Military Review

Operation X: the secret of the secrets of Spanish gold

303
Operation X: the secret of the secrets of Spanish gold

Vault of gold reserves at the National Bank of Spain


Will order a yellow idol to us -
And rush towards crazy days.
And it seems to the vulture that rats
They run somewhere on the stones.
Again, again, gold beckons us!
Again, again, gold, as always, beckons us!
V. Obodzinsky. McKenna's Gold


Secrets of modern politics. When I was teaching journalism at the university, when I was asked what to do if material was urgently needed and there was nothing to write about, I always answered: “Write about the“ gold of the party ”, well, the same, membership fees to the Communist Party of the Soviet Union in recent months before the State Emergency Committee, which, after all, have not been found. By the way, the issue of the "party gold" was dealt with by many very difficult people, not "from the street", but public and political figures, including Yuri Baturin, Alexander Bushkov, Arkady Vaksberg, Mikhail Geller, Boris Grekov, Alexander Gurov, Boris Kagarlitsky, Vladimir Kryuchkov, Leonid Mlechin, Alexander Nevzorov, Gennady Osipov, Nikolai Ryzhkov, Marina Salye, Vitaly Tretyakov, Yuri Shchekochikhin, Andrey Makarov and many others. And the funniest thing: to an unambiguous conclusion that this party money existed and who exactly got it, it never came. Therefore, you can write here anything and how you want. But it turned out that in stories The USSR has a more interesting topic, and there can be no doubt about its mystery, since its very name speaks of its secret nature: "Operation X". Behind this name was a plan to export to the USSR the entire gold reserve of the Spanish republic, which our country provided assistance to during the civil war raging there in 1936-1939.

And it so happened that in Spain two forces clashed: the republicans (the official government of the country) and the rebels (nationalists who stood up for the development of the country in line with traditional national values). The nationalists managed to interest the leadership of such countries as Nazi Germany and fascist Italy, who immediately sided with them and began to actively help them.

So, Mussolini sent a whole expeditionary force to Spain, Tanks and planes, and Hitler - aviation a subdivision of the legion "Condor" and a tank group "Drone". The Soviet Union, or rather, let's say, Stalin represented by the “Soviet Union”, at first was not too interested in Spanish affairs. But then he rightly judged that "the enemy of my enemy is my friend," and began to provide the Spanish republicans with various types of assistance, especially since the communists had a strong influence there and one could at least theoretically count on the fact that if it was they who would win there Spain will become another outpost of the world revolution. Details of Soviet aid to the Spanish republicans are described in the monograph of Colonel Y. Rybalkin, Candidate of Historical Sciences * ("Operation X". Soviet military aid to Republican Spain (1936-1939) "/ Y. Rybalkin; Foreword by V.V. Shelokhaev. - M., 2000. - 149, p.: Ill., Maps; 20 p. Series "First monograph" / Assoc. Issled. Russian islands of the XX century).

And there he writes that during the entire civil war in Spain, the Soviet Union sent there about 650 aircraft, more than a thousand artillery pieces, as well as tanks, machine guns, several torpedo boats and almost half a million rifles with ammunition. These were modern I-15 and I-16 fighters and SB bombers, as well as tanks and armored vehicles, which were already described on the pages of "VO" (and the story about which will continue).

But in comparison with the fascist states, the assistance of the USSR did not look very impressive: half as many guns, two and a half times fewer planes, three times fewer tanks and armored vehicles, although our tanks were many times better than the tanks of our opponents.

So, Yu. Rybalkin writes that Stalin's position in relation to the Spanish Republic "changed depending on his mood, on the situation at the fronts and in the international arena." Gradually, Stalin's interest in Spain disappeared, on the contrary, it was replaced by rejection of reports on Spanish affairs.

"There are many known appeals of the republican government to the USSR for help, which Stalin simply ignored."

There were few in Spain and Soviet military advisers: 600 people during the entire war, from 1936 to 1939, and at the beginning of 1939 their number decreased to 84 people. And what kind of advisors were they? They did not know Spanish, the manners and customs of the Spaniards did not know, as a result of which it was difficult for them to find a common language with the commanders of the Republicans. In addition, they often changed, and those recalled to the USSR were immediately repressed, which did not add respect to those who remained with the Spaniards.

Well, the leadership of the "advisers" from the USSR was also very strange. For example, the order of the People's Commissar of Defense Voroshilov regarding the Saragossa operation, which came from Moscow, sounded like this:

"Collect a powerful fist in one place, stock up on a reserve and blow into the most sensitive place of the enemy."

Such an order could have been given, probably, by any more or less literate person, and not just the "first red officer" and the Marshal of the Soviet Union!

Many of the Soviet pilots, before being sent to Spain, had a flight time of only 30-40 hours, while the German and Italian pilots who fought for Franco, if they were not all aces, had a lot more flight time in any case. And the result is a high percentage of accidents and disasters due to the human factor, because of which nearly one and a half hundred Soviet aircraft were lost in the first year and a half of the war!

The motivation was also different for everyone. The combat work of the Franco pilots was provided at the highest level, while the salaries of our pilots were the lowest among all internationalist pilots, and for some reason ... American pilots received the most! But how, for example, the nationalist aviation command took care of their pilots. Their daily routine on the Northern Front during the battles for Santader is taken from Hugh Thomas's book The Spanish Civil War. 1931-1939 " ("Tsentrpoligraf", 2003):

- 8.30 - breakfast (for families with families) or in the officers' mess;
- 9.30 - arrival at the unit, flights to bombard and shell the Republican positions;
- 11.00 - playing golf in the infirmary;
- 12.30 pm - swimming and sunbathing on the beach in Ondaretto;
- 1.30 beer, light snacks and friendly conversations in the cafe;
- 2 hours - lunch at home;
- 3 hours - short rest;
- 4.00 - the second sortie;
- 6.30 - film screening;
- 9.00 am - aperitif at the bar with good scotch whiskey;
- 10.15 - lunch at the restaurant "Nicholas". "War songs, war brotherhood, general enthusiasm."

But in Spain agents of the NKVD were very active, whose main enemies were not the “fifth column”, not Franco's supporters in the army and government, but the “Trotskyists” and their accomplices. It didn't matter that they fought bravely as part of the international brigades, or that they were (like Andreas Nin) ministers of the regional governments of the Popular Front. If you have an opinion different from Stalin's line, they will point out to you that you are a "Trotskyist." And that's all, your fate is to disappear in the basement, which, in fact, happened to the same Andreas Nin. And if only with him! .. So in Spain, the famous figures in the international Fourth International were destroyed Wolf, Freund, Rein, Robles ... Destroyed secretly. And this is understandable: so that indignation and split does not arise in the republican camp. The leader of POUM Kurt Landau was secretly captured and killed in the fall of 1937. The fighter of the international brigades, the Italian anarchist Bernelli, whom the NKVD considered dangerous for the internationalist brotherhood, was killed. Well, in Barcelona, ​​an Englishman who had come to fight against fascism, Robert Smiley, also a Trotskyist, and very famous, was kidnapped and then killed.

What have the Chekists got to do with it when it comes to Spain's gold reserves? Such a question will surely be asked by some meticulous reader of "VO", ready to see "the denigration of the USSR" in any impartial mention of the NKVD.

The reason is that it was precisely the people from the NKVD who were instructed to transport Spanish gold to the USSR, which was used to pay for Soviet military aid by the Spanish government!

The Chekist Alexander Orlov, who was the deputy chief military adviser of the USSR in Spain, aka Lev Nikolsky, comrade Miguel, and ... many others, should have been in charge of this operation ("Operation X").

He was described by Ernest Hemingway in For Whom the Bell Tolls under the name of Varlov. Orlov received instructions directly from Yezhov himself. As soon as he received the appropriate order, the loading of gold on four Soviet merchant ships, "Kim", "Kuban", "Neva" and "Volgoles", immediately began in the port of Cartagena, which were supposed to deliver it to Odessa.

Nationalists, as well as Germans and Italians, learned about this operation. They tried to bomb a convoy of trucks with gold even when it was being transported, but nothing came of it. They also failed to intercept the "golden ships" at the crossing by sea.


One of the "golden ships"

The Spanish State Bank decided to send gold to the USSR in the fall of 1936 for two reasons. First: the Francoists were approaching Madrid, so five hundred tons of gold, which were packed in 7800 boxes of 65 kilograms of gold in each, were sent, just in case, to Cartagena and then hidden near the port. The second reason was related to the fact that Stalin demanded payment for military supplies only in gold. Therefore - no gold, no military aid!


Here they are, these boxes of gold!

And Orlov successfully completed the task, received the rank of senior major of state security and the Order of Lenin, and then ... then he fled to the USA! Apparently, he knew and understood perfectly well who he was working for and what "reward" awaited him in the end.

Once safe, Orlov sent letters to the head of the NKVD N.I. Yezhov and Joseph Stalin, in which he warned that if his family or relatives who remained in the USSR were persecuted, he would expose the entire NKVD agent network in Spain and Europe. True, today it is believed that he did not actually write such a letter to Stalin.

In any case, we can say that this man looked at life without illusions - and he did the right thing, because many of his fellow Chekists who worked with him in Spain were shot upon returning home.

By the way, Stalin did not forgive Yezhov for such a puncture. And although in the documents on him (as an enemy of the people) there is not a single line about Spanish gold, the real reason for its liquidation is most likely precisely this.

As for Alexander Orlov, in 1953 he published a book in the United States, where he spoke in detail about this secret operation. So the whole world learned that from Spain to the Soviet Union during this operation, no less than 510 tons of gold, or 73% of the gold reserves of the republic, were transported. Moreover, there was not only gold bullion, but also rare gold coins, piastres and doubloons of the era of Spanish rule on the seas, which, in addition, had a colossal collection value. Selling a single such coin through the Sotheby's auction meant getting rich for life!

And I personally would not be at all surprised if a certain number of such coins (not burdensome, albeit valuable!) Would not “stick” to the hands of Alexander Orlov. After all, the Chekists had to have clean hands, but he had them covered in blood up to the elbows ...


This is what he is, the "hero" of the top-secret "operation" X ", Alexander Mikhailovich Orlov, he was at birth Leib Lazarevich (Leizerovich) Feldbin. Photo of 1930

However, he nevertheless got his hands on the money: he stole $ 90,8 thousand (about $ 1,5 million in 2014 prices) from the operational funds of the NKVD (from a personal safe that was in the Soviet consulate on Avenida Street del Tibidabo in Barcelona) and together with his wife (also a spy) and daughter, on July 13, 1938, secretly left for France, and from there on the Montclaret steamer from Cherbourg on July 21, first to Montreal (Canada), and then to the USA. By the way, Orlov's book of memoirs "The Secret History of Stalin's Crimes" was published in the Russian Federation by the World Word Publishing House in 1991.

When, on November 2, 1936, ships with gold arrived in Odessa, their cargo was immediately loaded onto a special train and delivered to Moscow under heavy guard. Well, they placed this truly priceless "treasure" in the basement of one of the houses in Nastasyinsky lane in Moscow, as if for ... temporary storage. But at a banquet in the Kremlin, Stalin suddenly said:

"The Spaniards cannot see this gold as their ears."

And they never saw their gold.

However, the Spanish edition of El Confidencial, referring to a number of famous Spanish historians and documents of the former Minister of Finance of the Republic Juan Negrin, announced in our time that, they say, all the gold went to pay for Soviet military equipment and specialists. They say that the Soviet Union did not take a dime for itself. For example, 2062 military specialists were sent to Spain and all of them were paid a salary (and an allowance to families for the loss of a breadwinner if the specialist died), paid for travel and accommodation ... from this gold reserve, 510 tons of gold in bars, ingots and gold coins!

This was the version of the Soviet side. And it seems that after Franco's death no claims for gold were sent to us. But ... how many tanks, guns and aircraft could be bought for these tons of gold, how many "advisors" should be paid a salary ?! And did Mussolini really take about the same amount for 150000 soldiers sent to Spain, Fiat fighters, his machine-gun tankettes? Let's look at the supply figures again.

In almost three years of the war, 648 aircraft, 347 tanks were sent to Spain (yes, and due to the republic's gold reserves, of course) (Soviet historian I.P.Shmelev gave a different number: 362, but the difference is insignificant), 60 armored vehicles, 1186 guns, 340 mortars, 20486 machine guns, 497813 rifles, 862 million rounds of ammunition, 3,4 million shells, 4 torpedo boats. According to the Spaniards, they received 500 T-26 and 100 - BT-5 (not counting armored vehicles), 1968 artillery barrels and 1008 aircraft ... A lot? Yes, a lot, but does it weigh 510 tons? In addition, a lot of foodstuffs from the USSR came to Spain at the expense of funds collected by Soviet citizens. Historian V. I. Mikhailenko in his work "New facts about Soviet military aid in Spain" (Ural Bulletin of International Studies. 2006. No. 6. P. 18-46), for example, writes that they collected a huge amount of voluntary donations: 264 million rubles. As a result, in 1936 - early 1937, 1 million 420 thousand tons worth 216 388 thousand rubles were shipped from the USSR to Spain, and this has nothing to do with gold.

However, Doctor of Historical Sciences V.L. Telitsyn in his book Pyrenees on Fire. The Spanish Civil War and Soviet "volunteers" (Moscow: Eksmo, 2003. 384 p., Ill.) On page 256 writes that the Spanish side at the end of the 1950s raised the issue of gold, then it was raised during the second half of the 1960s, but our side refused to return the gold. Only after Franco's death (November 20, 1975) did the governments of the USSR and Spain manage to resolve this issue, and a part of the gold reserve still returned to Madrid. But how much and how? Of course, this was not reported in our press. Why did our citizens know this?

But an interesting version of what happened was described in the book "Head over heels in gold: how Stalin got his hands on the gold reserves of republican Spain" (Tver: publisher A. N. Kondratyev, 2015. 340 pp.: Ill.) B. Simorra, son of a famous Spanish journalist Eusebio Cimorra, who led the communist newspaper Mundo Obrero during the Spanish Civil War and then lived and worked in the USSR, and in 1977 returned to his homeland with his parents in Spain ...

And now a little not about gold, but about the consequences for Spain of those sad events. The country has lost 450 thousand people. This is 5% of its pre-war population and over 10% of the male population. Moreover, almost 20% of people aged 16 to 30 died. According to rough estimates, among the dead were 320 thousand Republicans and 130 thousand Francoists, and there were also wounded (including seriously) and crippled ones. But the worst thing is that one in five died not in the course of hostilities, but became a victim of political repression that took place on both sides of the front line. There are almost no families left in the country that would not have suffered from the war. More than 600 thousand citizens, in fact, the intellectual elite of the nation (writers, poets, artists, philosophers) left the country then. That is, a real catastrophe took place in Spain, the echoes of which are still heard in this country!

* Yu. Rybalkin is one of the authors of several fundamental studies: "Essays on the military history of Western European countries" (M., 1995), "Foreign prisoners of war of the Second World War in the USSR" (Moscow, 1996), "Fulfilling the allied duty: military assistance from the USSR to countries and peoples of the world ”(M., 1997),“ German prisoners of war in the USSR ”(M., 1999), etc. Rybalkin's works have been published in five countries of the world. In four television films (Russia, Spain, Germany, Italy), he acted as an author and scientific consultant.
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  1. apro
    apro 1 September 2020 05: 23 New
    19
    Great, the author poluchaetsya ... pour a tub of slops on the USSR.
    1. Varyag_0711
      Varyag_0711 1 September 2020 05: 31 New
      21
      What is true is true!
      "And I recognize the sweetheart by his gait ..." I mean.
      "And I recognize Shpakovsky by the slops."
      Well, you know, there is one animal that looks for dirt everywhere, and this is it.
      After it, you always want to go to the shower, the feeling that I was poking around in the sewage.
      1. ccsr
        ccsr 1 September 2020 13: 36 New
        13
        In my opinion, Shpakovsky's pearl is interesting, which leaves no stone unturned from his conclusions:
        Only after Franco's death (November 20, 1975) the governments of the USSR and Spain managed to resolve this issue, and part of the gold reserve still returned to Madrid. But how much and how? Of course, this was not reported in our press. Why did our citizens know this?

        Those. it turns out that Shpakovsky nifiga is not aware of how much gold was returned to Spain, how much gold was used to pay for our supplies and salaries to our specialists, how much gold we took to compensate for our losses at the hands of Spanish fascists in the USSR, and what they brought us damage. Moreover, we took gold from the legitimate government of Spain, and therefore it was legally impossible to return it to the putschists - of course, Shpakovsky "does not know", apparently there are gaps in its formation. But how easy it is for this former propagandist to bring everything to a single conclusion - they say the calculations were not explained to him, and he himself did not want to do this, which means that the authorities are to blame for everything. In a word, this anti-Soviet once again kicked our story, which, incidentally, is not surprising, because readers know his style of work on this forum.
        1. kalibr
          1 September 2020 16: 10 New
          -10
          Quote: ccsr
          Shpakovsky nifiga is not aware of how much gold was returned to Spain, how much gold was used to pay for our supplies and salaries to our specialists, how much gold we took to compensate for our losses at the hands of the Spanish fascists on the territory of the USSR

          Show the source, where to get all this, and I will write about it right there ... Besides me, there is a list of names in the article, and many others have dealt with this issue. But ... did not find the answer! Do you want it from me? For which there was enough information, I wrote about that.
          1. Mordvin 3
            Mordvin 3 1 September 2020 19: 09 New
            +6
            Quote: kalibr
            Show me the source where to get all this, and I'll write about it right there ..

            Quote: kalibr
            There is such an organization - the State Statistics Service. There was TsGANKh - the Central State Archive of the National Economy, it is still there - it is the Russian State Archive of Economics.

            Here you go and poke around in the archives.
            1. Doliva63
              Doliva63 1 September 2020 19: 52 New
              +7
              Quote: Mordvin 3
              Here you go

              You said it right laughing drinks
              1. Mordvin 3
                Mordvin 3 1 September 2020 19: 59 New
                +7
                Quote: Doliva63
                You said it right

                So it was Shpakovsky who sent me to the archives down the branch. And he himself does not want to go there. winked
                1. kalibr
                  1 September 2020 21: 28 New
                  -4
                  I have never been to anything, Vladimir, but I don't see much sense in this now. What's the use of throwing beads ...
        2. Astra wild
          Astra wild 1 September 2020 16: 33 New
          +3
          Colleague ccsr, you have correctly noticed that Vyacheslav Olegovich is not aware of the details and therefore has the right to fantasize.
          We are educated people, which means we will not stick labels
          1. ccsr
            ccsr 1 September 2020 18: 35 New
            +7
            Quote: Astra wild
            Colleague ccsr, you have correctly noticed that Vyacheslav Olegovich is not aware of the details and therefore has the right to fantasize.

            You can fantasize in fiction, but fantasizing in the history of a country is just a way to bring its anti-historical interpretation in favor of the customer. So excuse me, but I do not think that a decent person can fantasize on the basis of a historical fact - the return of some of the gold to Spain.
            Quote: Astra wild
            We are educated people, which means we will not stick labels

            You inattentively read the posts of Shpakovsky and his criticism of opponents - he himself is the largest specialist in sticking labels, especially when he is caught by the hand in fraud.
            1. Astra wild
              Astra wild 1 September 2020 19: 39 New
              +3
              I agree with you: "you can fantasize in fiction, but fantasize in history" is not worth it. Also, do not rush to extremes.: "Shpakovsky scoundrel at his Shpakovsky saint. To write an icon from him." I'm exaggerating, but extremes are not right anyway
            2. kalibr
              1 September 2020 21: 34 New
              -2
              Quote: ccsr
              especially when he is caught by the hand in a rigging.

