Military Review

Riding a drone. The Pentagon is testing a flying taxi

51

Multi-rotor "Hexa". Source: evtol.com


Without unnecessary noise


All the newest and most technologically advanced goes to the military. Technologies that have proven themselves in the military are gradually being mastered by the civilian sector. This was the case, for example, with jet and rocket engines. However, in the case of flying cars and drones capable of moving people, the logic failed. In recent years, serious corporations and unknown startups have assured the naive public that flying taxis are about to appear in the sky. The new form of transport in theory and in computer animation gave users simply unlimited freedom and mobility. But it's 2020, and the promised electric drones (as well as manned vehicles) scurrying across the sky are gone.


The Hexa shuttle in front of the US military. Source: evtol.com

The dying idea was given hope by the United States Air Force. The Agility Prime competition, announced in 2019, aims to create prototypes of small flying machines capable of vertical takeoff. As one of the goals of the project is the development of an alternative to the modern V-22 Osprey tiltrotor. It must be said that the Air Force did not put forward any firm requirements for the layout of the aircraft. It can be a multi-seater flying car, a stool with many screws, and a cargo drone. It is only obvious that electric motors powered by a lithium ion or lithium polymer battery are supposed to be used as a power plant. The key advantage of such a scheme should be noiselessness and adaptability for use by special operations forces behind enemy lines. The machine can be either fully piloted or moving in a semi-automatic mode. Agility Prime is planned for $ 2020 million in 25. Who claims to be the flying taxis for the Pentagon?

The most elaborated variant looks like an individual aircraft from the Lift Aircraft company under the name "Hexa". This is an eighteen-rotor machine, which is quite difficult to determine its place in the hierarchy of flying technology. The closest will probably be a flying shuttle or a multi-rotor flying taxi.


"Hexa" in civilian design. Source: gadget.ru



Source: assets.newatlas.com

This shuttle weighs almost 200 kg and is assembled mainly from carbon fiber. Hexa first flew in November 2018. According to the current legislation, the pilot of such a shuttle does not need a license to fly - in this weight category, everything and everyone is possible. A flying taxi is devoid of a chassis in the usual sense; instead, floats are provided, which also play the role of energy-absorbing elements in case of a hard landing. Flight safety is ensured by the Parazero BRS parachute, ejected by squibs, which reduces the minimum rescue altitude of the pilot to 10 meters. The parachute is also capable of opening in automatic mode. According to the manufacturer, the Hexa is able to land softly with six motors turned off. This safety margin is not accidental. The technique is supposed to be used for military purposes, and a multitude of motors with individual batteries on the shuttle increases resistance to a small arms, and to the banal failure of individual power plants. In the case of two-, three- and even four-engined aircraft, the issue of reliability is much more acute. "Hexa" can be controlled both from an external console and by the pilot himself from the cockpit. In addition, a fully automatic flight mode along a predetermined route is provided.


Source: newatlas.com

Like any drone, a shuttle from startup Lift Aircraft returns home in the event of an excessive battery drain. Initially, "Hexa" was developed for civilian use, and now everyone can buy such a unit. True, the site mentions a very limited number of finished cars and does not even indicate the price. It seems that the company simply does not have the money to build serial shuttles. However, a lucky potential user can lease the shuttle for a short term, earning money on every flight.

The developers have the greatest hopes, of course, regarding the Agility Prime competition. On August 20, 2020, Lift Aircraft CEO Matt Chasen demonstrated the Hexa's capabilities to the Air Force at a military base in Texas. The shuttle with the pilot maneuvered for four minutes at an altitude of 12 meters, and then landed successfully to the applause of a few spectators. It should be noted that Chasen presented a slightly modified version of the "Hexa" - in particular, the "military" version had more floats. At the moment it is not known whether the guys from Lift Aircraft received the go-ahead for further work within the framework of the competition.

Not only "Hexa"


In February of this year, Vermont-based startups Beta Technologies and California-based Joby Aviation gained access to the third demo stage of the Agility Prime competition. They were able to prove to the Air Force the viability of their designs and received money for the practical implementation of ideas. In the future, the military plans to buy at least 30 vehicles for testing. Will be chosen from among those who will be the most impressive in the Area of ​​Interest One (AOI-1) prototype aerial race. The requirements for the race are as follows: carry three to eight people over 160 kilometers at an average speed of at least 160 km / h. The "Hexa" mentioned in terms of dimensions and carrying capacity is not a direct competitor to Joby and Beta products, as it belongs to the AOI-2 category, where it is required to move 1-3 people. There is also the AOI-3 category, in which heavy cargo drones compete. The developers have not yet presented their prototypes, but Joby Aviation has a trump card - an almost finished four-seater vertical takeoff and landing electric shuttle. This flying taxi was designed for civilian use and will most likely form the basis for a military model. Moreover, in all respects on paper, the machine meets the requirements of the Area of ​​Interest One (AOI-1). Beta has been working on the ALIA-250c six-seat electric powered aircraft for three years now and is currently upgrading it for the US Air Force. The developers say the prototype was inspired by the aesthetics of the Arctic tern. The car really turned out to be a little unusual.




