Military Review

"Our people, thanks to God, have asked such a pepper that it is pleasant." The defeat of the Turkish fleet in the battle at Cape Tendra

43

A. Blinkov. Battle of Cape Tendra. 1955 year


230 years ago, a Russian squadron under the command of Ushakov defeated the Turkish fleet at Cape Tendra. This victory broke the blockade by the Turks of the Russian Danube flotilla and created the conditions for the victory of the Russian armed forces on the Danube.

General situation


In 1787, Turkey began a war with Russia with the aim of taking revenge for previous defeats, regaining its positions in the Northern Black Sea region, restoring the Crimean Khanate and destroying the Black Sea Fleet, which was rapidly being created by the Russians. The Turkish plans were supported by France and England, who wanted to push the Russians away from the sea, drive them deep into the continent.

At the beginning of the war, the Turks on land had no superiority over the Russian army. However, they had great superiority at sea. Russian naval bases and shipbuilding and repair industries were in the making. The material supply of the fleet was just getting better. So, at the beginning of the war, the Turks had 20 ships of the line, and we - 4. In the number of small and auxiliary ships, the enemy was 3-4 times superior. Also, the new Russian ships were inferior in quality: in artillery weapons (the Turks had more large-caliber artillery), in speed. That is, the Turks had more ships, people and guns. The Turks had fairly experienced naval commanders.

At the beginning of the war, the command of the Black Sea Fleet was unsatisfactory. Admirals N. S. Mordvinov and M. I. Voinovich had good connections at the royal court, but were bad naval commanders. These admirals were distinguished by indecision, passivity, they were afraid of a battle with superior enemy forces. They adhered to a linear tactic, according to which the weak Russian naval fleet could not attack the powerful Turkish fleet itself. However, at the same time, a decisive and talented naval commander, Fyodor Fedorovich Ushakov, came forward. He was promoted through hard work and his high ability. The commander-in-chief of the Russian armed forces in the Northern Black Sea region G. Potemkin was able to see a great man in Ushakov and gave him protection.

First victories


Despite their relative weakness, at the very beginning of the war, the Russians at sea were able to give the enemy a strong rebuff. Liman rowing flotilla in 1787-1788 successfully repelled all attacks of the enemy fleet. The Ottomans lost many ships. The Turkish command was unable to use its superiority in large ships with powerful weapons, since maneuverable small rowing vessels had an advantage in the Liman. While stubborn battles were going on in the Dnieper-Bug estuary, the Sevastopol ship squadron was inactive. Its commander Voinovich was afraid of a decisive battle with the enemy. The indecisive admiral constantly found reasons not to take ships to sea.

After the decisive demands of Potemkin, Voinovich's ships went to sea in June 1788. In early July, Voinovich's squadron met the enemy fleet under the command of Gassan Pasha near the island of Fidinisi. The Ottomans had complete superiority: 2 Russian battleships against 17 enemy ships (in other ships there was an approximate equality of forces), 550 Russian cannons over 1500 Turkish. Voinovich got scared and withdrew from the fight. The Sevastopol squadron was headed by Brigadier Ushakov. He attacked and forced the enemy to retreat. This was the first victory of the Black Sea ship fleet. Now the situation at sea has changed radically. The Turkish fleet lost its dominance in the Black Sea. After Fidonisi, the Ottoman command gave the initiative at sea to the Russians for almost two years and did not undertake any campaigns.

In the spring of 1790, Ushakov was appointed commander of the Black Sea Fleet. He actively prepared ships and crews for hostilities. Turkey built new ships and refused to make peace. Constantinople hoped that Russia was weakened by the war with the Swedes (1788-1790), so there is an opportunity to successfully end the conflict in the Black Sea region. This led to the protraction of the Russian-Turkish war. The Ottoman command was about to conduct a series of offensive operations during the 1790 campaign. To land troops in the Caucasus and Crimea, to raise the uprising of the Crimean Tatars. In July 1790, Ushakov with a decisive attack defeated the Turkish fleet under the command of Hussein Pasha in the Kerch Strait (The defeat of the Turkish fleet in the Battle of Kerch). Thus, the Russian naval commander thwarted the enemy's plans to land troops in the Crimea.