              When was this? Your numbers about cannons on stone? So this is not a source and they are worthless. The source is the document, and the cobblestone will endure everything. A lot of both our and foreign historians dealt with the issues of the number and losses, and they all have different numbers. There is the Soviet Military Encyclopedia - and this is the source, there is the website of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation - this is the source. Everything else is not. So no need to fantasize. I understand that you want, but you wishful thinking.
        3. your1970
          your1970 1 September 2020 17: 35 New
          +1
          lol lol lol
          “Many of the Soviet pilots, before being sent to Spain, had a flight time of only 30-40 hours, while the German and Italian pilots who fought for Franco, if not all of them were aces, then in any case had a lot more flight time. And the result is a high percentage of accidents and disasters due to the human factor, because of which nearly one and a half hundred Soviet aircraft were lost in the first year and a half of the war!"- practically at the same time in the USSR, on average, 2 planes a day (!!!!).Without war, without air defense shelling, without enemy fighters, without injuring pilots ...
          0,3 aircraft shot down in Spain against 2 aircraft lost due to negligence, lack of training and drunkenness in the USSR
    2. Pilat2009
      Pilat2009 1 September 2020 06: 11 New
      -5
      Quote: apro
      Great, the author poluchaetsya ... pour a tub of slops on the USSR.

      Excuse me, what's wrong?
      1. apro
        apro 1 September 2020 06: 13 New
        11
        Yes, everything is so ... for an anti-Soviet.
        1. Pilat2009
          Pilat2009 1 September 2020 06: 15 New
          +1
          Quote: apro
          Yes, everything is so ... for an anti-Soviet.

          If you are not satisfied with the facts, write a rebuttal. And you don't need to put a lot of mind on the cons.
        2. Varyag_0711
          Varyag_0711 1 September 2020 06: 34 New
          19
          apro (Oleg Frolov)
          Yes, everything is so ... for an anti-Soviet.
          Judging by the number of minuses, the Shpakovsky club is not asleep. And in general, apparently not sleeping. I thought I couldn't sleep alone at five in the morning, but no, it was a mistake.
          1. apro
            apro 1 September 2020 06: 41 New
            +8
            Quote: Varyag_0711
            ... I thought I couldn't sleep alone at five in the morning, but no, it was a mistake.

            We have already noon ... this is not a club. This is a point of view. That whatever the Soviet government does, they see harm in everything. For the Russians. For the Spaniards. So it was necessary that the phalangists would immediately win in Spain. Then it would be very good ...
            1. Varyag_0711
              Varyag_0711 1 September 2020 06: 54 New
              19
              apro (Oleg Frolov)
              We have already noon ... this is not a club. This is a point of view. That whatever the Soviet government does, they see harm in everything. For the Russians. For the Spaniards. So it was necessary that the phalangists would immediately win in Spain. Then it would be very good ...
              Well, yes, why write about real assistance to the USSR? It's easier to write about how much he took for it. And it seems like he did not lie, and the USSR doused with shit once again. Everything is as always with shpakovsky.
              And about how many children the USSR took and not only children, the author apparently wrote for scrap, well, more precisely, none of his curators will appreciate and will not give 30 pieces of silver.
              By the way, one of the evacuated children was the glorious son of the Spanish people Ruben Ruiz Ibarruri, the hero of the Soviet Union died a heroic death in the battles at Stalingrad.
              1. apro
                apro 1 September 2020 06: 59 New
                13
                Varyag. Capitalism in the courtyard. Any positive mention of the USSR causes righteous anger among the urapatriots. Against the background of the deplorable state of today's rf ...
              2. kalibr
                1 September 2020 12: 20 New
                +2
                Quote: Varyag_0711
                And about how many children the USSR took and not only children, the author apparently wrote for scrap, well, more precisely, none of his curators will appreciate and will not give 30 pieces of silver.

                There will be a separate article about children, now material is being collected on this topic. I cannot give everything at once, and I do not possess omniscience.
                1. Inorus
                  Inorus 1 September 2020 13: 12 New
                  +5
                  In Obninsk we had just a Spanish orphanage number 5 (from 1937 to 1941) in the main building of the IPPE. The older children studied at the famous "Vigorous Life" colony school. By the way, in 2017. several former pupils came. We remembered that time very warmly.
                2. BAI
                  BAI 1 September 2020 14: 07 New
                  +3
                  We will see. We had a "Spanish child" living in our entrance. Housing, as far as I know, provided all the Spanish children who remained in the USSR, without any problems.
                3. Astra wild
                  Astra wild 1 September 2020 16: 39 New
                  +2
                  "I do not possess omniscience" for this well done, but those who boast I know everything in reality they do not know anything
                4. Alf
                  Alf 1 September 2020 20: 41 New
                  +1
                  Quote: kalibr
                  There will be a separate article about children, now material is being collected on this topic.

                  Since you are collecting material, it is better not. You don't want to go into the archives, but you are guided, it seems, by the Ogonyok magazine of the late 80s-early-90s.
                  Pearl was especially struck by the mood of the IVS. You were there ? Or have you become a medium, enter the thoughts of the dead?
              3. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
                Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 1 September 2020 20: 18 New
                +1
                ... Well, yes, why write about real assistance to the USSR?

                What's even more real than selling weapons and the services of 'volunteers'? Enough whining - Stalin's pragmatism is clear even without these sentiments about "Spanish children" and a quarter of a billion rubles collected by fellow citizens "against the Nazis." Everything is as usual - Stalin was an intelligent cynic, he perfectly understood the hopelessness behind the Pyrenees, but squeezed the maximum possible out of the situation. It is stupid to accuse him of shopkeeping, but also to praise him for his 'genius mnogohovochki' - too. Reimbursable assistance is normal.
          2. Astra wild
            Astra wild 1 September 2020 21: 40 New
            +2
            Varyag, and Vyacheslav Olegovich is not offended by the attention and opponents.
            I already suspect that he is a masochist: he begs to be scolded. I couldn't do that
            1. Astra wild
              Astra wild 1 September 2020 22: 08 New
              0
              Didn't I say something wrong? Many people minus it.
              Upbringing does not allow me to provoke a scandal
            2. kalibr
              2 September 2020 07: 01 New
              +2
              Quote: Astra wild
              that he is a masochist

              This really made me laugh! Yes, even right in the morning, well, thanks!
              1. Astra wild
                Astra wild 2 September 2020 13: 47 New
                -2
                You are welcome. I am kind and "modest"
                1. kalibr
                  2 September 2020 15: 26 New
                  +1
                  It's right. In any case, women are closer to God than men!
      2. seti
        seti 1 September 2020 11: 03 New
        20
        Not so. The Spanish gold was not fed by the evil Stalin / USSR.
        We read carefully:

        In the period from February 19, 1937 to April 28, 1938, 19 applications for the sale of gold were signed by Juan Negrin, which were sent for execution to the People's Commissar for Finance - Grinko G.F. (until May 1937), Chubar V.Ya. (until September 1937) and A.G. Zverev (until the end of the war). According to the orders of the Spanish side, gold was exchanged for British pounds, American dollars and French francs at the rate of the London Stock Exchange. According to Martin Asenyi, 1937 tons of pure gold were sold in 374, the next 52 tons were sold during the period January-April 1938, and the remaining 30 tons of gold were reserved as collateral for a $ 70 million loan. Thus, by August 1938, only 2 tons of gold remained at the disposal of the republican government. In total, 469.8 million US dollars were raised for the gold sold, 131.6 of which were spent in the USSR. As commissions and fees, the Soviet side took 2.1 percent of the total, and 1.2 percent was collected as payment for transportation, melting and refining of gold. As a result, the Soviet side received about 3.3 percent of the total value of gold, or 14.5 million US dollars. About three hundred and thirty-five and a half thousand US dollars were transferred to a subsidiary of the USSR State Bank - the Parisian bank the Banque Commerciale pour l'Europe du Nord (Eurobank). From the Eurobank account, representatives of the republican treasury paid for the supply of materials that were purchased in Brussels, Prague, Warsaw, New York, Mexico City.

        As soon as the Spanish gold was placed in Gokhran, the Soviet side immediately demanded that the Republican government pay for the previous supplies, which had come from the Soviet Union as a "gift" to the allies in the fight against the Nazis. In addition, the Soviet trade representative in Spain, Artur Stashevsky, demanded that Juan Negrin pay 51 million US dollars for the transportation of gold from Cartagena to Moscow. Spanish nationalists were faced with such situations to pay for military supplies, but the Germans and Italians made concessions to Franco and provided him with payment in installments until the end of the war. The position of the Soviet side on paying for military supplies was criticized by Spanish historians Francisco Olaya Morales and Angel Vinyas.

        Historians who have studied the Negrin Dossier agree that there was no abuse on the part of the Soviet Union in carrying out financial transactions of the republican government. However, according to Maria ngeles Pons, it was strange to expect that "the republican government will receive free military aid from the Russians," and all costs were paid by the Spanish side.
        In addition, some historians believe that the control of Spanish gold by the Soviet Union led to an increase in the influence of the Communists. Thus, according to José Girala, despite the fact that military supplies were paid for by the Spanish side, the Soviet Union "before the start of supplies demanded the appointment of communists to important government posts."

        Regarding Republican government spending, Angel Vinyas states that the Bank of Spain's gold reserves were fully spent on military purchases, including accompanying payments, a year before the end of the Civil War. However, authors such as Martin Aceña and Olaya Morales, who criticize Vinyas's calculations for his "hypothetical models, not supported by facts," disagree with this opinion. In the event that the gold of the Bank of Spain, located in the Soviet Union, was completely sold, the fate of the funds received from its sale, transferred to the Banque Commerciale de l'Europe du Nord in Paris, remains unclear due to the fact that neither the Spanish nor Soviet side, there were no documents confirming the operations. According to Martin Aseñi, "the investigation into the Spanish gold has never been completely closed." In any case, after the sale of the gold reserves of the Bank of Spain, the credit of the republican governments was exhausted.

        Conclusion - Spanish gold was disposed of by the republican government at its discretion and not by the accursed USSR / Stalin. Perhaps something and lured, but this is clearly a penny.
        1. ee2100
          ee2100 1 September 2020 11: 53 New
          +3
          All this is well described on Wikipedia.
          About 50 tons of missing gold. Few people remember him, this is most likely a rollback to the Republican government and not surprisingly, then Finance Minister Juan Negrin signed all the documents on the disposal of the gold reserve that were brought to him. It turns out that in fact the USSR has nothing to do with it.
        2. Alf
          Alf 1 September 2020 20: 43 New
          0
          Quote: seti
          Conclusion - Spanish gold was disposed of by the republican government at its discretion and not by the accursed USSR / Stalin. Perhaps something and lured, but this is clearly a penny.

          Dear Colleague! Well, here again you ruined the whole nishtyak for Shpakovsky ... But he tried so hard ... collecting.
          1. kalibr
            1 September 2020 21: 22 New
            -7
            Vasiliy! Do not understand the meaning of what is happening, do not write. What nishtyak, what was it destroyed? You look at the number of views and comments. Everything is even very good, but it will be even better with your help. Remember, finally, in online journalism, only these two indicators matter. I wrote about this more than once, but people like you still do not get it.
            1. Alf
              Alf 1 September 2020 21: 24 New
              +4
              Quote: kalibr
              You look at the number of views and comments. Everything is even very good

              Advertising also rolls over with the number of views, only that bad luck, she flies.
              1. kalibr
                2 September 2020 08: 59 New
                -1
                Quote: Alf
                Advertising also rolls over with the number of views, only that bad luck, she flies.

                Vasiliy! Well, when will you learn not to mix sour and green? Views are one thing. Brechet - OTHER! They pay for the first, the second is proven in court. Explained easily?
                1. Astra wild
                  Astra wild 2 September 2020 13: 49 New
                  +1
                  Let's just say: maliciously
                  1. kalibr
                    2 September 2020 15: 25 New
                    -1
                    Is it? The person does not even want to think a little, but he is in a hurry to write ... What are the names of such people, Astra, in common parlance? So it is by no means malicious, but very correct. Of course, this will not teach him the mind, but maybe it will help him learn to be silent where necessary, in real life. Because it's always helpful.
                2. The comment was deleted.
                  1. The comment was deleted.
                    1. seti
                      seti 3 September 2020 13: 29 New
                      +1
                      Quote: kalibr
                      They pay for the first, the second is proven in court. Explained easily?

                      By your logic, you can write any lies that then a normal person needs to be refuted in court .. I'm surprised that you are still at large. With such happiness and logic from which it simply fills with rot.
                      1. kalibr
                        3 September 2020 15: 59 New
                        -1
                        Matvey! This is not "my logic". This is a normal phenomenon of the information society. Like fakes, for example, and much more. Not the best. But I didn’t come up with it. I wrote that THERE IS A DIFFERENCE! What is the logic in this? And people have diarrhea. And from him, too, fonit. But it happens. And it also happens that people, including advertisers, write lies. And then they are judged for that. This is, this is the truth of life. What is wrong in your opinion? Do I approve of this practice? No. I wrote that there is a DIFFERENCE. Can't you see this from the text? Or is this the case in which the worn harness comes to mind?
                      2. seti
                        seti 3 September 2020 16: 33 New
                        0
                        As a firm-minded person, I don't like this approach. That's why I remembered about the harness... I think it's a lie, even here there should be a mandatory demand. In your article, lies, intentional or not, is present. I refuted it.
                        As a decent person, it would be nice to write a refutation. But to each his own.
                      3. kalibr
                        3 September 2020 17: 32 New
                        -2
                        Matvey! We seem to be explaining ourselves in Russian. But you definitely do not want to understand me. "As a person of firm views, I do not like this approach." This is not an approach. This is a DATA. I don't like that there are 24 hours in a day. But it is.
                        "I think it's a lie, even here there should be a mandatory demand."
                        I, you know, think so too. But what is - that is. We live in such a world. Now it is like this: "Advertising is also off scale in the number of views, only that bad luck, it saps" This is what the phrase was when you got into the conversation. I wrote that view count and ad content are DIFFERENT THINGS. Is this accessible to your understanding? Now, what have you denied? I looked through the entire thread and did not find your links either to books or documents ... I generally only met them here at one person. Everyone else has words, and you too. The price for empty words not supported by anything else is 0.
                        "As a decent person, it would be nice to write a refutation." What? For whom I give links to literature in the article. Read and see that there is nothing to refute ...
                        But I was once again convinced of the validity of the saying: "As I put on my sword belt, I keep getting dumb and dumb!"
                      4. seti
                        seti 4 September 2020 11: 56 New
                        +1
                        If you rummaged, you would easily find a refutation of your lies about pocketing the Spanish gold reserves of the USSR and personally by Stalin.
                        We read carefully: especially the Decision of the Presidium of the Central Committee of the CPSU of April 2, 1957 No.

                        Here is a link to an article on your subject:
                        https://paul-atrydes.livejournal.com/214923.html


                        Spanish Gold
                        Note of the Department of the Central Committee of the CPSU for relations with foreign communist parties

                        No. 25S-216

                        12 February 1957 city

                        TO THE CENTRAL COMMITTEE OF THE CPSU

                        February 11 p. From Prague, General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Spain, Comrade D. Ibarruri, and a member of the Politburo of the Central Committee of the CPI, Comrade I. Gallego, arrived in Moscow.

                        Their arrival, as comrade D. Ibarruri reported, was caused by the fact that the Central Committee of the KPI considers it necessary to take a definite position on the question of Spanish gold transferred to the Soviet Union during the war in Spain.

                        This question arose before the Communist Party due to the fact that after the death of Juan Negrin in November 1956, his widow handed over to the Franco government documents that allegedly confirm the fact that gold was received by the USSR Ministry of Finance. Using these documents, Franco raises the question of returning the gold. All Spanish political parties and groups, with the exception of the Communist Party, have already expressed and continue to express different views on this issue.

                        In such a situation, said Comrade D. Ibarruri, the Spanish Communist Party must also develop and, possibly, express its point of view. The KPI is primarily interested in ensuring that its position does not contradict the opinion of the Central Committee of the CPSU. T.t. Ibarruri and Gallego would like to inform the Central Committee of the CPSU about the available statements, to state their point of view and to know the opinion of the Central Committee of the CPSU.

                        Deputy Head Department of the Central Committee of the CPSU for communications
                        with foreign communist parties
                        I. Vinogradov

                        AP RF. F. 3. Op. 65. D. 234. L. 203. Original.


                        Recording of a conversation with D. Ibarruri and I. Gallego in the Central Committee of the CPSU

                        21 February 1957 city

                        Record of a conversation with the General Secretary of the Communist Party of Spain, Comrade D. Ibarruri, and a member of the Politburo of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Spain, Comrade I. Gallego, held in the department of the Central Committee of the CPSU

                        T.t. Ibarruri and Gallego reported that shortly after the death in November 1956 of Juan Negrin, the former head of the republican government in Spain, the Francoist press launched a campaign for the Soviet government to return to the Franco government the gold allegedly transferred during the war in Spain by representatives of the Negrin government for storage in the USSR ...

                        The Francoists motivate their claims by the fact that members of the Negrin family handed over to the Franco government documents on the acceptance of Spanish gold in the USSR for storage. The press cites fantastic figures for deposited gold and other valuables - 500 tons.

                        T.t. Ibarruri and Gallego reported that this issue is currently being discussed not only in Spain, but also in the republican circles of the Spanish political emigration. Various political parties and groupings (socialists, anarchists, republicans), excluding the Spanish Communist Party, in general, have already determined their positions on this issue. Some believe that gold is indeed in the USSR and should be returned to Spain, while others believe that there is no Spanish gold in the USSR. Most anti-Francoists believe that if Spanish gold is available in the USSR, then the Soviet government should in no case transfer it to the Franco government, for it can only serve to strengthen the Franco regime.

                        Comrade Ibarruri considers it very likely that the Francoists, having no hope of obtaining gold, nevertheless decided to demand its return with the provocative purpose of forcing the Soviet government to make a statement that the value of the gold transferred to the USSR was covered by military supplies from the Soviet Union to Republican Spain. Such a statement, in the opinion of the Spanish comrades, should not be made.

                        Comrade Ibarruri says that the Spanish Communist Party did not have and does not have any information about sending gold to the USSR. Nothing is known about this, and Comrade Uribe, who was a member of the republican government. A member of the Spanish Communist Party, Comrade Rancagno (now residing in Prague), working during the war as an advisor to a Spanish bank, was involved in the storage of gold. However, from his message it is clear that he was only involved in the technical work of transporting gold and other valuables from Madrid to the port of Cartagena. Comrade Rankanyo does not know how and where the gold was transported.

                        Reactionary propaganda spreads rumors that the communists allegedly transported gold to the USSR themselves. This propaganda failed, as the leader of the Spanish Socialist Party Prieto, a former Minister of the Republican Government, in an article published in the newspaper El Sosialista on January 31, 1957, although he tries to prove that there were 510 tons of gold and that it was sent to the USSR , refutes the writings of the renegade KPI Campesino, widespread in the West, who claimed that he himself allegedly convoyed the ferry of gold. Prieto declares that "you cannot place all the responsibility on the communists." Prieto also denies the involvement of the Socialist Party in this case, attributing everything to one Negrin.

                        T.t. Ibarruri and Gallego believe that Negrin could hardly have left gold in the USSR. Therefore, it is doubtful whether he has such documents. Negrin is an adventurer who, while in exile, led great speculations, lived in grand style, and wasted a lot of money. Such a person in 20 years would have found an opportunity to present an invoice to the Soviet government, if he had the documents.

                        In the circles of the Spanish emigration, they point out Comrades. Ibarruri and Gallego, there are other versions that deny the presence of Spanish gold in the USSR. Everyone knows that in order to wage war, the republican government bought a lot of weapons, equipment, etc. in different countries. Having no currency receipts, it was forced to pay for supplies from the gold reserves. Naturally, it could all be used up. A witness such as the former government director of a Spanish bank, Republican Nicolau d'Olver, believes that apparently the gold reserve was already exhausted, since the Republican government at the end of the war was forced to spend on military needs the silver deposited in the United States.

                        T.t. Ibarruri and Gallego believe that if the gold was transferred, then the Soviet government has every reason not to return it. At the same time, Comrade Ibarruri stressed that the CP of Spain, of course, does not pretend to participate in resolving this issue. The Soviet government, she said, may not return the gold, it may return it if it is required to normalize relations with Spain. This is the business of the Soviet government.

