Military Review

Bukhara Blitzkrieg Frunze

Bukhara Blitzkrieg Frunze

100 years ago, the Red Army carried out a lightning-fast Bukhara operation. Soviet troops under the command of Frunze took Bukhara by storm and liquidated the Bukhara Emirate.

On September 2, Frunze sent Lenin a telegram, which said:

“The Old Bukhara fortress was taken by storm today by the combined efforts of the Red Bukhara and our units. The last stronghold of Bukhara obscurantism and Black Hundreds fell. The red banner of the world revolution flies triumphantly over Registan. "

General situation. Defeat of opponents of Soviet power

In addition to the Far Eastern, Polish and Crimean fronts, in the summer of 1920, there was another active front of the Civil War - Turkestan. Since August 1919, the Red Turkestan Front was headed by Mikhail Frunze. He was the plenipotentiary representative of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee and the Council of People's Commissars and was a real regional "king" in Turkestan. Mikhail Vasilyevich was able to show himself in the role of the real ruler of the East: he led a cunning policy, fought, arranged magnificent holidays and grandiose hunts.

In early 1920, the Red Army suppressed the White Guards in the Trans-Caspian region. In the spring of 1920, the Khiva Khanate was liquidated. Instead, the Khorezm People's Soviet Republic was created. After the White Guards in Semirechye were finally defeated by the beginning of 1920, Frunze was able to defeat the Basmachs. The Basmak movement, which could never become a unified force, was split. In March 1920, an entire "army" of Basmachi under the command of Madamin Bek went over to the side of the Red Army. The "irreconcilable" killed Madamin Bek, but the deed was already done. In 1920 (according to other sources, in 1921), one of the main leaders of the Basmachi, Irgash (Ergash-kurbashi), was killed in civil strife. Seeing that the enemy was greatly weakened, Frunze sharply changed his policy towards the Mujahideen. From flirting with the kurbashi (the leaders of the Basmachi) and luring them to his side, he went over to the struggle for destruction. He ordered to destroy the Basmachi network of agents, severely punish for supplying bandits.

The Andijan-Osh battle area, the Tatar and international brigades of former prisoners of war were formed. The front was reinforced with artillery, armored cars and armored trains. The Tatar brigade drove into the mountains and destroyed the Khal-Khodja bandit formation. At the Naryn station, Bagramov's gang was blocked and destroyed, part of them were killed, 2 thousand people were taken prisoner. The national, clan factor, traditions of blood feud and discord between the locals were taken into account. Flying detachments were formed from the local Russians who knew the local conditions well. After the death of Madamin Bek, Frunze quickly restored order among “his own” Basmachi. The 1st Turkic regiment was summoned to Andijan, blocked and, after a short battle, disarmed. Fighters of various "field commanders" were mobilized into the Red Army. All anti-Soviet riots were suppressed.

Measures were taken against a possible invasion of the Orenburg and Semirechye White Cossacks, who fled to China. Ordinary Cossacks were persuaded to forget all the past, to return home. A significant part of ordinary Cossacks, yearning for their native villages, returned. Some of the Cossacks left to fight in the Far East. As a result, the white command was unable to create a new white army in China (Xinjiang). General Dutov in 1921 was killed by agents of the Cheka. General Bakich, who after the assassination of Dutov became the commander of the Orenburg army, was defeated and captured in Mongolia. In 1922 he was executed. General Annenkov was arrested by the Chinese authorities.

Mikhail Vasilyevich Frunze

Bukhara Emirate

The emirate existed on the territory of the modern states of Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and part of Turkmenistan. In 1868 Bukhara became a vassal to Russia. The last emir of Bukhara in 1910 was Seyid Alim Khan. After the February Revolution, Bukhara gained independence. In 1918, the Bolsheviks and Young Bukharians (Islamic party) tried to take Bukhara, but the attack failed. After that, the Soviet government confirmed the independence of the emirate.