Victory at Tendra


Constantinople did not leave plans for the Crimean operation. The damaged ships were repaired, and on August 21, 1790, the main part of the Turkish fleet was located between Khadzhibey (Odessa) and Cape Tendra. Hussein Pasha had 45 pennants (1400 guns) under his command, including 14 battleships and 8 frigates. The Turkish fleet in this area held back the activity of the Liman flotilla and threatened the coastal flank of our army. On August 25, Ushakov put out his squadron: 10 battleships, 6 frigates, 1 bombardment ship and 16 auxiliary ships. They were armed with about 830 guns.

On the morning of August 28 (September 8), 1790, Russian ships were at Cape Tendra and discovered the enemy. The Russian admiral ordered a rapprochement with the Turks. For the Ottoman command, this came as a complete surprise. The Turks hoped that the Russian ships were stationed in Sevastopol. Seeing the enemy, the Turkish sailors hastily began to chop off anchors (to gain time), set sails and go to the mouth of the Danube. Our ships were chasing the enemy. The Turkish vanguard, led by the flagship, with an advantage in the course, went ahead, ahead of the rest of its fleet. Fearing that the lagging ships would be overtaken by the "infidels", pressed to the shore and destroyed or captured, Hussein Pasha was forced to make a turn. While the enemy was rebuilding, our ships lined up in a battle line. It included ships and part of the frigates. Three frigates remained in reserve.

At 3 o'clock in the afternoon, both fleets sailed parallel to each other. Ushakov began to close the distance. Russian ships had fewer long-range guns, so the Russian naval commander strove to get as close to the enemy as possible in order to use all the ship's artillery. Fyodor Fedorovich also strove to focus fire on the enemy flagships. He wrote: "Our fleet drove the enemy under full sail and beat him incessantly." As a result, the Turkish flagships suffered greatly. The skirmish and the pursuit continued for several hours. In the darkness, the Turkish ships, taking advantage of their speed, disappeared. The Ottomans walked without lights and changed course in order to break away from the Russians. So they managed to escape during the Battle of Kerch.


However, this time they were out of luck. On the morning of August 29 (September 9), the Russians again discovered the enemy. During the flight, the Turkish fleet was scattered over a large area. The Ottomans were demoralized and did not dare to fight. The Turkish admiral gave the signal to join and withdraw. The enemy tried to escape to the Bosphorus. Some of the Turkish ships were severely damaged, so they lost their speed advantage and lagged noticeably behind the main forces. At 10 o'clock the Russian ship "Andrey" overtook the Turkish junior flagship - the 80-gun ship "Kapudania". It was Said Bey's ship. For "Andrey" the ships "Georgiy" and "Preobrazhenie" approached. The enemy flagship was surrounded and fired upon. The Ottomans fought hard. Then the Russian flagship "Christmas Christ" approached the "Kapudania" at a pistol-shot distance (30 fathoms) and "in the slightest time inflicted the most severe defeat on it." The Turkish ship burned and lost all masts. The Turks capitulated. Admiral Said Bey, the captain of the ship Mehmet and 17 staff officers were taken prisoner. The ship could not be saved, it exploded.

At the same time, other Russian ships overtook and forced the 66-gun ship Meleki-Bagari to surrender. Later it was repaired and introduced into the Russian fleet under the name "John the Baptist". Several small ships were also captured. On the way to the Bosphorus another 74-gun Ottoman battleship and several small ships sank due to damage.

Ushakov's squadron won a complete victory over the enemy. The enemy fled and lost three ships of the line. The Ottomans were defeated and demoralized, lost, according to various estimates, from 2 to 5 thousand people (about 700 people were captured). Turkish ships were overcrowded: due to the constant flight of people, surplus crews (plus soldiers) were recruited. Russian casualties were minimal: 46 killed and wounded.