                        The only thing that the leadership of the Spanish Communist Party asks for is to inform him of the Soviet position after it has been worked out, so that the Spanish Communist Party could take a similar position.

                        AP RF. F. 3. Op. 65.D. 234.L. 205-209. Manuscript.
                      5. seti
                        seti 4 September 2020 11: 59 New
                        +1
                        Decision of the Presidium of the Central Committee of the CPSU

                        No. P78 / VIII

                        21 February 1957 city
                        Strictly secret

                        A question from the Central Committee of the Spanish Communist Party.

                        Instruct com. Molotov, Suslov, Gromyko and Zverev to develop a draft response to the Central Committee of the Spanish Communist Party on the question of Spanish gold.

                        Secretary of the Central Committee

                        AP RF. F. 3. Op. 65. D. 234. L. 201. Extract on the form.


                        Note by V. Molotov, M. Suslov, A. Gromyko and A. Zverev to the Central Committee of the CPSU

                        No. 0155 / AG

                        23 February 1957 city
                        Ow. top secret
                        Ex. No. 1

                        Central Committee of the CPSU

                        In accordance with the instruction on the issue of Spanish gold, we inform you.

                        At the beginning of 1937, the government of the Spanish Republic deposited about 510 tons of gold in the Soviet Union. At the same time, the government of the Spanish Republic informed the Soviet government that it intends to use this gold to cover its foreign exchange expenses. This provision was accordingly recorded in the act of delivery and acceptance for storage of Spanish gold, signed in Moscow on February 5, 1937.

                        Later, the government of the Spanish Republic during 1937-1938. fully used the Spanish gold deposited in the Soviet Union. (An insignificant part of the gold went to cover the costs of its storage and refining). The last order of the Spanish government to the Soviet authorities, which then stored Spanish gold, on the transfer of currency was dated August 8, 1938. All orders of the Spanish government on currency transfers for him are kept in the USSR Ministry of Finance.

                        On December 29, 1956, the Franco government announced that it had received the original documents on the transfer of Spanish gold in 1937 to the Soviet Union for safekeeping. These documents were handed over to the Franco government at the behest of Negrin (died November 14, 1956) by his family.

                        On January 4, the Spanish ambassador in Paris handed a note to the Soviet ambassador with a request to clarify the attitude of the Soviet government to the question of returning Spanish gold. The USSR Ministry of Foreign Affairs instructed the Soviet ambassador to return the note to the Spanish ambassador without any accompanying text and henceforth not enter into any negotiations over Spanish gold.

                        The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the USSR and the Ministry of Finance of the USSR consider it expedient to inform Comrade Dolores Ibarruri about the actual state of affairs with the question of Spanish gold in accordance with the attached certificate and explain to her that the Spanish gold deposited in 1937 in the USSR has been completely consumed by direct orders of the government of the Spanish Republic.

                        Since the foreign press has recently been publishing various fabrications about Spanish gold in the USSR, the USSR Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the USSR Ministry of Finance consider it expedient to publish an article in one of our newspapers in which the actual situation with this gold is presented.

                        The draft resolution is attached.

                        Please consider.

                        V. Molotov
                        M. Suslov
                        A. Gromyko
                        A. Zverev

                        AP RF. F. 3. Op. 65. D. 234. L. 214-215. Script.


                        Decision of the Presidium of the Central Committee of the CPSU

                        No. P82 / X

                        15 March 1957 city
                        Strictly secret

                        About Spanish gold.

                        Adopt the draft resolution of the CPSU Central Committee on the question of Spanish gold.

                        Instruct com. Suslov, Gromyko and Zverev, taking into account the exchange of views at the meeting of the Presidium of the Central Committee, to edit the text of the resolution and the text of the article on this issue, having previously agreed on the text of the article with Comrade Dolores Ibarruri.

                        Secretary of the Central Committee

                        AP RF. F. 3. Op. 65. D. 234. L. 212. Extract on the form.


                        Decision of the Presidium of the Central Committee of the CPSU

                        No. П86 / 36

                        2 April 1957 city
                        Strictly secret

                        About Spanish gold.

                        1. Instruct Comrade Suslov to inform Comrade Dolores Ibarruri about the actual state of affairs with the Spanish gold deposited in the Soviet Union at the beginning of 1937 by the government of the Spanish Republic, in accordance with the attached certificate (Appendix No. 1).

                        Explain to Comrade Ibarruri that the Spanish gold deposited in the Soviet Union was not only fully used by the government of the Spanish Republic, which in 1937-1938 gave. orders to the relevant Soviet organizations on foreign exchange transfers to his account, but also does not cover the debt of the Spanish government in the amount of $ 50 million on the loan provided to him by the Soviet Union. Indicate that all orders of the Government of the Spanish Republic on the use of gold have been duly executed and signed by two government officials - the Chairman of the Council of Ministers and the Minister of Finance of the Spanish Republic.

                        To pay attention to Comrade Ibarruri that Negrin, according to whose will the documents on the acceptance of Spanish gold for storage in the USSR were transferred to the Franco government, had to have all the materials attesting to the full use by the government of the Spanish Republic of the gold that it deposited in the Soviet Union. This, in particular, is evidenced by Negrin's letter dated August 8, 1938, in which he asks the Soviet authorities, on behalf of the Council of Ministers of the Spanish Republic, to sell the entire amount of the remaining gold from the Spanish gold deposited in the Soviet Union, which was done.

                        To ask Comrade Ibarruri to take possible measures to carry out appropriate explanatory work both inside Spain and among the Spanish Republicans abroad in order to expose all kinds of fabrications about Spanish gold in the Soviet Union.

                        2. To approve for publication in the newspaper "Pravda" the attached article on Spanish gold and send the text of the article abroad after printing it (Appendix No. 2).

                        To publish this article taking into account the wishes of Comrade Ibarruri on April 5, p. g.

                        Secretary of the Central Committee


                        ANNEX No. 1

                        Ow. top secret

                        REFERENCE
                        about Spanish gold transferred in February 1937 for safekeeping to the Soviet Union

                        On October 5, 1936, the Plenipotentiary Representative of the USSR in Spain informed the People's Commissariat of Foreign Affairs of the Soviet Union about the request of the Spanish government “to transport to the USSR (Black Sea ports) in parts a gold reserve in the amount of 100 to 250 million gold pesetas so that we would instead produce in the appropriate the value of this gold in the amount of foreign exchange payments. "

                        The archives of the USSR Ministry of Foreign Affairs contain copies of letters from the Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Spanish Republic Caballero to the plenipotentiary of the USSR in Spain Rosenberg, dated October 15 and 17, 1936. In a letter dated October 15, Caballero, as chairman of the Council of Ministers, asked the plenipotentiary to propose to the USSR Government to agree to the amount of gold , approximately 500 tons, was deposited in the State Bank of the USSR. In the second letter, dated October 17, Caballero, referring to his letter of October 15, asks the plenipotentiary to inform the Government of the USSR that he is going to make payments on this gold for some orders abroad, as well as make transfers in slogans through the correspondents of the USSR State Bank ...

                        On November 19, 1936, the USSR People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs Litvinov informed Rosenberg that there was no objection to the texts of Caballero's letters communicated by Rosenberg and invited him, on behalf of the Soviet government, to confirm their receipt and to agree to the Spanish proposal.

                        In accordance with this agreement, Spanish gold was brought to Moscow. On February 5, 1937, the delivery and acceptance of gold for storage was formalized in Moscow with a special "Certificate of acceptance of gold sent by the government of the Spanish Republic for storage in the State Depository of Precious Metals of the People's Commissariat of the USSR in the city of Moscow" *. The act was signed by the Ambassador of the Spanish Republic to the USSR Marcelino Pascau, People's Commissar of Finance of the USSR Grinko, Deputy. People's Commissar for Foreign Affairs of the USSR Krestinsky.
                        ____________
                        * - A photocopy of the act is kept in the archives of the USSR Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
                      6. seti
                        seti 4 September 2020 11: 59 New
                        +1
                        As is clear from this act, from November 6 to 10, 1936, the State Depository of Precious Metals of the NKF USSR ("Gokhran") received gold from the Spanish Republic, packed in 7800 standard boxes, for storage. All opened 7800 boxes contained 15 571 bags with gold coins of different names and mints from different countries, 64 gold bars and 4 bags with gold shavings. The total ligature weight of all gold was 510 grams.

                        The Act of February 5, 1937 reads: “In the event of an order from the Government of the Spanish Republic on the export of gold adopted under this act for storage outside the USSR, or any other order by it, the responsibility of the People's Commissariat of Finance of the USSR under this act is automatically reduced, in whole or in part , depending on the volume of the order of the Government of the Spanish Republic ”.

                        According to the instructions of the government of the Spanish Republic, for the period from 22.II.1937 to 8.VIII.1938, out of the total amount of gold in 510,1 tons, 475,2 tons were refined and sold to the State Bank of the USSR. Withholding the expenses of the State Bank of the USSR for the sale and the expenses of the People's Commissariat of Finance of the USSR for refining and storage of gold in the total amount Art. 939 570 311 credited to the account of the government of the Spanish Republic in the State Bank of the USSR f. Art. 96 045 120. 73. From this account, according to the same instructions, the government of the Spanish Republic used f. Art. 96 044 742. 09. As a result, the balance of gold in storage amounted to 34,9 tons and the balance of currency on the account in the State Bank of the USSR f. Art. 378.

                        By an agreement between the governments of the USSR and the Spanish Republic of March 7, 1938, the Spanish government was granted a loan in the amount of 70 million US dollars. dollars. According to the reported data, the amount of the loan actually used was about US $ 85 million. dollars, i.e. 15 million US dollars. dollars more.

                        In accordance with clause 4 of the Loan Agreement, on behalf of the Government of the Spanish Republic of March 7, 1938, the remainder of the gold in ligature weight of 34,9 tons was credited as collateral for the above loan. The value of this amount of gold in net weight and after deducting the costs of smelting and refining is (at $ 35 per ounce) 35 million US dollars. dollars, which is 50 million US dollars. dollars less than the loan actually used by the government of the Spanish Republic.

                        All instructions from the government of the Spanish Republic to the Soviet authorities on the sale of gold were signed by two members of the government: first Caballero, as Chairman of the Council of Ministers, and Negrin, as Minister of Finance of the Spanish Republic, then - Negrin as Chairman of the Council of Ministers and another member of the government (Minister of Finance) ... So, Negrin's signature is on all orders of the Government of the Spanish Republic regarding Spanish gold deposited in the Soviet Union. The instructions of the Government of the Spanish Republic to the Soviet authorities, which stored Spanish gold at that time, to transfer foreign currency for this government, are kept in the USSR Ministry of Finance.

                        Thus, Negrin knew that Spanish gold was not only fully utilized by the government of the Spanish Republic, which gave in 1937-1938. orders to the relevant Soviet authorities on foreign exchange transfers to his account, but also does not cover the debt of the Spanish government in the amount of $ 50 million on the loan provided to him by the Soviet Union. This may explain why Negrin did not raise the issue of Spanish gold for 20 years.

                        On December 29, 1956, the Spanish government in Madrid published a communiqué stating that it had received the originals of the documents on the deposit of Spanish gold to the Soviet Union. According to the foreign press, these documents were handed over to the Franco government at the behest of Negrin by the Negrin family (according to some sources, the son of Negrin). Negrin himself died on November 14, 1956.

                        This communiqué caused a great sensation in Madrid and unrest in republican circles in Mexico and Paris. There were reports, apparently inspired by the ruling circles of Madrid, about negotiations with Soviet representatives on the return of Spanish gold.

                        A certain Aleksandr Orlov, presented as an officer of the secret Russian police, who fled to the United States from Spain in 16, where he organized the export of gold belonging to the Spanish government to Moscow, spoke to the US Senate Subcommittee on Internal Security on February 1938 of this year. According to the American press, the subcommittee decided to ask the representatives of the United States to the UN to raise before the UN the question of returning Spanish gold by the Soviet government.

                        Foreign newspapers estimate the amount of Spanish gold deposited in the Soviet Union at between $ 400 million and $ 1 billion.

                        On January 4, 1957, the Spanish ambassador in Paris Rojas-I-Moreno handed over to the USSR ambassador to France, Comrade Vinogradov, a memorandum on Spanish gold. The memorandum stated that the Spanish government had authentic documents on the fact that on February 5, 1937, Spanish gold was deposited with the People's Commissariat of Finance of the USSR. The Spanish ambassador also sent our ambassador a copy of the act on the acceptance of Spanish gold by the People's Commissariat of Finance of the USSR. The Spanish ambassador addressed our ambassador on behalf of his government with a request to clarify the attitude of the USSR government to the issue of the return of Spanish gold, believing that "due to indisputable legal principles, any order that could be made in relation to this gold should be considered invalid."

                        On the instructions of the USSR Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the USSR Ambassador to France returned to the Spanish embassy both of these documents - a note of the Spanish government and a copy of the act - without any accompanying text. The Soviet ambassador in Paris was instructed not to enter into any negotiations on Spanish gold in the future.

                        Considering the spread in the foreign press of rumors about the Soviet-Spanish negotiations on the gold issue, in particular, about the reports on this issue that appeared in the British press, the press attaché of the USSR Embassy in England, at the direction of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, sent a letter to the editorial office of the Observer newspaper in which it was said that according to the information available to the Soviet embassy in London, no one and nowhere is conducting such negotiations. The newspaper published this letter with a postscript that it regrets that its information does not match the information of the embassy.

                        During the visit to Moscow of representatives of the Spanish Red Cross, who were negotiating the repatriation of the Spaniards, the Spanish representatives tried to start conversations with Soviet representatives about the return of Spanish gold. During a dinner with the chairman of the Red Cross and Red Crescent of the USSR, Comrade Miterev, Spanish representatives allegorically said that the repatriation of the Spaniards was returning one part of the Spanish flag, which consisted of red and yellow. They added that the yellow color still remains in Russia, and asked for the return of the entire Spanish flag. Such statements received a corresponding rebuff from the Soviet representatives, who indicated that the Soviet Union was repatriating not the Spanish flag, but living Spaniards, who at one time received shelter and hospitality in the Soviet Union, drawing attention to the fact that there was nothing Spanish in the Soviet Union. subject to repatriation, other than living Spaniards who would like to repatriate.

                        Recently, in early February, with a group of Spanish repatriates, employees of the USSR Foreign Ministry went to Spain for two weeks, who had a meeting with the Spanish Deputy Foreign Minister Santa Cruz. In the conversation, Santa Cruz, touching upon the development of Soviet-Spanish relations, spoke of the desirability of exchanging views on the question of Spanish gold. He said that for an economically weak Spain, a positive solution to this issue would be of tremendous importance and would be enthusiastically accepted by public opinion in the country and abroad. He said that they did not dispute the legality of the transfer of gold to the Soviet Union by the former legal Spanish government, just as they understand that certain expenses were made from this fund. Representatives of the USSR Foreign Ministry did not support the conversation about gold.

                        The Belgian ambassador to the USSR, Loridan, in a conversation with me on February 11, said that the message from the Franco government about the transfer of documents by the Negrin family to him about the deposit of Spanish gold in the USSR during the civil war caused discontent among the republican Spanish circles abroad, who believe that Negrin had no right bequeath these documents to the Franco government.
                      7. seti
                        seti 4 September 2020 11: 59 New
                        +1
                        Head of 1 European
                        Department of the USSR Ministry of Foreign Affairs
                        A. Harutyunyan


                        ANNEX No. 2

                        Article for the newspaper "Pravda" *

                        CONCERNING CONCERNING "SPANISH GOLD"

                        Recently, some foreign newspapers have published articles on the issue of Spanish gold deposited in the USSR during the Spanish Civil War. On this issue, along with sober remarks, many fables are told.

                        On December 29, 1956, the Spanish government published a communiqué in Madrid stating that it had received the original documents indicating that in February 1937 the Spanish Bank's gold reserves were sent to Moscow. These documents, according to press reports, were transferred to the Franco government by the family of the recently deceased former Prime Minister of the Spanish Republic, Juan Negrin.

                        At the same time, a rumor was spread that some negotiations were under way between the Soviet and Spanish representatives on the return of the gold. In reality, no one and nowhere has conducted and is not conducting such negotiations, which was reported by the USSR Embassy in London in the British newspaper Observer on January 20 of this year in connection with incorrect reports that appeared in London newspapers.

                        Some foreign newspapers report that these rumors were launched in order to exert indirect pressure on the United States to get it to increase the economic aid, which Spain currently receives in a meager amount. It is also reported that the Spanish government is trying in this way to "strengthen the peseta", which is greatly shaken by the serious economic difficulties that the country is experiencing. Others write that the Franco government is trying to probe the mood of the Spanish republicans, to create a split among them, to make peace with them, and to isolate others - "irreconcilable".

                        Thus, we see that the question of Spanish gold is being played out in all directions, and all this has nothing to do with the actual state of affairs.
                        ___________
                        * - At the top of the sheet on the right, a pencil mark: "Published on 5.IV.57".


                        Why is this done? Do some circles want to use this issue to once again try to prevent a possible relaxation of international tension? This is evidenced by the suspicious activity of the American Senate subcommittee, which for some reason is interested in "Spanish gold" and wants to raise the issue of it before ... the United Nations.

                        Some organs of the foreign press rightly note the groundlessness of any claims against the Soviet Union in relation to Spanish gold.

                        A situation is created completely artificially in which some foreign newspapers are now publishing articles about the deposit of Spanish gold in the USSR 20 years ago and thereby mislead public opinion, creating the impression that there are unused remains of this gold.

                        According to the information we know from informed circles, at the beginning of 1937, Spanish gold in the amount of about 500 tons was deposited in the depositories of precious metals in the USSR. The counting and weighing of gold during its transfer to the Soviet authorities was carried out jointly by representatives of the financial authorities of the Spanish Republic and the Soviet Union in accordance with the usual norms in force for international transfers of gold. The transfer of gold was formalized by the corresponding act on February 5, 1937.

                        This operation was carried out at the initiative of the Government of the Spanish Republic. During preliminary negotiations on this issue, the Government of the Spanish Republic informed the Soviet government that at the expense of the gold, which the Soviet government agreed to allow for storage in the USSR, the Spanish Republican government would make payments for its orders abroad, and would also make through the correspondents of the State Bank of the USSR transfers in slogans. These wishes of the Government of the Spanish Republic were recorded in the aforementioned act of February 5, 1937, which states that in the event of an order from the Government of the Spanish Republic on the export of gold from the USSR adopted under this act for storage, or any other order from this government, the responsibility of Soviet bodies under this act is automatically reduced, in whole or in part, depending on the volume of the order of the Government of the Spanish Republic.

                        Thus, the gold was deposited not just for storage, but, as indicated above, it was deposited in the Soviet Union with a condition stipulating that the Government of the Spanish Republic would use this gold to make expenses at its own discretion.

                        According to our inquiry, after the deposit of gold in the USSR, the Government of the Spanish Republic issued numerous orders to pay for its purchases abroad, as well as to transfer currency abroad, which was done by the State Bank of the USSR in strict accordance with these orders.

                        According to the data held by the relevant Soviet authorities, the Government of the Spanish Republic fully used the gold surrendered on February 5, 1937 at its own discretion to cover its foreign exchange expenses.

                        All transfers of gold were made according to direct orders of the Government of the Spanish Republic, duly signed by officials. Initially, these orders were signed together by the Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Spanish Republic Caballero and the Minister of Finance Negrin. Then, when Negrin also became chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Spanish Republic, Negrin himself signed orders as Chairman of the Council of Ministers and at the same time Minister of Finance and Economy, and then, together with him, as Chairman of the Council of Ministers, the new Minister of Finance and Economy Mendes Aspe also signed orders.

                        The fact that the gold was fully used by the Spanish Republican government is evidenced, in particular, by the last letter of Negrin and Aspe dated August 8, 1938, in which they, on behalf of the Council of Ministers of the Spanish Republic, asked to sell the entire amount of the remaining Spanish gold in the USSR. which was done.

