Rene J. Francillon. Kawasaki Ki-45 Toryu:
          "However, when opposing P-38s at medium altitude the Torytts easily outmanoeuvred the American aircraft which suffered even more of the inherent lack of manoeuvrability of twin-engined fighter aircraft. Another feature of the aircraft which won popularity was the fuel tank protection, an unknown luxury in contemporary Japanese aircraft. "
          The author is a reputable expert on Japanese aviation in World War II. But his statement is controversial, and I have not yet found its source, as well as a refutation or confirmation of it.
          1. Engineer
            Engineer 2 September 2020 20: 38 New
            +5
            Thank you for the information
            1. Undecim
              Undecim 2 September 2020 20: 48 New
              +4
              The question interested me. So far I got to a fairly serious resource http://www.wwiiaircraftperformance.org/, where the article on the P-38 (http://www.wwiiaircraftperformance.org/p-38/p-38-wayne.html) states that it even successfully withstood the KI-84 Hayate and the N1K2-J Shiden Kai. I will also delve into the literature.
              1. Engineer
                Engineer 2 September 2020 20: 54 New
                +4
                At first I thought that there were "combat flaps" on Torya, but I did not find any references to this immediately. I can't do personal research myself - tails of my studies)
                1. Undecim
                  Undecim 2 September 2020 20: 56 New
                  +3
                  tails for study)
                  In what way are you a student?
                  1. Engineer
                    Engineer 2 September 2020 21: 00 New
                    +3
                    Online)
                    https://graduate.missouristate.edu/catalog/prog-project-management.htm
                    1. Undecim
                      Undecim 2 September 2020 21: 14 New
                      +3
                      Clear. Good luck.
                      1. Engineer
                        Engineer 2 September 2020 22: 34 New
                        +2
                        Thanks for support
    3. Saxahorse
      Saxahorse 2 September 2020 22: 23 New
      +2
      Quote: Engineer
      After this article, I became convinced that Skomorokhov deliberately introduces errors into articles or at least some of them.

      Excuse me, but where did you manage to see the mistakes here?
      4th Sentai ... by the end of the war had 158 downed bombers.

      What actually so upset you here? Do you think that the 4th Japanese Aviation Regiment could not shoot down so many planes? Well, refute why you suddenly jumped on the identity of Isamu Kasiide?
      1. Engineer
        Engineer 2 September 2020 22: 31 New
        +4
        By the way, yes. The speech in the proposal was about the regiment and not about the ace.
        I was wrong.
        I apologize to the author.
  6. Free wind
    Free wind 2 September 2020 19: 12 New
    0
    The rear wheel could be somehow made so as not to dangle much, not like in shopping carts. brakes if made more efficiently, the plane can bite its nose. Abe, who was the prime minister of Japan, had his father trained as a kamikaze pilot, but did not have time. Probably cursed himself all his life, and his life his tin.
  7. PilotS37
    PilotS37 2 September 2020 21: 18 New
    +5
    Quote: Engineer
    Question for connoisseurs
    How did Toryu surpass Lightning in maneuverability?

    One of the main indicators that determine the horizontal maneuverability of an aircraft is the "wing load", that is, the ratio of the aircraft's mass to the wing area: the smaller it is, the more maneuverable the aircraft is and requires smaller runways. On the other hand, getting a high maximum speed with a low wing load is a problem (that's why biplanes lost to monoplanes: the former had a low wing load, high maneuverability and low speed ...).
    Lightning had more than 300, and Ki-45 ... 172! Almost two times less. Here is the solution to the question. And here the aileron hydraulic drives will not help: the Japanese turned one and a half times better than the Lightning. A couple of turns, and he is on the tail ... And there is no way to throw him out of there!
    At the same time, in terms of thrust-to-weight ratio near the ground, "Dragon Slayer" was also better: 393 hp / t against 314 (also by not weak 25%!). But here we need to take into account the altitude of the engine (as I understand it, the "Lightning" was better, so in terms of thrust-to-weight ratio in a real battle these aircraft were most likely comparable).
    1. Undecim
      Undecim 2 September 2020 22: 08 New
      +3
      Yes, everything is logical, the less the wing loading is, the smaller the bend radius. But the turn is not all the maneuverability, the maneuverability of the aircraft is its ability to change the direction, speed and altitude of flight within a certain time. The rate of climb of the Ki-45 is 11,7 m / s, while that of the P-38 is 24,1 m / s.
      1. PilotS37
        PilotS37 3 September 2020 08: 16 New
        +3
        Quote: Undecim
        Yes, everything is logical, the less the wing loading is, the smaller the bend radius. But the turn is not all the maneuverability, the maneuverability of the aircraft is its ability to change the direction, speed and altitude of flight within a certain time. The rate of climb of the Ki-45 is 11,7 m / s, while that of the P-38 is 24,1 m / s.