The Russian fleet seized the initiative at sea. A significant part of the Black Sea was cleared of the enemy. The Liman flotilla was able to provide assistance to the ground forces, which took the fortresses of Kiliya, Tulcha, Isakchi and Izmail. Ushakov demonstrated decisive maneuverable tactics in battle. His Serene Highness Prince Grigory Potemkin expressed delight at the victory of Ushakov and wrote: “Thanks to God, our people have asked such a pepper that they love it. Thanks to Fedor Fedorovich. " The Russian naval commander was awarded the Order of St. George, 2nd degree.
Author:
Photos used:
https://ru.wikipedia.org/, https://dic.academic.ru/
43 comments
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  1. Mavrikiy
    Mavrikiy 28 August 2020 05: 35 New
    0
    The Turkish plans were supported by France and England, who wanted to push the Russians away from the sea, drive them deep into the continent.
    As they wanted, they want to, but now they want to push Turkey as well. For she had developed an appetite.
  2. asua164
    asua164 28 August 2020 05: 42 New
    -13
    https://www.mk.ru/social/2020/08/27/rossiyanka-rasskazala-o-lyubvi-v-turcii-s-shoferom-v-tualete-vezde.html

    Ushakov turned over in his coffin
    1. Viktor Sergeev
      Viktor Sergeev 28 August 2020 08: 31 New
      +9
      Ushakov does not give a damn about it, but I see you trudge from the yellow press and such articles.
      1. asua164
        asua164 29 August 2020 03: 07 New
        0
        But how to say ... There are facts and worse.
        It turns out that our man fought for? Did you win, did you die?
        Remembering past victories, admiring this, of course, is good and correct, especially in the education of the younger generation.
        But you don't need to forget about the vital day
  3. Ragnar Lodbrok
    Ragnar Lodbrok 28 August 2020 05: 46 New
    14
    Great sea victoria! Great Admiral Ushakov!
    Fyodor Fyodorovich was not a master at composing lengthy reports, but he dictated an order of gratitude to the sailors who fought under his command at Tendra:

    “For the past August 28 and 29 against Kochabei against the enemy's fleet when another battle was destroyed, about undermining the admiral's and capturing another enemy ship and another kind of three warships, his lordship deigned to declare me a warrant: for brave deeds and skillful orders the most grateful his gratitude, which he ordered me to declare to all the companions who are with me in battle, and to assure all of them that his lordship will not completely abandon these exploits and service to present them, about which to the gentlemen of the commanders of ships, frigates and other ships, the same and to all staff and chief officers and various ranks in the fleet at this battle with me, to announce.
    I also bring my most grateful gratitude and recommend tomorrow to bring to the Almighty a prayer for such a happily granted victory to all who are possible from ships to be in the Church of St. Nicholas the Wonderworker, priests from all over the fleet will be in this church at 10 o'clock in the morning and after the departure of the thanksgiving service fire from the ship "Nativity of Christ" from 51 guns "
  4. Ross xnumx
    Ross xnumx 28 August 2020 05: 51 New
    +7
    His Serene Highness Prince Grigory Potemkin expressed delight at the victory of Ushakov and wrote: “Thanks to God, our people have asked such a pepper that they love it. Thanks to Fedor Fedorovich. "

    Maybe in the real story it was said differently, BUT !!! I like:
  5. Catfish
    Catfish 28 August 2020 06: 41 New
    +5
    If I am not mistaken, then it was just before this battle that the Algerian Pasha Said-Ali - "the storm of the seas" and the "lion of the crescent", promised the Sultan "to bring Ushak Pasha in an iron cage and with a rope around his neck"
    And at the end of the battle, the historical phrase sounded: "Sayid, bum! I will wean you from making such promises!" - Shaking his fist in the face of the Algerian pasha, Ushakov shouted from the captain's bridge of his ship.