                        Thus, the gold deposited by the Government of the Spanish Republic in the State Bank of the USSR was fully used by the same government during 1937-1938. in accordance with the orders that it gave as the owner of this gold.

                        In addition, it should be noted that at the request of the Government of the Spanish Republic, the Soviet Union provided him with a loan. This loan was used by the Spanish Republican government in the amount of $ 85 million, and paid in the amount of $ 35 million.Consequently, there remained a debt for the Spanish government of $ 50 million.

                        Negrin was well aware of all this, since all orders regarding the use of gold and credit bear his signature.

                        According to reliable data, nothing of the stored gold was transferred by the State Bank of the USSR for the maintenance of emigrants and Spanish children who found shelter in the Soviet Union. These expenses were borne directly by the Soviet Union and Soviet public organizations, in particular Soviet trade unions, at their own expense.
                      8. seti
                        seti 4 September 2020 12: 00 New
                        +1
                        Columnist

                        AP RF. F. 3. Op. 65.D. 234.L. 224-235. Statement on the form.

                        Bulletin of the Archive of the President of the Russian Federation. USSR and the Spanish Civil War: 1936-1939. M., 2013.


                        The article "Moscow Gold", which is mainly a translation from the English-wiki.

                        The release of this collection of documents somehow passed by a number of citizens who are still writing various inventions.

                        I demand a refutation from you for creating a fake about the flawed position of the Soviet government
                        As you can see from the attached documents, it explained and explained its position that it did not feed the gold of the Spanish bank and that it was used by the Spanish republican government for its own reasons and at its discretion minus the due interest for the money transactions and military supplies made.
                      9. Astra wild
                        Astra wild 4 September 2020 18: 09 New
                        0
                        Then in 1975 we returned to Spain?
                      10. seti
                        seti 4 September 2020 18: 22 New
                        0
                        What did you return, I do not know .. And the USSR was not obliged to return anything. You would understand this if you carefully read the documents. The USSR did not manage this gold, or rather the sums of money exchanged on the London Financial Exchange.
                        That part of the gold coins of the Bank of Spain remaining in the USSR was credited to the payment of debt for military supplies, military advisers and financial transactions. None of all interested parties, both the republican government and the Franco regime, had any questions about this. Everything was fair. Documents, including those provided by Juan Negrina, confirm this.
                        So there is no need to speculate on this topic.
                      11. seti
                        seti 4 September 2020 18: 50 New
                        +1
                        You also need to understand that the USSR carried out its transactions at the most favorable rate of $ 37 per ounce at that time. But the Spaniards themselves preferred to change the melted coins into bullions mainly at the London Financial Exchange. Money loves silence - the British, of course, did not shout about this at all intersections. And the fact that the Franco government decided to find out that this is normal with gold - they asked the question where the gold went. Since the Francoists were still enemies, they were not given an answer. But since the uproar arose, the USSR government was forced to give the office an answer, and it only gave it to the Spanish mission in exile with the transfer of copies of the office documents.
                        By the way, according to them, what is recognized by the Spanish side, the Spanish Republican government overspend its funds and 50 million $ left which for today is about 450 million American rubles.
                        So the question was closed by itself. Something like this.
                      12. Astra wild
                        Astra wild 5 September 2020 06: 53 New
                        0
                        Colleague seti, thank you for the above documents
                        In 89 or 90, even before the "Belovezhskaya betrayal", somewhere there was a publication about "Spanish gold", naturally without accented, which Vyacheslav Olegovich admits. It briefly says that after Franco's death, the issue was resolved and part of the gold was returned.
                        It was also said there that the KGB had no complaints about Orlov: he did not name any of the Soviet intelligence officers he knew.
                      13. seti
                        seti 5 September 2020 08: 14 New
                        0
                        As far as I know, the Soviet government did not return anything to Spain in the framework of that case. If we wanted to remove Orlov, they would have removed it without noise and dust. But the KGB was not as bad as the Western world portrays it. Although it would not hurt to judge him for stealing money. It's just that he was not dangerous, and the fact that he remained alive and not kidnapped / killed once again proves that he could not do much harm. And where necessary he kept his mouth shut.
                      14. Astra wild
                        Astra wild 5 September 2020 11: 51 New
                        0
                        This confirms that the Jews are inherently resourceful, and he has shown himself to be smart and far-sighted.
              2. The comment was deleted.
  • snerg7520
    snerg7520 1 September 2020 06: 26 New
    16
    Finally, at least one war was found, which was financed not at the expense of the Soviet Union and Russia, but at the expense of those whom we helped in this war.
    Keep it up!
    This is an absolutely normal practice, and this is how you need to help by undressing the person being helped to the underwear.
    1. Deniska999
      Deniska999 1 September 2020 06: 34 New
      16
      And many have a wonderful position here: on the one hand, you need to write only the truth, and this is correct, and on the other, only the beautiful truth. Although what is it about the fact that we just took what was supposed to be, I don't understand.
      1. antivirus
        antivirus 1 September 2020 10: 54 New
        +6
        most importantly - the NKVD did not carry out the operation - and the USSR (interstate agreements, apparently there were) instructed the Chikists to take out - AND STILL - THE REPUBLICANS DID NOT ALLOW THE GOLD HANDING FRANCO - THIS IS THEIR DECISION + payment for deliveries - this is also the norm
  • Undecim
    Undecim 1 September 2020 07: 28 New
    +7
    What, specifically, are your claims expressed? Do you deny the very fact of the events described in the article or do you have any other questions about the article?
    1. apro
      apro 1 September 2020 08: 10 New
      +9
      Quote: Undecim
      You deny the very fact of the events described in the article

      How can one deny. This event took place.
      The author presents the events as something not right. So the right countries do not do it. The impression is that the USSR deceived Spain. And exported gold illegally. Besides, direct sympathy for the Phalangists and their foreign allies. Revolt is correct.
      1. kalibr
        1 September 2020 09: 39 New
        -10
        Quote: apro
        USSR deceived Spain

        He did not deceive, but took advantage of her position. Heavy! But what about proletarian internationalism and "on the woe to all bourgeoisie, we will fan the world fire?" Where is Marxism-Leninism in action?
        1. apro
          apro 1 September 2020 09: 43 New
          10
          Quote: kalibr
          He did not deceive, but took advantage of her position. Heavy!

          He also supplied bad tanks, sent out worthless pilots and moronic military advisers ... and finally grabbed some gold ...
          Quote: kalibr
          Where is Marxism-Leninism in action?

          Well, you know better. You studied this at the institutes ...
          1. kalibr
            1 September 2020 12: 17 New
            -7
            Quote: apro
            Well, you know better. You studied this at the institutes ...

            That's right - I know it better. As well as many other things. You - to continue self-education.
            1. Aviator_
              Aviator_ 1 September 2020 16: 51 New
              +1
              You - to continue self-education.

              In the field of Marxism-Leninism?
              1. kalibr
                1 September 2020 19: 57 New
                -3
                Why not? A man defends a system based on a theory he does not know. Isn't that funny?
            2. Alf
              Alf 1 September 2020 20: 45 New
              +4
              Quote: kalibr
              That's right - I know it better.

              This phrase is all shpakovsky. It's amazing how he even before us, don’t know, reaches ... Great honor to the bast shoes.
              1. kalibr
                1 September 2020 21: 18 New
                -6
                Quote: Alf
                Shows great honor to bast boots.

                To some extent, yes ...
                1. Astra wild
                  Astra wild 1 September 2020 21: 45 New
                  +1
                  Vyacheslav Olegovich, and arrogance is unnecessary. Colleague Alf blurted out about the lapotniki, and you were led
                  1. kalibr
                    1 September 2020 21: 59 New
                    -5
                    This is not arrogance, but a perfectly accurate indication of the level of information. Here on VO there were a lot of my articles on materials about which no one gave any information anywhere, even Wikipedia, which knows everything. So? Yes so! Many people constantly write - I have not read about it, I have not heard. You saw, right? Yes! Here were photos from museums that had never been seen anywhere else before. Photocopies of newspaper articles previously never published. That was all, right? So what, then, is it?
          2. VIP
            VIP 1 September 2020 17: 08 New
            +3
            "supplied bad tanks" - with what to compare: if with Italian Ansaldo or Pz1, then our tanks are a miracle of technology, and if with modern ones, they suck.
            There is a historical story about this.
            Socrates was asked
            -What is the measure of beauty?
            - A monkey.
            - But the girl is more beautiful than the monkey?
            - The goddess is more beautiful. If you compare a goddess and a girl, who does the girl seem like?
            - monkey
        2. Trilobite Master
          Trilobite Master 1 September 2020 12: 21 New
          10
          Vyacheslav Olegovich, the main thing is the result. smile
          We have gold, the interests of the country did not suffer, the enemies did not get it. Everything is correct.
          It would be different, one could say something like "Again, at the expense of the poor people, communism is spreading around the planet. It would be better if a school or a factory was built."
          In politics, it is foolish not to take advantage of someone else's position, especially a difficult one. smile
          Thanks for the article, it was interesting. smile
          1. kalibr
            1 September 2020 12: 29 New
            -5
            Mikhail, from the point of view of the country's interests - yes! From the point of view of the theory of Marxism-Leninism - no! This is why it is better to have no political doctrine than to have. Any doctrine deprives the policy of flexibility!
            1. Trilobite Master
              Trilobite Master 1 September 2020 12: 40 New
              11
              Quote: kalibr
              Any doctrine deprives the policy of flexibility!

              Also, not everything is so simple. On the one hand, it deprives of flexibility, on the other hand, it gives firmness, which in some cases lacks no less than flexibility. smile
              On a specific occasion: the USSR helped the proletarian states free of charge, which was later reproached him many times according to the scheme that I voiced above. The Spanish Republic was still bourgeois, so it could not count on a "special" attitude.
              1. kalibr
                1 September 2020 16: 13 New
                +1
                Quote: Trilobite Master
                The Spanish Republic was still bourgeois, so it could not count on a "special" attitude.

                It is truth too. But sometimes one should "give up principles."
                1. Trilobite Master
                  Trilobite Master 1 September 2020 17: 15 New
                  +5
                  "Sometimes" is a very vague word. smile
                  I had a friend who lived according to the principle of "Tell drugs" sometimes ". In general, his life did not work out very well.
                  I do not think that in the case of Spanish gold, the Soviet government deserves any reproaches, both from the moral side and from the purely pragmatic side - even if we take it for the truth that the republican government stole this gold from its people (although, I personally I look differently), the USSR government, it seems to me, behaved quite decently in this situation, in any case, there is no documentary evidence of any untidiness in relation to Spanish gold.
                  And one should always seek and receive one's own benefit in politics - there should be no deviations from this principle. It is possible and necessary to show nobility only at your own expense, and not at the expense of citizens of your entire state, whose interests for a politician should be more priority than any considerations of a moral plan.
                  1. kalibr
                    1 September 2020 17: 19 New
                    +2
                    It is also true, "sometimes" is determined ... by the mind. That is why it is said in the book of the prophet Ecclesiastes: everything has its time - a time to embrace, and a time to avoid embracing, a time to collect stones and a time to throw them.
                  2. ee2100
                    ee2100 1 September 2020 17: 48 New
                    -3
                    A bit off topic. But there is no future without the past.
                    You tried to present the Visegrad Four as a kind of “incomprehensible” formation. ”Currently, there is another interstate formation on the territory of the EU that has completely lost its significance - the Benelux.
                    Here's a fresh example from September 1 this year. Hungary closes borders for 1 month with all countries, except for the countries of the four mentioned i.e. Poland, Slovakia and the Czech Republic.
                    The European Commission in an ultimatum form demanded to cancel this decision.
                    We'll stock up on popcorn and watch.
                    1. Trilobite Master
                      Trilobite Master 1 September 2020 22: 48 New
                      +2
                      Quote: ee2100
                      Stock up on popcorn and watch

                      We will see. Although such a decision by Hungary speaks, rather, not of the effectiveness of the Quartet, but of the decisiveness of the Hungarian authorities proper. The effectiveness of the Quartet could be evidenced by the same decision, but the adopted and implemented jointly... Now, if the four of them close the boundaries and spit on everything that is said to them on this matter, then I will be the first to say that you are right and V4 is a really effective organization.
                    2. ee2100
                      ee2100 2 September 2020 08: 23 New
                      +1
                      It will then be a revolution! And now Hungary has not closed borders for V4 countries! Small, but a prick to the side. Brussels. By the way, Austria also expressed a desire to join V4, and you claim that their actions are not effective.
            2. Alf
              Alf 1 September 2020 21: 04 New
              +2
              Quote: Trilobite Master
              The Spanish Republic was still bourgeois, so it could not count on a "special" attitude.

              Moreover, it also did not differ in political stability, to put it mildly. Remember how many parties there were. As in Russia in the late 80s.


              Yes, here any hands will drop ..
              1. Astra wild
                Astra wild 1 September 2020 21: 49 New
                +1
                In fact, in 1987-1989 there was 1 party in the Soviet Union, I don’t know how many in Russia now
          2. Astra wild
            Astra wild 1 September 2020 19: 21 New
            -2
            Vyacheslav Olegovich, a teacher of Marxism-Lenenism woke up in you: "from the point of view of Marxism-Lenenism, no"?
            I’m not going to make jokes or put on, but just want to ask: Vyacheslav Olegovich, do you care about youthful memories?
            Once again, I am not making jokes or teasing.
            R.
            S
            Colleagues, the tablet is periodically self-willed: "add", but I don't WANT to correct it: time is a pity
            1. kalibr
              1 September 2020 20: 01 New
              0
              Quote: Astra wild
              Vyacheslav Olegovich, youthful memories are dear to you?

              Sure! I'm a normal person. I just now see my own shortcomings and those who surrounded me. And I understand that some of them are normal human shortcomings, which are, were and will be. And the part is a product of the "new world". And I regret that I did not have sufficient knowledge then to understand this and behave, accordingly, differently. And there was no one to prompt, alas.
              1. Alf
                Alf 1 September 2020 21: 06 New
                +2
                Quote: kalibr
                I just now see my flaws and

                Judging by the way you conduct discussions, hardly.
                1. kalibr
                  1 September 2020 21: 42 New
                  -1
                  Quote: Alf
                  how do you conduct discussions-

                  So how should it be? It is said (Proverbs 26-5): But answer the foolish one because of his foolishness, so that he does not become a wise man in his own eyes. So I answer. Everyone, as he deserves it.
          3. Alf
            Alf 1 September 2020 20: 47 New
            +2
            Quote: kalibr
            That's why it's best not to have a political doctrine,

            The classic is exactly how Trotsky was described as a political prostitute.
            1. kalibr
              1 September 2020 21: 09 New
              -3
              It is you who characterize our modern leadership. And by the way, didn't you read in the comments here on VO - both that Trotskyist and Khrushchev Trotskyist ... Here he is a prostitute, and he was killed by an ice pick, but only his business, something lives and wins ... Why would?
      2. Deniska999
        Deniska999 1 September 2020 13: 27 New
        0
        Come on, in foreign policy there should be only lies and cynicism, otherwise you will be left with your nose. Do not clown)
      3. ccsr
        ccsr 1 September 2020 13: 44 New
        +6
        Quote: kalibr
        But what about proletarian internationalism and "on the woe of all the bourgeoisie, will we fan the world fire?" Where is Marxism-Leninism in action?

        I recognize the handwriting of the district committee propagandist - I still use slogans, although I myself never believed in them as a member of the CPSU. It is because of such people that trust in the party fell below the plinth during the Soviet era - it is difficult to hide the double-handedness even many years later, it was not in vain that Stalin cleansed the party of such leaders.
        1. kalibr
          1 September 2020 16: 16 New
          -3
          Quote: ccsr
          It is because of these that the confidence in the party fell below the plinth during the

          And weren't there really honest and loyal people in the CPSU? Okay, "double-dealers", but why did they not go to the barricades in 91? Well, at least a million out of 16 million ... It turns out that all double-dealers were there. Party ... double-dealing.
          1. Astra wild
            Astra wild 1 September 2020 17: 33 New
            0
            Vyacheslav Olegovich, for the first time I will say that you are not telling the truth, there were not 16 million, but 23 million in the CPSU. How many candidates for party members and members of the Komsomol I do not know.
            1. kalibr
              1 September 2020 20: 03 New
              +1
              In 1991, the number decreased: 16516066. 23 million she never was. Maximum 19 kopecks ...
              1. Astra wild
                Astra wild 1 September 2020 20: 39 New
                0
                And with the candidates, there will be more.
                The leader told me that the candidate for membership in the CPSU is practically the same communist. All communists are convinced that the candidates should be abolished - just a tribute to tradition.
                It's just that when the party was being formed, the candidate's experience was needed for a person to decide: with Martov or Lenin
                1. kalibr
                  1 September 2020 21: 10 New
                  0
                  Of course, I did not count the candidates ...
        2. kalibr
          1 September 2020 17: 20 New
          +2
          Quote: ccsr
          not in vain did Stalin cleanse the party of such leaders.

          But Khrushchev didn't even notice ... And he thanked him for it!
        3. The comment was deleted.
          1. Astra wild
            Astra wild 1 September 2020 17: 35 New
            -2
            Taak new Vladkub was found: he still admired Stalin
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 1 September 2020 20: 15 New
              -2
              My Beautiful Stranger! You shouldn't be talking about "Vladcub" but ...
              1. Astra wild
                Astra wild 1 September 2020 20: 27 New
                +1
                Have I insulted someone?
                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 1 September 2020 20: 33 New
                  0
                  Me. This is my friend.
                  1. Astra wild
                    Astra wild 1 September 2020 20: 59 New
                    +1
                    Sorry, but I just stated a fact.
                    Did he scold Stalin? Not
                  2. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 1 September 2020 21: 12 New
                    +1
                    My Beautiful Stranger, I am not protecting anyone, I just feel uncomfortable when people I know are mentioned in a negative sense. If this happens to you, I will do the same.
                  3. Astra wild
                    Astra wild 1 September 2020 21: 52 New
                    +1
                    Is this in a negative sense?
                  4. 3x3zsave
                    3x3zsave 1 September 2020 22: 01 New
                    0
                    Sorry, maybe it seemed to me.
                2. Astra wild
                  Astra wild 2 September 2020 13: 59 New
                  +2
                  Someone and you are not indifferent: - minus yesterday stumbled. Today I have already removed 3. I do not like that they beat on reasonable thoughts -
                3. Pane Kohanku
                  Pane Kohanku 2 September 2020 14: 34 New
                  +5
                  Someone and you are not indifferent: - minus yesterday stumbled. Today I have already removed 3. I do not like that they beat on reasonable thoughts -

                  Delighted with the conversation between the noble knight Anton and the beautiful lady Vera, the despicable Kohanku corrected the karma for both of you ... repeat Ah .. what a style - Gallant century! good cried ... crying Vera, in your ability to behave yourself, you somehow remind me of Germaine de Stael from Pikulev's "To Each His Own". love I read it with pleasure, at least getting into other people's personal conversations - and it's not good! wink drinks
                4. Astra wild
                  Astra wild 2 September 2020 15: 00 New
                  +1
                  Nikolay, I don't know much about Pikul, and I have no idea who Germaine de Stael is.
                  You are even more romantic than me: "getting into other people's private conversations is not good"
                5. Pane Kohanku
                  Pane Kohanku 2 September 2020 22: 31 New
                  +3
                  Germaine de Stael

                  French writer. hi Very famous at one time.
                  You are even more romantic than me: "getting into other people's private conversations is not good"

                  Not at all. Once my alter-ego dreamed of making a lot of friends ... then I realized that human malice, arrogance and stupidity are infinite, and now I just chat quietly with a selected group of good people. yes Including with you! love
                  And the greatest romantic, nevertheless, is Anton. In a good way. I'm glad I can consider him my friend. good
            2. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 2 September 2020 15: 16 New
              +2
              Thanks! These are the evil "Russian military lemmings"
  • paul3390
    paul3390 1 September 2020 18: 15 New
    +2
    Is asking for payment for your services bad? Moreover, the client was quite solvent. Well, the Spaniards would not have dough - you might think about helping for free. But helping those who have money for free is the height of idiocy.
  • Krasnodar
    Krasnodar 1 September 2020 19: 52 New
    +6
    Good evening, Vyacheslav Olegovich! Yes, he did everything right, unlike Khrushchev and Brezhnev, who handed out weapons, advisers, etc. for free. any "supposedly embarked on the path of socialism" abreks.
    1. kalibr
      1 September 2020 20: 05 New
      +3
      So I don't argue. The point is that again everything was done in secret from the people. That there is no information, only speculation, although why hide something?
      1. Krasnodar
        Krasnodar 1 September 2020 20: 09 New
        +1
        Well so - now someone in Russia knows about the Nazis legal in Syria with representation in parliament and militants fighting on the side of Assad? It is not particularly customary to talk about this in Israel either - otherwise the process of "dehumanizing the Arabs" will proceed, with whom it is more profitable to sign a peace treaty. laughing Therefore, politics is always such a policy ... fellow
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 1 September 2020 20: 20 New
          +4
          Well, so - now someone in Russia knows about the Nazis legal in Syria with representation in parliament and militants fighting on the side of Assad?
          I do not know exactly! And what is the essence of the current Syrian Nazism, I also don't know ...
          1. Krasnodar
            Krasnodar 1 September 2020 20: 28 New
            +2
            Gugelny SSNP - Syria. It is not new - it is from the 30s of the last century. In short - Greater Syria, including Israel, Sinai, Kuwait, Cyprus, the territories of Iraq and Turkey. And the symbolism - laughing Especially combat battalions. The slogan - Syria is above all, and the party's anthem to the same German melody. ))
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 1 September 2020 20: 46 New
              +3
              Ok I will look. However, I think you don't consider R. Wagner a Nazi?
              1. Krasnodar
                Krasnodar 1 September 2020 20: 47 New
                +2
                No way laughing Neither him nor Nietzsche.
              2. 3x3zsave
                3x3zsave 1 September 2020 21: 01 New
                +2
                Then the logical chain is lost. You do not associate Wagner with German Nazism, although its adherents associated it, but are you ready to level the SSNP and the NSDAP on the basis of media symbols?
              3. Krasnodar
                Krasnodar 1 September 2020 21: 08 New
                +4
                Quote: 3x3zsave
                Then the logical chain is lost. You do not associate Wagner with German Nazism, although its adherents associated it, but are you ready to level the SSNP and the NSDAP on the basis of media symbols?