However, Moscow was not going to abandon Bukhara. The emirate remained the last major anti-revolutionary center in Central Asia. Anti-Soviet elements, the remnants of counter-revolutionaries defeated by the Bolsheviks in Turkestan, were concentrated around him. The emir relied on the reactionary clergy, merchants and feudal lords, who parasitized on the peasantry (downtrodden and dark). Bukhara lived in trade, mainly in astrakhan skins. The emir had a monopoly on this trade, which brought great profits. England was eyeing Bukhara, wishing to strengthen its positions in Central Asia and get a new anti-Soviet foothold.

The rear communications of the 1st Soviet Army of the Turkestan Front, which reached the borders of Persia and the shores of the Caspian Sea, ran through the territory of the hostile Bukhara Emirate and, therefore, were under direct threat. In addition, the war with Poland, the continuation of the civil war on the Crimean and Far Eastern fronts demanded a quick and final pacification of Turkestan.

The last, 12th Emir of the Emirate of Bukhara Seyid Alim Khan (1880-1944)

Bukhara revolution

After the destruction or weakening of the main opponents in Turkestan, Frunze began to prepare a war with Bukhara. Peace talks were unsuccessful. Therefore, the power scenario became the main scenario. Amudarya flotilla was reinforced to 38 pennants with 26 guns on board. It was reinforced by a detachment sent from Samara. The flotilla was supposed to block communications from Bukhara along the Amu Darya to Afghanistan. As a result, the Bukhara emir Seyid Alim Khan lost all possible help.

Even during the years of the existence of the Russian Empire, the Bukhara Emirate was within the Russian customs line. A railway passed through the emirate, along it were located Russian settlements and stations, which had the right of extraterritoriality, did not obey local laws. They were used to form the "fifth column". Through them money went to the emirate, weapon, ammunition and campaign materials. The opponents of the emir were hiding in them. The Bolsheviks won over to their side the left wing of the Islamic (with a national-democratic bias) party of the Young Bukharians. The youth revolutionaries were headed by Fayzulla Khojaev. The Bukhara Communist Party (BKP) was also active. The local Communist Party numbered about 5 thousand people and 20 thousand sympathizers.

Communists and Young Bukharians were actively preparing for an uprising. Armed squads were created. On June 24, 1920, the Turkic Commission established the Revolutionary Military Bureau to guide the preparation and conduct of the revolution. It included Kuibyshev, Frunze, Geller, chairman of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Turkestan Tyuryakulov, chairman of the Central Committee of the BKP N. Khusainov, chairman of the Central Bureau of the Young Bukharian Revolutionary Party Khodzhaev. They also formed a Party center for the leadership of the revolution in Bukhara (Kuibyshev, Khusainov, Khodjaev), which established the Revolutionary Committee and the Provisional Council of People's Nazirs (Commissars) of Bukhara. At the congress of the BKP in Chardzhui on August 16-18, 1920, a course was set for the uprising and overthrow of the emir. The congress appealed for military assistance to the Turkic Commission. The Bukhara Red Army is being formed in the extraterritorial settlements. By the time of the uprising, it numbered 5-7 thousand soldiers.

The Bukhara Emirate tried to resist. Since the spring of 1920, the Bukhara clergy have been preaching a holy war against the "infidels." The Emir forbade Soviet citizens to leave their settlements. Then he ordered to fill up irrigation ditches supplying water to Russian villages. Forbidden the peasants to sell food to the Russians. By this, Seyid Alim Khan tried to oust the Russians from the Bukhara Emirate. He began to mobilize the army. The troops were trained by the White Guards. The regular army was brought up to 16 thousand people with 23 guns and 16 machine guns. The Emir's army occupied the area of ​​Old Bukhara with its main forces, and Khatyrchi, Kermine, and other places in separate detachments. Also, the emir was supported by large forces of local feudal lords-beks - over 27 thousand people, 32 guns. The troops of the feudal lords occupied the Kitab - Shakhrisabz (Shakhrisabz) area, covering the Takhta - Karacha pass. The shortest and most convenient way from Samarkand inland passed through this pass. In general, the troops of the emir could number 45-60 thousand people. The artillery of the emirate consisted mainly of outdated models such as smooth-bore cast iron cannons that fired cast iron or stone cannonballs.