Flying electric taxi from Joby Aviation. Source: jobyaviation.com

In addition to the man-made tern, the Beta Technologies portfolio also includes fast battery charging technologies, which could also play a role in the Air Force competition. According to the curators of Agility Prime, 15 aircraft manufacturers, not only from the United States, but also from other countries, presented their developments to the jury. In particular, the intentions to participate in the project were voiced by the Japanese. The four-engined drone from NEC Corp is slated to enter production in 2026, and a military version of this electric shuttle may well please the Pentagon. However, the car is just learning to fly, and on a leash and in a safety cage. With a curb weight of 150 kg, the drone must lift one or two people into the air. Very optimistic parameters, I must say.






ALIA-250c from Beta Technologies. Source: beta.team

The coming electric revolution in the army, if it happens at all, will bring a lot of interesting things. First of all, the technique will acquire noiselessness and relative invisibility for thermal imaging observation devices. Fighters will get incredible mobility. An example is the experiments of the Dubai police with the Hoversurf flying motorcycle. Recently, however, he almost killed his rider, but this is still attributed to the novelty of technology. However, there are still a lot of unresolved problems with flying electric trains for the military. Firstly, it is the short range of the equipment, limited by the capacity of the batteries. The logic of using such environmentally friendly aircraft in case of battery discharge is not fully understood. Where to look for a current source in the field? Secondly, the lithium-ion batteries themselves are fire hazardous and, in the event of being hit by a bullet or shrapnel, they can flare up, and there will be nothing special to extinguish them: water with foam is not suitable for this. Thirdly, the race for the maximum lightening of such flying equipment excludes even a hint of the use of the simplest armor. Not the best option for the army, is it?
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  1. Stas157
    Stas157 26 August 2020 06: 09
    +1
    An electric unmanned aerial taxi capable of taking off in a helicopter and flying like an airplane will revolutionize and replace light helicopters. The cost of such flights will be much cheaper. Well, the attractiveness of short flights will greatly increase. After all, they will be available to any wallet.
    1. stalki
      stalki 26 August 2020 07: 56
      +4
      An electric unmanned aerial taxi capable of taking off in a helicopter and flying like an airplane will revolutionize and replace light helicopters.
      Interesting to see how it will fly like an airplane? And what is your understanding of "flying like an airplane"? Speed, comfort, safety, or the number of passengers? And at the expense of cheaper, this is not a question of the near future.
      1. Stas157
        Stas157 26 August 2020 08: 31
        0
        Quote: stalki
        And what is your understanding of "flying like an airplane"?

        On the lift of the wing. The propellers after takeoff will take a horizontal position. Higher speed, less energy consumption. Plus, the pilot's seat is also vacated for the drone.

        Several of the world's largest companies (including Boeing and Airbus) are developing this type of air taxi (capacity 4-6 pax). There is no doubt that the projects will be brought to fruition. All the technologies for this already exist.
        1. Avior
          Avior 26 August 2020 08: 40
          +2
          electric motors are easier to use separately.
          That is, to put them on an ordinary light aircraft purely for takeoff.
          They are small and the battery for them is very small, it will be charged in flight for the next time, it is only needed for takeoff until the moment the horizontal speed begins, when ordinary horizontal engines can be used and the ability to use the generator to maintain altitude until the plane picks up speed and appears wing lift.
          1. Temples
            Temples 26 August 2020 10: 13
            +2
            I would love to see such a pepelats at home.
            To fly within the settlement for daily needs is the very thing. good

            In size no more than a car.
            No exhaust!
            There is no rumble of tires on the asphalt.

            One problem is the safety of mass flights.
            But in the conditions of modern computer thought, this is a solvable problem.

            WEST! good
            1. g1washntwn
              g1washntwn 26 August 2020 11: 23
              0
              Quote: Temples
              But in the conditions of modern computer thought, this is a solvable problem.