        Well, that's how I wrote:
        One of the main indicators that determine the horizontal maneuverability of the aircraft, ...
        .
        As for the rate of climb, for what height and what weight they are estimated here. The "Lightning" had TKs on its engines, while the Ki-45 most likely did not. So at the height of the Amer Japs did on verticals without question. But, at the height ...
        In addition, in the vertical maneuver against the Dragon Slayer, the same low wing load worked: indirectly, it prevents the aircraft from accelerating and limits the maximum speed ...
        And I was talking about the horizontal maneuver. And the author wrote about him.
        As for the whole set of indicators characterizing agility, then yes - it is much broader. And, most importantly, you can't see it in the tablets published in various kinds of "reference books". For example, the same horizontal maneuver is influenced by the maximum lift coefficient available on a given aircraft: some Mirage 2000 at a speed of 500 km / h may well lose in a horizontal maneuver to a Mustang or Yak-3 ...
        The same is with the drag coefficient: in the "reference books" it is not given, but it fundamentally affects the overload of the established bend.
        However, when the aircraft is just beginning to design, the first thing to do is set the values ​​of the specific wing load and thrust-to-weight ratio - and then an iterative process begins, lasting several years ...
        1. Undecim
          Undecim 3 September 2020 11: 01 New
          0
          And, most importantly, you do not see it in the tablets published in various kinds of "reference books".
          So these "reference books", in most cases, are compiled by people far from the question and for the same readers. Agree that the description of the calculation and construction of attack curves or a graphical method for modeling maneuvers is unlikely to interest an ordinary reader who is not burdened with relevant knowledge.
          1. PilotS37
            PilotS37 4 September 2020 08: 14 New
            0
            Quote: Undecim
            So these "reference books", in most cases, are compiled by people far from the question and for the same readers. Agree that the description of the calculation and construction of attack curves or a graphical method for modeling maneuvers is unlikely to interest an ordinary reader who is not burdened with relevant knowledge.

            It is difficult for me to assess this situation: I am not an "ordinary reader": this is what interests me.
      2. Freedim
        Freedim 4 September 2020 10: 13 New
        0
        Quote: Undecim
        Yes, everything is logical, the less the wing loading is, the smaller the bend radius. But the turn is not all the maneuverability, the maneuverability of the aircraft is its ability to change the direction, speed and altitude of flight within a certain time. The rate of climb of the Ki-45 is 11,7 m / s, while that of the P-38 is 24,1 m / s.

        You need to watch in the cut of the assigned combat missions, given that the "lightning" is a long-range cover aircraft. The "fortresses" did not have such a rate of climb, so they had to rotate around them horizontally.
    2. saigon
      saigon 3 September 2020 14: 38 New
      0
      If memory does not fail the Americans on the Lightnings did not conduct maneuver battles, attack from above and leave at speed.
  8. Fitter65
    Fitter65 3 September 2020 01: 30 New
    0
    The highlight of the plane with a minus sign was the separation of the cockpit and the gunner-radio operator with the main fuel tank.

    Il-2 is a two-seater, the fuel tank also stood between the pilot and the gunner ...
    1. PilotS37
      PilotS37 3 September 2020 08: 36 New
      +1
      Quote: Fitter65
      Il-2 is a two-seater, the fuel tank also stood between the pilot and the gunner ...

      For aircraft without EDSU (and this device went into series relatively recently, in the 1970s, on the F-16), the main problem is the alignment difference. There are two main reasons for this runaway: running out of fuel and dumping "payload". For this reason, before, they tried to place fuel and bombs in the center of gravity (and on passenger liners, people in the cabin are still seated according to a special scheme). In a stable aircraft, the Ts.T., by definition, should be located somewhere in the middle of the wing chord. From the point of view of durability, everything is very successful: we hang the bombs on the center section of the wing, and push the tanks into the wing itself.
      But the Il-2 "worked on the ground" - which means that it was necessary to clear the most affected structural element (wing!) Of everything important and explosive. On the other hand, he had an armored box, so they put the tank in it - above the center section, between the crew members. "It happened..."
      Why the Kawasaki did the same - one can only guess: what prevented them from making the tanks in the wing ?! Maybe the same logic: it was assumed that the plane would "work on the ground", so they decided to "clean up" the wings ... No sooner said than done: the tanks were removed to the fuselage! .. Or maybe they still did not know how to place protected tanks in the wing ( this technique, just somewhere before the war itself, appeared - before that, the tanks were placed in the fuselage and precisely in the area of ​​the center of gravity).
      Something like this ...
  9. Fitter65
    Fitter65 3 September 2020 01: 45 New
    +2
    ,
    He fought until the end of the war, which turned out to be much steeper than the Pote P.630 and Messerschmitt Bf.110.

    The Messerschmitt Bf.110 also fought until the end of the war, although unlike the Japanese, Messer's war ended 4 months earlier.