                What kind of media symbols? laughing Some are social-nationalists, others are national socialists. The Syrian eagle holds a stylized swastika in its paws and looks to the right, the Syrian to the left, etc. That's the whole difference)). Ordinary Nazis, legal in Syria and Lebanon, first since 2005
              4. Astra wild
                Astra wild 2 September 2020 14: 06 New
                +3
                Colleague Krasnodar, read what you got "the Syrian eagle looks to the right and to the left," and he will get dizzy.
              5. Krasnodar
                Krasnodar 2 September 2020 14: 38 New
                +1
                I noticed when it was too late to fix))
  • Undecim
    Undecim 1 September 2020 11: 35 New
    10
    The author presents the events as something not right. So the right countries do not do it. The impression is that the USSR deceived Spain. And exported gold illegally. Besides, direct sympathy for the Phalangists and their foreign allies. Revolt is correct.
    The author, of course, is hard to suspect of sympathy for the USSR, but in this case he focuses not on "correctness" or "incorrectness", such categories are generally of little use to politics, but on the fact that the exposition in Soviet historiography of "international aid to republican Spain "and the real state of affairs are two big differences. As for the gold itself and its shipment to the USSR, even in Spain itself there is still no single point of view about the circumstances of this operation and who was the initiator of it, as well as how "fair" the trade was.
    And gold was indeed exported illegally. The government did not have the right to do this, since the gold did not belong to it and it did not have the right to dispose of it. The gold was owned by the Bank of Spain, which was a private joint stock company and was formally nationalized only in 1962. That is, in legal terms, the republican government simply took gold from the shareholders of a private company.
    Well, about sympathy for the Phalangists. It would be good to remember the Chilean philosopher Dario Salas, who believed that a person does not have strong moral foundations, his behavior is subordinated to selfish interests, passionate desires and momentary illusory good. In search of happiness and goodness, he takes the seeming for reality and too often goes astray, falling into sin and corruption. Neither religious nor moral censure can hold him back. This happens because no one really understands what is good and what is bad, what is fair and what is not.
    This idea is very suitable for the Spanish Civil War, if it is judged not by propaganda clichés, but by historical literature, better than the Spanish.
    To begin with, the rebellion was not organized by the Phalangists or Franco, who was persuaded to join the rebellion at the last moment. The generals organized the mutiny. As one Spanish comrade said: "We have a long tradition in Spanish-speaking countries. If the Democrats go too far with reforms, the army stands up for the church, private property and order."
    And the Republicans really had problems with reforms.
    The republican government was a contradictory coalition of communists, anarchists, "radicals" and socialists, whose programs included demands for a radical redistribution of property. In addition to agrarian reform and the struggle for workers' rights, the government also intended to implement significant reductions in the military and reduce the influence of the army on the state, as well as reduce the role of the Catholic Church, especially in the educational sphere. A government that has such a program in a Catholic capitalist country does not need to go far behind enemies, especially if one considers that less than half of the population supported it in the elections. To top it all, reforms began just hours after the February 1936 elections.
    The left began to burn down churches and take property. The government, instead of stopping these excesses, sent the army on leave, and the National Guard was banned from leaving the barracks. The right, naturally, answered, and by July 1936 anarchy had really reigned in Spain. It is on this wave that the army, seeing no other way out, stands up for the church, private property and order.
    To assess this fact from the point of view of "right" or "not right", as for me, is quite difficult. The Spaniards themselves still have not clearly appreciated it. The Spanish people still have not closed this folder, as one journalist said. And even the 2007 Law on Historical Memory has not yet resolved the issue.
    1. apro
      apro 1 September 2020 11: 54 New
      +1
      Quote: Undecim
      Soviet historiography "international aid to republican Spain" and the real state of affairs - two big differences.

      Well, let's say I knew about the transportation of gold from the USSR back in Soviet times. And these explanations then and now quite suited me. And about the financial relationship between Spain and the USSR was known, and about the payment of weapons and the payment of military advisers. And about the gratuitous assistance of Soviet workers. ...
      Quote: Undecim
      And gold was indeed exported illegally. The government did not have the right to do this, since the gold did not belong to it and it did not have the right to dispose of it. The gold was owned by the Bank of Spain, which was a private joint stock company

      Wow !!! Advice all the same broke the bank ... private property is inviolable. And the fact that there is a legitimate government decides it on the side ... excellent logic.
      Quote: Undecim
      It is on this wave that the army, seeing no other way out, stands up for the church, private property and order.

      Somewhere I heard it ... Pinochet. Samosa. Hitler ... Zhirinovsky. All in Feng Shui ..
      The Spanish army was unable to defend the empire. But it knows how to organize coups for five plus. And its colonial followers in South and Central America ...
      1. Undecim
        Undecim 1 September 2020 12: 15 New
        10
        Wow !!! Advice all the same broke the bank ... private property is inviolable. And the fact that there is a legitimate government decides it on the side ... excellent logic.
        Do I have "tips" written somewhere? Are you reading between the lines in your turbo-communist hype?
        I presented only the point of view of Spanish historians on these events, including the civil war. And you are trying to be holier than the Pope. Don't get ahead of the Spaniards in assessing their own history.
        1. apro
          apro 1 September 2020 12: 22 New
          0
          Quote: Undecim
          And gold was indeed exported illegally.

          What is this for ??? and mentioning a private bank ...
          It is clear. If it is not legal, then the actions of the USSR to receive and service the gold of the government of Negin are buying stolen goods?
          1. Undecim
            Undecim 1 September 2020 12: 29 New
            +7
            Nobody makes any claims to the actions of the USSR in terms of accepting gold, like I am writing comments in Russian. Claims in Spain against the Caballero government and Finance Minister Negrin. Is this clear?
            1. apro
              apro 1 September 2020 13: 03 New
              0
              Quote: Undecim
              Claims in Spain against the Caballero government and Finance Minister Negrin. Is this clear?

              It’s not clear. Of course it’s clear ... if the actions of the legitimate government are not legitimate, then the beneficiary in the person of the USSR will answer for them. But since the legitimate government was overthrown as a result of a coup and civil war and foreign aggression. Before its actions are always not legitimate. The winner himself decides what is beneficial to him and what is legal and what is not legal.
              1. Undecim
                Undecim 1 September 2020 13: 21 New
                +6
                Obviously, it's hard for you to imagine, but in many countries, including those where military coups took place, even a legitimate government has no right to dispose of private property just like that, that is, this legal concept is provided by the country's political system.
                1. apro
                  apro 1 September 2020 13: 27 New
                  0
                  As I understand it, the legitimate government of Spain does not have a material basis for the decisions taken. For the concluded contracts and trade deals? How did tovStalin missed this? How did he enter into transactions with incapacitated ones? With a government that does not have the resources to pay? Wonderful are your deeds, Lord ...
                2. Undecim
                  Undecim 1 September 2020 13: 39 New
                  +8
                  The decree, prepared by the Minister of Finance, was signed by the legitimate president of the country. What kind of disability is there? If he broke the law, that's his problem. True, President Asanya later made excuses that he did not know the final destination, which the Minister of Finance concealed from him.
                3. apro
                  apro 1 September 2020 14: 16 New
                  -2
                  I heard you ... no conversation. Good luck.
                4. Undecim
                  Undecim 1 September 2020 14: 24 New
                  +8
                  Nice summary. Since there are no propaganda clichés and they do not kick Shpakovsky, but only facts mean nothing.
                5. apro
                  apro 1 September 2020 14: 39 New
                  -1
                  You have no facts .... just speculation.
                6. Undecim
                  Undecim 1 September 2020 14: 44 New
                  +7
                  The fundamental position is that everything that does not fit into the cliché is speculation. Have you heard surnames like Aceña, Morales, Viñas?
                7. VIP
                  VIP 1 September 2020 17: 53 New
                  +4
                  V. N, be ashamed: how do we know them?
                8. Undecim
                  Undecim 1 September 2020 18: 01 New
                  +5
                  How from where? How do we learn everything - from the information space.
      2. Astra wild
        Astra wild 1 September 2020 19: 04 New
        +3
        Poor Asanya everyone could deceive him
    2. VIP
      VIP 1 September 2020 17: 50 New
      +3
      In fact, Stalin was an intelligent man and he bowed to all these subtleties. If need forces the hen to scream like a rooster, but here they fill it with gold. Tell me that Stalin had to demand a paper from a notary?
  • VIP
    VIP 1 September 2020 17: 42 New
    +4
    In fact, V.N. correctly said that in Spain it was like Krylov's with a cart, that they were pulling in different directions.
  • your1970
    your1970 1 September 2020 17: 46 New
    +2
    Quote: Undecim
    To assess this fact from the point of view of "correct" or "not correct", as for me, is rather difficultabout. The Spaniards themselves still have not clearly appreciated it.... The Spanish people still have not closed this folder, as one journalist said.

    the usual consequences of the Civil War ...
    after our 100 years have passed - and the people are still not reconciled
  • kalibr
    1 September 2020 12: 26 New
    +2
    You see, Oleg, you yourself wrote "excellent". And also excellently, I once advocated and defended him. And I'm not alone. My other colleagues do too. And their name is legion. University professors throughout the country, lecturers of the Central Committee, OK and RK of the CPSU and the Central Committee, OK, and RK Komsomol. But ... it didn't help! This means that the formation was crappy if it broke, although we supported it very well from below. So what do you regret?
    1. apro
      apro 1 September 2020 13: 07 New
      +2
      Quote: kalibr
      And also excellently I once promoted and defended him

      You made money in an affordable way ..
      Quote: kalibr
      It means that the formation was crappy if it broke, although we supported it very well from below. So what do you regret?

      It was broken. It was not necessary to prop it up, but to study and analyze.
      1. kalibr
        1 September 2020 16: 20 New
        +3
        Quote: apro
        it was not necessary to prop up but to study and analyze.

        I could give you a whole excerpt from my daughter's dissertation, as studied and analyzed. But just about this there will be not one, but several articles. Then you will see. Everything happened, the Central Committee of the CPSU was informed about everything. And it is not necessary to "ruin" ... There was just my article on this topic - "They made their way and ruined" - go back and re-read ...
      2. kalibr
        1 September 2020 17: 22 New
        0
        Quote: apro
        You made money in an affordable way ..

        And any work is paid, and paid for quality, isn't it?
  • Astra wild
    Astra wild 1 September 2020 16: 06 New
    0
    Colleague Apro, the problem is that Vyacheslav Olegovich has invented NOTHING, almost nothing. He has links to everything, but how to interpret the facts is the question. Here is where Vyacheslav Olegovich disappointed
    1. kalibr
      1 September 2020 16: 21 New
      +2
      Quote: Astra wild
      Here is where Vyacheslav Olegovich disappointed

      In what? And what a cute "almost" ... Thank you very much!
      1. Astra wild
        Astra wild 1 September 2020 22: 01 New
        +2
        You have not indicated the source where you learned Stalin's words. I can say with equal success that Stalin asked: to whom to give the gold.
        1. kalibr
          2 September 2020 20: 06 New
          +1
          Undecim
          Yesterday, 18: 01
          How from where? How do we learn everything - from the information space. He wrote this for you too!
    2. Mordvin 3
      Mordvin 3 1 September 2020 19: 20 New
      +2
      Quote: Astra wild
      Colleague Apro, the problem is that Vyacheslav Olegovich has invented NOTHING, almost nothing. He has links to everything

      There are links, but there is nothing of the kind in the links, which Shpakovsky writes about.
  • not main
    not main 2 September 2020 00: 40 New
    +1
    Quote: apro
    Great, the author poluchaetsya ... pour a tub of slops on the USSR.

    What the fuck! There are no other words!
  • TechPriest
    TechPriest 19 October 2020 15: 48 New
    0
    Clearly understood. And then we still wonder where so many offended and oppressed come from.
  • cost
    cost 1 September 2020 05: 27 New
    10
    The Spanish State Bank decided to send gold to the USSR in the fall of 1936 for two reasons. First: the Francoists were approaching Madrid, so five hundred tons of gold, which were packed in 7800 boxes of 65 kilograms of gold in each, were sent, just in case, to Cartagena and then hidden near the port. The second reason was related to the fact that Stalin demanded payment for military supplies only in gold.

    By 1936, Spain ranked fourth in terms of gold reserves after the United States, Britain and France.
    1. cost
      cost 1 September 2020 05: 30 New
      +5
      Well, they placed this truly priceless "treasure" in the basement of one of the houses in Nastasyinsky Lane in Moscow

      This building of the XX century in Nastasyinsky lane is associated with the secret of Spanish gold. In the basements of this house there were 7800 wooden boxes with gold coins exported from Spain in 1936
      1. The leader of the Redskins
        The leader of the Redskins 1 September 2020 06: 55 New
        +4
        Thanks to Vyacheslav Olegovich for the detailed coverage of the topic, but I had only one question - if the Francoists knew about the operation to export gold, then why did it become known only in 1953? Why didn't the rebels start howling at least through political channels?
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 1 September 2020 07: 49 New
          +5
          Hello Igor! Considerably more detailed on the topic, here
          https://yandex.ru/turbo?text=https%3A%2F%2Fastikhin.livejournal.com%2F342975.html&parent-reqid=1598932456193486-1683950554434806083800121-production-app-host-man-web-yp-296&lite=1
        2. BAI
          BAI 1 September 2020 12: 03 New
          +6
          In Spain, everyone knew everything perfectly well. With the secrecy regime there was tension. And if the Spanish government was involved, everyone knew:
          Resolution Resolution of the Politburo meeting of October 19, 1936:

          "[...] 59. Question of Comrade Rosenberg.

          To instruct Comrade Rosenberg to reply to the Spanish government that we are ready to accept the gold reserve for safekeeping and that we agree to send this gold on our ships returning from ports on the condition that the gold will be accompanied by authorized representatives of the Spanish government or the Ministry of Finance and that we are responsible for the safety of gold begins from the moment it is handed over to the People's Commissariat of Finance of the USSR in our port. "


          A telegram with a decision of the highest political leadership of the USSR arrived in Madrid on October 20.
          Gold has been calculated to tenths of a gram: 510 grams.
    2. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 1 September 2020 07: 32 New
      11
      Basically, it was minted coins of Spain and other countries. There were 64 gold bars. Coins of numismatic interest accounted for 0,01% of the gold reserve.
  • The comment was deleted.
    1. Free wind
      Free wind 1 September 2020 05: 57 New
      +5
      What's the news? Chernukha about the decayed west, where they have all bad rulers, lesbians with homosexuals walk the streets, and rape everyone. We have victory after victory.
      1. Varyag_0711
        Varyag_0711 1 September 2020 06: 12 New
        14
        I don’t know about you, but as for me, the news about the trial of the drunk actor, this is the most natural chernukha.
        Well, as for self-praise, yes, today's effective managers have long surpassed Soviet propagandists. Where there is Lena Brezhnev with his orders to the current then "honored". By the way, Lenya, unlike the current ones, really deserves his orders.
        1. Pilat2009
          Pilat2009 1 September 2020 07: 04 New
          -3
          Quote: Varyag_0711
          I don’t know about you, but as for me, the news about the trial of the drunk actor, this is the most natural chernukha.
          Well, as for self-praise, yes, today's effective managers have long surpassed Soviet propagandists. Where there is Lena Brezhnev with his orders to the current then "honored". By the way, Lenya, unlike the current ones, really deserves his orders.

          He really deserves half
          1. apro
            apro 1 September 2020 07: 22 New
            +6
            Quote: Pilat2009
            He really deserves half

            You are hard on LIBrezhnev ... and most of them remember his time during the reign of the USSR with warmth.
            1. Pilat2009
              Pilat2009 1 September 2020 08: 10 New
              +3
              He may have ruled well, but orders are given for specific merits: his Red Star or the Order of Lenin. he deserved for Malaya Zemlya, and the rest for what? for leading operations at the front level?
              1. apro
                apro 1 September 2020 08: 12 New
                +7
                He left the country in much better shape than he took. This is his success.
                1. Catfish
                  Catfish 1 September 2020 17: 41 New
                  +2
                  He left the country in much better condition than he took.

                  By what parameters do you judge?
            2. Catfish
              Catfish 1 September 2020 17: 48 New
              +4
              ... his reign of the USSR is remembered by the majority with warmth.

              Depends on what from this time, in recent years he could not connect two words. The current majesty is clearly following in his footsteps and who will eventually rule because of his back, for example, I do not know.
        2. BAI
          BAI 1 September 2020 12: 10 New
          +6
          Where there is Lena Brezhnev with his orders to the current then "honored".

          He's just a kid against the current ones:
          1. Catfish
            Catfish 1 September 2020 17: 44 New
            +3
            Yes, this is all nonsense, amateur performance at the peripheral level, now success is measured not by pieces of iron in the belly, but by accounts in Swiss banks.
        3. VIP
          VIP 1 September 2020 18: 02 New
          +4
          Maybe he really deserved some, but the Order of Victory - 1000 times past the box office.
          This is from the opera that Zhukov wanted to consult with the colonel, but that did not appear. Will you believe it?
    2. Pilat2009
      Pilat2009 1 September 2020 06: 21 New
      -10
      Quote: Varyag_0711
      Of course, this was not reported in our press. Why did our citizens know this?
      And really, why ?! Why did I need to know this? In general, it was great for me when they showed about another peaceful tractor, and not about chernukha every day on all channels. Now, at least do not include the news, one continuous negative.
      As for me, about milk yield was much closer than about the next give money for the treatment of the child. But for some reason, professional propagandon shpakovsky does not notice this point-blank and does not want to write about it. Looks like they don't pay for it ...