Platoon of the Bukhara army. Photo of an unknown master, early. XX century

Bukhara soldier

Storm of Bukhara

The Soviet command could not allocate significant forces for the operation. The troops were supposed to protect the vast land borders of Soviet Turkestan (several thousand kilometers), fight the Mujahideen in Fergana, crush the riots in Semirechye, garrison in the most important points, defend Khorezm, etc. Therefore, relatively small forces took part in the Bukhara operation. The command of the Turkestan Front allocated 8-9 thousand bayonets and sabers, 46 guns, 230 machine guns, 5 armored trains, 10 armored cars and 12 aircraft for the operation. The offensive was also supported by the Bukhara Red Army. The Red Army had a qualitative and technical advantage on its side. The fired on Red Army soldiers with experience of world and civil wars against poorly trained and poorly disciplined soldiers of the emir and beks. Modern guns, armored cars, armored trains and aircraft against medieval troops.

As tensions grew, the emir ordered to dismantle the railway - "the source of all troubles." However, armored trains cruised along it and suppressed any attempt to get to the road with fire. The troops were concentrated at the station New Kagan, 20 km from Bukhara. On August 28, 1920, an uprising began near Charjui. The Bukhara Red Army came to the aid of the rebels from the Soviet New Chardzhui. The Reds occupied Old Chardzhui, Shakhrisabz and Kermine without a fight. The new government immediately asked for help from Soviet Turkestan.

In the evening of August 29, 1920, Frunze's troops launched an offensive and by nightfall were at the walls of Bukhara. A few hours after the start of the war, the Bukhara ruler was cut off from part of the troops sent to suppress the uprising and his own beks. On the morning of August 30, the assault began. Bukhara was protected by an old wall 5 meters high with 11 gates and 130 towers. Soviet troops were few in number, advancing in two columns, which led to the dispersal of forces. They could not immediately break the resistance of the superior forces of the enemy. The Red Army soldiers slowly moved across rough terrain, met with fire and counterattacks by the emir's troops, in places it came hand-to-hand. On the first day of the offensive, the Reds were only able to approach the city walls, but could not capture them. The artillery was located at the maximum distance, so the shells were unable to penetrate the fortifications.

On August 31st, reinforcements arrived with new guns. Frunze began a decisive assault. Heavy artillery was pulled closer to the walls: fortress 152-mm cannons on platforms and 122-mm batteries. The fire was concentrated on the Karshi gate. A massive bombardment of the city began. They did not spare the shells; it was not difficult to transport them by rail. A total of 12 thousand shells were fired in the city. Most of the troops were concentrated in the same direction. By evening, a break appeared in the wall. At night, the Bukharians repaired it, but all the same, in the early morning of September 1, Soviet troops launched an attack. The armored cars approached the very fortifications. Under their cover, sappers blew up a section of the wall. A special squad rushed into the gap. By 6 o'clock, with strong artillery support, the Mazar-Sharif gate was occupied, at 10 o'clock the soldiers of the Tatar brigade captured the Karshi gate. The battle went on in the streets. The city was on fire. By evening, Old Bukhara was captured by Soviet troops.

The remains of the Bukhara garrison took refuge in the citadel - Ark. On September 2, the Red Army took Arka by storm. The emir himself, with the government and security, fled the city on the night of August 31. He fled to the eastern part of the emirate, then fled to Afghanistan, where he received asylum (died in Kabul in 1944). Seyid-Alim said that he was giving Bukhara to Britain. However, London was not up to Bukhara, so this act had no consequences. In October 1920, the Bukhara People's Soviet Republic was established. Its government was headed by F. Khodzhaev. After the capture of Bukhara, Soviet troops quickly suppressed individual centers of resistance. However, the pacification of the eastern part of the Bukhara Emirate dragged on until 1921 (the terrain was difficult). They fought against the Basmachs in the republic for several more years.