              Only now in the control centers there are still living people to control the introduced and used elements of AI, and the traffic police does not have time to process protocols from road cameras ...
              All cases cannot be foreseen, for self-learning of AI it takes time and someone's life, moreover, it is necessary to constantly limit this self-learning, and a limited perception of reality a priori cannot lead to a positive result. By the way, the shortcomings of the only center for analysis, forecasting and decision-making management were clearly shown by the first computers, which began to fail godlessly because of cockroaches who simply liked the new warm houses. Let's imagine that you are in such a "house", fly overhead, there are many of you ... and then some bugs gets either under the relay contact, or into the algorithm ...
              1. dokusib
                dokusib 27 August 2020 06: 21
                0
                Such things fly on the principle of a self-organizing flock. There is no single command center
                1. g1washntwn
                  g1washntwn 27 August 2020 07: 08
                  +1
                  Quote: dokusib
                  fly on the principle of a self-organizing flock.

                  From self-organizing there are only algorithms of spatial position so as not to collide and move in a group in the direction that is set by a single center. Watch any more or less lit drone show. There is still a long way to a collective consciousness with independent decision-making, as well as to a full-fledged AI.
                  1. dokusib
                    dokusib 27 August 2020 15: 29
                    0
                    Well, the pilot will choose the route. And then the algorithm for avoiding collisions with obstacles is turned on, whether it be another device of the same type or uneven terrain and power lines. Aircraft controlled from the control center fly higher. In theory, when the number of such devices increases to a certain number, they will have to coordinate their movement in real time.
            2. yehat2
              yehat2 2 October 2020 11: 28
              -1
              after all, it is much easier to disperse in the air than on the road.
              one and the same intersection can be organized at dozens of high-altitude echelons at one point, tied to the ground
              Control is needed there, but much less strict than traffic rules.
        2. stalki
          stalki 26 August 2020 14: 28
          +1
          There is no doubt that the projects will be brought to fruition. All the technologies for this already exist.
          But are they worth it to bring? Convertoplanes are already in service with the United States, but it is still not clear whether they justified themselves or not. More like a cash cow.
    2. Trapp1st
      Trapp1st 26 August 2020 09: 44
      0
      Electric unmanned aerial taxi
      For cities suffocating in traffic jams, it would not be bad, as in the early 20th century, a gasoline engine instead of horses.
      1. g1washntwn
        g1washntwn 26 August 2020 11: 25
        0
        Quote: Trapp1st
        For cities suffocating in traffic jams, it would not be bad, as in the early 20th century, a gasoline engine instead of horses.

        Unlike ... much less people died from the smell and manure on the boot :)
        1. Trapp1st
          Trapp1st 26 August 2020 11: 43
          0
          Unlike ... much less people died from the smell and manure on the boot :)
          From the smell, maybe less, but from unsanitary conditions and all kinds of infections, I don't even know)
          1. g1washntwn
            g1washntwn 26 August 2020 11: 59
            0
            This is all the machinations of "le fshivAya Intellektuel", only they could be killed by the smell of manure. The rest were harvested as fertilizer. To write off unsanitary conditions only on horse waste is a very weak argument.
      2. dauria
        dauria 26 August 2020 12: 30
        +1
        It wouldn't be bad for cities choking in traffic jams

        It would be cheaper to call a rickshaw where the US Senator pedals.
        Do you know why toy quadcopters with electric motors appeared? It's simple - in this mini-category up to 200 watts, an electric engine with an AC is comparable to an internal combustion engine, is silent, and changes speed quickly. It's tempting to ditch the swashplate and control the rpm of the four engines. But !!! Small screw efficiency - seams. The propeller should ideally be one, two-bladed (even one !!!) and the maximum possible diameter. For this, it is not a sin to put a gearbox, a swashplate and an automatic revolver.
        So with the current 500 charge-discharge cycles and the price of akk - a meager duration for a lot of money.
    3. lirik
      lirik 17 November 2020 12: 46
      0
      Only after the revolution or the discovery of cheap autonomous power supplies. So far, it is expensive and costly. Yes, for the United States, it may not be very ... But China does not sleep, but is moving with giant steps into the future.
      1. Stas157
        Stas157 18 November 2020 05: 39
        +1
        Quote: lirik
        Only after the revolution or the discovery of cheap autonomous power supplies.