    The flagship of F.F. Ushakova the battleship "Christmas Christ".
    1. rich
      rich 28 August 2020 07: 28 New
      +4
      The flagship of F.F. Ushakova the battleship "Christmas Christ".

      Since the time of Peter the Great, the Holy Synod has regularly allocated funds for the construction of Russian warships. The ships built at the expense of the Holy Synod have always had "special names"
      The first swallow was Peter's “Goto Predistinatsiya” - “God's Foresight”. In 1758, the largest for that time, the 100-gun battleship Saint Dmitry of Rostov, and then the Archangel Gabriel, was launched. Line ships Saint Paul, Twelve Apostles and many others. etc. You cannot list them all.
      Almost all ships, squadrons of Admiral Ushakov, were mainly built with the money of the Synod and bore "similar" names:
      FF Ushakov on 25 August went to sea with battleships (80-gun "Nativity of Christ", 66-gun "Mary Magdalene", "St. Vladimir", "St. Paul", "Transfiguration of the Lord", 50- cannon "George the Victorious", "Alexander Nevsky", "Apostle Andrew", 46-push. "Peter the Apostle", "John the Theologian"), 40-cannon frigates ("Protection of the Virgin", "John the Warrior", "Jerome", "Nestor Reverend" "Ambrose Mediolansky", "Kirill Belozersky"), 1 bombardier ship "Nativity of the Virgin" and 20 auxiliary ships, and set off to join the four frigates of the Liman squadron located near Ochakov under the command of Major General O. de Ribas. In total, Rear Admiral FF Ushakov's squadron had 10 battleships, 6 frigates, 17 cruising ships, a bombarding ship, a rehearsal ship and 2 fire-ships.
      .
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 28 August 2020 07: 39 New
        +3
        “Goto Predestination” is a handsome ship, just a masterpiece of shipbuilding creativity. It seems that Pyotr Alekseevich himself worked as a carpenter on its construction. smile


      2. rich
        rich 28 August 2020 07: 41 New
        +2
        battleship "Nativity of Christ".

        Class and type of ship linear 80-gun ship
        Sailing type Three-masted ship
        Affiliation with the Russian Black Sea Fleet
        Manufacturer Kherson shipyard
        Shipmaster S. I. Afanasiev
        Launched on May 15, 1787
        Commissioned 1787 year
        Withdrew from the fleet 1800 year
        Main characteristics
        Upper deck length 54,9 m
        Midship width 15,1 m
        Draft 6,1 m
        Sail propeller
        Crew 560/754 people
        weaponry
        Total number of 80 guns
        Curiously: The ship was laid down in Kherson and, after launching, entered the Black Sea Fleet as "Joseph II". During the descent of the ship, Empress Catherine II was present, as well as the Austrian Emperor Joseph II, in whose honor the "Synod" ship was renamed. After the descent of the ship, the empress admitted to her hand the chiefs of the admiralty and the builder, who were handed three rubles from each cannon on a silver platter. Later, through the efforts of Ushakov, the ship was returned to its previous name, under which it was laid
        1. Kisa
          Kisa 28 August 2020 19: 19 New
          +2
          I am not an expert in sailing sea combat. and what gave Ushakov hopes for the chances of 17 line-ups against two? if there is parity in the fire component. speed maneuverability is also near. the tactics are the same for 300 years already - they walk in parallel with their sides and beat each other.
          if they chew about Tsushima in detail ... it would be nice to voice objective hidden reserves
    2. Undecim
      Undecim 28 August 2020 09: 53 New
      +5
      It was during the battle at Cape Kaliakra, where Ushakov really commanded the squadron.
      As for the battle at Fidonisi, Samsonov, as usual, shamelessly lies, depicting Voinovich's self-elimination and Ushakov's command.
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 28 August 2020 10: 26 New
        +6
        Again, some kind of rat with minuses has crawled, here's the rodent itching.
        1. The leader of the Redskins
          The leader of the Redskins 28 August 2020 21: 26 New
          +1
          Rather a group ...)
          1. Catfish
            Catfish 28 August 2020 21: 39 New
            +2
            Insects move in a herd. laughing
        2. Doliva63
          Doliva63 29 August 2020 19: 57 New
          +2
          Quote: Sea Cat
          Again, some kind of rat with minuses has crawled, here's the rodent itching.