Arka fortress (Emir's palace)
Photos used:,
Articles from this series:
Smoot. 1920 year

Battle of Rostov
The disaster of white Odessa
How Slashchev Crimea defended
Dono-Manych battle
The death of the Northern Army Miller
Why Western agent Kolchak is turned into a hero and martyr of Russia
The defeat of the army of Denikin in the battle of Tikhorets
How did the Ice Siberian campaign end
The fall of the White Kuban
Agony of White Novorossiysk
The death of the Kuban army
Denikin's resignation
Far Eastern Republic and the Japanese threat
Polish "liberation" campaign in Kiev
Baku “Blitzkrieg” of the Red Army
The battle for Belarus. May operation of the Red Army
War of the Russian Army Wrangel
The first victories of the Wrangel army
The defeat of the 13th Soviet Army in Northern Tavria
Our Kiev!
The battle for Rivne. How Budyonnovtsy smashed the Polish defense
Minsk is ours! The defeat of the Polish army in Belarus
Battle for Lviv. The failure of the Red Army in Galicia
The death of the cavalry group Rednecks
The fierce battle for the Kakhovsky bridgehead
The defeat of the landing group Ulagaya
"Miracle on the Vistula"
How Tukhachevsky destroyed his armies on the Vistula
Battle of Komarov. Defeat of the 1st Cavalry Army
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  1. cost
    cost 31 August 2020 06: 16
    Frunze began a decisive assault

    The leadership of the actions of all Soviet forces near Bukhara was united in the hands of the commander of the 1st Army Zinoviev G.V.
    1. cost
      cost 31 August 2020 06: 25
      Zinoviev, Georgy Vasilievich

      From the family of a military official. In 1908 he was called up for active military service. Member of the 1st World War. After graduating from the Sevastopol Military Aviation School of Pilots (1915), he served in the 6th Aviation Detachment of the 3rd Siberian Corps of the Western Front, senior non-commissioned officer. Participant of many air skirmishes with the enemy, awarded 4 St. George's crosses. From the beginning of October 1917 the chairman of the corps committee. Since 1917, a member of the CPSU (b). Member of the creation of the "First Socialist Detachment of the Western Front." At the head of a detachment of revolutionary soldiers, he fought against units of the Polish corps Dovbor-Musnitsky and the German invaders. From the end of January to April 1918, the chief of the Smolensk garrison. He commanded the Orsha sector.
      In May 1918 he was sent with a detachment of 400 fighters and the 1st battery to Samara, then to Orenburg, where he was engaged in the unification of the Red Guard detachments into one combat unit. Organizer and commander of the Orenburg front, operating in the direction of the Orsk and Tashkent railways. In the summer of 1918, Zinoviev's combat detachments showed particular resilience in the defense of Orenburg, opposing the Dutovites and the Czechoslovakians. At the same time, Zinoviev managed to withdraw a garrison of 12000 people from Buzuluk, concentrating it near Orenburg
      Since September 1918, the commander of the troops of the Turkestan Republic - commanded the Aktobe and Orsk-Aktobe sectors of the front against the troops of Dutov and the White Chekhs. In February - March 1919, the head of the Orenburg rifle division (later 31 Turkestan rifle division).
      In March - June 1919, during the spring offensive of the whites, the commander of the Turkestan army led shock formations in the Beloretsk, Buguruslan, Belebeevsk and Ufa operations of the Red Army. For the Aktobe operation (August - September 1919) he was awarded the Order of the Red Banner. From June 1919 to November 1920, commander of the 1st Army. The troops under his leadership repelled the onslaught of Kolchak's troops and took part in the liberation of Orenburg, Orsk and Aktyubinsk.
      From August 31, 1920, he led the assault on the fortress of Old Bukhara during the Bukhara operation. He organized the pursuit of the emir, who fled with a detachment of armed guards to Eastern Bukhara. In November 1920, by order of the commander of the 1st Army G.V. Zinoviev, all Soviet troops within the Bukhara People's Soviet Republic were reduced to the Bukhara Group of Forces. From November 1920 to March 1921, he was a member of the Revolutionary Military Council and assistant to the commander of the Turkestan Front.
      In April - August 1921, the commander of the Fergana group of forces, at the same time the head of the 3rd Turkestan rifle division (from April 1, 1921 to May 4, 1921). Participated in the suppression of counter-revolutionary actions in the Transcaspian region (December 1919) and the Fergana region. From September 1921 he was a student of the Military Academy of the Red Army.
      From 1923 he was chief of military educational institutions of the Air Force, then chief of the Air Force of the Leningrad Military District, from February 1927 - 1st assistant to the commander of the Central Asian Military District, from May 1928 - assistant to the commander of the Leningrad Military District. Since 1928, the head of the Military Construction Directorate of the Red Army, since May 1932, the head and commissar of the Military Engineering Academy. He was awarded 2 Orders of the Red Banner (1919, 1928), the Revolutionary Military Council of the Turkfront - the honorary golden weapon of the TurkRepublic (1920) for the Bukhara operation in 1920.