        Evolution is happening now. The capacity of lithium batteries increases annually by about 10% per unit weight. This can be seen on smartphones. The first gadgets had like 400 mAh, and now they have 5000 mAh, with the same thickness. Current batteries allow electric vehicles to travel 800 km on a single charge, and airplanes to fly for over an hour. For a small aerotak, flying 200 kilometers, this is already quite acceptable.
        And the revolution, of course, will happen someday.
        1. Intruder
          Intruder 18 November 2020 22: 03
          +1
          The first gadgets had like 400 mAh
          in the early 00s, this is the average capacity of batteries on all sorts of Siemens and Motorola!
          Current batteries allow electric vehicles to travel 800 km on a single charge, and airplanes to fly for more than an hour
          on fuel cells, quadrics have already been flying for about two hours and on the VO there was an article about a drone with VTE, more recently (more than 3 hours of autonomous flight, with a GDP)!
  2. sergo1914
    sergo1914 26 August 2020 06: 16
    +2
    Cool. From fishing you can rush to the store for vodka.
    1. Jack O'Neill
      Jack O'Neill 26 August 2020 07: 51
      -1
      Booze must be taken BEFORE fishing, so that later on a fish horseback not to ride him.
    2. g1washntwn
      g1washntwn 26 August 2020 11: 39
      0
      It's cheaper to order delivery by drone ... At the same time, fish for excuses at home.
  3. Mordvin 3
    Mordvin 3 26 August 2020 06: 35
    0
    According to the current legislation, the pilot of such a shuttle does not need a license to fly - in this weight category, everything and everyone is possible.

    And you can get drunk? Although, they will probably come up with an autopilot. Hit the home button and sleep yourself. Whisper!
  4. Vladimir61
    Vladimir61 26 August 2020 06: 56
    +3
    Yes, to have such a miracle, and even at the price of "Zhiguli".
    And the idea was probably stolen from us ..
    1. fider
      fider 26 August 2020 10: 33
      +1
      And the idea was probably stolen from us ..

      All ideas were stolen from you. laughing tongue
      1. Vladimir61
        Vladimir61 26 August 2020 13: 10
        +1
        Quote: fider
        All ideas were stolen from you

        Yes dear! If you react so painfully to such "flat" humor, then what will happen after "thin"?
  5. Mister X
    Mister X 26 August 2020 08: 14
    +2
    hi Thanks to the author!
    Interesting information.
    Easy and pleasant to read good
  6. Lontus
    Lontus 26 August 2020 09: 24
    +2
    flying meat grinder
  7. Maks1995
    Maks1995 26 August 2020 09: 25
    0
    And we also tested "Kalashnikov", wrote.
    And then there was silence. Were tested ...
  8. gridasov
    gridasov 26 August 2020 09: 42
    0
    It is very, very interesting to observe the scientific thought of the designers of such devices. They have one method to manipulate the number and scale of the propeller blades. But this absolutely does not solve the problem in all aspects of aircraft flight. Once again, as a physicist, attention is drawn to the fact that it is possible and necessary to use a new device instead of a screw, and in this new device new algorithms for organizing the control of the process of movement of flows and air and whether with water are applied. drives in the form of electric motors and internal combustion engines
  9. g1washntwn
    g1washntwn 26 August 2020 09: 55
    +1
    The same overgrown drone and military use is appropriate. Like an air taxi for a citizen - only without the right to fly an aircraft, with a bunch of technical and organizational restrictions that still need to be addressed somehow. So far, it looks like riding a typewriter from a Lego set. After the first crash (due to the fault of a bukhin passenger who decided to steer), the media are flaring up with headlines "Artificial intelligence has begun to hunt people! Truly, Skynet is coming!" ...
    1. Trapp1st
      Trapp1st 26 August 2020 10: 02
      0
      with a bunch of technical and organizational constraints that still need to be addressed.
      Compare the state of affairs with small aircraft in the United States and Russia, and you will understand that these technical and organizational constraints have not been conceptually resolvable for decades, not everywhere.
      1. gridasov
        gridasov 26 August 2020 10: 11
        0
        The development of power engineering, aviation, systems of autonomous maintenance of human viability in various aggressive environments is based on an understanding of the fundamental principles of physical processes in these environments. This understanding is not given to everyone, and even more so not everyone is given to see the ways and methods of solving these problems. Therefore, at this stage, significant inventions and discoveries remain outside the field of perception. These new discoveries and inventions are very closely related, first of all, with methods of analyzing big data by mathematical methods of a new level and new problems. Therefore, time must pass, as a complex of events, for the spark to ignite the flame.
      2. g1washntwn
        g1washntwn 26 August 2020 10: 49
        0
        Quote: Trapp1st
        these technical and organizational constraints have not been conceptually solvable for decades now.