          Not a minus, but about rats - this is superfluous, in my opinion. Expressed an opinion - a rat?
          1. Catfish
            Catfish 29 August 2020 20: 08 New
            0
            Not so, the opinion is expressed in words, for this there are all the possibilities, and to sculpt all the posts in a row with minuses on the sly - this is ratism.
            1. Doliva63
              Doliva63 30 August 2020 19: 33 New
              0
              Quote: Sea Cat
              Not so, the opinion is expressed in words, for this there are all the possibilities, and to sculpt all the posts in a row with minuses on the sly - this is ratism.

              Everyone has their own opinion on this matter, mine and yours differ. My minus. If they converged - a plus, and if you do not care - nothing.
              1. Catfish
                Catfish 31 August 2020 00: 34 New
                +1
                Alaverdi for the dissimilarity of opinions. request
    3. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
      Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 28 August 2020 10: 36 New
      +3
      Quote: Sea Cat
      And at the end of the battle, the historical phrase sounded: "Sayid, bum! I will wean you from making such promises!" - Shaking his fist in the face of the Algerian pasha, Ushakov shouted from the captain's bridge of his ship.

      Well, everything is changing for the sake of the political climate and a change in strategic guidelines)
      Just eight years later, Fyodor Fyodorovich commanded a united Russian-Turkish squadron in operations against the French. Cerigo island, Kapsali fortress, Kefalonia, etc.
      I got to know the commander of the Turkish squadron Pasha or Vice Admiral Kadyr-bey very well, he seemed to me to be an extremely affectionate and courteous person, and we all ordered him in a friendly manner and, for the first time, in reasoning of his courtesies and our general agreement in orders, I refer to him Your Excellency, my gratitude and praise, I ask the Sublime Porte to testify of these from me; I hope that we, as you can see at first, if it continues like this, we will be satisfied with one another and we can hope for good success through that; Let us bear witness to my true reverence and devotion, with which I always have the honor to be.

      (from Ushakov's letter to the envoy Tomare. September 15, 1798, ship "St. Paul")
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 28 August 2020 10: 44 New
        +2
        Was it not then that the French ships broke through the blockade at a time when the Turks were praising Allah? If memory serves, during the morning (?) Prayer.
        1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
          Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 28 August 2020 11: 14 New
          +2
          Quote: Sea Cat
          Was it not then that the French ships broke through the blockade at a time when the Turks were praising Allah?

          Yes, it seems like Ushakov was busy cleaning the Ionian Islands from the French garrisons there. Basically, his actions were landing, he did not fight with the fleet.
      2. Alexey RA
        Alexey RA 28 August 2020 11: 51 New
        +3
        Quote: Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
        Well, everything is changing for the sake of the political climate and a change in strategic guidelines)
        Just eight years later, Fyodor Fyodorovich commanded a united Russian-Turkish squadron in operations against the French.

        This is normal. Vaughn, Lazarev beat the Turks at Navarino in 1827, and in 1833 he dined with one of those whom he then beat (while the Black Sea Fleet defended Istanbul and the Sultan) smile
        There were not one magnificent dinners, but the most important was given by Seraskir and again Tagir Pasha but on the order of the Sultan on the three-deck ship Mahmut. Tagir is an old friend of mine (Navarino), he had his flag on a two-deck frigate and was defeated from Azov, among some others.
        © M.P. Lazarev
    4. BAI
      BAI 28 August 2020 10: 58 New
      +2
      And at the end of the battle, the historical phrase sounded: "Sayid, bum! I will wean you from making such promises!" - Shaking his fist in the face of the Algerian pasha, Ushakov shouted from the captain's bridge of his ship.