      He died in Moscow. He was buried at the Novodevichy cemetery (Columbarium, section 1).
      1. Aviator_
        Aviator_ 31 August 2020 08: 17
        In the summer of 1918, Zinoviev's combat detachments showed particular resilience in the defense of Orenburg, opposing the Dutovites and the Czechoslovakians.

        Defense of Orenburg - April-June 1919. In 1918, Orenburg had to be abandoned, it was taken back only in January 1919.
        1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
          Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 31 August 2020 10: 13
          did not understand why you are being minus. No "special stamina" of the so-called. "Zinoviev's detachments" (not a fig to themselves "detachments" - 15-18 thousand bayonets) in the summer of 1918, of course, did not show, tk. there was no defense of Orenburg - the Reds went to Aktyubinsk, and the sergeant major Karnaukhov entered the empty city on July 3. Why this heroic wikipedia mess?
          1. Aviator_
            Aviator_ 31 August 2020 18: 56
            And I do the same. In 1919, Orenburg really defended itself seriously, but not in 1918.
          2. Sergey Oreshin
            Sergey Oreshin 31 August 2020 21: 02
            Apparently, they did not mean the street battles themselves, but in general the fighting of the Reds in the Orenburg direction?
        2. Sergey Oreshin
          Sergey Oreshin 31 August 2020 21: 01
          And what is the contradiction? In the summer of 1918, the Reds defended Orenburg from the Cossacks Dutov and the Czechs, but could not defend. And in April-June 19, the Reds again defended Orenburg from the same Dutov, but this time they held the city
          1. Aviator_
            Aviator_ 31 August 2020 21: 10
            There were no street battles in Orenburg in 1918, the Reds, really considering their strength, retreated by rail to Buzuluk. In 1919, the siege of the Dutovites was very strong, the city held out, for the defense it was awarded the honorary banner of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee. For the Civil War, besides Orenburg, only Petrograd and Tsaritsyn were awarded such an award.
            1. Sergey Oreshin
              Sergey Oreshin 31 August 2020 21: 19
              Yes, there were no street battles in the city itself, but battles in the Orenburg direction in 1918 were
          2. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
            Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 31 August 2020 21: 52
            ... In the summer of 1918, the Reds defended Orenburg from the Cossacks Dutov and the Czechs,

            Yes, they did not defend Orenburg in the summer of 18th, that's enough already. Which Dutov, which Czechs? Czechs under Buzuluk fucked Elkin, what does Orenburg have to do with it? Zinoviev did not succeed in multi-move with the 'iron-disciplined regiment', it did not work to outwit the Cossacks, it is strange that the Cossacks of Commissar Sheikman did not immediately spank. Zinoviev left Orenburg without any defense when he realized with his revolutionary instinct a complete hopelessness .. "We couldn't defend"? Will fantasize - they did not try, although the numerical superiority was on their side. No need to invent heroic stories.
            1. Sergey Oreshin
              Sergey Oreshin 31 August 2020 22: 23
              But the battles in the Orenburg direction with the Cossacks were
              1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
                Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 1 September 2020 07: 04
                Quote: Sergey Oreshin
                But the battles in the Orenburg direction with the Cossacks were