      If you are not interested in the history of your country, then this is your own business. Want to live in a police state? Do not care how many people were put in for the interests of the revolution?
      1. Varyag_0711
        Varyag_0711 1 September 2020 06: 31 New
        13
        Pilat2009 (Mikhail)
        If you are not interested in the history of your country, then this is your own business.
        I'm just interested. Only now it pisses me off when people like shpakovsky and you like him are trying to present the history of the USSR as a complete crap.
        hunting to live in a police state?
        Is the USSR a police state? And in what state then do you live now?
        does not care how many people were put in for the interests of the revolution?
        And you are not interested in how many of those who "did not fit into the market" lost in the 90s ?!
        1. Pilat2009
          Pilat2009 1 September 2020 07: 02 New
          -15
          Quote: Varyag_0711
          Pilat2009 (Mikhail)
          If you are not interested in the history of your country, then this is your own business.
          I'm just interested. Only now it pisses me off when people like shpakovsky and you like him are trying to present the history of the USSR as a complete crap.
          hunting to live in a police state?
          Is the USSR a police state? And in what state then do you live now?
          does not care how many people were put in for the interests of the revolution?
          And you are not interested in how many of those who "did not fit into the market" lost in the 90s ?!

          I didn’t fit in, and nothing, I’m alive and well. And yes, the USSR of the 20-30-50s was a monster state. It’s not for nothing that we loved it more mildly.
          1. Varyag_0711
            Varyag_0711 1 September 2020 07: 17 New
            13
            Pilat2009 (Mikhail)
            I did not fit in, and nothing, I'm alive and well.
            Only complete moral fool a degenerate can scoff at the death of two tens of millions of his fellow citizens, and rejoice that the rest have been robbed and turned into slaves.
            I'm not deeply respected along the way with you!
            1. Pilat2009
              Pilat2009 1 September 2020 08: 21 New
              -3
              Quote: Varyag_0711
              Pilat2009 (Mikhail)
              I did not fit in, and nothing, I'm alive and well.
              Only complete moral fool a degenerate can scoff at the death of two tens of millions of his fellow citizens, and rejoice that the rest have been robbed and turned into slaves.
              I'm not deeply respected along the way with you!

              You have tovarisch porridge in your head
            2. kalibr
              1 September 2020 09: 35 New
              0
              Now I am walking past the school where I once studied ... Well, the noise of the rally ... And on the street in front of the school there is an exhibition of cars ... Quite a few foreign cars and what kind! Now I will take a camera and take a picture as a keepsake - a sight still. And at the trash can two homeless people and a homeless woman were collecting ... well, what do they collect there ... To each his own, right ?!
              1. Pilat2009
                Pilat2009 1 September 2020 10: 23 New
                +1
                Quote: kalibr
                Now I am walking past the school where I once studied ... Well, the noise of the rally ... And on the street in front of the school there is an exhibition of cars ... Quite a few foreign cars and what kind! Now I will take a camera and take a picture as a keepsake - a sight still. And at the trash can two homeless people and a homeless woman were collecting ... well, what do they collect there ... To each his own, right ?!

                You ask Putin this question, he has been leading the country for the last 20 years.
                1. kalibr
                  1 September 2020 10: 54 New
                  +3
                  Here are these photos:



                  The last shot was taken on the way to school. As you can see, even this person fits into the market. He's just a little poorer than Chubais, that's all.
                  1. Yurahip
                    Yurahip 1 September 2020 14: 46 New
                    0
                    Life has become better! Life has become more fun! I. V. Stalin.
                  2. Free wind
                    Free wind 1 September 2020 19: 44 New
                    +2
                    judging by the numbers of the cars, they are not at all ordinary citizens. By the way, they can sue you, display numbers illegally. On the penultimate photo, I can't determine the brand, but judging by the optics, an American, such optics have been banned for use for 15 years already, the turn signals should be orange, it is forbidden to even register such a car, plus it is dull tinted, clearly sanctioned, the owner probably yells counter sanctions and patriotism, who he is probably from the prosecutor's office or from the cops. Lexus 888, what do you say with such numbers on such a car a tractor driver drives, from the collective farm "red bast" Divorced just servants of the people, and the guardians of law and order above the roof .. Drive up to the prosecutor's office, to the court, to the cops of your city and see the achievements of brands there of the world car industry.
          2. Mordvin 3
            Mordvin 3 1 September 2020 07: 42 New
            +7
            Quote: Pilat2009
            USSR 20-30-50s monster state.

            The USSR gave my peasant grandfather an education, and after the penal battalion he sent him to work at the mine, where he, poor fellow, worked hard like dad Carlo, so much so that after the war my grandmother did not work anywhere.
            Quote: Pilat2009
            No wonder they did not really love him too much

            The capitalists, yes, they didn't.
            1. Cyril G ...
              Cyril G ... 1 September 2020 10: 30 New
              +7
              Quote: Mordvin 3
              so much so that the grandmother after the war did not work anywhere.

              Well, yes, and even under Stalin, the economy was post-innovation multi-structure, private traders and artels worked. Moreover, during the war, the artels worked quite well for the front, carrying out supplies of equipment for the front. Khrushch put an end to all this.
              1. kalibr
                1 September 2020 10: 32 New
                -2
                Quote: Cyril G ...
                private traders and artels worked.

                % of their total contribution to the economy, give?
                1. Mordvin 3
                  Mordvin 3 1 September 2020 12: 54 New
                  +2
                  Quote: kalibr
                  % of their total contribution to the economy, give?

                  And where to get them, interest? We had an artel "The Third Five-Year Plan", they began to restore on the second day, after the liberation of the city from the Germans, now the Americans are releasing their Taidy-Ariel there.
                  1. kalibr
                    1 September 2020 15: 23 New
                    -1
                    Quote: Mordvin 3
                    And where to get them, interest?

                    There is such an organization - the State Statistics Service. There was TsGANKh - the Central State Archive of the National Economy, it is still there - it is the Russian State Archive of Economics. You can go there and get everything you need. I understand that for those with a low level of education, all these abbreviations sound like curses and that they already know everything, but there is really a lot of interesting information and only it should be relied on.
                    1. The comment was deleted.
                    2. Mordvin 3
                      Mordvin 3 1 September 2020 19: 02 New
                      +1
                      Quote: kalibr
                      I understand that for those with a low level of education, all these abbreviations sound like curses

                      Can you answer
                    3. Mordvin 3
                      Mordvin 3 1 September 2020 19: 06 New
                      +3
                      Quote: kalibr
                      I understand that for those with a low level of education, all these abbreviations sound like curses

                      A highly educated person, can you answer my question:
                      Quote: Mordvin 3
                      I don’t remember where this liar told in detail about the export of gold. Can the author tell me?

                      Have you read Orlov's opus yourself? I recommend, you will find a lot of manure there.
                      1. kalibr
                        1 September 2020 20: 12 New
                        -2
                        I read in the 90s how the book came out with us. But ... one author, all the more so strange, is not an authoritative source.
                      2. Mordvin 3
                        Mordvin 3 1 September 2020 20: 15 New
                        +3
                        Quote: kalibr
                        one author, all the more so strange - the source is not authoritative.

                        So it is to him that you refer in your article. I don’t remember what he wrote about the export of gold.
                      3. kalibr
                        1 September 2020 21: 13 New
                        -3
                        And your memory is generally not very good. Remind me about the grandfather of the Polish general?
                      4. Mordvin 3
                        Mordvin 3 1 September 2020 23: 40 New
                        +3
                        Quote: kalibr
                        Remind me about the grandfather of the Polish general?

                        Better remind where Orlov wrote about gold, I ask for the fourth time.
                      5. kalibr
                        2 September 2020 06: 06 New
                        -2
                        Vladimir, I do not have this book on hand now. All references to literature are given in the text of the article. With the indication of even the data of one of the most interesting authors.
  • cost
    cost 1 September 2020 05: 43 New
    15
    El Confidencial, in its latest post on gold, disagrees. It claims that Moscow has not appropriated a single gram of Spanish gold reserves and that all the money raised for its sale actually went to pay for Soviet supplies to the Republicans.
    .
    By the way, the authoritative expert on this topic, diplomat and historian Angel Vinyas is of the same opinion. The historian bases his conclusion on the materials of the archive of the former Minister of Finance and then Prime Minister of the Republic Juan Negrin. We are talking about documents testifying that the written records of the expenditures of the gold reserve were nevertheless thoroughly kept by both the Soviet and Spanish sides.
    Moreover, Negrin's documents reveal a picture of Soviet-Spanish financial relations - not at all disinterested. The Spaniards had to pay generously for literally everything. Even for the transportation of their own gold, not to mention its storage in Moscow, protection and melting of coins (of which the gold reserve consisted) into ingots. The Spaniards involved in the work with the gold were obliged to pay sick leave and holidays. The Spaniards also paid for Soviet mediation in the sale of gold for foreign currency.
    As for the weapons, the prices for them were set in rubles, and they were sold for currency against the security of the gold reserves of Spain. By the way, Vinyas writes that in a similar way the republic paid not only with one USSR, but with other "suppliers"
    1. apro
      apro 1 September 2020 05: 57 New
      +9
      Quote: Rich
      not disinterested at all. The Spaniards had to pay generously for literally everything

      And why should it be free of charge? The labor of Soviet citizens must be financially rewarded. Weapons. Transport services cost money.
      1. cost
        cost 1 September 2020 06: 07 New
        +9
        Am I really saying that she had to be disinterested?belay
        If you read my comments carefully, you will understand that both Negrin and Vinyas, to which I refer, do not nearly condemn this practice of interstate mutual settlements and consider it generally accepted
        1. apro
          apro 1 September 2020 06: 11 New
          +6
          So they would write ... which is based on normal trade relations ...
          Quote: Rich
          not at all disinterested. The Spaniards had to pay generously for literally everything

          And not to show doublethink. And no one forced them. It was their choice to preserve their state.
          1. cost
            cost 1 September 2020 06: 28 New
            +3
            So they would write .. which is based on normal trade relations.

            It seems that you are only reading yourself. laughing
    2. pmkemcity
      pmkemcity 1 September 2020 06: 37 New
      +2
      There is no "secret of Spanish gold" - this is Soviet gold!
  • Captivity
    Captivity 1 September 2020 05: 44 New
    +7
    There was also Romanian gold. Also an interesting story
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 1 September 2020 08: 26 New
      +6
      Could you please give more details? hi
      1. The comment was deleted.
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 1 September 2020 09: 40 New
          +3
          Set a search vector, thanks!
      2. cost
        cost 1 September 2020 09: 32 New
        +6
        Anton hi
        He is referring to the gold reserve of the Romanian National Bank, which was taken out for safekeeping to the Russian Empire in December 1916 during the First World War. After the October Socialist Revolution, he was arrested by the Soviet government following the occupation of Bessarabia by the Romanian troops, which formerly belonged to the Russian Empire.
        The Soviet government has officially announced on several occasions that the Romanian gold will be returned after the return of Bessarabia to the Soviet Union.
        Today's Romania continues to insist that Russia retains part of the values ​​of Royal Romania to this day, and that Romania gave Bessarabia both times not voluntarily, but under the threat of defeat
        In general, briefly something like this
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 1 September 2020 09: 41 New
          10
          Thank you Dmitry! And what, the gold taken by the Romanian border guards from gr. Was Bender not enough? laughing
          1. cost
            cost 1 September 2020 10: 40 New
            +5
            Anton, Ostap Ibragimovich had a little less on himself laughing
            Romania expresses claims for almost 3 tons of gold bars (out of 70 tons deposited), taking into account the fact of the transfer of Romania by the Soviet Union - 12 tons (5 and 7) in 1934 and 1936, almost 20 tons in 1949, 8 tons in 60s, 10 tons in 1986 and taking into account the post-war Romanian reparations of the USSR

            Let's hope that Russian diplomats will show firm will in the course of the negotiations, since our acts of goodwill have more than once been paid for with black ingratitude and have been interpreted as an indicator of weakness and compliance.
            1. Liam
              Liam 1 September 2020 10: 53 New
              +1
              The USSR never returned any gold to Romania. It returned some icons, IOUs, shares, carpets, a small part of paper money and a small amount of old gold coins. The main part of the gold reserve in the form of about 90 tons of bullion, gold German and Austrian marks, etc. - never returned
              1. cost
                cost 1 September 2020 11: 31 New
                +4
                The USSR never returned any gold to Romania

                I recommend reading Gheorghiu-Dej Gheorghe's two-volume "Articles and Speeches". State publishing house polit. lit., 938 p., indexes FB H 961/100, FB K 77/300
                And he is, after all, N. Ceausescu's predecessor - General Secretary - Central Committee of the RCP in 1948-1965, Prime Minister of Romania in 1952-1955 .. Chairman of the State Council of Romania in 1961-1965.
                1. Liam
                  Liam 1 September 2020 11: 40 New
                  0
                  ))) Thank you for the recommendations. But this is not a school, but a public discussion. You will not be difficult to quote some quotes from Dezh or anyone else about how, when and how much gold was allegedly returned
                  1. cost
                    cost 1 September 2020 12: 11 New
                    +5
                    ))) Thank you for the recommendations. But this is not a school, but a public discussion. You will not be difficult to quote some quotes from Dezh or anyone else about how, when and how much gold was allegedly returned

                    Yes you know it won't make it difficult smile
                    If the communist Gheorghiu-Dej Gheorghe is not an authority for you in this matter, look at the articles of the liberal economist Alexei Chichkin, at least this
                    link - http://www.ruspred.ru/arh/tn1/5rr.html. And if you wish, dig deeper into the internet - there are a lot of his works, and on the Romanian theme too. Chichkin was a member of the Accounts Chamber of the Russian Federation
                    .
                    1. Liam
                      Liam 1 September 2020 13: 42 New
                      -2
                      It's not even surprising. I'm asking for a link to at least some document or a direct quote from Dej or other Romanian leaders documenting the return of gold, and you give me historical anecdotes without reference to any official document.
                      Tons of gold are not transferred like this, but official interstate agreements, inventories, protocols, acts of delivery / acceptance are made. Undoubtedly, you are able to show such
                      1. cost
                        cost 1 September 2020 14: 14 New
                        +6
                        Tons of gold are not transferred this way, but official interstate agreements, inventories, protocols, delivery / acceptance certificates are made. Undoubtedly, you are able to show such

                        After reading Chichkin's article on the above link about how, when and how much gold was returned, now they decided to flood. smile
                        Interstate agreements, inventories, protocols, acts of delivery / acceptance you require from me
                        Undoubtedly, you are able to show such

                        So this is a nice person not to me. Try to contact the Ministry of Finance, the Accounts Chamber, or the FSB. They say so and so, I such and such, such and such demand to provide me within ten days to familiarize myself with the contract, inventory, protocols, acts of delivery / acceptance of Romanian gold. yes
                        Good health and good luck in this noble cause. hi
                      2. Liam
                        Liam 1 September 2020 14: 27 New
                        -3
                        You fill the thread with fakes. How much and what was transferred in 1916/17 and how much and what was returned, and what was never returned was not well known to me from Romanian sources. And your ideas about the FSB and the Ministry of Finance are just an attempt to blur the topic with a talking shop. There are no links to official documents about the return of gold for the simple reason that there has never been a return of gold
      3. Yurahip
        Yurahip 1 September 2020 14: 48 New
        0
        Let them look for their gold in Japan and the Czech Republic.
  • cost
    cost 1 September 2020 05: 54 New
    +7
    Quite a curious absolutely unbiased video on the topic.
    1. Ragnar Lodbrok
      Ragnar Lodbrok 1 September 2020 06: 12 New
      13

      Burmistrov Ivan Alekseevich - commander of the submarine "S-1" of the Navy of the Republican Spain, lieutenant captain; the first of the military sailors to be awarded the title "Hero of the Soviet Union".
      Member of the national revolutionary war of the Spanish people of 1936-1939. He was twice on military missions in Spain in 1937 and in 1938. The submarine of the Spanish republicans "S-1", commanded by I.A. Burmistrov took an active part in the hostilities of the Navy of the Republican Spain. I think that for the fact that he took out Spanish gold on his boat and was awarded the Hero of the Soviet Union.
      1. cost
        cost 1 September 2020 07: 44 New
        +5
        I think that for taking out Spanish gold on his boat and being awarded the Hero of the Soviet Union.

        Burmistrov Ivan Alekseevich in Spain only from February 1937, and gold was exported to the USSR in 1936.
        former Minister of Finance and then Prime Minister of the Spanish Republic during the Civil War Juan Negrin:
        "On October 20, 1936, in the port of the Spanish city of Cartagena, the loading of gold on the Soviet ships" Kim "," Kuban "," Neva "and" Volgoles "began. The total volume of gold was about 510 tons, packed in 7800 wooden boxes. To guard the Soviet ships with a valuable cargo, the Spanish republican government mobilized almost all of its combat-ready sea fleet. As a result, the ships arrived safely in the USSR "
        a photo Motor ship "KIM" (Communist Youth International)

        Ivan Alekseevich is my fellow countryman. He retired in 1950. He lived in Stavropol, worked as a director of a leather plant. He was buried in Stavropol at the Danilovskoye cemetery.
        1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
          Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 1 September 2020 10: 04 New
          0
          Rich, the topic of the "golden submarine" is being discussed by crypto historians in connection with the name of another "volunteer" -submariner - Egyptko. This has absolutely nothing to do with the "Spanish gold" - Egyptko really took out to C-6 in August 1937 from the doomed Santander (a day before the Italians entered it) to Gijon, in addition to our advisers, also the Basque party treasury for 15 million pesetas (according to the report of Egyptko himself, filed a year later). The amount is actually huge - about $ 5 million. It is very doubtful that the BNP had such a sum, but it is precisely this that appears. Further, the orgy of dreamers begins - that, they say, then Egyptko (already on C-2) took out "Basque gold" (huh!) ... to Kronstadt (!!), after which, they say, these grandmothers in the USSR were transferred to the Spanish communists- emigrants. The last passage of the crypto historians especially delivered ....
          1. cost
            cost 1 September 2020 10: 14 New
            +1
            Thank you for the addition and clarification. I didn't know anything about this story
            1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
              Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 1 September 2020 10: 16 New
              0
              Egipko has a very interesting Spanish odyssey)
      2. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
        Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 1 September 2020 10: 13 New
        +1
        Quote: Ragnar Lothbrok
        I think that for taking out Spanish gold on his boat and being awarded the Hero of the Soviet Union.

        fantasy is as daring as it is stupid.
        This is how many, I wonder, did Burmistrov need to make flights Cartagena-Odessa on the incense-breathing C-1 to carry at least a quarter of this cargo? )))
        Well, let's fantasize further - why would we transport the gold in the SB bomb bays. Good too.
      3. BAI
        BAI 1 September 2020 12: 35 New
        +3
        Basque gold was transported in the summer of 1937, on the "sort of" C-6 and C-2, commander N.P. Egyptian. But information about the S-6 looks very doubtful, tk. it was launched on 31.03.1938/XNUMX/XNUMX.
        VIKI claims that the commanders of the S-1 were A.V. Tripolsky and I.T. Nautical. Burmistorov was not there (this is in the article about S-1). But in the article about Burmistorov, it is stated that he was the commander of both the S-6, and the S-1, and the S-4. Therefore, here you cannot trust anyone (especially VIKI). Egyko definitely took out. This is documented.
        Therefore, the gold was taken out by C-2 and an unknown boat.
        1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
          Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 1 September 2020 13: 30 New
          -1
          Quote: BAI
          But information about the S-6 looks very doubtful, tk. it was launched on 31.03.1938/XNUMX/XNUMX.


          actually, they launched it on December 26, 1929.
          Scuttled on October 19, 1937 in Gijón (where she was brought by Egyptko), as two days earlier two bombs fatally damaged a solid hull. It lay at the bottom until 1947, was raised and cut into scrap.
          As for the C-2, the story is more interesting: after Egyptko fled from Saint-Nazaire, the authorities of the Republic decided to use the boat to deliver mail from Valencia to Barcelona and back. They even issued a unique postage stamp (August 11, 38th).