      And how could Ushakov know about this promise?
      1. Catfish
        Catfish 28 August 2020 11: 38 New
        +3
        Everywhere and always there are kind people who will contribute to the dissemination of information in the direction of those concerned. smile
    5. Okolotochny
      Okolotochny 29 August 2020 09: 41 New
      +2
      Not. Said Ali appeared later, in my opinion, at the Battle of Kalliakria.
  6. Olgovich
    Olgovich 28 August 2020 07: 16 New
    +7
    Admirals N. S. Mordvinov and M. I. Voinovich had good connections at the royal court, but were bad naval commanders.

    Yes, Mordvinov did not become a brilliant naval commander (although he was sent to the navy from the age of 11), but he became one of the highest officials of the Empire, a good economist, reformer, writer, lived NINETY YEARS, with FIVE Emperors -Peter 3, Catherine, Paul, Alexandra1 and Nikolae1.

    An extraordinary person, a long interesting rich life, a wonderful family, many children (one of them is Stolypin's great-grandmother) ...

    Pushkin to him:

    One, raising a powerful labor on the shoulder,
    You are vigilantly vigilant over the royal treasury,
    Widows poor mite and tribute to Siberian ores
    Equally sacred to you.
    1. rich
      rich 28 August 2020 08: 17 New
      +4
      In fairness, it must be said that the Turks did not perceive the defeat in this battle as a disaster. Sultan Selim III even awarded Hussein with the title of "ghazi" - great. The British who participated in the battle as advisers were also awarded. (In general, in almost all the wars that Russia waged against the Ottoman Empire, starting from the XNUMXth century, either the British or representatives of other European countries were advisers in the Turkish troops.) However, the morale of the Turkish sailors was undermined, as was the power of the Turkish fleet.
      From that time on, the Turks began to invite natives from North African countries, mainly from Tunisia and Algeria, to the highest posts of the fleet.
      Selim III vowed to destroy the Russian fleet and bring "Ushak Pasha" to Istanbul in an iron cage. As you know, neither one nor the other did not work for him.
    2. Ryaruav
      Ryaruav 28 August 2020 09: 05 New
      -1
      olgovich, you are not a history teacher at Kishinev University (I don’t know what this institution is now called) and I think it’s time for you to tie up with monarchism
  7. Aviator_
    Aviator_ 28 August 2020 07: 58 New
    0
    The note is, of course, interesting, but the author's literary style is more than simple, if not to put it differently. It seems that his work used to be read better. Or there was a lot of copy-paste in those, but not in this one?
  8. Ryaruav
    Ryaruav 28 August 2020 08: 58 New
    0
    how many times they beat them at sea how many times they beat them on the ground and they still pull from Russia like theirs, the Crimean Tatars who became straight relatives of the Russian people, I'm not very mustachioed, but he did it all right with the kalloprotsionists. the worst rehabilitated
  9. Doccor18
    Doccor18 28 August 2020 09: 03 New
    +3
    Thanks to the author for the article.
    Thanks to God, ours have given such a pepper that it is pleasant. "

    Not thanks to God, but the genius of Fyodor Ushakov and the heroism of Russian sailors.
    1. Catfish
      Catfish 28 August 2020 09: 23 New
      +8
      "Well, if there is no God, so that they fight like devils!" (from).
      1. rich
        rich 28 August 2020 10: 46 New
        +1
        Constant hi
        You already amaze me again and again with your erudition, memory and speed of reaction. good
        And always in place
        1. Catfish
          Catfish 28 August 2020 10: 51 New
          +2
          Thank you, Dmitry, nice, by God. smile But Vic Nick is beyond the reach of anyone! request
  10. Seal
    Seal 28 August 2020 10: 15 New
    +6
    Well, why throw mud at respected people?
    At the beginning of the war, the command of the Black Sea Fleet was unsatisfactory. Admirals N. S. Mordvinov and M. I. Voinovich had good connections at the royal court, but were bad naval commanders.