                Fights? And, well, yes, Kashirin, moving to Orenburg from Verkhneuralsk, in the villages lying in its path demanded receipts of loyalty to the Soviet authorities, shot those who refused, and burned the villages. Do you call this a 'heroic defense' against the Czechs? Or do you consider the pursuit of the retreating Reds to the borders of the Orenburg Army as the defense of Orenburg? The Reds simply fought off the Cossacks, who were wringing out their trains with property - yes, it was. But, you know, to call it the "defense of Orenburg", and even "stubborn", is, to put it mildly, incorrect.
                1. Sergey Oreshin
                  Sergey Oreshin 1 September 2020 08: 43
                  I agree with you. Rather, they can be called clashes. Not really good for full-fledged battles
  2. cost
    cost 31 August 2020 06: 31
    Fires in Bukhara during the assault by the Red Army. Photo from an airplane, September 1, 1920
    1. Ham
      Ham 31 August 2020 08: 17
      Emir's soldiers tried to stop the advance of the Red Army using arson
      1. thinker
        thinker 31 August 2020 14: 28
        They not only photographed from airplanes ...
        We bombed Bukhara, - one of the pilots who took part in the operation recalled with pride.
    2. your1970
      your1970 1 September 2020 18: 15
      and what kind of photos from Gorsky are cool ... the photographs are more than 100 years old, and the quality is as if they are now made and the colors are saturated
      1. your1970
        your1970 2 September 2020 10: 19
        Quote: your1970
        and what kind of photos from Gorsky are cool ... the photographs are more than 100 years old, and the quality is as if they are now made and the colors are saturated
        -I wonder who is this so my person skewed -that he gave me a minus for such a post slapped ?????
  3. cost
    cost 31 August 2020 06: 33
    In October 1920, the Bukhara People's Soviet Republic was established.

    8 1920 October, the
  4. cost
    cost 31 August 2020 06: 44
    The magnificent photograph of Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorsky (the first color photographs) depicts Alim Khan (1880-1944), the last emir of Bukhara.

    A few more photos of Prokudin-Gorsky from the Bukhara cycle
    Emir's palace

    Bukhara soldier

    1. ee2100
      ee2100 31 August 2020 08: 46
      The author did not mention that he uses beautiful photographs of the great Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Progudin-Gorsky. Thus, he showed his disrespect for the historical heritage of Russia.
  5. cost
    cost 31 August 2020 06: 59
    September 1920 photos
    meeting of the Red Army in Bukhara

    Rally on September 2, 1920

    Bukhara after the assault and shelling
    1. cost
      cost 31 August 2020 07: 26
      When there are no arguments to refute in Chihara minus is easiest laughing
      1. Aviator_
        Aviator_ 31 August 2020 08: 19
        Never mind, there is a lured team here for this.
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 31 August 2020 13: 52
          ... a lured team ...

          Sometimes there is a feeling, Sergei, that you are right. hi
      2. paul72
        paul72 31 August 2020 08: 24
        You've got some wild fans. Will miss out of the blue
      3. Sanya Terek
        Sanya Terek 31 August 2020 08: 41
        Your opponents are strange, Dmitry, not a single word against, but "-" instructed.
      4. tihonmarine
        tihonmarine 31 August 2020 09: 05
        Quote: Rich
        When there are no arguments to refute in Chihara minus is easiest

        I don’t understand why, wonderful rare photos, especially of the magnificent master Prokudin-Gorsky.
        Or again on the site "Sorosets" have appeared.
        1. The comment was deleted.
  6. silberwolf88
    silberwolf88 31 August 2020 09: 50
    Frunze is an interesting personality put forward by the 1917 revolution ... although history does not have a subjunctive mood ... BUT it would be extremely interesting if he lived a long life in the USSR ... his mind and talents would definitely be in demand ...
    1. Obliterator
      Obliterator 31 August 2020 14: 27
      Quote: silberwolf88
      Frunze is an interesting personality put forward by the 1917 revolution ... although history does not have a subjunctive mood ... BUT it would be extremely interesting if he lived a long life in the USSR ... his mind and talents would definitely be in demand ...