          1. BAI
            BAI 1 September 2020 13: 49 New
            0
            1.
            Actually, it was launched on December 26, 1929.

            Yah? And who was this built?
            Laid down on December 28, 1935 at the plant number 189 (Baltic plant) in Leningrad under the slipway number 279 and the letter designation "N-6". On October 20, 1937, the submarine received the designation "S-6". She was launched on March 31, 1938 and became part of the Red Banner Baltic Fleet on November 27, 1939.
            2.
            Scuttled on October 19, 1937 in Gijón (where she was brought by Egyptko), as two days earlier two bombs fatally damaged a solid hull. It lay at the bottom until 1947, was raised and cut into scrap.

            And who is this in the Baltic in March 1941 and at the bottom of the Baltic in the summer of 2011?
            In the summer of 2011, a submarine identified as "C-6" was found by Swedish search divers off the coast of Sweden and surveyed a year later. The submarine died while charging batteries on one of the lines of mines of the German barrier "Wartburg" and lies on sandy ground at a depth of 45 meters 55 miles east of the Swedish island of Sandhamn at 55 ° 52,9385 N / 17 ° 10,7114 v.d. According to the Swedish side, the ship's hull is split in two: the bow and a large wreck lie 20 m north of the stern, which, together with the 45-mm gun, is in very good condition.



            Returning to the original comment - Burmistorov (especially Egyptian) has never been the commander of the C-6. The commanders were Kulbakin and Kulygin.
            1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
              Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 1 September 2020 14: 14 New
              0
              Yah? And who was this built?
              Laid down on 28 December 1935 at plant number 189 (Baltic plant) in Leningrad under slipway number 279


              laughing laughing

              And you have a specific sense of humor)
              Or are you serious?

              If you do not know, then we are talking about the Spanish boats of the "C" series of the former Royal Spanish Navy, which became part of the Republican Navy in 1936. And the commanders on which were in 1937-1938 were Soviet "volunteers" submariners.
              They were laid, thank God, not at the Baltic shipyard, but at the SEKN shipyard in Cartagena. And they entered service in 1928-1930.
              As far as I understand, it is precisely because of this stupid delusion that the majority of "experts" believe that Egipko took the "Basque gold" to his "native" base in Kronstadt.
              Sorry, rzhu. laughing
        2. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
          Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 1 September 2020 13: 36 New
          0
          Quote: BAI
          Therefore, the gold was taken out by C-2 and an unknown boat.

          what gold? The Basque party cashier with some kind of trickery? Well, yes, they took me from Santander to Gijon. And it was at the C-6. This epic has absolutely nothing to do with "Spanish gold". We are talking about completely different assets.
          1. BAI
            BAI 1 September 2020 14: 56 New
            +1
            1. And no one says that Basque gold and Spanish gold are one and the same. Of course, these are different things. Kronstadt was out of the question.
            2. And the same name of the Soviet and Spanish boats, and even under the command of Soviet commanders, really causes confusion.
            1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
              Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 1 September 2020 15: 13 New
              -1
              Quote: BAI
              really confusing.

              absolutely no confusion. Is that you. Is this the cost of "wikipedia erudition"? Half an hour ago you were sure that the KBF boats were exporting "Basque gold". Facepalm.
              Quote: BAI
              Kronstadt was out of the question.

              about Kronstadt write in some publications "historians of the fleet" with a well-developed imagination. They draw very vividly a pier, "cordoned off by the NKVD" and other nonsense.
              1. BAI
                BAI 1 September 2020 15: 18 New
                0
                Half an hour ago you were sure that the KBF boats were exporting "Basque gold".

                Yes. And it was not in my thoughts that in Spain during the Civil War, combat-ready submarines were preserved.
                1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
                  Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 1 September 2020 15: 40 New
                  0
                  Quote: BAI
                  And it was not in my thoughts that in Spain during the Civil War, combat-ready submarines were preserved.

                  nuuuuu .... Read Kuznetsov. Or Egyptian. The republic got a rather powerful submarine fleet - something of the order of a dozen boats, which they accepted into their fleet. True, the hardware and especially the Italian torpedoes left much to be desired, but nevertheless.
                  And Franco acquired a submarine already in 1937 thanks to the Duce - the Itals handed over to the caudillo four boats of the Archimedes type and two medium-sized boats of the Perla type. And yet, like, a couple of mines were built for the Spaniards.
  • Free wind
    Free wind 1 September 2020 06: 12 New
    +4
    The war in Spain could give us a lot, in terms of military experience, at least in military operations, because the Francoists won due to a clear organization. They did not pay attention to the technique either. The same T-34 was developed in secret from the leadership, on an initiative basis. Comrade Stalin, the leader was of course tough, for help sowing. Korea demanded a rather large amount that the Koreans and the Chinese were a little bit sad. What would have happened if the Republicans had won, it seems no good. Hitler would have smashed Spain with one pendel. And I would have got a loyal ally, and we would have fought not 50 thousand, but under a million, there were many dissatisfied. And so what kind of neutrality.
    1. apro
      apro 1 September 2020 06: 56 New
      +3
      Quote: Free Wind
      What would have happened if the Republicans had won, it seems no good. Hitler would have smashed Spain with one pendel.

      Not fact. Remember Mongolia. Tam TovIVStalin said that he would defend as his own territory. And they understood everything correctly. The problem was in Spain with its social crisis. Too many contradictions on the part of the legitimate government. Yes, and the aggression from Italy and Germany solved a lot.
      1. Free wind
        Free wind 1 September 2020 11: 14 New
        +4
        The USSR invested huge funds in Mongolia, enterprises were created, thanks to the machine-cutting stations, the Mongols learned how to mow hay, which helped to increase the number of livestock, from 30 to 40 the livestock increased by 6-8 million, if it was captured, all funds would fly into the pipe. So the help of the Mongols during the war years was not entirely free of charge, they were well helped.
    2. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 1 September 2020 09: 10 New
      +6
      Quote: Free Wind
      The same T-34 was developed in secret from the leadership, on an initiative basis.

      Uh-huh ... in the initiative. smile
      There should be one tank intended for action in conjunction with infantry (cavalry) and as part of independent tank formations. For this purpose, it is necessary to develop two types of tanks: one purely tracked and the other wheeled-tracked. Comprehensively test them during 1939 and then adopt the one that will meet all the requirements instead of the BT and T-26.
      © Voroshilov, May 1938
      In order to further improve the tanks, according to the tactical and technical data of the ABTU, developed at a tank meeting and approved by the People's Commissar of Defense, three prototypes of tanks - two tracked and one - wheeled-tracked with 6 driving wheels (Appendix No. 2). One of the tracked tanks should be made by chemical.
      a) To oblige the NKOP to manufacture and transfer the NPOs for testing prototype tanks by June 1, 1939.
      Present the wooden model of the tank to the breadboard commission by October 1, 1938.
      b) To oblige the NCO to subject the prototypes of tanks to comprehensive comparative tests and to select for submission to service one sample that most fully meets the requirements for the tank.
      © Decree of the Defense Committee 198ss "On the system of tank armament of the Red Army" dated August 7, 1938.
    3. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 1 September 2020 09: 33 New
      +6
      Quote: Free Wind
      Hitler would have smashed Spain with one pendel. And I would have received a loyal ally, and we would have fought not 50 thousand, but under a million, there were many dissatisfied

      He would get another Yugoslavia. In which the occupation units would have to be kept to support the established regime. In real life, the same Franco, after the seemingly successful completion of the Civil War for him, did not control the entire country for a long time. And here instead of "their" Francoists, German invaders will come ...
      And most importantly, Spain would have to be fed. For their agricultural Spaniards safely ditched in the Civil. And food in the Reich was not just bad, but very bad. The cut in "meat norms" in the spring of 1941 was reflected even in Halder's diary.
      General Osterkamp: Difficulties in supplying meat. The number of pigs decreased from 27 to 20 million heads. Cattle should not be touched. Therefore, you need to reduce consumption. It is necessary to reduce the consumption of meat in the ground forces before the offensive. In the armed forces, the norm is reduced from 1500 to 1350 grams, and for the civilian population, from 500 to 400 grams [per week].
    4. your1970
      your1970 1 September 2020 18: 02 New
      +3
      Quote: Free Wind
      The war in Spain could give us a lot, in terms of military experience, at least in military operations, because the Francoists won due to a clear organization.

      aha ... not literally but close to the text:
      "Our three tanks went on the attack, overcoming the enemy's positions, found that the Republicans did not leave their trenches. They returned, raised the infantry from the trenches, again went on the attack on the enemy, breaking through the enemy's trenches, again found that the infantry did not support them. Again they returned and again raised the infantry from the trenches ... "

      and now the other side is with "clear organization"... according to their positions back and forth belay enemy tanks are driving. Tanks are said very loudly - their armor at a distance of 50-100 meters would be turned into a sieve by a regular machine gun (not even into a drushlag!). I don't even remember about grenades and artillery ...
      Did they do anything to counteract this?
      1. Alexey RA
        Alexey RA 2 September 2020 08: 45 New
        +2
        Quote: your1970
        aha ... not literally but close to the text:
        "Our three tanks went on the attack, overcoming the enemy's positions, found that the Republicans did not leave their trenches. They returned, raised the infantry from the trenches, again went on the attack on the enemy, breaking through the enemy's trenches, again found that the infantry did not support them. Again they returned and again raised the infantry from the trenches ... "

        The infantry does not follow the tanks. © from the reports of tankers 1929-1945. smile
        1. your1970
          your1970 2 September 2020 10: 15 New
          +2
          Quote: Alexey RA
          The infantry does not follow the tanks. © from the reports of tankers 1929-1945.
          - 3 tanks are rolling around the positions of the Francoists (THREE!!!), and they drove through these positions 6 times. Not a single tank was lost ...
          There were Francoists in general, in those trenches?
  • Mordvin 3
    Mordvin 3 1 September 2020 07: 01 New
    +3
    As for Alexander Orlov, in 1953 he published a book in the United States, where he spoke in detail about this secret operation.

    I don’t remember where this liar told in detail about the export of gold. Can the author tell me? I doubt it, however.
  • Operator
    Operator 1 September 2020 07: 06 New
    +6
    Leiba Leizerovich Feldbin (operational pseudonym "Alexander Orlov") in Spain specialized in secret liquidations of Trotskyists - mostly Jews by nationality. After the NKVD planned to liquidate him as he knew too much, he deserted to the Americans, revealed to them the organizational structure of the NKVD GUGB, for which he received political asylum in the United States.

    During interrogations at the FBI and in articles in Time magazine in 1952, he attributed to himself the rank of general and numerous espionage "exploits" that were not confirmed by anyone. Felbin's actual participation in the transport of Spanish gold was to protect its loading on Soviet ships and nothing more.

    From the memoirs of the French inter-brigade officer, member of the FKP Kirill Khenkin:
    "For me, a student at the University of Paris, a member of the student communist cell, who had crossed the Pyrenees on foot two days earlier, the meeting [with Orlov] was a shock: the representative of the great Soviet Union, whom I then worshiped, looked like a smug, sleek, imposing type."

    The Jew Felbin was a professional murderer of Jews.
    1. kalibr
      1 September 2020 10: 42 New
      +5
      Quote: Operator
      The Jew Felbin was a professional murderer of Jews.

      He was not a professional Jewish killer. He was a professional killer of people who were pointed out to him, but for some reason among them, by some incomprehensible irony of fate, there were many Jews! It will be more accurate, it seems to me.
    2. Cyril G ...
      Cyril G ... 1 September 2020 10: 46 New
      +7
      Quote: Operator
      During interrogations at the FBI and in articles in Time magazine in 1952, he attributed to himself the rank of general and numerous espionage "exploits" that were not confirmed by anyone.


      What do you mean ascribed? Orlov-Felbin's last rank was senior major of the GB.
      The special rank of senior major of state security (2 rhombuses in the collar tabs of the 1937-1943 model) conditionally corresponded to the military rank Divisional Commander of the Red Army.
  • 3x3zsave
    3x3zsave 1 September 2020 07: 19 New
    12
    Thank you, Vyacheslav Olegovich.
    However, I will note that the material is too full of conspiracy theories.
    I'll add it myself. The aid of other states to the Republicans was by no means gratuitous. The remaining 23% of Spain's gold reserves (193 tons) were sent to France to pay for food and arms supplies. Of these, Franco managed to recover 40 tons.
    1. cost
      cost 1 September 2020 07: 57 New
      +6
      Thanks to the Author for the article. By the way, Vecheslav Olegovich, it is a pity that you did not mention the works of Angel Vinyas and Gabriel Jackson in it.
    2. kalibr
      1 September 2020 09: 29 New
      +7
      Here, Anton! Quite recently I just wrote that I want to try to write like Samsonov. Remember? What "secrets", "questions", how, why, who is to blame ... He has much more conspiracy theories, doesn't he? But now you don't like it. Truly, you cannot please all the animals.
      1. 3x3zsave
        3x3zsave 1 September 2020 09: 47 New
        +6
        Was that stylization ?! Then it was necessary to write about cockroaches. All alone you would have been pounded as a hater of the main symbionts of the Soviet man.
        1. kalibr
          1 September 2020 10: 35 New
          +6
          Quote: 3x3zsave
          , so it was stylization ?!

          And judging by your comment, it was quite a success!
  • evgen1221
    evgen1221 1 September 2020 08: 12 New
    +3
    Well, let's say Yezhov to clean up and without Spain was for that. The gold was tidied up correctly, because there is no way to create wars, some are at war, while others have siesta, plus a little something to skimp on. So no tanks will be filled, and the logistics cannot be moved around the corner. Plus revenge for everything good in Europe during industrialization and payment only in bread and nothing more. Alaverdy!
  • Aviator_
    Aviator_ 1 September 2020 08: 30 New
    +5
    Many of the Soviet pilots had only 30-40 hours of flight time before being sent to Spain.

    From this place in more detail, pzhlst. It seems that the author takes such data from the film of the 50s "Volunteers", where almost a DOSAAF member was sent to Spain (sorry, OSOAVIAKHIMovtsa).
    1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
      Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 1 September 2020 11: 46 New
      +4
      Quote: Aviator_
      From this place in more detail, pzhlst.


      so Hugh Thomas wrote. The author believes him unconditionally.
      1. Aviator_
        Aviator_ 1 September 2020 16: 39 New
        0
        Well, Thomas, of course, knows better. The poet Nikolai Dorizo, on whose poem the film "Volunteers" was made, seems to have also drew inspiration from Thomas. And in the decisions of the XX Congress of the CPSU, where everyone was told who is good and who is bad.
        1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
          Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 1 September 2020 17: 48 New
          0
          What's wrong with the "Volunteers"?
  • Alexey RA
    Alexey RA 1 September 2020 09: 05 New
    +6
    However, the Spanish edition of El Confidencial, referring to a number of famous Spanish historians and documents of the former Minister of Finance of the Republic Juan Negrin, announced in our time that, they say, all the gold went to pay for Soviet military equipment and specialists. They say that the Soviet Union did not take a dime for itself.

    This was the version of the Soviet side. And it seems that after Franco's death no claims for gold were sent to us. But ... how many tanks, guns and aircraft could be bought for these tons of gold, how many "advisors" should be paid a salary ?! And did Mussolini really take about the same amount for 150000 soldiers sent to Spain, Fiat fighters, his machine-gun tankettes? Let's look at the supply figures again.

    Not a bad attempt to throw mud at the USSR. All you need to do is add the word "Soviet" to the phrase "payment for supplies," and then be surprised that Soviet supplies do not cost so much.
    Everything was much simpler: the USSR and France became the custodians of Spanish gold. And at the request of the Spanish government, the USSR exchanged gold for currency, which was then used by the Spaniards for purchases around the world (not only in the USSR). Actually in the USSR, only 28% of the amount received for the sale of gold was spent. The USSR took another 3% as a commission, as well as in payment for transportation services.
  • ee2100
    ee2100 1 September 2020 09: 40 New
    +1
    The author did not mention the very good book "the gold of the game" by Igor Bunich, when he read it in 1994, he began to look at many things differently.
    The author did not mention the gold that was lost during transportation, and there was it, oh, how much it is not that Orlov stole $ 94000.
    And about a tub of slops. It is true that it is true that not everyone likes it. Having received the gold, the USSR immediately issued invoices for the military assistance provided, as well as for transportation by road to Kartokhena, by sea to Odessa, by rail to Moscow. I immediately took a certain percentage for myself, it seems 2,1. The fact that the cost of "services" was greatly overestimated by the Soviet side was noted by many. Part of the money, after the sale of gold, would be sent to the commercial bank of France, controlled by the State Bank of the USSR, and there the well-known fact "disappeared".
    Do not think that another country would have acted differently. About 30% of Spain's gold reserves ended up in France, but after the war France returned a part, it seems, 40 tons of gold, and appropriated the rest.
    About humanity. Germany and Italy issued invoices for aid to Frankish Spain following its victory in the civil war.
    1. Alexey RA
      Alexey RA 1 September 2020 15: 23 New
      0
      Quote: ee2100
      Having received the gold, the USSR immediately issued invoices for the military assistance provided, as well as for transportation by road to Kartokhena, by sea to Odessa, by rail to Moscow. I immediately took a certain percentage for myself, it seems 2,1.

      On the contrary - 1,2%. Moreover, this amount also included the cost of melting and refining gold.
      The USSR took 2,1% for itself as a commission for services in the sale of gold.
      1. ee2100
        ee2100 1 September 2020 16: 15 New
        0
        So be it. Thanks for the fix, but 3,3% is good too!
  • Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
    Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 1 September 2020 10: 39 New
    +9
    Many of the Soviet pilots had only 30-40 hours of flight time before being sent to Spain.


    I would write right away - "we saw an airplane for the first time", what really ...

    The Russian volunteers were, without a doubt, the most formidable pilots of all .... The Russians were extremely superbly trained. Many of them at the age of 25 had more than 2000 flight hours, some in their 30s had 3000 hours or so ...

    "Fighters in the Spanish sky"
    The Daily Herald, July 13, 1937.
    The author is the French pilot Abel Guides.
  • Cyril G ...
    Cyril G ... 1 September 2020 10: 40 New
    +5
    The authors of VO in their role, the truth is nothing, everything is hype.
    In addition, they {military advisers} often changed, and those recalled to the USSR were immediately repressed, which did not add respect to those who remained with the Spaniards.


    The author, why is there nothing behind your given statement? Where is the elementary statistics?

    Many of the Soviet pilots, before being sent to Spain, had a flight time of only 30-40 hours, while the German and Italian pilots who fought for Franco, if they were not all aces, had a lot more flight time in any case. And the result is a high percentage of accidents and disasters due to the human factor, because of which nearly one and a half hundred Soviet aircraft were lost in the first year and a half of the war!


    Author, likewise.
    Where is the elementary analysis of the flight crew who went to Spain? Not to mention the fact that the documents of the Main Military Council for 1936 refute you. If you indicate the percentage of disasters, what is it? How many Republican aircraft were lost and for what reasons?
    And so on in the same spirit.
    1. kalibr
      1 September 2020 12: 02 New
      +2
      The article is not about that. The literature used in the article is indicated. The article is not a book about the Civil War. I have a book about her armored vehicles. About pilots - no. You are interested? Get busy! And how will you figure it out - write to us at VO. Everyone will say thank you!
  • BAI
    BAI 1 September 2020 11: 54 New
    +7
    1.
    Again, again, gold, as always, beckons us!
    V. Obodzinsky. McKenna's Gold

    V. Obodzinsky - performer. Authors - Music - Quincy Jones, lyrics - F. Douglas (Russian text - Leonid Derbenyov)
    "Old vulture vulture"
    And it does not "beckon us", but "deceives us."

    2.
    Stalin suddenly said:

    "The Spaniards cannot see this gold as their ears."

    And besides the English researcher A. Beevor, was anyone else present?