    N.S. Mordvinov was the commander of the Liman rowing squadron, which distinguished itself at Ochakovo, for which he was presented to the Order of St. Anna, XNUMXst degree. After that he moved on to the actual economic work. He took over as chairman of the Black Sea Admiralty Board.
    N.S. Mordvinov highly appreciated Ushakov's activities and always emphasized his merits. Including the construction of Sevastopol. So he writes to Catherine II in a report on the state of the Black Sea Fleet and the Sevastopol port: "The Rear Admiral, as soon as he was freed from military labors, turned his zeal to building dwellings and constructing a hospital. Moving the barracks to high places from the low lying inside bays, where the air he himself is malicious, he rendered important services, for since then the number of sick and dying people has noticeably decreased. "
    Ushakov was subordinate to Mordvinov, which he invariably stressed, calling him "admiral and cavalier" in his reports. Nikolai Semenovich did not prevent Ushakov from fighting in his own way. And F.F. Ushakov paid tribute to Mordvinov: "Nikolai Semenovich is suitable for the naval economy: he plants forests around Nikolaev, carries coal from the Don, teaches our grandmothers to do without firewood ..."


    Count Marko Ivanovich Voinovich, (1750-1807), admiral. One of the founders of the Black Sea Fleet.
    Voinovich entered the navy as a midshipman in 1770. In 1771 he commanded the 6-gun frigate "Slava" and participated in the bombardment of the fortress of Mytilene. In 1772, cruising off the Rumelian coast in the Lago Bay, he burned 10 Turkish merchant ships and took 3 prisoners. For this operation he was awarded the Order of St. George IV Art. In the same year, Marko Voinovic took part in the attack on the Turkish fleet in the Gulf of Patras - in the Battle of Patras. The frigate "Slava" burned the frigate and two shebeks of the Turks. In 1773 he sailed to Syria and Egypt and participated in the blockade and capture of Beirut. At the end of the war, he was promoted to lieutenant commander and until 1777 continued to sail in the Black and Mediterranean Seas.
    In 1787 Voinovich was promoted to Rear Admiral and took part in the Russian-Turkish war of 1787-1792. In 1788, Voinovich went to sea to divert the Turkish fleet from the besieged Ochakov and on July 3 withstood a stubborn battle with the Turks near the island of Fidonisi. Commanding a squadron of 36 ships, he entered into battle with 47 Turkish ships under the command of Hasan Pasha. Voinovich's 66-gun ship "Transfiguration of the Lord" won the battle with two 80-gun ships of Turkish vice and rear admirals. On July 28, the Empress wrote to Potemkin with enthusiasm: “The action of the Sevastopol fleet made me happy: it is almost unbelievable, with what little power God helps to beat the strong Turkish weapons! Tell me, how can I please Voinovich? Crosses of the third class have already been sent to you, will you give him one, or a sword? "
    In 1797, Count M. I. Voinovich was appointed a member of the Black Sea Admiralty Administration and promoted to vice admiral, and in 1801 to admiral. The Grafskaya pier in Sevastopol is named in his honor.
    In the last years of his service, Admiral M.I. Voinovich was the director of the Black Sea Navigation School in Nikolaev. In 1801, under his patronage in Nikolaev, an amateur theater group was created from his students, which soon became a drama theater, which first gave a performance on October 28, 1801. The next year, Count Voinovich issued an order to the school encouraging the work of an amateur theater. Since that time, the beginning of theatrical activity in Nikolaev should be considered (the theater at the school was closed by order of A.S. Greig in 1823 after the death of M.I.Voinovich after the sensational case of V.I.Dal in the city, "as a hotbed of immorality among young marine pupils ").
    Dismissed on a request to resign on June 29, 1805. Died Admiral M.I. Voinovich on November 11, 1807 at the age of 57.
    1. BAI
      BAI 28 August 2020 10: 51 New
      +2
      6-gun frigate "Slava"
      Frigates start from 20 guns and 3 masts. 6 guns could have a steamer-frigate, but this is a little later - in the 19th century.
      Slava had 16 guns, which is strange. The brig "Mercury" had 18 cannons.
      1. Seal
        Seal 28 August 2020 15: 44 New
        0
        Probably, there is a mistake in the text. Didn't check.
  11. Seal
    Seal 28 August 2020 10: 28 New
    +4
    Quote: Sea Cat
    If I am not mistaken, then it was just before this battle that the Algerian Pasha Said-Ali - "the storm of the seas" and the "lion of the crescent", promised the Sultan "to bring Ushak Pasha in an iron cage and with a rope around his neck"
    And at the end of the battle, the historical phrase sounded: "Sayid, bum! I will wean you from making such promises!" - Shaking his fist in the face of the Algerian pasha, Ushakov shouted from the captain's bridge of his ship.