      Most likely, like many prominent Bolsheviks with merit, he would not have survived the "purges" of the thirties.
      1. silberwolf88
        silberwolf88 31 August 2020 18: 29
        but I don’t agree ... he was closer to Stalin (like Budyonny and Voroshilov) and was not Trotsky’s henchman (most likely the Trotskyists destroyed it), perhaps this was the link with the army and its structural development ... which was then so lacking ...
        1. Yaik Cossack
          Yaik Cossack 31 August 2020 23: 40
          It was Trotsky who moved Frunze. But with Stalin, Frunze had no relationship. While Frunze was leading the army, Stalin did not feel safe. This predetermined the reasons for the murder of Frunze and then the nomination of Stalinist Voroshilov.
          1. silberwolf88
            silberwolf88 1 September 2020 00: 45
            for the truth of history, Trotsky at the initial stage nominated ALL ... for he was the People's Commissariat for Military Affairs ... and Voroshilov too ... BUT there are nuances ... Voroshilov was with Stalin in the defense of Tsaritsin and later supported Stalin in the Trotskyists' speech in 1927 ... Frunze was never a Trotskyist by convictions ... and moreover, he criticized Trotsky for his Bonapartism and the nature of his management (armored trains of a mobile headquarters with sweets and women) ... and behaved extremely independently ... one might say he was a loyal Leninist
            1. Yaik Cossack
              Yaik Cossack 1 September 2020 08: 40
              And can you hear from you a specific fact of criticism of Trotsky from Frunze for Bonapartism? And for armored trains with women and sweets? For the truth of the story?
              "Trotsky nominated everyone ..." Where? Frunze became the deputy of the Pre-Revolutionary Military Council.
              I read their correspondence by telegraph on the defeat of Kolchak in 1919 at the Russian State Military Academy. Friendly correspondence. There is nothing about women or about Bonapartism.
              1. silberwolf88
                silberwolf88 1 September 2020 10: 09
                from the fact that I talk with colleagues within the limits of corporate ethics in the official field of activity does not imply my indiscriminate respect for them and support for their views ... about more details and other things ...
                in the last 4 years, condemnation of who cleared whom for what ... and could the troops in 1927, when the Trotskyists spoke out, support the speakers (Maidan named after Trotsky) with weapons, it was clear who and in what positions were put ... here Frunze was operated on (or stabbed ... as you like) doctors from that national category (then there was the case of doctors ... later ... when they realized a lot from the accumulation) which is close to various Trotsky ... and the deputy was so to speak with the point of view of checks and balances ... study the question for yourself ... and less categorical
                1. Yaik Cossack
                  Yaik Cossack 1 September 2020 19: 00
                  I assumed so, you have no facts.
                  You categorically stated a number of theses and ... were embarrassed during their verification, uttering some kind of a stream of pompous and meaningless words)))