        Yes, in any "everywhere". A little more liberality does not cancel the rules common to all. For comparison, look at cars and roads, which is not invented, but the situation with accidents is still there. Mortality has only become a little thinner, technologies are working more and more on the principle of "protection from the fool". And in the air there are no signs for such a flying stool ... There will be one limitation - whether the virtual pilot will solve the problem with unknown inputs, whether the 3 laws of robotics and the parachute will work or not. Otherwise, it may be that the AI ​​squeals like a blonde, throws the steering wheel and closes its lenses with titanium palms ... :)
        1. Trapp1st
          Trapp1st 26 August 2020 10: 54
          0
          look at cars and roads, which is just not invented, and the situation with accidents is still there.
          In Russia, the situation with accidents is still there, due to the deplorable state of the roads.
          And there are no signs in the air for such a flying stool ...
          They are solving the same situation as with small aircraft in the world, and this issue will be resolved.
          1. g1washntwn
            g1washntwn 26 August 2020 11: 38
            +1
            Quote: Trapp1st
            due to the deplorable state of the roads.

            As the cause of an accident, the malfunction and condition of the roads are not the most significant. Including countries with relatively good road infrastructure.
            Quote: Trapp1st
            They solve the same situation as with small aircraft

            The decision is the same as with the growth of commercial air traffic. And where the sky is clear, like in the Canadian wilderness, and 1,5 aircraft per hundred thousand square kilometers, everything undoubtedly seems easy and simple.
            Now, with cargo mini-drones, not everything is smooth, but if you only dream, then yes, everyone dreams that from the traffic jam on the Garden to the dacha like on the "Black Lightning" ...
            1. Trapp1st
              Trapp1st 26 August 2020 11: 46
              0
              As the cause of an accident, the malfunction and condition of the roads are not the most significant.
              In those cases when a detailed analysis was carried out with an inspection of the accident sites and taking into account the specific features of their occurrence, it turned out that road conditions are a direct or indirect cause 60-75% of road accidents... In such cases, the roads became a concomitant cause of road accidents, stimulating driver errors.
              1. g1washntwn
                g1washntwn 26 August 2020 12: 29
                +2
                Quote: Trapp1st
                found that road conditions are straight or indirect reason

                There is no indirect reason, there is ignorance of these road conditions by drivers.
                If the asphalt was removed for repairs and the sign on Route 50, rain and wet asphalt, but they fly for the same hundred ... and then the road conditions are to blame for them. I have been driving for more than 20 years, at least don't tell me how they drive here.
                1. Trapp1st
                  Trapp1st 26 August 2020 13: 10
                  0
                  There is no indirect reason ... I've been driving for more than 20 years, at least don't tell me how they drive here.
                  Shaped denialism.
                  1. g1washntwn
                    g1washntwn 26 August 2020 13: 39
                    +2
                    Denialism is a denial of facts, but I have an example of a conclusion based on life experience, that is, facts. Do not confuse the sudden absence of a sewer hatch in the middle of the road with overtaking through two solid forehead wagons through the ice between the lanes (of course, the ice is to blame, albeit indirectly, if you judge by your opinion).
        2. gridasov
          gridasov 26 August 2020 11: 43
          0
          For information. Artificial intelligence works on the principles of analysis. The analysis is based on a complex of combinatorial optimization of multivariate possibilities for the development of situations. And what you are talking about is a sample of statistical and associative episodes to which there is a mechanical reaction. So it has nothing to do with AI at all.
          1. g1washntwn
            g1washntwn 26 August 2020 12: 21
            +1
            Quote: gridasov
            The analysis is based on a complex of combinatorial optimization of multivariate possibilities for the development of situations.