    Filmmakers, they are. They'll come up with something else.
    They and Suvorov, before the storming of Ishmael, does not issue an ultimatum to the Turks according to the accepted rules, but something like “I arrived here with the troops. Twenty-four hours to think - and freedom. My first shot is already bondage. Assault is death. "
    And the answer of the Turks is also original: "Rather, the Danube will flow backwards and the sky will fall to the ground than Ishmael will surrender."
    In fact, neither one nor the other was. The ultimatum to the Turks A.V. Suvorov presented the most typical and standard for that time. And the Turks simply asked A, V. Suvorov to extend the ultimatum so that they could get in touch with Istanbul. But A.V. Suvorov refused them and did not give them time.
    Filmmakers what to take from them.
    Vaughn, directed by S.M. Eisentstein from beginning to end he invented the scene of the execution of the sailors on the battleship Potemkin under the tarpaulin. So what ? He received over 70 calls from "the very sailors" who were "shot under a tarpaulin", but they "miraculously survived." Eisentstein S.M. from this ofigel.
    1. Ross xnumx
      Ross xnumx 28 August 2020 13: 01 New
      +1
      Quote: Seal
      Eisentstein S.M. from this ofigel.

      A citizen of Russia should be provided with such episodes of history that he could be proud of. It was, is and will continue. Fishermen also sometimes show with their hands such a size of fish that ... belay
      And in history the winners are not judged ... yes
  12. BAI
    BAI 28 August 2020 10: 46 New
    +3
    One of the few actions of the Russian Orthodox Church that I approve is the canonization of Ushakov.
    In 2004, by the decision of the Council of Bishops of the Russian Orthodox Church, the righteous warrior Theodore (Admiral Fyodor Fedorovich Ushakov) was canonized as a common church saints and included in the Mesyatseslov (Comm. 23 July / 5 August and 2/15 October).
  13. moreman78
    moreman78 28 August 2020 12: 21 New
    +2
    Yes, there were times - THE GOLDEN AGE OF THE RUSSIAN FLEET! And Ushakov is Suvorov at sea! No wonder Suvorov said - "Why was I not at Corfu, even a midshipman?"
  14. Ross xnumx
    Ross xnumx 28 August 2020 12: 56 New
    +1
    One small note:
    On February 24, 1745, an outstanding person was born, Fyodor Fedorovich Ushakov. Admiral with a capital letter. The naval commander, who managed to withstand 43 battles on the water, did not lose a single ship and not a single sailor. The progenitor of the modern marines, Ushakov possessed special combat tactics, which he passed on to his students. An outstanding speaker and diplomat, Fedor Fedorovich participated in the creation of the Republic of the Seven Islands.

    Probably, it is precisely such people who glorified Russia that have the primary right to have the ships of the Russian Navy bear their names.
    soldier