                  For the rest of the public, I will just note that critics of Trotsky's use of armored cars in the civil war, due to his poor education, do not suspect that Comrade Stalin traveled only in them and in peacetime until his death.
                  The main beneficiary of Frunze's death is also Comrade Stalin.
                  1. silberwolf88
                    silberwolf88 1 September 2020 21: 24
                    Suppose further what you want ... me on and on
                    Views and conclusions are very superficial and there is too much categorical pathos ... Trotsky won from the death of Frunze ... well, you think in your own way ... your right ... I do not set myself the mission of educating different types of historians there ... you want .. there is a lot of information for critical understanding ... and this story has been repeated here many times ... and to explain it to different neophytes in a new way ... well, it didn't stop ...
                    1. Yaik Cossack
                      Yaik Cossack 1 September 2020 22: 32
                      Are you a professional historian? All your pathos against neophytes is ridiculous. But my Ph.D. is just about Russian history, baby)))
                      1. Yaik Cossack
                        Yaik Cossack 1 September 2020 22: 56
                        Now for those who understand. The notion that Frunze allegedly did not like Trotsky's “Bonapartism” or his armored train is a classic example of vulgar folkhistory that arose during perestroika and is flourishing now.
                        The term "Bonapartism" itself in its classical form is not applicable to Bolshevism. It was used only as a cliche of swearing in internal party squabbles. Also, there are no serious ideological differences between Trotsky and the others. Stalin in some periods was also a supporter of "permanent revolution".
                        The meaning of the whole struggle is which clan will seize power after Lenin. On the one hand, Trotsky, who considered himself the equal leader and natural heir of Lenin, was eager, on the other, Lenin's comrades-in-arms Zinoviev and Kamenev, and on the third, Stalin's dark horse.
                        First, Kamenev and Zinoviev, with the help of Stalin, overthrew Trotsky, and then Stalin, having seized control of the party apparatus, army and special services, removed his former allies that were no longer needed. Since Frunze was not a Stalinist, Stalin promoted his lieutenant Voroshilov to the post of People's Commissar.
                      2. silberwolf88
                        silberwolf88 2 September 2020 01: 22
                        What a lack of culture from the candidate
                        You are our fighting cockerel
                        Change the site to a historical one ... there are all kinds of humanities and a place ...
                      3. Yaik Cossack
                        Yaik Cossack 2 September 2020 16: 13
                        You don't need to advise me anything, and then I won't tell you where to go with unsolicited advice)))
                        Well, you see, all your phillipics about Frunze, angry at the Trotsky women and the armored train, have not been confirmed. Contact, sometimes ready to help out of the kindness of your heart.
  • Olddetractor
    Olddetractor 31 August 2020 13: 13
    The emir himself, with the government and guards, fled the city on the night of August 31. He fled to the eastern part of the emirate, then fled to Afghanistan, where he received asylum (died in Kabul in 1944).

    Three of his young sons could not leave Bukhara, were brought up in Moscow in orphanages. The Soviet government, despite the father's requests, did not give the children to Alim Khan.
    Seyid Mir Mohammed Alim Khan died in Kabul on May 5, 1944.
    According to the will of the emir, the following lines are written on the grave: "An emir without a homeland is miserable and worthless. A beggar who died in his homeland is truly an emir."
    Tomb of Seyid Mir Muhammad Alim Khan in Kabul, at the Shahadai Salihiin cemetery, 2014
    1. Sergey Oreshin
      Sergey Oreshin 31 August 2020 21: 05
      The tomb is, of course, in a sorry state. Interestingly, the government of Uzbekistan did not put forward the idea of ​​reburial of the remains of the emir in Bukhara? It would be logical
  • faterdom
    faterdom 31 August 2020 18: 01
    Quote: Rich
    (first color photographs)

    Yes, what Prokudin-Gorsky knew how and was first used in his expeditions ... it's a miracle. In terms of quality, we catch up with his color photographs only after a hundred years. Technically. And historically - his subjects have long been history. But how alive.
    It is a pity that his archive was taken to America, but it is good that he was found.
  • Astra wild
    Astra wild 31 August 2020 20: 37
    Colleagues, whatever you want, but I am jarred by the "blitzkrieg" which causes very tragic associations.
    If I were the author, I would have caught a cold of that name. There are many other expressions: "dash", "swift blow". We need to read more Russian classics: Pushkin, Turgenev, Tolstoy and other masters of the Russian language
  • Aviator_
    Aviator_ 31 August 2020 20: 55
    In the photo, where the "Bukhara army platoon" is armed, it seems, single-shot Berdanks.
  • Aviator_
    Aviator_ 31 August 2020 21: 02
    Found a photo - a modern view of the residence of the Bukhara ambassador in Orenburg
  • Sergey Oreshin
    Sergey Oreshin 31 August 2020 21: 08
    Another weak slammed abstract from Wikipedia and a couple of popular brochures (the author, at least swap the words well, or then let's go to literature, otherwise you just copy and paste in whole sentences !!!). The hostilities in Eastern Bukhara (on the territory of modern Tajikistan) are not covered at all. But after the fall of Bukhara, the emir moved his residence to Dushanbe and the Red Army had to knock him out of there. The fighting there went on for several months
  • ayh
    ayh 3 September 2020 17: 47
    The red commanders did not spare meat. With complete technical superiority - huge losses.
    A good article on the topic on warspot:
    Compared to the Bukhara campaign of the Russian Army - a disgrace.