            I absolutely disagree. If there is no analysis of the statistical matrix and those "associative episodes to which there is a mechanical reaction"This is not intelligence at all, this is called stupid brute-force random numbers. The task of selecting several variables to the optimal result of the formula. A semiconductor simply solves this problem faster, but does not explain the famous" sixth sense "and rats that run out of the maze faster than drones.
            1. gridasov
              gridasov 26 August 2020 13: 36
              0
              You yourself are talking about the analysis of the statistical matrix. However, real events form an inseparable information space. This means that the real space is algorithmically connected not only in each vector, but also in different dynamics. Therefore, random numbers are the lot of computational mathematics, especially on the binary logic of computers. And since any literate person realizes that there are no accidents as there is no causelessness and consequences, then in mathematics, it turns out that there can be a methodology for precise and specific definitions of any levels of eventuality. Therefore, obviously we must distinguish between primitive intelligence and developed. Moreover, without getting involved in the discussion, modern semiconductor structures are very primitive because they are not associated with the mathematical ideology that expands their functionality. In short, a multipolar transistor is primarily a device built with a mat ideology at its core
  10. 7,62h54
    7,62h54 26 August 2020 11: 48
    0
    And if you hit this rotorcraft from the Kalash, how will the rider feel?
    1. gridasov
      gridasov 26 August 2020 13: 38
      -1
      By the way, this is one of the varied actions that will certainly lead to disaster. Unless, of course, the work of the entire system is tied to a linear connection.
  11. RealPilot
    RealPilot 26 August 2020 15: 03
    +2
    Yes, it looks tempting.
    But ... Now to the point.

    1. Charging the batteries takes time that is incomparable to refueling.

    (2) At the same time, in the process of fuel consumption, the mass of the apparatus decreases, and this increases the flight efficiency, which is not observed with batteries.

    3. Fuel burns evenly. Until the last drop of gasoline / kerosene, the engine will be in mode.
    This is not the case with electricity, where the power decreases during the discharge of batteries, and nonlinearly (depending on their age, number of charge / discharge cycles, ambient temperature, flight speed and maneuvering).

    For example, my quadrocopter (3dr Solo, about 3 kg) demonstrates this very clearly: when the charge is 100% on takeoff, the discharge is relatively slow. However, when the indicator is 30%, then very soon there will be 10%, you need to sit down without waiting for a flight accident. He is 3 years old. The battery is degrading, the degree during takeoff cannot be determined in the field.

    4. Hybrid schemes have not yet taken root in aviation. These are trade-offs that are sometimes justified.

    For example, Tecnam recently made an experimental aircraft, where they put 30 hp on one shaft with a rotax. Rolls-Royce electric motor. Okay, but this is just a booster. In case of engine failure, especially during takeoff / landing, or to reach the airfield in level flight. Well, the on-board generator is good.
    And the battery capacity is small, the mass has increased. Shaft jamming due to one engine immediately destroys the second ...


    Imagine a fire at the same time lithium polymer batteries and kerosene, which is extinguished with water! Wow!
    Well, and an emergency landing on the water here.

    5. At the same time, the increase in mass brings us closer to the strength limits of structures and materials. In the event of a fall, a small drone can be shaken off, glued and restarted (this is conditional, simplified), however, with an increase in size and weight, any damage becomes more serious.
    That is, scaling drones is difficult due to the laws of physics.


    There is much more to say, but the emergence of massive multi-rotor air taxis is still a dream. Until. But there are also prerequisites for implementation with restrictions.
    1. voyaka uh
      voyaka uh 26 August 2020 21: 15
      +1
      This electric plane is already flying. Fully battery powered.
      Israeli startup in the States. Started commercial sales.
      Aviation alice
      1. RealPilot
        RealPilot 27 August 2020 00: 45
        0
        I agree with you!
        Electric aircraft have already appeared.
        They were made by Airbus (eFan), and Pipistrel (Taurus), and Cessna (all not serial) ... Plus a lot of concepts, most of which are light experimental cars. Often technology demonstrators.

        However, this article has focused on multi-rotor machines, which are closer to helicopters. They are just more capricious, their implementation will face multiple limitations in terms of both efficiency and safety.

        Electric planes will be the first to appear in large quantities. But they also have specific limitations imposed by electrification. In this case, the cons of liquid fuel will be lost.
        In general, they are different, and each with its own problems. Hybrids are most likely a dead-end branch, since they do not give much advantages, but they combine disadvantages.
      2. cat Rusich
        cat Rusich 30 August 2020 19: 04
        0
        The Americans "reinvent the wheel" - if you need an aircraft of a helicopter design for one person - a RANCEL HELICOPTER, many samples have been made since the late 40s ... look on the Internet for an example of such a homemade device (performance characteristics are unknown)
        backpack helicopter
  12. APASUS
    APASUS 26 August 2020 15: 41
    0
    The ideas are certainly cool, but highly controversial. Until there is a real breakthrough in miniaturizing the power supply and increasing its power, all this will remain a beautiful advertisement of opportunities!
  13. cat Rusich
    cat Rusich 30 August 2020 03: 20
    0
    Maybe the good old Ka-56 Wasp, just a good muffler on the exhaust pipe, the noise of the propellers can't go anywhere ...
    Ka-56 Wasp