    3.
    However, he nevertheless got his hands on the money: he stole $ 90,8 thousand (about $ 1,5 million in 2014 prices) from the operational funds of the NKVD (from a personal safe that was in the Soviet consulate on Avenida Street del Tibidabo in Barcelona) and together with his wife (also a spy) and daughter, on July 13, 1938, secretly left for France, and from there on the Montclaret steamer from Cherbourg on July 21, first to Montreal (Canada), and then to the USA.

    Well, here we need to start with Orlov's telegram sent to Moscow on December 29, 1936. It said that the head of the political counterintelligence of the Spanish republican government Justinianos was arrested in Barcelona, ​​in whose car 500 kg of gold and valuable paintings were found. The further fate of this gold is unknown. However, after Orlov fled to the United States in August 1938, taking with him 60000 dollars from the safe of the Barcelona residency (and not 90800), the Parisian resident of the INO NKVD I. Agayants sent a telegram to Moscow, in which it was reported that part of the Spanish gold reserve "was squandered by the republican government with the participation of the leadership of the NKVD residency in Spain." The telegram made a great impression on Stalin, and he instructed L. Beria to conduct a thorough check. For two weeks, the NKVD auditors checked all the available documentation, but no traces of shortage were found by them... True, P. Sudoplatov, who was in charge of the audit, in his memoirs, casually notes that some "values ​​intended for the operational needs of the Spanish Republican government in order to finance secret operations were illegally exported from Spain to France, and from there delivered to Moscow as diplomatic mail." ...

    4. Well, the author kept silent about the Basque gold, exported on 2 submarines:
    “People's Commissar of the Navy, Commander of the 1st Rank, Comrade Frinovsky from the deputy head of the RKKA intelligence department. Report by Lieutenant-Commander N.P. Egyptko September 16.9.38, XNUMX:
    After the fall of Santander, by order of the Minister of War, Prieto began to base the fleet in the small and unprotected port of Gijón. Santander was surrounded on 23.8.37 ... From 23 to 24 August, the Spanish command and illegally the party treasury were taken aboard different values and currency for 15000000 pesetas. All submarines arrived safely in Gijón on the night of August 24-25.
    1. kalibr
      1 September 2020 11: 59 New
      +2
      Nice addition. Thank! About 90 and 60 ... the sources are different, that's all. There is no 100% guarantee that yours is more accurate than mine and vice versa. And about Santander ... well, you just can't write everything. The volume of the article should not be too large.
      1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
        Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 1 September 2020 14: 34 New
        +1
        Tell, Shpakovsky, you were not amused by this exalted comment:
        Quote: depressant
        I read the article by Vyacheslav Olegovich and the comments to it with great interest. I was amazed by the knowledge of colleagues. What all the clever guys! )))
        Is that what I knew about the Spanish Civil War? That she was. And also there were Koltsov and our heroes - internationalists. And Hemengway. Spanish children. And then there is such a layer of surprises)))
        And, as always, his own view of things: the great Stalin is the master, the statesman! Everything in the house, nothing from the house. Article - confirmation. Is not it so?

        Personally, I laugh. The Stalinists have a rather specific perception) So they will write you into their ranks. Achtung! laughing
        ps Thanks for the essay - the topic is very debatable, but always interesting. Your position is clear, although, as I noticed, it is not shared by the majority. Their reasons are also understandable.
        1. kalibr
          1 September 2020 15: 34 New
          +4
          You know, you are registered on the site on August 26, 20, although you probably read its materials before, and I on February 15, 15. So I am no longer surprised at anything and nothing amuses me, just as it does not sadden me. "Praise of stupidity" Erasmus of Rotterdam also wrote not yesterday. My granddaughter also told not yesterday at school that no one drowned in Lake Peipsi, that ... there are articles ... on VO, but no one, including the teacher, supported her - "there is a movie!" I was here both an English spy, and a Japanese one, and an agent of the State Department, and I was supported by Soros, MI-5, Zionists and Freemasons. So thanks for ... active participation! The more clicks, the better!
      2. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
        Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 1 September 2020 17: 27 New
        0
        Quote: kalibr
        And about Santander ... well, you just can't write everything.

        And rightly so, by the way, they did, Shpakovsky, that they did not write about the "gold of the Basques") It has nothing to do with the subject - it was just that the party cash desk was transported from one place to another on a republican boat. There is a cryptohistorical version that, they say, Egyptko "took out" these 15 million pesetas on a Spanish boat (!) To Kronstadt (!) laughing
        But this idiocy is not even worth discussing.
  • depressant
    depressant 1 September 2020 12: 50 New
    +1
    I read the article by Vyacheslav Olegovich and the comments to it with great interest. I was amazed by the knowledge of colleagues. What all the clever guys! )))
    Is that what I knew about the Spanish Civil War? That she was. And also there were Koltsov and our heroes - internationalists. And Hemengway. Spanish children. And then there is such a layer of surprises)))
    And, as always, his own view of things: the great Stalin is the master, the statesman! Everything in the house, nothing from the house. Article - confirmation. Is not it so?
    1. kalibr
      1 September 2020 15: 36 New
      +2
      Quote: depressant
      the great Stalin is the master, the statesman! Everything in the house, nothing from the house. Article - confirmation. Is not it so?

      No! But this is a topic for another conversation. We need links to archives, extracts from newspapers, we need ... in a word, this is a very large and complex topic. for the magazine "Voprosy istorii" not for VO. With all due respect to you personally!
  • Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
    Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 1 September 2020 13: 07 New
    +3
    Quote: kalibr
    This is what he is, the "hero" of the top-secret "operation" X ", Alexander Mikhailovich Orlov, he is at birth Leib Lazarevich (Leizerovich) Feldbin.

    Hah! Soviet intelligence has a pronounced Semitic profile, this is undeniable, and Orlov is a personality, of course, colorful, just a concentrate of the adventurous romance of the glorious cohort of "cloak and dagger Jews" - Drabkin, Berzin, Uritsky, Gendin, Trilisser, Slutsky, Gorb, Shpigelglas, Serebryansky , Rotstad ... well, Sydney Reilly is here - Rosenblum) And, of course, the star in the cinematic biography - Yakov Blumkin. But the most important thing is that Orlov was smart enough to follow the genetically strong instinct of self-preservation and to dump in time, which saved the life of both him and his family.
    Well, and those who stigmatize him as a traitor, etc., apparently, in his place would have obediently climbed aboard the Svir and in the cabin would have painted a cross on their foreheads with green paint, wouldn't they?
    1. kalibr
      1 September 2020 15: 38 New
      +3
      Quote: Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
      And, of course, the star in the cinematic biography - Yakov Blumkin

      I had a whole series of articles about Blumkin! Go to the profile, flip through the pages - you will find ...
      1. Paragraph Epitafievich Y.
        Paragraph Epitafievich Y. 1 September 2020 15: 51 New
        +2
        I will not fail, thanks.
  • Undecim
    Undecim 1 September 2020 14: 22 New
    +3
    Vault of gold reserves at the National Bank of Spain
    Just "Bank of Spain", a little clarification.
    Somehow everyone focused on the "Moscow gold" sent to the USSR by the republicans. But the rebels also needed money. And they also collected the "gold reserve". The plot is no less exciting.
    1. 3x3zsave
      3x3zsave 1 September 2020 18: 21 New
      +2
      Hello, Victor Nikolaevich! And what can you read in Russian on this issue?
      1. Undecim
        Undecim 1 September 2020 18: 45 New
        +4
        Hello Anton. The choice is very limited. From the books I know only Rybalkin Yu. Operation H. Soviet military aid to Republican Spain (1936-1939).
        1. 3x3zsave
          3x3zsave 1 September 2020 19: 05 New
          +2
          You probably did not understand, I was referring to your last comment, the collection of metal assets by the Francoists.
          1. Undecim
            Undecim 1 September 2020 19: 13 New
            +3
            I didn't find anything in Russian for this question.
            1. 3x3zsave
              3x3zsave 1 September 2020 19: 15 New
              +1
              It's a pity. Where is the photo from?
              1. Undecim
                Undecim 1 September 2020 19: 21 New
                +3
                https://www.diariodeburgos.es/noticia/z0dba518a-051b-b6bb-14e7d66f7149c0e4/201503/el-oro-que-no-se-fue-a-moscu
                You can still here.
                https://conversacionsobrehistoria.info/2019/02/12/oro-para-la-patria-confiscaciones-donaciones-y-presion-fiscal-en-los-inicios-del-franquismo/
                1. 3x3zsave
                  3x3zsave 1 September 2020 19: 27 New
                  +2
                  Mmmda ... I'll have to learn languages. Thank!
                2. Avior
                  Avior 2 September 2020 12: 02 New
                  +2
                  from the article on the top link, the purpose and use of the collected gold is not entirely clear - they collected both voluntarily and not very much, there was a whole system of propaganda for the donation of jewelry for the needs of the Francoists.
                  In principle, the ingots were needed to organize the Francoist Bank of Spain in Burgos, which issued its peseta during the war.
                  The National Gold Laboratory, which was opened in 1937 on Santander Street in the Castilian capital.
                  In this place, treasures were forged that allowed the rebel army to obtain the necessary money to arm themselves and win the war. There, thanks to popular subscriptions, donations, confiscation, confiscation, sanctions and expropriation, from January 1937, when the center was founded, until the summer of 1939, several hundred million pesetas were received ... Within two and a half years, this laboratory was created over 1000 gold bars, 5 kg each, with a market value of 60 pesetas. In the same way, several tons of silver were melted down, turned into ingots (about 000), 2000 kg each. This treasure was complemented by 10 carats of exquisite emeralds; about 600 rubies and about 200 carats of diamonds and diamonds.
                  The National Gold Laboratory also held 300 very old gold coins that were not melted down, as the intention of the rebel authorities was to create a museum that would display certain artistic values ​​that were worth more than the domestic one.
                  After the ingots were smelted and made, they were sent - duly checked, weighed and calibrated - to the cellars of the Bank of Spain, which was located on Paseo de la Isla. After the war, the laboratory continued to receive trays and trays in large boxes. jars of gold coins as well as jewelry and precious stones.

                  it is not entirely clear from the article whether these bars were sold directly after the laboratory to finance the Francoists or not, or from the funds of the new Bank of Spain.
    2. Avior
      Avior 2 September 2020 11: 42 New
      0
      Somehow everyone focused on the "Moscow gold"

      and there was also "Parisian gold" on a quite comparable scale.
  • Maks1995
    Maks1995 1 September 2020 15: 28 New
    -1
    "and together with his wife (also a spy)"
    Who in our country usually calls Soviet intelligence agents spies? Author?
    1. kalibr
      1 September 2020 16: 31 New
      +2
      He is a spy and a spy on Mars!
      1. Maks1995
        Maks1995 2 September 2020 09: 23 New
        0
        Neither. This is how Russophobes and the USSR-haters usually write. (((

        And classically - ours are noble scouts, enemies are vile spies.

        Or: who are on the state salary are scouts, who are sold for money without state salaries are spies ...

        Ali Vee is not a patriot?))))
        1. kalibr
          2 September 2020 10: 03 New
          +3
          All who shpienit are shpiena.
  • paco.soto
    paco.soto 1 September 2020 15: 57 New
    +3
    I read it with interest, thank the author. I read about it as a student.
    I also googled Spanish sources. This operation is called "the greatest robbery". When the center was captured. storage, emptied including all the private cells, everything was taken out without registration and census of what was confiscated. There, the Spaniards also count another 1 tons of silver. The Republicans are also accused of expropriating church values, traces of a lot have been lost.
    The nationalists were financed by loans (then refinancing and agreements on part of repayment by export resources) which they gave away.
    I can give many links to anyone who needs it.
    1. kalibr
      1 September 2020 16: 31 New
      +1
      Quote: paco.soto
      I can give many links to anyone who needs it.

      What are you? People will not read this, with rare exceptions. It's the same as depriving yourself of innocence. What if you find out what's bad about the saint USSR?
      1. paco.soto
        paco.soto 1 September 2020 16: 49 New
        +3
        I agree with you. Now many people have no curiosity at all. And links in foreign languages ​​take time for machine translation, if you don't know them. And the topic is interesting if you delve into it without "ideology".
        Thank you for your work.
      2. Operator
        Operator 1 September 2020 19: 07 New
        +1
        You obviously do not understand what this is about - the gold reserves of the Spanish Republic, after being exported to the USSR for storage, were used both to pay off Spain's debts to the Soviet Union, and to pay off Spain's debts to other suppliers of weapons and resources to the country's legitimate government.

        In the second case, the payment was made by the USSR on behalf of the Government of the IR, not in gold, but in freely convertible currency received from the sale of gold on the international market (after melting Spanish coins into standard bullion). Financing a long-term war is expensive: 500 tons of gold is a drop in the ocean.

        You have already been told about this in the comments, but you have your own task - to throw mud at the USSR, attributing to it the theft of gold.
        1. kalibr
          1 September 2020 20: 23 New
          +1
          You obviously do not understand what it is about. Not about stealing gold. And about the fact that it is all covered with black darkness. There is no crime, but a secret. Why? Or is there a crime? We will guess or know for sure. Only this is important. The native workers 'and peasants' government, living according to Lenin's behests and implementing them, should have remembered his such behest: "The state is strong with the consciousness of the masses. It is strong when the masses know everything, can judge everything and go to everything consciously." Was that how it was? No! The 91st came and for this reason too ...
          1. Operator
            Operator 1 September 2020 22: 18 New
            +1
            There is no need to hang noodles on our ears - your ay-ay-ay to the USSR that he did not inform the public about the movement of his own and others (accepted for storage) gold-currency resources is in the last place in the article.
            1. kalibr
              2 September 2020 06: 40 New
              0
              Quote: Operator
              is in the last place in the article

              Did you have to start with this? They don't do that ... first about the event, then what about it, who and when ...
  • hohol95
    hohol95 1 September 2020 21: 09 New
    0
    After reading the article, the question is born -
    Who else claims the gold stored in the Russian Federation?
    And who owes the most "democratic countries in the world" the USA, Great Britain, Switzerland?
    Just for comparison ...
    And when will the Germans be able to take the remaining half of the gold from the USA (if they find it) ???
    1. kalibr
      1 September 2020 22: 02 New
      0
      Quote: hohol95
      And when will the Germans be able to take the remaining half of the gold from the USA (if they find it) ???

      Should I answer?
      1. hohol95
        hohol95 1 September 2020 22: 28 New
        0
        Who else claims the gold stored in the Russian Federation?
        If there is data, share it. Not. So no.
        And the Fed advised Trump not to audit gold ...
  • A. Privalov
    A. Privalov 1 September 2020 23: 46 New
    +5
    There were few in Spain and Soviet military advisers: 600 people during the entire war, from 1936 to 1939, and at the beginning of 1939 their number decreased to 84 people. And what kind of advisors were they? They did not know Spanish, the manners and customs of the Spaniards did not know, as a result of which it was difficult for them to find a common language with the commanders of the Republicans. In addition, they often changed, and those recalled to the USSR were immediately repressed, which did not add respect to those who remained with the Spaniards.


    Today it is known that 2065 citizens of the USSR took part in the hostilities on the side of the government of the Spanish Republic. Of these, 772 military pilots, 351 tankers, 100 artillerymen, 77 sailors, 222 general military advisers, 339 technical and other advisers, 204 translators. From source to source, the numbers vary slightly. Sometimes, the figure appears - 3000 people.
    The title of Hero of the Soviet Union was awarded to 59 of them, (18 of them - posthumously).

    Repressions against former volunteers who fought in Spain are a separate large and very difficult topic ...
    Only Heroes of the Soviet Union were shot seven (2 more were repressed, but survived).
    1. kalibr
      2 September 2020 06: 38 New
      0
      Thanks for the interesting addition. Indeed, there are many sources and it is sometimes impossible to determine their real value. I would be grateful if you would name yours.
      1. A. Privalov
        A. Privalov 2 September 2020 08: 36 New
        +1
        Quote: kalibr
        Thanks for the interesting addition. Indeed, there are many sources and it is sometimes impossible to determine their real value. I would be grateful if you would name yours.

        With great pleasure.
        According to digital data, for example, the Invisible Front of the Fatherland. 1917-2017. Book 1:


        Searching for the key "List of Heroes of the Soviet Union - Participants in the War in Spain" will give you dozens of quite reliable sources.

        A lot of data on the Heroes of the Soviet Union can be found in the book "Moscow Necropolis of Heroes"
        D. Korobtsov, R. Litvinov, A. Simonov


        Well, and of course the site "Heroes of the Country":
        http://www.warheroes.ru/all.asp
        hi
        1. kalibr
          2 September 2020 08: 50 New
          0
          Thank! Didn't use these sources. I will know for the future.
          1. A. Privalov
            A. Privalov 2 September 2020 09: 08 New
            +1
            Quote: kalibr
            Thank! Didn't use these sources. I will know for the future.

            You're welcome! hi
    2. hohol95
      hohol95 2 September 2020 17: 47 New
      0
      The numbers vary slightly from source to source. Sometimes, the figure appears - 3000 people.

      Is the data accurate for the Italians and Germans, or do they differ from source to source?
      1. A. Privalov
        A. Privalov 2 September 2020 18: 30 New
        0
        Quote: hohol95
        The numbers vary slightly from source to source. Sometimes, the figure appears - 3000 people.

        Is the data accurate for the Italians and Germans, or do they differ from source to source?

        The data on the participants, killed, wounded, taken prisoner, missing in action is slightly different, always regardless of civilian affiliation.
        1. hohol95
          hohol95 2 September 2020 18: 46 New
          +1
          But no one will question the figures for the total number of Italians who participated in this war - about 78 people.
          Or are there people downplaying the importance of the Italian corps in Spain?
          Much more when compared with Soviet citizens!
          1. A. Privalov
            A. Privalov 2 September 2020 19: 06 New
            +2
            Quote: hohol95
            But no one will question the figures for the total number of Italians who participated in this war - about 78 people.
            Or are there people downplaying the importance of the Italian corps in Spain?
            Much more when compared with Soviet citizens!

            Yes, there were 25 times more Italians. I don't quite understand where you are leading.
  • Avior
    Avior 2 September 2020 11: 37 New
    +4
    The status of Spanish gold was specific due to the peculiarities of the Bank of Spain - a private bank, or rather a joint stock company - according to the "Cambo Law", which did not provide for such a use of this gold, the main purpose of which was to ensure the stability of the Spanish peseta.
    Therefore, one can often see an opinion about the illegality of the sale of gold in the USSR.
    On the other hand, besides 500 tons of "Moscow gold", there were 193 tons of "Parisian gold", which was exported to France for the same purpose as in the USSR. True, 40 tons of this amount were later returned at the request of the Spaniards.
  • gsev
    gsev 2 September 2020 19: 36 New
    -1
    . [quote] The Spanish side raised the issue of gold in the late 1950s, then it was raised in the second half of the 1960s, but our side refused to return the gold. [quote] If the Spaniards were not satisfied with the explanation that all the gold went to pay supplies of weapons to fight the fascist rebels Franco, then they should have been told that the USSR was waiting for compensation three times this amount for the actions of the Blue Division on the territory of the USSR.
    1. kalibr
      2 September 2020 19: 59 New
      +1
      Quote: gsev
      then they were then supposed to be told that the USSR was waiting for compensation three times this amount for the actions of the Blue Division on the territory of the USSR.

      Spain was not legally responsible for it!
      1. gsev
        gsev 2 September 2020 23: 32 New
        -1
        Quote: kalibr
        Spain was not legally responsible for it!

        Did the USSR and Russia agree with this forever?
        1. kalibr
          3 September 2020 07: 13 New
          +1
          Quote: gsev
          Did the USSR and Russia agree with this forever?

          I do not know. But legally, Spain has nothing to do with it!
  • Alexander Yaroshenko
    Alexander Yaroshenko 6 September 2020 13: 55 New
    0
    It seems that in the memorial at Alekseeva this shot was labored
  • Tarasios
    Tarasios 10 September 2020 20: 35 New
    0
    Mikhail Sergeevich, where are the party payments for several months?